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Personal Hygiene - learn

People are a common source of pathogenic (food poisoning) bacteria, so everyone who works with food
must have the highest possible standards of personal hygiene and personal habits to avoid contaminating
You have a legal responsibility to observe high standards of personal hygiene. Remember
your responsibilities for Due Diligence.
It is always good practice to start work clean and tidy. This will give a good impression to any customers
you meet, but also play an important part in helping to protect food from contamination.
It helps to have a bath or shower each day. This will remove some of the bacteria that are naturally found
on hair and skin, this includes the bacteria that live on stale perspiration and cause body odour.
Deodorants can help to prevent unpleasant body smells from developing after you have washed. However,
you must avoid strongly scented deodorants, perfumes, aftershaves and other toiletries or cosmetics
because they can impregnate the food.

Do not wear jewellery and watches while working because bacteria can live on and under
straps and rings. Most companies allow staff to wear a plain wedding ring and sleeper earrings. Ask about
your company policy.

Appropriate Clothing
Never wear or carry outdoor clothes into a food area because they could contaminate food.
Store outdoor clothes away from food areas, your employer should provide a separate area or locker for
this purpose.
Always put protective clothes on before entering a food area. Do not wear protective clothing outside the
food area, such as on your way to work, because you could cause contamination.
Protective clothing should be suitable for the task:

Clean and in good condition

Light coloured so they will show when they are dirty
Easy to clean
Typical examples are:
Overalls, jackets, trousers, aprons.
Neck scarves, hats, hair nets, beard nets, moustache nets.
Non-slip shoes, boots, safety shoes.
Gloves or gauntlets.
Body warmers may be provided for use in cold temperatures.
A hat or head covering must cover as much of your hair as possible.
Long hair must be tied or clipped back so it cannot hang loose outside the head
Always put on your head covering first. This is because hair can fall onto your work clothes and
then onto the food. Never brush or comb your hair in a food area.

Essential Hand Hygiene

Wash your hands frequently throughout the day.
Even if you avoid touching the actual food directly, you will still touch equipment, utensils and surfaces
throughout the working day, so your hands must be clean at all times.
Always wash your hands:

Starting work.
Touching raw food or high risk food.

When handling raw and cooked food.

Handling raw food

Visiting the toilet
Handling raw eggs in their shell
Coughing or sneezing into your hands or handkerchief
Touching your hair or face
Carrying out cleaning jobs or touching containers of cleaning chemicals
Handling outer case packaging
Returning from the store room
Dealing with rubbish/ waste and bins
Eating, drinking or smoking (in an area set aside for these activities)
After touching money
Never test food with your fingers. Do not wear nail varnish because it can chip off and flake into food, it
also hides dirt that should be removed before handling food.

Hand Washing Technique

1. Wet your hands with clean hot water
2. Use liquid soap to remove dirt and germs.
Use a bacterial soap if you have some.
3. Rub the liquid soap onto the palms and back of your hands.
Make sure you also rub between your fingers as well.
4. Rinse the liquid soap off, with clean hot water.
5. Dry your hands, ideally with a disposable towel or a hand dryer.
6. Rub a sanitising solution into your hands.
This is not mandatory; however, it is a good idea.
By law, separate hand wash basins with hot & cold running water, soap & drying facilities
must be provided. This is a potential instant closure point during EHO inspections.

Unhygienic Habits
Many unhygienic habits seem harmless until you remember how easily food poisoning bacteria are

Do not be tempted to do any of these:

Pick your nose, or wipe your nose on a sleeve
Cough or sneeze over food, or spit
Test food with your finger, or with a spoon that has not been washed thoroughly
Blow or breathe on glassware or cutlery to polish them.
Handle food without first washing your hands.
Fail to wash your hands after going to the toilet or handling rubbish.
Eat or smoke in a food area.
Every time you bring a cigarette or food to your mouth, you contaminate your hands with bacteria. You can
then spread the bacteria to food. There is also the risk of physical contamination from the cigarette ash.
If in doubt, wash your hands, its as simple as that.

Cuts & Spots

Cover cuts, scratches and spots with a waterproof plaster to prevent the spreading of bacteria to food. Use
waterproof plasters that are highly coloured (usually blue) so they can be seen if they come off.
Some plasters contain a thin metal strip so they can be automatically identified by a metal detector on
production lines. If you do lose a plaster tell your supervisor immediately.
If you have a septic cut, weeping spot or boil, you must report this to your supervisorbefore you
start work, (remember due diligence).
Remember, people are the main source of Staphylococcus food poisoningbacteria. 40%
of people carry the bacteria in their nose & mouth.

