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Plane truss

Prismatic truss

Prismatic truss frame

Truss and
Space truss

Truss and Space Truss

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

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Truss / shear wall


1
2
3
A
B
C
D
d
h

Isometric
Roof plan
Section
Truss
Joist
(should rest on truss joints only)
Roof braces (resist lateral load in roof plane)
Shear walls
(transfer lateral load to footing)
Effective depth d = 8 at center, d = 7 at support
height h = 16

Assume:
Steel trusses on pilasters (column attached to wall)
Gravity load
DL = 20 psf
LL = 12 psf (60% of 20psf for tributary area > 600 ft2)
= 32 psf

Uniform load
w = 32psf x25/1000
w = 0.8klf
Joint load
P = 0.8 x 10
P = 8k
Shear
V = 7 P/2 = 7 x 8/2
V = 28k
2
2
Global moment M = w L /8 = 0.8 x 80 /8 M = 640k
Truss and Space Truss

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

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Chord forces
Top chord
Try DL4x4x

C = T = M/d = 640/8
(KL= 10)
(DL=25.60plf

Try P6

C = T = 80 k
Pall = 99 k > 80

(DL=18.97plf)

Pall = 101k > 80

Use ST4x4x3/8

(DL=17.27plf)

Pall = 89 k > 80

Bottom chord
Use 4x3x1/4

(KL= 0, due to tension no buckling)


(DL=10.51plf)
Pall = 85k > 80

Vertical bar
(KL = 7 @ support)
Max compression C = max shear V = 28k
Use ST4x2x1/4
(DL=8.81plf)

C = 28 k
Pall = 32k > 28

Diagonal bar
Max tension

(KL= 0, due to tension no buckling)


(graphic vector)

Use ST4x2x3/16

(DL=6.87plf)

T = 49 k

Rectangular
Tubing: 4 width
aligns with ST4x4

Pipe

DL = double L

Pall = 56k > 49

Truss and Space Truss

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

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Sddeutshe Zeitung, Munich, Printing Plant


Architect: Von Seidlein et all
Result of a design competition, the plant consists of
2 wings, joined by a circulation spine with north light

Wind bracing

A
B
C
D
E

Offices
Newsprint storage (fire rated concrete)
Printing
Concourse gallery
Processing

C
A

D
E

7.5

33.75

Truss and Space Truss

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

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111

37.5

Assume: Steel trusses


Span
L = 123
Truss spacing
e = 38
Truss depth
d = 7.4
Chord bar lengths Lc = 123/10 panels
Lc =12.3
Web bar lengths Lw = ([12.3/2]2+7.42)
Lw = 9.6
DL = 32psf
LL = 18psf (60% of 30psf for tributary area > 600 ft2)
= 50psf

123

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L = 123

Uniform load
w = 50 psf x 38/1000
w =1.9klf
Joint load
P = w Lc = 1.9 x 12.3
P = 23.4k
Global shear (governs web bars)
V = 9P/2 = 9x23.4/2
V = 105k
Max. web bar tension (KL=0, no buckling)
Tw = V Lw/d = 105x9.6/7.4
Tw = 136k
Use ST 6x4x 5/16
Pall = 155 > 136

e = 38 truss spacing

Max. web bar compression (Lw = 9.6)


Cw = Tw
Cw = 136k
Use ST 6x4 x
pall = 150 > 136
Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

7.4

Truss and Space Truss

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123

Span
Truss depth
Chord bar lengths
Lc = 123/10 panels
Uniform load
w = 50 psf x 38/1000
Global moment
M=wL2/8=1.9x1232/8
Chord bar forces
T=C=M/d=3593/7.4
Top chord (KL= 12.3)
Use 2 DL7x4x3/4
Pall=2x244
Bottom chord (tension)
A = T/Fa = 486/22
Use W12x79

Truss and Space Truss

7.4

KL length

111

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Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

L = 123
d = 7.4
Lc =12.3
w =1.9 klf
M=3593 k
T=C=486k

Pall=488>486
A = 22 in2
A = 23.2>22
Joints MUST be
concentric (center
lines of bars meet
at ONE point)

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Speed skating rink, Heerenveen, Holland


Architect: Van der Zee & Ybema
Engineer: Arie Krijegsman, ABT
Assume: steel truss
Allowable stress
Fa=22 ksi
Truss span
L = 217
Truss spacing
e = 24
Truss depth
d = 19
DL = 0.6 kPa (12.5 psf)
LL = 0.5 kPa (10.4 psf)
= 1.1 kPa (22.9 psf)

L = 217

Truss and Space Truss

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

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Uniform load
w = 24 x 22.9 psf / 1000
w = 0.55 klf
Mid span point load
(center truss carries round end loads)
Tributary area

