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Foundry Engineering (ME1130)

Dept.Elective (Mechanical)

Dr. G. S. Vinod Kumar


Associate Professor
SRM Research Institute

Introduction to foundry
History
Dates back to 5000 BC
Founds in the excavations of Mohenjodaro and Harappa
Knives, arrows and household articles
Copper and Bronze were common
2000BC- Iron came to use much restricted
500 BC Religious unheavels god statutes- lost wax
processes
Armoury and war materials
Since Alexander-III the metal foundry (founding)
emerged as science
Technology and methods have changed considerably
but no change in the basic principles

Manufacturing Processes
Shaping metals including machining, joining to make a engineering
or domestic components
Metals- Refined from metal ores, classified as Ferrous and NonFerrous
Casting or Founding is the foremost manufacturing process
Defined as introducing molten metal into a cavity in the mould,
previously shaped as desired and allowing it to solidify
solidify
Well defined role in modern equipments of

Tranportation
T
t ti
Communication
Power
g
Agriculture
Construction
Industry

Advantages of Castings
Design
Structural and functional shapes that
Withstand stress and strain, service
conditions,
1. Size as much as 200 tons or small
wire of 0.5 mm dia.
2. Complexity
3. Weight Saving
4. Prototypes and models
5. Wide range of properties and Versatility
- less variation
- achieved all mechanical strength,
wear resistance, corrosion resitancestrength to weight ratio - statisfied by
castt alloys
ll

LOW COST
DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY
MASS PRODUCTION
VERSATILITY IN PRODUCTION

Metallurgical Advantages
1. Fibrousstructure:Castalloysdoesnot
exhibitfibrousstructurelikewroughtalloy
nodirectionalproperties
di ti
l
ti
2. Grainsize:Cancontrolingrainsize(of
highyieldstrength)bymelttreatment
cheaperthatwroughtalloys
3. Density: allmostsameaswroughtalloys
(ie,minimizeporosityorotherdefects)
unlikepowdermetallurgicalroutes
lik
d
t ll i l
t

Application of metal castings


High Precision
Intricate design
Low cost
Large components
1. Tranportation Vehicles: Automobile engine cast part near 90%
Tractor: 50% of the total weight
2. Machine tool structures (planner beds made of cast iron)
3. Turbine vanes
4. Power generators
5. Mill housing
5. Railway crossing (Mn Steel cast section)
6 Super charger casting (Mg- Alloy)
6.
7. Pump filter and valve (Mg alloy)
8. Paper mill stock breaker parts
9. Aircraft jet Engine blades
10. Agricultural parts

Steps involed in Castings


Pattern Making
-Design diagram
- Wood, Polymer (split type)
-CAD-CAM (whole for investment)

Moulding and Core making


- Sand mixed with binder
- dried and backed
- Core box
- manually or machine based

Melting
g and Casting
g
-Melting the metal or alloy
-Melt treatment
-Pouring into the mould
-Solidfication
S lidfi ti

Fettling
-Removing unwanted materials (risers, gates etc
g
-Sand blasting
-Cleaning and removing sands

Testing and Inspection

Limitation of metal castings


g
9 C
Casting
ti d
defects
f t
shrinkage, piping, hydrogen pores
9 High
g temperature
p
p
processing
g
9 fluidity of the melt
9 Skill requirement
9 Saftey issues

Patterns and type of patterns


1. First step in casting process
2. Principal tool in casting
process
3. Quality of casting depends on
the patterns
4. Responsible for details and
forms of construction
5. Pattern maker designer
6 Wood to metal to polymer
6.
epoxy resins

Type of patterns

Loose pattern
Single Pattern
Split
p Pattern
Mutiple piece pattern
Gated Pattern
Special Patterns
Sweep and Skeleton (big castings)
Match Plate patterns
Small casings in large numbers

Patterns and type of patterns

Gated pattern
Sweep pattern

Skeleton pattern

Match Plate pattern

Patterns and type of patterns

Allowances in Patterns
Pattern allowances is a vital feature in Pattern design
- dimensional characteristics of the casting
Contraction allowance:
Other Factors affecting
1.
2.
3.
4.

Impurities
Composition
Mould design
Mould materials
cooling rate
5. Pouring temperature

Allowances in Patterns
Machining Allowance

Extra
E
t material
t i l added
dd d tto certain
t i partt off the
th casting
ti
to enable machining or finishing
Factors affection machining
allowances
1. Method of moulding casting
used
2. Size and shape of casting
3. Casting orientation
4 Metal
4.
M t l characteristics
h
t i ti
5. Functional requirement of
casting
g
of accuracy
y and finish
- degree
required

Machining Allowance

Allowances in Patterns
Draft or Taper allowance
The amount of draft depends
on
1. Length of the vertical side
2. Intricacy of the pattern
3. Method
3
et od o
of moulding
ou d g
4. Pattern materials

Allowances in Patterns
Rapping or Shake Allowance
For easy withdrawl from mould of pattern rapping
The
Th cavity
it size
i iincreases so the
th pattern
tt
is
i made
d smaller.
ll
desided by experience no guidline is available
Distortion (cambered) allowance

Pattern Materials
Selection of Pattern Materials
Service requirements
Quality, quantity, intricacy in
casting, minium thickness desired
degree of accuracy and finish
required
Possibility of design and change
Type of producing of casting, moulding
methods and equipment used
Pattern Materials should be:
Possibility of repeat orders
Easily worked shaped and joined
Light weight in handling and working
Resistant to wear, abarasion, corrosion
and chemical actions
Stable dimension, even in variation of
temp and humidity
Available at low cost
Repaired and reused
Good surface finish should be obtained

Wood Patterns
Advantages:
Ad
t
Li ht weight,
Light
i ht llow cost,
t easily
il shaped
h
d and
d jjoined
i d any complex
l
shapes and easily available
Limitation: Moisture swelling,
g, Poor wear resistance,, poor
p
strength
g
Wood = 50 to 60% Cellulose and 20 to 35% Liginin (complex amorphous
materials) + carbohydrates (pentosannes, resin, gums and mineral matter
Cell wall are hygroscopic and cellolose and hydroxly groups are hydrophylic
water absorbant and swells dimensional instability
Dried- cell cavity empty
Dried
empty- but 25 to 30% moisture present
EMC- Equillibrium moisture content 60% relative humiditz and 20 C temp EMC is 11%