Reporting illness
You must tell your employer, manager or supervisor before starting work if you have had, or are currently
suffering from a food-borne illness or any illness with similar symptoms. Again, this is a due diligence
It is a legal requirement of yours to report certain illnesses to your employer. You may need a doctors
approval before you can return to work.

Symptoms you must tell your employer about include:

Ear, eye and nose discharges.
You must also report symptoms if any of your family or close personal contacts have symptoms of foodborne illness. You could be a carrier and could contaminate food or other people with pathogenic
bacteria without having any symptoms of illness yourself.
If you are told to see a doctor, you must tell the doctor you are a food handler. Your doctor will decide
whether any medical tests are needed and when you can return to work.

Food Safety Training

By law, every food handler must be trained in food safety to a level that matches their job.
You must have completed your training within 3 months of starting work and ideally all food handlers
should have reached a minimum Level 2 standard.

This should be refreshed every 3 years and training records should be completed to provide evidence of
training. More important is that you understand the training andimplement the training into your
day to day activities.

Food Safety Management Systems & Storage - learn

Since January 2006, a number of new food hygiene regulations have applied in the UK.
These now state that ALL UK food and drink businesses must put in place a food safety
management system including HACCP and keep up-to-date records.
This is not optional or guidance, its the law. Owners of food businesses are legally required to carry out a
hazard analysis of their food activities.
This must be done by looking at every stage in the handling of food and deciding at
which point there could be a risk to food safety. Various measures must then be taken to
control the hazards that have been identified.
Such control measures include checking and recording the temperatures of refrigerators and taking prompt
remedial action if there is a problem.
The owner must keep the controls under constant review and must carry out a new analysis if there is a
change in the business, such as using different ingredients, products or processes.

HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point.
This is a part of the total system which helps food businesses to ensure that every process that may
involve a risk to food safety is being controlled and detailed records are being kept. The system is basically
designed to make sure that food is controlled and monitored right from purchase through to service.
By law, your Food Safety Management System (FSMS) needs to incorporate, ie be based on HACCP
HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point

Controls & Monitoring

Controls are put in place to make sure that food is delivered properly, stored correctly and then served
correctly. Within this chapter we will show you examples of good control measures.
Monitoring is where you monitor the food at delivery, storage, prep, cook & serve stages.
You will either be checking food for signs of damage and spoilage, or you will be monitoring the
temperature of fridges and freezers to ensure they stay within their critical limits.
You will also be checking the core temperature of the food you cook and possibly the temperature of any
re-heating or hot holding equipment. Monitoring basically involves the recording of information onto to a
number of forms.

Critical Limits
Critical Limits are limits that have been set to ensure that food is safe.
Fridges should operate between 1c and 4c. You should check the temperate of the fridge at
least twice a day, and record the information onto the correct form.
Freezers should operate between -18c to -22c. Again, the temperature should be checked
at least twice a day and recorded.
If you are cooling cooked food, you need to record the time it has been cooling.

Corrective Action
Corrective actions are the practical steps you carry out when something goes wrong in your Food Safety
Management System.
Important example
On checking a freezer, the temperature is at -10C. In this scenario, you should check the temperature of
the food with a probe thermometer, and if they food is still at -18C ideally you need to move it to another
freezer. (This should be recorded).
Alternatively, it may be possible to thaw the food and cook as soon as possible. If neither can be achieved,
then the food must be destroyed and the information recorded.
The moving of the food to another freezer, or thawing and cooking are Corrective

Food Safety Management Systems & you

You will probably be involved in some of the actions that play an essential part in hazard analysis, such as
keeping accurate records of temperatures.
Whatever your job involves, you will play an important part in food safety control by:

Following the rules at your workplace.

Protecting food from contamination.
Following the basic rules of temperature control.
Looking out for any food hazards.
Reporting faults, problems or possible food hazards to your manager.
Legally it is your responsibility to learn about hazards, controls and monitoring procedures
needed to ensure that all aspects of food from delivery right through to service are safe.
You must report immediately any hazards or problems to your supervisor or manager.