Truss and Space Truss

A = (217/2)2/3
Load per truss (16 trusses)

A= 12,278 ft2

P=12,278 x 22.9 psf /16/1000


Global moment (M = PL/4+wL2/8)
M =18x217/4+0.55 x 2172/8
Chord bar force
C = T = M/d = 4,214 / 19
Bottom chord (KL=0, no buckling)
Use W8x35
Top chord unbraced length
KL = 217/12
Use W12x53

P = 18 k

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

M = 4,214 k
C =T = 222 k
Pall = 222, ok
KL = 18
Pall = 227>222

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Centre Pompidou, Paris


Architect: Piano and Rodgers
Engineer: Ove Arup
The Centre Pompidou has six exhibit levels 60x166 m
a mechanical zone at rear and a circulation zone in
Front. Steel trusses span between outriggers called
Gerberettes after 19th century Gerber Beam inventor.
The Gerberettes prevent eccentric column bending.
Lateral load is resisted by:
A-bracing between trusses in width direction
X-bracing in length direction

Truss and Space Truss

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

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Assume:

Fa = 207 MPa (30 ksi)


DL = 3.2 kN/m2 (67 psf)
LL = 4.8 kN/m2 (100 psf)
= 8.0 kN/m2 (167 psf)

Uniform truss load


w = 12.8 m (8 kN/m2)
Global moment
M = wL2/8 = 102(44.82)/8
Max. chord bar force
C = T = M/d = 25,590/2.5

Truss and Space Truss

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

Assume:

w = 102 kn/m
M = 25,590 kN-m
C=T = 10,236 kN

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Fa = 207 MPa (30 ksi)


DL = 3.2 kN/m2 (67 psf)
LL = 4.8 kN/m2 (100 psf)
= 8.0 kN/m2 (167 psf)

Uniform truss load


w = 12.8 m (8 kN/m2)
w = 102 kn/m
Global moment
M = wL2/8 = 102(44.82)/8
M = 25,590 kN-m
Max. chord bar force
C = T = M/d = 25,590/2.5
C=T = 10,236 kN
Tension bars (2 bars)
A = T/(2Fa) = 10,236/(2x207x103)
A = 24,725 mm2
= 2(A/)1/2 = 2(24,725/)1/2
2 177 mm
Compression bars (try 2 375x30 mm)
Radius of giration
r =(D2+d2)1/2/4 =(3752+3152)1/2/4
r = 122 mm
Unbraced length KL/r = 1000x44.7m/7
KL = 6,400 mm
Slenderness KL/r = 6,400/122)
KL/r = 53
Allowable buckling stress (from AISC table)
Fa =23.88 ksi/0.145
Fa = 165 Mpa
Cross section area (2 bars)
-6
2
2
A = 2x10 (375 -315 )/4
A =0.065 m2
Stress f = C/A = 10,236/(0.065x103)
f = 157 MPa<165
Truss and Space Truss

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

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Truss and Space Truss

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

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12

Web bar design


Max shear
V = wL/2 = 102(44.8)/2
V = 2,284 kN
Max. bar force (38 bar slope)
C = T = 2,284 / sin (38)
C=T = 3,710 kN
Tension bar (extended chord bar)
3710 < 10.236
Compression bar (try 270x30 mm pipe)
Radius of gyration
r = (D2+d2)1/2/4 = (2702+2102)1/2/4
r = 86 mm
Unbraced length (K=1)
KL = 1000 [(44.8/14)2+(2.5)2]1/2
KL = 4,061 mm
Slenderness
KL/r =4,061/86
KL/r = 47
Allowablw buckling stress (from AISC table)
Fa = 24.81 ksi/0.145
Fa = 171 Mpa
Cross section area
A = (2702-2102)/4
A = 22,610 mm2
A =22,610 mm2 (10-6)
A = 0.0226 m2
Stress
f = C/A = 3,710 kN/0.0226
f =164,159 kPa
f = 164,158 kPa / 1000
f = 164 MPa
164 < 171, ok
Truss and Space Truss

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

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Gerberettes
Define zones for
circulation in front
and ducts at rear

Truss and Space Truss

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

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Lateral bracing:
length direction
width direction

Truss and Space Truss

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

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Truss and Space Truss

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

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Gerber beam
The Gerber beam is named after its inventor, Gerber, a
19th century professor at Munich.
The Gerber beam has hinges at inflection points to
reduce bending moments, taking advantage of
continuity, to allow settlements without axtra stress.
The Gerber beam was developed in response to
frequent failures, caused by unequal settlements of 19th
century railroad bridges.
1 Simple beams over three spans
2 Reduced bending moment in continuos beam
3 Failure of continuous beam due to unequal foundation
settlement, causing one span to double and the
bending moment to increase four times.
4 Gerber beam with hinges at inflection points reduces
bending yet allows unequal settlement without failure.