Wood Patterns
Seasoning of Timber
Natural (i) air drying full cycle weather condition
(ii) immersed in flowing water and air drying
To make it light, take preservatives, paint and polish

Pine

Artifical- Hot air blowing using klin


Electrical seasoning high frequence electric filed
Chemical seasoning immersing it in a salt solution
Types of Timber:
Pine, Mahogany, Teak, Walnut, deodar
Other woods:

Compressed wood
laminate

(i) Compressed wood laminates


(ii) Laminated wood impregnates (platic wood)
(iii) W
Wood
d patterns
tt
with
ith metallic
t lli coatings
ti
(0
0.25mm
25
thickness, bismuth, zinc and Al metal sparyed)

Metallic Patterns
Repetitive Production large quantities
Al, cast iron, steel, bronze or brass
Cast Iron- IS 210-1962 BHN 197-241 - heavy weight small size
patterns
Aluminium is used largely - 4223,
4223 4600 and 4420 (Al-Si)
(Al Si) IS: 617
6171975, precipiation hardend and solution treated - Duraluminium
Brass and Bronze high physical strengh
Low metling point metals : whilte metal and cerro alloys contains tin
and bismuth Low coefficient of thermal expansion and melting point is
138C
38 C
Metal electro deposiioin electro plating for nickel, copper chromium
Frozen Mercury MercastMercast prohibitively high cost
Metal patterns are cast from master patterns for large quntitites

Metallic Patterns

Plaster Patterns
Gypsm (plaser of paris) - 300 kg/cm2 - High compressive strength
Can
C b
be mixed
i d with
ith ttalc
l or portland
tl d cementt tto gett h
hardness
d
Pouring the slurry (water+gypsm) into desired shape by the sweep
and strickle method

Plasics and Rubbers Patterns


Thermosetting: long-lasting
long lasting and durable patterns
patterns- epoxy,
epoxy polyester resins
Thermoplastic: short runs or piece work Polystyrene
Silicon rubber special use

Epoxy resin
Castable machining superfluous
High strength to weight ratio (better
than Al and Cast iron)
Wear and abrasion resistant
No moisture no heating when
reacting with sand
Resin combination two component
materials
t i l : liliquid
id bi
binder
d + liliquid
id h
hardner
d
+
time
1. Gel coat and surface coat resin
2 L
2.
Laminating
i ti resin
i
3. Casting resin
4. Polyster resin
5. Polyester resin a cheaper substitute

Epoxy resin Patterns

All secondary patterns are made


through a master pattern.

Plasics and Rubbers Patterns


9 Polystyrene : Easily shaped, machined and
glued to form patterns
9 They can be released or burnts with gas
torch or break it.
9 Pour molten metal without releasing the
pattern, gasify- ash content is less
9 Polyurethene foams are also used Electro
plating electroless plating
9 Silicon rubber die or investment casting

Waxes

Used
U
d ffor iinvestment
t
t casting
ti history
hi t
jewelleries
j
ll i
Parafin wax, carnauba wax, shellac wax, bees wax, cerasin wax and
microcrystalline wax.
Burnt ash content is < 0.05%
Coat for investment casting
High tensile strength
Hardness, good wettabiliy, resistance to oxidation, low shrikage

9
1. Pattern wax
(a) straight or unfilled wax 9
(b) Emulsified pattern wax 9
9
(c) Filled pattern wax
9
9
2. Runner Wax
9
3. Reclaimed or reconstituted wax
9
4 Water soluable wax
4.
9
5. Special waxes
9

Low contraction, cavitation, and blow holes


Low ash content, <0.02%
High fluidity
Fast setting
g rate
Low melting point
High strength and hardness in cold state
Good hardness
Good surface finish
Resistance to oxidation and high stability
Easy reclaimability

And last old Castings as


pattern materials

Color coding of pattern and core box


1. Finished to erase tool marks
and irregularities
1. Shellac coats (3 coats) to fill
pores and imparts and
smooth finish
2. Color scheme for preserving
for substantial period
enamel paint - IS: 1513-1980

Pattern Storage and Repair


Time to time, inspected and repaired if nessesary
Principal factors govering storage

Storage area

1.
2.
3.
4
4.

1. W
1
Weather
th prooff , fire
fi prooff
2. Expensive patterns needs
temperature and humidity
control
3. Seperate area or floors for
heavy medium and light
patterns
4 Small patterns can be kept in
4.
racks with proper
identification mark

Quantity and volume of patterns


Rate of acquisition of new patterns
Types of patterns
General rate of obsolenscence due
to change in casting design or
design of the product

Moulding Methods and Process


The common denominator is the method of preparation
Hand moulding

Floor moulding and Bench moulding

Machine moulding

Floor Moulding
Contains no special arrangement or passages for the melt
to reach the cavity
Simple
Si l casting
ti nott much
h surface
f
finish
fi i h
Floor plates, weights, mould boxes, manhole covers and
drain covers
g , risers is placed
p
at that top
p_
Flask ((contains runners,, gate,
similar to cope

Moulding Methods and Process


Bench Moulding
Two box Moulding
Clamping is done to avoid
lifting of cope due to the
pressure of melt

Three box Moulding


For flanges which has to
be moulded horizontally

Moulding with false cheek

Three box Moulding

Moulding Methods and Process


Plate moulding

For large no. of fairly simple


castings - Machine moulding

Odd s
side
de moulding
ou d g

St k moulding
Stack
ldi
large no. of
castings with
small size
Drag
Runner

Cope
Drag
Cope

Drag

No base, unsymmetrical split


pattern etc.,

Sand Moulding
Types
Green sand
moulding

Dry sand
moulding

Skin dry
moulding

Green sand moulding - 90% of sand mould casting, but


lack in permeability, strength results in defects like blow
and pin holes
Highly adaptable in mechanized moulding, low cost
minimized moisture
Good strength, high compressibility, intricate shapes,, high
permeability, less defects, well finished
High cost, due to drying in oven 200-300 oC for several
hours
F
For obtain
bt i both
b th properties
ti off green and
dd
dry sand
d moulding
ldi
Gas torch flame drying the skin to the depth of 25 mm
Less expensive compared to complete dry sand