Delivery and Storage

In this section we will look at the steps needed to keep food and ingredients fresh and safe to eat until they
are to be used.
Dealing with Food Deliveries

Delivery vehicles used for delivering food should be specially designed for this purpose and must be kept
clean. They should be refrigerated if they are to carry high risk or highly perishable foods.
Every food business should have guidelines for accepting or rejecting food deliveries.

Key deliver points to be checking:

Is the food fresh, is it at the correct temperature and is the packaging clean and
Deliveries must be checked as soon as they arrive and the food must be stored
immediately afterwards.
Reasons for Rejecting a delivery:
High risk or perishable foods delivered with a danger zone temperature.
Frozen food thawed or partly thawed.
Packaging dirty, wet or damaged.
Cans dented, bulging, rusty or leaking.
Signs of mould or other forms of spoilage.
An expired date mark, when food has gone past a use by or best by date.

The aim of storage

Correct storage is when food is kept in the right conditions, at the correct temperature for the appropriate

Correct storage helps to:

Prevent food-borne illness.
Preserve the food's taste, appearance and nutritional value.
Provide adequate supplies when they are needed.
Avoid spoilage and wasted food.
Keep to the budget.
Keep within the law and avoid prosecution for selling unfit food.

Stock Rotation
Use the stock with the shortest shelf life before using a similar product with a longer shelf life.
The golden rule of stock rotation is: first In, first out
When storing or displaying food always put the stock with the shortest shelf life at the front, this should
then be used first. Always check the date mark, packaging and condition of the food before use.

Refrigerated Storage
All high risk and perishable foods must be refrigerated.
Food kept at 0c to 5c will prevent or slow down bacterial multiplication.

Examples of Food to be kept Refrigerated:

Raw meat poultry and fish
Cooked meat, poultry, fish and seafood
Meat, poultry and fish products, such as pies and pates
The contents of opened cans, once they have been transferred to suitable containers.
(Never put an opened metal tin in the fridge. The metal will rust quickly and be a cause of
chemical contamination).
Vacuum packed raw meat, poultry and fish
Unopened pasteurised canned food, such as ham
Milk, dairy products and products containing them, such as a quiche
Anything labelled for refrigeration, such as bottled sauces without preservatives
Prepared salads

Eggs should be kept in a fridge provided there is no chance of contamination.

Otherwise, eggs should be kept in a cool storeroom
Some vegetables and fruit can be refrigerated if desired, but ensure they are
separated from other foods.

Stacking Food in Refrigerators

Use separate refrigerators or cold stores if at all possible. This way you can store raw foods such as meat
and poultry in one fridge and high risk foods such as dairy products and cooked meats in the other.
Where you have to use just one fridge always store raw meat and poultry on shelves below
other food so that blood or juices cannot drip onto other foods and cross-contaminate them.
Stack shelves neatly so you can easily check the stock. Allow enough room around food for air to circulate,
this way, the fridge will be able to operate more efficiently and reach is target temperature quickly.

Its important to:

Not leave refrigerator doors open any longer than necessary as the temperature
inside the fridge will rise and the food may be exposed to the Danger Zone.
Not put hot food in a refrigerator as this will raise the temperature inside and
may cause condensation which can cause cross-contamination by dripping onto other food.

Frozen Storage
Foods kept in freezers will keep bacteria dormant at temperatures of -18C or below so they cannot
Freezing does not kill all the bacteria. Some foods can contain spores and often survive
freezing. Once the food enters the Danger Zone, bacterial multiplication will start again.
Frozen food should never be re-frozen once it has thawed or partly defrosted. This is because the
food may have been sufficiently warm for long enough to allow bacteria to resume multiplication.

Stacking a Freezer
Just as you would in a fridge, place raw foods below high risk foods to avoid any risk of contamination.
Place stock with a shorter shelf life in front of stock with a longer shelf life. Keep food in the suppliers
packaging if it is clean and undamaged and always re-seal opened packaging.
If food needs to be re-wrapped label it clearly and include the date it was frozen. Do not put unwrapped
food in the freezer as it could become contaminated, cause contamination or be damaged by freezer burn.

Dry Goods Storage

Dry goods must be stored in cool, dry, well ventilated conditions. The goods must be kept off the
floor, with sufficient space around to allow air to circulate and for you to check the goods.
Never stack food in cardboard boxes directly on the floor or against a wall. This is because it will attract
moisture from the wall or floor and destroy the packaging. It is better to stack onto shelves.