Truss and Space Truss

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

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PRISMATIC TRUSS AND TRUSS FRAME


IBM sports hall, UK
Architect: Nicholas Grimshaw

Sainsbury Center, UK
Architect: Norman Foster
Engineer: Anthony Hunt
Truss frames may consist of
prismatic trusses or flat trusses.
Truss frames provide both
roof and wall support and resist
both gravity and lateral load
Prismatic trusses resist buckling

Prismatic truss
graphic web bar adjustment

Truss and Space Truss

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

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Truss details
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Partial truss
Gusset plate to join double L bars
Gusset plate to join double channel bars
Gusset plate to join pipe bars
Welded tubing joint

Truss bar options:

Double L-shapes

Double channels

T-bars (alternate chord bar with double Ls)

Pipes

Tubing (square or rectangular)


Note:
Use concentric joints to avoid bending stress

SPACE TRUSS

Truss and Space Truss

Truss and Space Truss

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

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Space trusses span 2-ways


and thus are only effective
for equal spans both ways.
A longer span would only
carry a small fraction of load.
Javits Convention Center
New York
Architect: I M Pei
Engineer: Weidlinger

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

Currigan exhibit hall, Denver


Architect: Muchow, Ream, and Larson
The space truss is expressed inside and along
the roof edge outside. Inverted truss pyramids
support define the organization.
The space truss has four modules of 240x680
combined length.
The truss is two layers deep to reduce buckling
length of web bars.
Top and bottom grids, 10x10. are offset by half
a module and joined by pyramidal web bars.
Truss bars consist of twin-Ls, joined by gussets.
The span/depth ratio is 6.5, DL = 13 psf.

Truss and Space Truss

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

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Festival Plaza, Expo 70, Osaka


Architect: Kenzo Tange
Engineer: Yoshitomi Suga
Six towers support the 108x292 m space truss.
Pneumatic roof panels provide natural lighting.
Top and bottom grids, 10.8 m square, offset by
half modules, are joint by web bars, also 10.8 m,
for span/depth ratios of 11.5 and 8 in length and
width, respectively.
Assembled at ground from 350-500 mm pipes and
Mero joints, the space truss was raised by
hydraulic jacks.

Truss and Space Truss

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

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Larkspur ferry terminal, San Francisco


Architect: Jacques De Brer
Engineer: Kaiser Engineers
The Terminal for 2000 daily passengers is an
equilateral triangle of 192 side length
Three inverted truss pyramids support the truss
Plastic roof panels provide natural lighting

Truss and Space Truss

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

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Olympic Arena Barcelona


Architect: Arata Isozaki
Engineer: Mamoru Kawaguchi
The 1992 Olympic arena features a 106x128m
space truss of 5 (Pentadome) units with hinged
joints for assembly near ground and hydraulic
lifting to final position.
Hinged columns along the periphery allowed the
lateral displacement needed during erection.
Linear skylights accentuate the intersection of
the five units.

Truss and Space Truss

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

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Mero joint
The popular Mero joint provides concentric onnections
for space truss bars in any direction.
Mero is an abbreviation of:
the first 2 letters of Dr. Meneringhausen, the inventor,
and the first 2 letters of Rohr, German for pipe.
A
B
C
D
E
F

Truss and Space Truss

111

Truss and Space Truss

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

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123

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

Node
Web bar
Chord bar
Roof support
Wall support
Joint support

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Static model
Assume: axial resistant model
Strain scale (to amplify deflection)
Ss = m/o = 5/1
Geometric scale
Steel original
Wood model
Force scale: Sf = Ss Pm/Po Sf = Ss
Sf=SsSg2Em/Eo=5(1/50)21500/30000
Sf=0.0001
Cross section geometric scale
Am/Ao = Sg2 Eo/(Em Ss)
Am/Ao = (1/50)2 x 30000/(1500x5)
Top chord: 2 MC 12x45 (A = 2x13.2 in2)
Am=2x13.2/625= 0.042
Bottom chord: W12x79 (A = 23.2 in2)
Am= 23.2/625= 0.037
Compression web: 6x4x1/2 (A = 6.36 in2)
Am = 6.36/625 = 0.01 in2)
Tension web: 6x4x5/16 (A = 5.61in2)
Am = 5.61/625 = 0.009 in2)
Point loads
Pm = Po Sf = 23,400# / 10000

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Ss = 5
Sg = 1:50
Eo = 30000 ksi
Em = 1500 ksi
AmEm/(AoEo)
Sf = 1:10000
Sc = 1:625
use 0.2x0.2
use 0.2x0.2
use 0.2x0.05
use 0.2x0.045
Pm = 2.34#

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Design great trusses

Truss and Space Truss

Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

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