Sand Moulding
Loam
moulding

Oil sand
moulding

For large castings


Porous bricks cemented together with loam
Loam = sand grains + clay wetted to the consistency of
mud
6-12mm layer of loam swept by a strickle- no need for
regular pattern
Ex., Skeleton pattern

Linseed oil
oil, blends of oils (vegetable oil
oil, animal oils
oils, natural resin
resin,
known as core oil is used
Sand and dextrin and bentonite
Mostly for making cores slide 53
Sand: 100 Kg, core oil: 1-2 Kg, dextrin: 0.5-1Kg, bentonite: 0.5-1kg,
water: 2Kg
Baked at 220-230oC
200 220, green compressibility: 400-500
400 500 g/cm2
Green permeability 200-220
(0.004-0.005 MPa), baked tensile strength, 0.5 to 1.5 MPa

Moulding Materials & Equipment Moulding


Moulding Materials

Permanent moulding - made of ferrous metals and


alloys depends upon the melt you pour
Temporary moulding sand, wax, resins, plaster of
Paris, carbon (graphite) ceramics.

Equipment Moulding or Machine moulding


Advantages
Saving time,
time when large number of similar castings in small sizes are
required
Compensate the cost of metallic patterns and other equipment by high
production rate over all cost per piece lowered compared to hand
moulding
Uniform in size and shape, accurate,
Semi skill only required

Equipment Moulding
Moulding machines

Hand operated machines or power operated


machines.

Hand operated machines


Ramming
Pattern drawing (pattern
draw or patter squeeze)
Mould rolling-over
- Using hand lever or
pedal control

Equipment Moulding
Power operated machines
Hydraulic or pneumatic
Raising /lowering the table
Ramming by squeezing and jolting
and rolling over the mould boxes,
Pattern withdrawal
Mould is conveyed to assembly and
pouring
i
Squeezing
Flaskk (or
Fl
( box)
b ) is
i filled
fill d with
ith mould
ld
sand and it is squeezed against
the pressure board to achieve
desire densityy
Disadvantages is density
decreases with depth

Turn over moulding


machine

Pin-lift moulding
machine

Equipment Moulding
Jolting
Flask (or box) is filled with mould sand and mechanical lifted and dropped
repeatedly. Sand get packed and rammed.
Disadvantages good density in the parting plane and around the pattern
less dense in the top surface-needed hand ramming after jolting
Jolt and squeeze To over come both the
disadvantages the combine jolt
and squeeze is done
specification
ifi ti
for
f a moulding
ldi
box
b
800mm X 630 mm
Slinging

Squeeze pressure 7000 kg


Jolting load 350 kg
Pattern draw 300 mm
Table size 900 mm X 630 mm
Squeeze stroke 100 mm
Air pressure 6.3 kg/cm2

Consolidation and ramming of sand - impact with pattern

Sand is throwed through a slinging head at high velocity to the patternsand particles settles down instantly and get rammed

high speed rotary impellers, pipes band conveyer , bucket elevator and
ejecting head ( to move evenly to attain uniform density through out )

Equipment Moulding
Schematic Diagram of Sand Slinger

Equipment Moulding
Stationary Sand Slinger

Equipment Moulding
High Pressure moulding (for high compaction pressure)
Force of compaction is 5 to 10 times greater than conventional moulding
Suitable for all cast metals
Considered worthwhile for mass
production due to high investment
cost
Flask- less moulds used due to high
pressure
Design specification IS: 10518-1983

Patterns should have high


finish, polish and high strength
N
No wood
d pattern,
tt
only
l metallic
t lli
pattern

Conventional Jolt-squeeze moulding 1.5 kg/cm2 to 5 kg/cm2


2 some time 40 kg/cm
2
High
g pressure
p
moulding
g 7 to 25 kg/cm
g
g

Spring back tendency of sand (clay) 2.5% water is controlled by


adding dextrin avoids mould distortion
Uniform composition of sand all over the pattern self
contoured squeeze head

Equipment Moulding
1 Bl
1.
Blow squeeze
Sand is blown pneumatically on the pattern and squeezing
2.

Impact moulding
Air impulsed or gas injection- high degree of compaction at
very short time

3. Shoot squeeze
q
sand is ejected from the shooter head - impinge at pattern
at heavy force 500 kg of moulds in cycle of 45 to 60
seconds
4. Vacuum Press
Vacuum is created in the moulding chamber sand shot
enabling filling vacuum is squeezed to achieve complete
compaction close tolerance intricate castings
Moulding using machines depends upon the requirement,
Close tolerance, uniform density/mould hardness/ green
strength, minimize rejection (foundry and machine shop
like 1-2%),

Sand ingredients and esential requirements


1. Silica (SiO2) sand grains
refractoriness, chemical resistivity and permeability finer the size intimate
contact but low permeability
i. Rounded grains: least contact but high permeability- lack strength-mould
cracks
ii. Sub-angular grains: comparatively low permeability and high strength
iii. Angular grains : higher strength and lower permeability higher binder
consumption
iv. Compounded grains: clusters of rounder and angular least desirable

Sand ingredients and esential requirements


2. Clay
Define by AFS 20m size failed to settle at a rate of 25 mm per minute when
suspended
d d iin water
t
Fine silt and true clay fine silt is mineral or foreign matter that dont bond
y
particle
p
clayy mineral
True clayy is the cluster of crystalline

3. Moisture
Water is added into the clay which foams a microfilm over the particle.
Thickness increases with the increase in water content and at a stage become
fluid
Moisture content is the most important parameter