Three key rules to dry good storage:

Food must be kept in secure packaging or containers as many dry foods attract
Although dry and canned foods have a long shelf life, you must take care to check
and rotate stock regularly.

Root vegetables, such as potatoes need a cool dark storage area. Keep away from
other foods to make sure that soil does not contaminate the other foods.

Premises & Equipment - learn

The correct design of food premises, equipment and operations ensures that food stays safe.
This part of the course looks at the main requirements for food premises and equipment.
All food premises must be suitable for the type of food involved and the preparation and processes being
carried out. There are lots of different types of designs, listed below are the minimum requirements.
You must allow for a safe working environment with ample room for the separation of raw and cooked
foods and the separation of clean and dirty activities.

Key premises & equipment considerations must dos:

Provide good safe waste disposal areas
Ensure that staff have adequate facilities for cleaning
Provide facilities for personal hygiene
Prevent pest infestation by pest proofing the building, installing door and window
Implement a pest control schedule
Provide chilling equipment that is out of direct sunlight
Allow enough ambient, chilled, frozen storage to cope with your peak demand
There is a constant supply of fresh mains water, (this is called potable water)
Ensure adequate drainage capable of removing waste water and food debris
Also its important to provide means for staff to control the temperature of food, including: providing
adequate ventilation to stores, food preparation rooms, refrigerators and freezers.


Materials used in construction must be:

Durable & impervious
Smooth & easy to clean.
Light coloured, so that dirt can be seen and easily cleaned.
Heat resistant.
Health & safety of all members of staff must be a main consideration in the design of the premises. Wall
and ceiling surfaces must be smooth, without joints or cracks which could harbour bacteria or pests.

Key additional considerations:

Wall ceilings and floors should be grease resistant to prevent contamination.
Coving between floors and walls makes cleaning much easier and prevents food and
insects from lying undetected.
Doors and windows should have fly screens or strip curtains to reduce the risk or
Woodwork must be smooth and sealed with no flaking paint.
Work surfaces should be smooth without joints or cracks and heat resistant where

Your building should be designed to prevent any type of physical contamination from coming
into contact with the food.
Premises should be well designed to be easily cleaned and if needed, disinfected. They should also be
designed to prevent gaps, cracks & hidden areas that will allow bacteria to grow / food debris to remain
undetected. This will also help to deter pests.

Utensils and Equipment

The best materials for food equipment and utensils are:

Durable & easy to clean.
Smooth and resistant to chipping or cracking.
Impervious & non-toxic.
Rust resistant. Food Grade stainless steel is best.
Tableware should have no chips or cracks that could harbour bacteria. Work surfaces ideally should be
stainless steel. Wood is not acceptable as tiny scratches in the surface will harbour bacteria.

Colour coded equipment and utensils are best.

Chopping boards, knife handles ideally should be made of polypropylene, (plastic).
Soft wood is not recommended as it is absorbent and can not be properly cleaned.

The use of different coloured boards and knives is also recommended:

Red is for raw Food
Yellow is for cooked Food
Green is for vegetables & salad

Plant & equipment

Processing machinery should be designed to provide easy access for cleaning and maintenance.
Large cookers, fridges and freezers should be mobile so they can be cleaned underneath.
There should be enough refrigerator space to store raw and cooked food separately.

Services & facilities

To ensure food safety in your establishment your
employer must provide:
Lighting: It is essential that there is sufficient lighting for you to be able to work safely and to help with
cleaning waste material / dirt.
Fluorescent lights should be protected by diffusers to stop any broken glass falling onto food.
Ventilation: You must allow for reasonable working conditions and to reduce steam & condensation.
Water & washing: Hot water, toilets and basins for staff use. Basins for hand washing must be

provided in the toilet area and at least one wash hand basin in food preparation areas.
All wash basins should have hot and cold running water.
The wash hand basins must not be near any washing up sink or sink for washing
Ideally with foot-operated or wrist operated taps to prevent cross-contamination.
Washing materials such as liquid soap must be provided.
Drying materials such as disposable paper towels or automatic hand dryers.

Never wash your hands in a washing up sink or attempt to wash food or utensils in a wash
hand basin, as this can spread bacteria.
You employer should supply a well stocked first aid box within easy reach and instruct staff on where the
box is situated.

Work flow
There must be a well planned route for food and food handlers through the food preparation areas. This
will safeguard food from the moment it arrives until it is ready to be sold.
Effective work flow includes keeping raw and cooked foods in separate areas and keeping clean and dirty
areas as far apart as possible.
Essentially the premises and equipment must be fit for purpose.
You must be able to store, prepare, cook & serve Safe Food

Food Pests - learn

Pests are attracted to any place where food is stored, prepared, sold, served or thrown
away. They can enter buildings through open windows and doors, or even the smallest cracks in walls,
around windows and pipes.
A food pest is any creature that lives on, or in human food, causing damage, contamination or both.
Pests are a source of food contamination (cross contamination)

The main pests are:

Insects - flies, moths, ants, cockroaches and wasps
Stored product pests such as beetles, mites and weevils
Rodents rats and mice
Birds - pigeons, sparrows, starlings and seagulls
It is important to remember that food premises are attractive to pests because they contain
everything most pests need to survive; Food, Moisture, Warmth & Shelter

Family pets, dogs, cats, hamsters, etc. can contaminate food if they are allowed into food areas. There
have been many cases of food poisoning where someone has contaminated food after handling pets.
You may have a dog or cat at home and you may feed or stroke the pet before cooking. In a
food establishment, this is illegal. They are not allowed in any food area.

Unhealthy Habits
Many pests inhabit unhealthy places where they pick up pathogenic bacteria. For example, rats
live in sewers, while flies live on food found on rubbish tips, dustbins, drains and animal droppings.
Some pests also have pathogenic bacteria living inside their bodies, these can be spread to
food from their droppings or through their saliva as they eat. As well as spreading food poisoning bacteria,

pests can spread food-borne diseases such as dysentery and other illness such as Weil's disease
(from water contaminated by rat urine)
Rats teeth never stop growing, so they must continuously chew, (gnaw), to keep them short. Rats have
been known to gnaw through electric cables, gas & water pipes, even concrete.
Flies are a major pest as they may land on hundreds of surfaces and food products in a relatively short
space of time. For flies to eat food, they firstly vomit, (are sick), on the food and eat this
combination of vomit & food. They will then fly onto another area and spread the bacteria even further.
Pests also cause physical contamination with their droppings, eggs, fur, nesting material, mites, parasites
and their own dead bodies.

Problems from pest Infestations

Damage to a business' reputation and profit.
Food contamination and wastage.
Damage to buildings, equipment and electrical cables, causing fire and other safety
Non-compliance with the law.
The spread of diseases, including food poisoning and food-borne disease.

Preventing Problems
Effective pest control involves protecting premises so that pests cannot gain access. (Sometimes called
denial of access). This is known as proofing.
You must protect food from contamination and take swift, safe action to deal with
any infestation that occurs. Additionally, your employer has the responsibility for ensuring that your
workplace is designed and equipped to keep pests out.

You can play your part in preventing problems by following these rules:
Keep food covered at all times
Store food off the floor in suitable containers
Never leave food outside
Check deliveries carefully (some pests enter food premises in packaging,
vegetables, fruit, cereals and grain)
Check stored goods regularly and rotate stock
Report any signs of damage, torn, pierced or gnawed packaging
Store waste food in bins with securely fitting lids
Keep door and window screens closed
Tell your supervisor if you see any holes in brickwork or around windows, doors or
Remember to maintain a clean workplace (paying special attention to food preparation areas, stores,
drains, gullies and bin areas, and cleaning as you go, ensuring that you clean up any spilled food

Evidence of a problem
Preventing food pests entering is always best, but we know this is not easy. Therefore it is essential to
keep a look out for signs of pests. Do this regularly and particularly during stock rotation, cleaning and
dealing with refuse.
You must report any sighting or signs of pests to your supervisor.

Main signs of a problem are:

Dead bodies mainly insects, rodents and birds.
Unusual smells.
Scratching pecking or gnawing sounds.
Gnawed pipes, cables and fittings.
Torn or damaged sacks or packaging, sometimes surrounded by spilled food.
Eggs, larvae, pupa, feathers, fur, nesting material.
Paw or claw prints.
Smears and rat runs (rodents)

Dealing with an infestation

Most companies use a specialist contractor to kill pests. (Rentokil)

Most infestations may be tackled using:

Bait and baited traps.
Poisons - pesticides and insecticides.
Electric ultraviolet fly killers.