Sand Preparation and Control testing


1. Natural Bonded sand
After accepting the texture of the sand
Used for moulding and core making
Shorter
Sh t milling
illi titime
Nominally 5% moisture content
Reusing
g
After casting they are reused by removing the burnt sands and metallic
particles
Regular test should be done to maintain or control in the fineness and silt
Excess finess and silt causes low permeability
permeability, and casting defect
Surface dressing (coal dust, graphite powder or talc in the cavity to get good
surface finish in the casting)
2. Synthetically Bonded Sand (Moulding)
Un-bonded sand + weighed and placed in sand muller
Bentonite 4to 6% of the sand weight and 4 to 5% water
Mulling to get good mix (first with bentonite and afterwards water)
Excess mulling cause poor mouldabiliity
Coal dust or wood flour is added to increase the green strength( in the last)

Sand Preparation and Control testing


3. Synthetically Bonded Sand (core)
Dried silica sand + 4-5% molasses (green strength) and 1-1.5% linseed oil (dry
strength)
t
th) baking
b ki ffor 280 tto 300 o C ffor 1 tto 2 h
hours
Guidelines ref. table 3.9 in Principles of foundry technology, P L JAIN
SAND Reclamation
Reusing the moulded sand with little addition of new sand economically
important
(a) Crushing the sand lumps
(b) Removal of binder from the sand grain surface (chemical, mechanical
and thermal treatments)
Clay is easily removed, organic binders or carbonaceous materials shall
be burn to 650 to 800oC

Sand Preparation and Control testing


Chemically bonded sand
1. Acceptable LOI (loss on ignition)
value by reducing the thickness
resin coating and Na2O is also
removed
d
2. Avoid excessive generation of
finess
3. Finess
3
ess should
s ou d be maintained
a a ed low
o
Sand Preparation equipment
1. Magnetic separator ( to remove iron particles, nails
wires, iron pieces, shots
2. Riddle ( to remove core, big lump of sands, loose pieces)
3 Muller or mixer (mixer of sand
3.
sand, with binder and water)
4. Aerator ( after mixing the sand is send to this
instrument for making free flow above the pattern)

Sand Preparation and Control testing


Testing of Mould Sands
1. Grain size
Grain fineness number =

Si
Sieve
Shaker
Sh k

Total Product
Total sum of pct. Collected in
each sieve

For comparative sieve designation of IS, BS and ASTM


ref. table 3.1 in Principles of foundry technology, P L JAIN
2. Grain Shape (optical, microscope or visual inspection)
3 Cl
3.
Clay content
t t

Clay content tester

9 Principle: clay particles (20m) fails to settle in time 25 mm /minute


9 Water 475 cc + 25 cc of NaOH solution.
9 Stir
Sti fifirstt and
d allow
ll
it tto settle
ttl 150 mm d
depth
th ffor 10 minutes
i t
9 Unsettled one in solution is (125 mm ) decanted it
9 Settled sand is dried and weighed and subtracted
True Clay
Effective Clay

Sand Control testing


Methylene Blue Clay : Methylene blue dye is use to determine the
active clay
Active and dead clay poor mulling time or low mulling efficiency
inadequate bond or coating in the sand grains
To measure Active clay (or unused or latent clay)
Ultrasonic scrubbing for breaking down the cluster
5 g off sand mixture in 250 ml conical flask
f
and 50 ml distilled water
+ slurry is shaken for 15 minutes + 2ml H2So4 is added to the flask and
shaken well
3.6 g MB powder + 1 litter water solution prepared and filled in a burette
for titration
Titration
Tit ti proceeded
d d ffollowing
ll i
f i t blue
faint
bl spott surrounded
d db
by clear
l
water
t
ring --- dark blue --- clear water ring into light blue green halo radiating
outwards --- titration stopped and burette reading is noted

Sand Control testing


4 Moisture
4.
M i t
content
t t
To measure Moisture
Dry the sand mix in the oven and weigh it the know the difference
conventional
Moisture teller Calcium carbide to react with moisture
Resulting pressure is indicated directly measures the moisture
Ramming sand type direct measuring Moisture instruments not accurate
Specification: IS: 10034-1981
Other Measurements
5. Bulk density and specific surface area
6. Acid Demand Value (ADV) binders are how acidic in nature
7. Finess Content
8 Loss on Ignition (LOI)
8.
9. Sintering Temperature or fusion point - refractoriness of sand
Pyrometric Cone Equivalent (PCV) IS: 1528 part1 -1974

Mould Control testing


1. Mould hardness:
Proportion of Ingredients in sand
Should be high
Sand ramming
2. Permeability:
2
Depends on sand grains and clay content
Until you go to high hardness you realize the change in
permeability
Permeability - comparing with standard sand specimen
Air is passed through the sand sample and the time
taken is measure
Expressed
E
d as permeability
bilit number
b
Permeability number =

vh
pa.t

v - volume of air in cc
h - height of the sample
in cm
p - pressure of air g/cm2
t time in minutes
IS: 10498-1983

Mould Control testing


3. Strength

4 Deformation and toughness


4.
Sand toughness number = deformation (mm) x green compressive strength kg/mm2

5. Shatter test : Broken piece (by dropping it in an anvil) ( 12mm


mesh sieve ratio of weight - retained to the total weight gives the
shattering index

Mould Control testing


6. Compactability: (condition of sand before compaction) the distance
decrease by a compression force direct measure of the degree of temper
water of the sand
Factors affecting
Sand cooling
Maintenance of
Muller
Moulding sand
preparation

Mould Control testing


7. Mouldabilty : (condition of sand after compaction)
50 mm specimen the weight of sand
l
lumps
retained
t i d on th
the sieve
i
iindicates
di t
mouldability
8 High Temperature Characteristics
8.
Simulating the condition under with the mould
is used in foundryy
Hot compressive strength
Hot deformation
Expansion and refractoriness