Cleaning & Disinfection - learn

If you were going to eat in a cafe or restaurant you would expect it to be clean, and your food cooked
A clean and tidy workplace creates a good impression as well as helping to make a safe, pleasant
environment for everyone.
A phrase and habit that you need to always remember is - clean as you go

The aim of cleaning

The process of cleaning something is to make sure it is free from dirt and contamination.
It involves a lot of energy. Activities include wiping, rubbing, scouring, scrubbing, brushing and sweeping.
Cleaning is important if we are to keep food and the workplace safe.

Cleaning helps to:

Protect food from contamination
Reduce opportunities for bacterial multiplication, by removing food particles
Protect food from physical and chemical contamination
Avoid attracting pests
Prevent accidents such as slipping on a wet or greasy floor
Create a good impression for customers
Carry out legal obligations to keep food safe.

Safe Cleaning Precautions

Before you start cleaning, make sure that food is safely stored out of the way and cannot be contaminated.
If you are cleaning a refrigerator, cold room or freezer, ensure that the food is kept at a safe temperature
outside the danger zone.

Switch off and isolate electrical equipment, such as slicers, refrigerators, vending machines,
processing machines with dry hands before you start to clean.
Ensure that you know how to use a cleaning chemical safely and always follow the manufacturer's
Do not leave them to soak in disinfectant for longer than the manufacturer's recommended contact time
because bacteria may become resistant to the chemicals. Never leave them to soak overnight.

Additional guidelines include:

Wear protective clothing, such as rubber gloves and goggles, appropriate to the job
If you are in any doubt about the safe use of chemicals, ask your supervisor
Never mix chemicals together, they could explode, cause toxic fumes or burn your
Work through the stages of cleaning in a way that does not spread dust or dirt
Avoid being distracted in a way that puts you, other people or food at risk
Clean and disinfect mops and cloths soon after use and leave them to dry in the air
Always store chemicals, cleaning equipment away from food
Only store chemicals in the original labelled containers designed for that purpose
Always wash your hands before starting another task, and if in doubt about anything, ask
your supervisor

Detergents vs Disinfectants
Detergents help to dissolve grease and remove dirt. With the use of some physical energy,
a detergent and hot water you will remove food waste, grease and dirt.
You will not kill bacteria with a detergent. To prevent the bacteria from causing illness, items
and equipment must be disinfected after they have been cleaned.
Disinfectants kill 99.9% of bacteria. In other words, they reduce bacteria to a safe level.

To reduce bacteria to a safe level you must either:

Use very hot water, 82C or hotter
Use a chemical disinfectant.
Heat disinfection and chemical disinfection are often combined. Cleaning chemicals that reduce bacteria to
a safe level are called disinfectants. They destroy enough bacteria to safeguard health, even though they
cannot kill all food poisoning bacteria and their spores.
Disinfectants must be used after cleaning with detergent, because disinfectant cannot remove grease
and dirt.
The disinfectant must be left on the surface long enough to work properly, this is called the 'contact
time'. The manufacturer's instructions should explain how long the contact time should be.
Many companies use a sanitiser instead of detergent and then a disinfectant.
Sanitisers combine a detergent and a disinfectant. They clean and disinfect provided there is
enough contact time allowed.

What to disinfect
You must disinfect all surfaces that come into contact with raw or high risk foods, anything
that is frequently touched by hand.

You must also disinfect other items that create a risk of contamination including between uses of an item
for different foods, eg knives & chopping boards.
The items that you disinfect depend on their use and it is important to find out which items you need to
disinfect. A phrase and habit that you need to remember is clean as you go.


Items that require regular cleaning include:

Food contact surfaces, chopping boards, preparation tables, work surfaces.
Food processing machinery such as slicers, mixers and mincers.
Knives, tongs and other utensils including, containers.
Hand contact surfaces, including:
Handles, doors, refrigerators, freezers, cupboards, drawers, taps, switches.

Cloths, mops, waste bins and their lids.