Thermo lab
dilatometer
Sintering point of
sand

Cores and Core making


A portion in the mould to create a hollow interior or home through the
casting
High hardness as well as sufficient green and dry strength
High permeability
With stand high temperature of molten metal
Minimum gas should produced when contacted with melt-so no high
permeability is needed imparting greater strength
Some cases (hallow interior) cores must be collapsible

High silica sand, clay, core oil (mixture of oils) ref. slide 32, resin, ext.,

Cores and Core making


Types of cores

Directional solidification in general

Design consideration Gating & Risering


of Castings
Gating system
1. Minimum turbulence and aspiration of mould gases (causes
sand erosion and formation of dross))
2. Design to get directional solidification
3. Melt should be completely filled in short time
4. Minimum of excess metal in gates and risers
5 Loose sand
5.
sand, oxides
oxides, slag should be prevented skimmed
6. Avoid erosion of mould walls
Pouring Basin
S
Sprue
Runner
Gates

(a) Pouring Basin


(b) Sprue
(c) Sprue base buffer or wall
(d) Runner
(e)Gates
(f) Casting

Design consideration Gating & Risering


of Castings

Pouring basin

plug

dam

Spr e
Sprue

Design consideration Gating & Risering


of Castings

Runner

(a) Straight runner


(b) Tapered runner
(c) Step gate
(d) Uniform size
runner
(e) Runner for even
metal
di t ib ti
distribution

Design consideration Gating & Risering


of Castings
GATES

Parting gate

Design consideration Gating & Risering


of Castings

Top GATES

(a) Top gate with pouring


basin
(b) Wedge gate
(c) Top run gate
(d) Pencil gate
(e) Finger gate
(f) Ring gates
Poured at top - molten metal is at
top - directional solidification is
achieved

Design consideration Gating & Risering


of Castings
Parting /side GATES
(a) Skimming gate
(b) Parting gate with shrink bob
( ) Parting gate with dam type
(c)
pouring basin
(d) Parting gate with skim bob
(e) Whirlpool gate
To effectively trap slag, dirt or
sand
Bob- hallow to trap the slag
Choke- to control the rate of flow
Whirlpool action bring the slag
to the centre and get skimmed

Design consideration Gating & Risering


of Castings
Bottom Gates
For large
g sized castings
g
Steels- to avoid turbulence
Disadvantages
Looses heat as it rises- slowly
fills- no directional
solidification

Design consideration Gating & Risering


of Castings
Calculating the dimension of gating systems
1. Weight of the casting
2. Critical thickness (thinnest section)
3. Pouring rate for ferrous and copper base alloys
W is the weight of the casting
P is quotient
t=c
critical
t ca tthickness
c ess
p varies with casting weight
ref. P.L Jain book page no. 183

R=

(W ) p
t

(1.34 +

13.77

Pouring rate for light metal (aluminium


(aluminium, magnesium etc
etc.,))
b depends on the wall thickness
page
g no. 183
ref. P.L Jain book p

R=b W

Design consideration Gating & Risering


of Castings
Calculating the dimension of gating systems
4. Estimate the fluidity
y of cast iron k with the composition factor

Composition factor = % carbon + (%Silicon) + (% Phosphorous)


The relation between composition factor and metal fluidity is given
ref. P.L Jain book page no. 183
5. Calculate the adjusted pouring rate Ra for metal fluidity k and the effect of
friction in the gating system (c factor)
c factor =

0.85 -- 0.90 for tapered sprue


0 70 0.75
0.70
0 75 for straight sprue

R
Ra =
k .c

6. Effective sprue height H according to the placement of the pattern in


mould
h = height of the sprue, c = total height of the mould cavity
a = height of the mould cavity in the cope

a
H = h
2c

Design consideration Gating & Risering


of Castings
Calculating the dimension of gating systems
7. Calculate the area of the sprue base - As

d is the density of molten metal

As = Ra (d 2gH )

The relation between composition factor and metal fluidity is given


ref. P.L Jain book page no. 183

Design consideration Gating & Risering


of Castings
Risering of Casting
Effective riser
Sufficient volume-last part to be
solidified
Completely cover the sectional
thickness requires feeding
Cylindrical and tall enough to
avoid piping
Fluidity of molten metal should
be adequate melt can
penetrate the portions of mould
cavity
i ffreezing
i towards
d the
h end
d
Directional solidification.

Proper designing and position of risers


Inserting insulating sleeves
Padding around to increase the
thickness
Chills in the moulds
Exothermic mixture
Blind risers

Design consideration Gating & Risering


of Castings
1. Riser shape and size
Efficient shape loose minimum heat keeping the melt at molten state as
long as possible
The size (diameter) of the riser is the matter of experience
Chvorinovs rule =

1 V
t =

2
q A

t is the freezing time


q is the solidification constant (steel = 2.09)
V/A is the ratio of the volume of the casting to its surface area ( modulus)
V/A
(V/A)2 of the riser should be slightly larger than(V/A)2 of the
casting ie, 10 to 15%

Design consideration Gating & Risering


of Castings
Caines rule
(surface area of the casting) + (volume of casting) : (surface area of riser + (volume of riser)

If casting solidifies rapidly, the feeder volume need to be only equal to the
solidification shrinkage of the casting. Or if the feeder of the casting solidify
at the same rate, the feeder must be infinitely large

X =
+C
Y B

X is the relative freezing time


Y is the volume of riser /volume of casting
B is the relative contraction on freezing, and L and C are constants,
depending on the metal to be cast
The values of L, C and B for three common cast metals , Aluminium, grey
cast iron and steel is given in table 5.3 page 187. Principles of foundry
technology, by P.L Jain

Design consideration Gating & Risering


of Castings
2. Riser location
Design of casting
Feasibility of directional solidification
Metal to cast
Easy
E
knocking
k
ki off
ff from
f
the
th casting
ti
Top risering for light metal enables the metallostatic pressure in
the riser

3 Types of riser
3.
Explosive in the
bli d riser
blind
i
cavity
it

blind riser

Open riser

Design consideration Gating & Risering


of Castings
4. Riserless design

Risers decrease the yield


Minimum riser size preferred
Riserless can achieved through proper mould design
Spheriodal graphite iron at 1300 to 1360 o C

Use of Padding
Adding excess metals avoid shrinkage- directional solidification cannot be
achieved padding is useful

Use of exothermic materials


Aluminium metal powder, Mg metal powder, binder like gelatinous start is
generally used - generating heat at top and aids Directional solidification
IS: 10504-1983 covers exothermic feeding aids for foundry

Design consideration Gating & Risering


of Castings
Use of Chills
External chills
Cast Iron, Copper (extreme
thermal conductivity, and
high specific heat)
Internal Chills

Shanks and helical springs goes


inside the casting
Thoroughly cleaned and free of
moisture, coated with tin, copper or
zinc

Casting Process

Casting Process
Sand Casting
Most common casting process
High tonnage of castings
Includes moulds core and pattern
making
Only gravity pouring
Temporary mould
G d dimensional
Good
di
i
l accuracy
Slow cooling rate homogeneity in
composition minimal segregation
Surface cleaning
g and finishing
g is
required

Casting Process
Pressure die casting die casting, die
casting machines and types

Fastest means of Production


Mass production ie., per casting
(feeding + solidification ) take less
than 1minute
High intricacy in casting
High dimensional accuracy
Small parts are casted and
assembled
Low coast
High surface finish (almost no need
for cleaning and finishing)
Limited to small castings.
Suited only to certain non-ferrous
metals

Dies
High pressure melt or high
velocity melt need strong
die/mould
Die-cast machining
Cover die
die- the stationery
Ejector die opens and close
Dies- alloy steel wear
resistance withstand heat
checking- not to get solder with
cast alloys tough and resist
erosion

Typical Aluminum Die Cast Parts

Methods for closing and locking the dies


Straight Hydraulic direct line backing up of
both the ejector and cover die
H
Hydraulic
d li and
dM
Mechanical
h i l - for
f closing
l i and
d
locking
Mechanicallyy closed and locked

Casting Process
Casting Process

Casting Process
Hot Chamber Machine

Casting Process

Casting Process
Cold Chamber Machine

Casting Process

Casting Process
Casting cycle for Cold -Chamber Machine

Casting Process

Casting Process

Casting Process

Casting Process
Investment casting or Lost wax Process

Casting Process
Investment casting or Lost wax Process

Polystyrene shell

coating,
ti
stuccoing,
t
i
and
d hardening.
h d i

Final Product
Magnesium based alloys will be challenging

Casting Process
I
Investment
t
t casting
ti
or Lost
L t wax Process
P
Steps involved
P tt wax is
Patten
i injected
i j t d iinto
t th
the metal
t l die
di tto fform a di
dispensable
bl pattern
tt
Adding gates, sprue, runner using wax (cluster of waxes)
3. a) Solid moulding - A flask is put over the cluster and sealed to the base
plate to form a container. A hard setting moulding materials is poured filling
the patter cluster completely
(b) Shell moulding- Ceramic shell is formed by different coating (ceramic
grain) until required thickness is arrived
Pattern removal: Backed at 600C wax vapourizes
Casting: The shell is filled with molten metal- after solidification Knocked
off.
off

Casting Process
I
Investment
t
t casting
ti
or Lost
L t wax Process
P
Primary Coat
Si(OC2H5)4 + 4H2O 4C2H5OH + Si(OH)4
Gives Silica gel in a hydrolysed solution of water, that imparts bond
Stuccoed or stuccoeing dipping in a coating of slurry with granulated
refractor sprinking or suspended
Refractory particles 20 to 100 mesh final grain initial coat
followed by coarse grain coat Zircon
Pattern using expandable materials
Wax or polystyrene is used due to its greater dimensional
accuracy for patterns
Mercury is used mercast cooling it at < -56C working
temperature is at 38C then bring to room temperture and pour it
out

Casting Process
I
Investment
t
t casting
ti
or Lost
L t wax Process
P
Advantages
High degree of accuracy 0.1 mm, surface finish 1-5 m
All metals and alloys can be casting Bimetallic castings
Complex shaped parts - extremely difficult by other methods
Close control in microstructures grain size, orientation, defects
hence good mechanical properties
Adopted for mass production
Disadvantages
Best applicable
pp
for small casting
g weighing
g g for few g
grams to 5 Kg
g
Precise control is required for every stages of production pattern,
moulding - making investment
Raw materials
materials- tooling,
tooling equipments and technology are expensive

Casting Process
Squeeze Casting
Forging or hot deformation + Casting
Squeeze action from all direction
Melt temperature is controlled metal
die interface should be at solidus
Need accurate control compression
ti
time,
compression
i pressure,
compression temperature, punch and
lubricant die
Used to produce composite need good
distribution fibre- particles - nano

Casting Process
Centrifugal Casting

Moulds
Green sand
Dry sand
CO2 moulding
Permanent mould - graphite
is used
Grey casting iron
Steel
Aluminium alloys
Faster cooling causes
uniform fine grain structure

Casting Process
Centrifugal Casting

Casting Process
P
Permanent
t mould
ld casting
ti
Permanent Mold Casting (or Gravity Die Casting): Making a metal
mold, pouring molten metal (of lower melting point) into the cavity,
and
d removing
i the
th partt when
h solidified.
lidifi d
Dies used in PMC
Simple
Simple die
Recessed Die
Hinged Die
Multi-staged die

Casting Process
P
Permanent
t mould
ld casting
ti

Casting Process
Continous casting

Casting Process
Continous casting
1. Continous production of casting billets, rods, plates
and tubes
2 Vertical axis or vertical + partly horizontal
2.
3. Non- ferrous (copper mould is used) and Ferrous
water cooled

Casting Process
Electro-slag
Electro
slag casting

Casting Process
Defects in Casting
Major Defects- cannot be rectified
rejected
Defects can be remedied cost of
repair may effect
Minor defects- economically
salvaged
DEFECTS