When to clean
Any items or area where food poisoning bacteria can multiply, such as chopping boards, must be cleaned
and disinfected frequently throughout the work period.
This is commonly described as 'clean as you go' cleaning. It involves clearing and cleaning up after
every task. Eg you should clean and disinfect work surfaces after handling raw meat.
You are the one responsible for cleaning as you go. Do not presume that someone else may
clean up after you.
Some equipment and areas may be cleaned at less frequent intervals than those requiring clean as you go
treatment. Here are a few examples:
Daily cleaning tasks:
Weekly cleaning tasks:

Floors, bins
Underneath a refrigerator

Monthly cleaning tasks:

High level cleaning

Your employer is responsible for working out a time table, known as a cleaning schedule.
This sets out when and how different items and areas should be cleaned and who should do the cleaning.

A Cleaning Schedule should include:

Item or area to be cleaned
Frequency of cleaning required
Chemicals to be used, protective clothing to be worn and safety precautions to take
Staff involved, incl named person responsible for checking cleaning has been done
The cleaning schedule may include the names of cleaning contractors who carry out specialist tasks,
such as moving or dismantling machinery or using particularly hazardous chemicals or techniques.

Six Stages of Cleaning

Stage 1 - Pre-clean. Remove loose and heavy soiling, for example, scrape plates and chopping
boards, or soak pans.
Stage 2 - Main clean. Wash with hot water and detergent.
Stage 3 Rinse. Remove any traces of detergent and food particles with clean hot water.
Stage 4 Disinfection. Use a chemical disinfectant, and leave it on for the correct contact time.
Stage 5 - Final rinse. Use clean hot water.

Stage 6 Dry. If possible, leave items to dry naturally in the air, because the use of drying cloths can
spread bacteria. If you have to use a cloth try to use disposable paper ones.

Cleaning work surfaces

When cleaning a work surface you must:

Protect food from contamination; move it away from the area to be cleaned
Remove any loose dirt
Wash surface with hot water and appropriate detergent, using a cloth or a scourer
Rinse with hot water and clean cloth
Use a chemical disinfectant following manufacturer's instructions, incl contact time
Rinse with clean water. Air dry or use a disposable paper towel.

Washing by Hand
Many food activities involve washing some items by hand. Use the following guidelines to ensure you are
operating safely.

Washing by hand guidelines:

Wherever possible use two sinks side by side
Wear rubber gloves to protect your hands from the hot water and chemicals
Remove particles of food, scrape and rinse if necessary
Wash the items, ideally in the first sink, with hot water (at about 55c)
Use a detergent and a cloth or a brush
Replace the water if it becomes cool or greasy
Rinse in very hot water, 82c is ideal
Leave the items to soak in disinfectant for 30 seconds, in a 2nd sink if possible
If possible, use a purpose designed basket to lower and lift the items out of the water
Rinse in very hot water, 82c is ideal
Dry items, preferably leave to air dry in a clean, dry area safe from contamination

Dishwashers provide an effective way to clean and disinfect items used in the preparation of food. Rinse
cycles usually run at 82c to 89c.
Make sure the machine is stacked without blocking the cleaning jets and is filled with the right amount of
the correct chemicals.
Detergents remove food waste, grease and dirt, disinfectants kill bacteria. Always use them
in this order.

Rubbish Disposal
Food waste and other rubbish, such as food packaging, can be a source of bacterial and physical
contamination. It will also attract pests if not disposed of properly.

There needs to be 2 types of bins at food premises:

Inside bins near food preparation areas
Large bins in special refuse areas outside
The inside bins need to be within the food handler's easy reach. However, they must not be so close to
food as to create a risk of contamination.

Bins indoors should have a well fitting lid and be lined with a disposable polythene sack.
Foot operated bins are best as you do not have to touch any part of the bin by hand.
A bin in constant use, such as one used for the waste from plates before they go into the dishwasher, may
be used without a lid, provided that it is emptied as soon as the task is finished.

Additional bin guidelines:

Always leave bin lids closed, unless you are throwing something away.
Remove rubbish throughout the day.
Tie the bag securely and take it outside.
Put it into a dustbin with a tight fitting lid or into a waste skip with a lid.
Never let a bin overflow or leave rubbish inside food premises overnight, it will attract
Keep bins, their lids, and areas around them clean and tidy at all times.
Always empty and clean bins and their lids at the end of the work period.
Always wash your hands after dealing with refuse and waste food.
Keep bins and refuse areas clean.
Finally, always put the rubbish bags in the bins, making sure that the bin lids are on securely to protect the
rubbish from scavengers such as cats, dogs, birds. And tell your employer if refuse bins become full, you
may need additional bins or extra collections.