Warpage
Swell
Fin
Blowholes
Pinholes
Gas holes
Shrinkage cavity

Defects may be attributed to


1 U
1.
Use off iimproper raw materials
t i l ffor
moulding, core making or casting
2. Improper tools, equipment or
patterns
p
3. Poor workshop discipline, poor skill,
faulty organization, other faults in
procedure, management policies
etc
etc.,

Porosity
Drops
Dirt
Metal penetration and rough surfaces
Slag holes
Scabs
Hot tears
Cold cracks
Cold shut and Mis-run

Melting Pouring and Testing


Foundry remelting furnaces

Air furnaces

Coke fire, oil fired, Oil


and gas fired

Melting Pouring and Testing


Crucible furnace
Simple crucibles are used for melting inside the furnace
Clay graphite, SiC, Graphite
Flues used are coke, oil, gas

Coke fired furnace

Oil fired furnace

gas fired furnace

Melting Pouring and Testing


Crucible furnace

Advantages
1. No wastage
g of fuel regulated
g
2. Output in given time is greater due to
higher efficiency
3. Better temp control
4 Less contamination
4.
5. Saving floor space

Open hearth furnace


Pi
Pig IIron to
t steel
t l
Charged with light scrap sheet
metal
Then with heavyy building
g
structures and construction steels
Lime stone is added for slag
Decarburization happens to form
steel from Pig Iron
Iron ore is added for further
oxygen

Melting Pouring and Testing


Ai or Reverberatory
Air
R
b
t
f
furnace
Fuel is generally is pulvarised coal - 2.5kg of metal per kg of coal. Usually
used after cupola operation for refining and composition control

C t IIron, Malleable
Cast
M ll bl IIron, B
Brass and
d bronze
b

Melting Pouring and Testing


Rotary (Reverberatory) Furnace
Grey and Malleable Cast Iron
Oil and
d gas are fuels
f l
Steel shell refractory lined
1 to 2 RPM
Charge tumbles and come into
contact to the flame
Heat transfer radiation conduction
and convection
Charges are pig iron, iron scrap, steel
scrap, Ferro-alloys and limestone limited to 2%

Melting Pouring and Testing


Cupola furnace
Simplicity in operation and continuity in operation

Operation
Preparation of cupolaCleaning the refractory lining removing the slag in
the surface

Firing the cupola


Before 2.5 to 3 hours of melting metal

Charging the cupola


Pig iron, coke and flux, alternative layer
1 0 200
150-200mm
Flux- eliminate impurities, refine metal, to protect
from oxidation
Lime stone, flurospar and soda

Soaking
S
off Iron
Opening of Air Blast
Pouring the Molten Iron
Closing the Cupola
Air requirements for Cupola

Melting Pouring and Testing


Air requirements for Cupola
Coke is a fuel with few impurities and a high carbon content, usually made
f
from
coal.
l It is
i the
th solid
lid carbonaceous
b
material
t i ld
derived
i d ffrom d
destructive
t ti
distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. Cokes made from coal are
grey, hard, and porous. While coke can be formed naturally, the commonly
used form
o is
s man-made.
a
ade
For complete combustion of fuel in the furnace, about 2 cubic meters of
air is required per kg of coke at 1.079 kg/cm2 and 15oC
If the metal fuel ratio is, Amt. of Metal melted/amt of coke burnt is 8:1
Coke required per tonne of Iron = 1000/8 = 125 kg
Volume of air required to melt one tonne of Iron is 2 x 125 = 250 cubic
meters (additionally considering 5% loss in the pipe line leakage, excess
air is passed)
air pressure - 25 to 40 cm of water for small and medium size and 40 to
75 cm for medium to large size

Melting Pouring and Testing


Inside diameter of cupola
The amount of Iron melted and amount of coke burnt per unit time are
determined by the inside diameter of cupola
14 cm2 of cupola area burn 1 kg of coke per hour
Melting 5 tonnes of Iron per hour required 5 x 1000/8 = 625 kg of coke per
hour (metal fuel ratio is 8:1)
Plan area is 625 x 14 cm2 = 8750 cm2
The internal diameter of the cupola to melt 5 tonnes of iron and burn 625
kg of coke should be

8750

8750 7
=2

= 2 x 52.77 = 105.54 cm

Melting Pouring and Testing


Electrical furnaces

Direct Arc melting

Direct arc melting furnace


In-direct arc melting furnace
Induction melting furnace

Heroult furnace most


common type
2 to 6 meters in dia.
1 to 125 tonnes.
The average unit 50 to 70
tonne capacity
Power supply 150 to 40,000
KVA

Lined with Acid (SiO2) or basic (MgO)


refractories
Short pieces of electrode is kept in the hearth and
lowering the carbon electrodes until they form arc
Introduction
Furnace operation
Specification
Advantages

Melting Pouring and Testing


Electrical furnaces
In-Direct
In
Direct Arc melting

Good thermal properties


Low energy used
Non-oxidizing atmosphere
H
Homogenous
melting
lti

I d ti
Induction
melting
lti furnace
f

Fastest
Fastest melting
0.3 to 6 tonnes
700 to 1000 kWh

Induction heating an electrically conducting object (usually


a metal) by electromagnetic induction, where eddy currents
(are generated within the metal and resistance leads to
Joule heating of the metal. The heater - consists of an
electromagnet, through which a high-frequency alternating
current (AC) is passed. Heat may also be generated by
magnetic hysteresis losses in materials that have significant
relative permeability. The frequency of AC used depends on
the object size, material type, coupling (between the work
coil and the object to be heated) and the penetration depth.

Melting Pouring and Testing


Impurities

Melting Pouring and Testing

Melting, Pouring and Testing

Melting Pouring and Testing


Degassing Methods

Melting Pouring and Testing


Degassing Methods

Melting Pouring and Testing


I
Inoculation
l ti
Is a melt treatment method,
where inoculants (elements,
compounds (intermettalics,
oxides etc.,) are added to
modify the microstructure of
th castings
the
ti
to
t gett desirable
d i bl
mechanical properties,
machinability, wear resistance
g
in castings.
Two type of inoculation,
Mould Inoculation - keeping the
inoculants tablets near the gate of
the mould
Laddle inoculation: Adding
inoculants into the melt before
pouring from the laddle

Graphite
flakes

As Cast Pure Al Columnar


Structure

Grain refined Pure Al


Through inoculation

Melting Pouring and Testing


Reduction of flake size in gray cast iron by inoculation
Gray cast iron or SG iron
Improved mechanical properties
Control
C t l graphite
hit structure
t t
Elimination or reduction of
carbide
Reduction of casting
g section
sensitivity, and prevention or
minimizing of under-cooling

Graphitizing inoculant: 72% Si, 1% Mn, 1% Ca, 2% Al and 4% Fe


Nodularizing inoculant for SG Iron - pure Mg or Mg alloy with or without
Cerium desulphurizing should done before nodularization
Nodularization is followed by Ferro-silicon treatment to improve ductility
Grain refinement of Al and its alloys shall be done by inoculating with AlTi-B/C grain refiners where Ti and B or C bearing compounds acts as
inoculants by heterogeneous nucleation method.

Melting Pouring and Testing


Inspection
p
and testing
g of Castings
g

Visual
Inspection
p

Dimensional
inspection
p

Mechanical and
Chemical Testing
g

Non-destructive
methods

Metallurgical
Inspection
p

Most defects can


be discerned by
visual inspection

Standard
measuring
instruments

Tensile and
compressive test
Bend, notch bend,
impact test
Fatigue test
Damping capacity
test and wear
resistance

Sound and
percussion test

Chill test

Chemical analysis

Electrical
Conductivity

Templates and
contour gauges
Limit gauges
Special fixtures
Coordinate
measuring and
marking
machine (CMM)

C, Si, S, Mn, P content


test
Cr, Ni, Cu, Mg, W, V, Mo
and Co
Carbon Equivalent =
T t l carbon%
Total
b % +1/3Si%
Measured by
determining the
liquidus arrest by CCA

Fracture test
Impact test
Pressure test
Radiography (RT)

Macro-etching
test
Sulphur print

Magnetic particle
(MT)

Fluorescent
uo esce t dye
penetrant test (PT)
Ultrasonic testing
(UT)
Eddy current test
(ET)

Microscopic
Examination
o Etching
o SEM

Melting Pouring and Testing


Inspection and testing of Castings
Non-destructive testing methods
Sound and Percussion test (stethoscope test)
- Swinged and tapped with hammer. To hear the tone caused by the vibration, - which may
change in the presence of defects disadvantage is the extent of defect cannot be
determined
Impact test:
- by Hammering the casting, if there is any defects it breaks and automatically get rejected
Pressure Test
- This method is to test the casting which holds or carry fluids like cylinder, valves, pipes, and fitting, basic
test is to locate the leaks. Water is commonly used for this test.
Radioraphic Test (RT)

Melting Pouring and Testing


Inspection and testing of Castings
Non-destructive testing methods
Magnetic Particle Inspection (MT)
Casting is magnetized first and then iron particles are sprinkled

With skill cracks longer that 1mm and a fraction mm deep can be detected

Electrical Conductivity method


- Current is passed through the casting and read on an ammeter
ammeter. If there is imperfections
imperfections,
there is a resistance to the flow of current, hence a drop in the ammeter reading

Melting Pouring and Testing


Inspection and testing of Castings
Non-destructive testing methods
Fluorescent
uo esce t Dye
ye Penetrant
e et a t Inspection(PT)
spect o ( )
Visual inspection with the help of fluorescent dye
Applying
pp y g thin p
penetrating
g oil which fills the cracks due to capillary
p
y action,, followed by
y cleaning
g
the oil thoroughly + Casting is powdered by talc + examining under ultraviolet light.
Ultrasonic Testing (UT)

Melting Pouring and Testing


Inspection and testing of Castings
Non-destructive testing methods
To
o CRT
C

High frequencies
Case depth, case hardness,
surface flaws, segregation
Low Frequencies
Sub-surface flaws, segregation,
grain structure and chemical
composition.
iti
Testing hardness of rolled, forged,
extruded,, sintered or cast
components, in ferrous and nonferrous alloys.

Melting Pouring and Testing


Metallurgical Inspection
Chill test
Wedge test specimen is solidified and
rapidly cooled (chilled)
Hammered to break the wedge
The apex
p contains clear chill, Mottled
Iron (cementite or white iron) they
together called total chill
Grey iron level tells the graphitizing
tendencyy
Depth of the chill related to the
presence of Carbon and Si and hence
the Carbon equivalent for graphitization

Fracture test and Fractography


- To determine the carbon content in iron by quenching during solidification Martensite is formed seen as white spots or line

Melting Pouring and Testing


Metallurgical Inspection
Macro-etching test (Macrography examination)
C
Crystalline
lli h
heterogeneity
i ((solidification)
lidifi i )
Chemical heterogeneity (impurities and
segregation)
Mechanical heterogeneity (forging, rolling, (strain
i d
induced)
d)

Etching reagents for steel


and cast Iron
Hydrochloric acid, Nitric
acid and steads reagent
Sulphur Print test

Sulphur present in iron as Iron Sulphide of Manganese Sulphide


Sample polished
Ph t
Photographic
hi silver
il
bromide
b
id paper is
i soaked
k d iin 2% Sulphuric
S l h i acid
id ffor 5 min.
i
Place and pressed lightly on the polished surface
Brownish stain on bromide paper
H2SO4 + Mg2S or Fe2S
H2S gas + silver bromide
brownish silver sulphide

Melting Pouring and Testing


Metallurgical Inspection
Microscopic examination

Metallography

Optical Microscope
Grinding
Polishing
Etching
Microscopic
Mi
i
examination

Etchant for steel


Nit l - 2% nictric
Nital
i t i acid
id
in ethyl alcholol
Picral
c a 4%
%p
picric
c c ac
acid
d
in ethyl alcholol
Refer book for cast
iron copper alloys
iron,
and aluminium alloys

Melting Pouring and Testing


Metallurgical Inspection
Scanning electron Microscope

300 times the resolution of a optical Microscope