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# Plane truss

Prismatic truss

Truss and
Space truss

## Truss / shear wall

1
2
3
A
B
C
D
d
h

Isometric
Roof plan
Section
Truss
Joist
(should rest on truss joints only)
Roof braces (resist lateral load in roof plane)
Shear walls
Effective depth d = 8 at center, d = 7 at support
height h = 16

Assume:
Steel trusses on pilasters (column attached to wall)
DL = 20 psf
LL = 12 psf (60% of 20psf for tributary area > 600 ft2)
= 32 psf

w = 32psf x25/1000
w = 0.8klf
P = 0.8 x 10
P = 8k
Shear
V = 7 P/2 = 7 x 8/2
V = 28k
2
2
Global moment M = w L /8 = 0.8 x 80 /8 M = 640k
Truss and Space Truss

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Chord forces
Top chord
Try DL4x4x

C = T = M/d = 640/8
(KL= 10)
(DL=25.60plf

Try P6

C = T = 80 k
Pall = 99 k > 80

(DL=18.97plf)

Use ST4x4x3/8

(DL=17.27plf)

Pall = 89 k > 80

Bottom chord
Use 4x3x1/4

## (KL= 0, due to tension no buckling)

(DL=10.51plf)
Pall = 85k > 80

Vertical bar
(KL = 7 @ support)
Max compression C = max shear V = 28k
Use ST4x2x1/4
(DL=8.81plf)

C = 28 k
Pall = 32k > 28

Diagonal bar
Max tension

## (KL= 0, due to tension no buckling)

(graphic vector)

Use ST4x2x3/16

(DL=6.87plf)

T = 49 k

Rectangular
Tubing: 4 width
aligns with ST4x4

Pipe

DL = double L

## Sddeutshe Zeitung, Munich, Printing Plant

Architect: Von Seidlein et all
Result of a design competition, the plant consists of
2 wings, joined by a circulation spine with north light

Wind bracing

A
B
C
D
E

Offices
Newsprint storage (fire rated concrete)
Printing
Concourse gallery
Processing

C
A

D
E

7.5

33.75

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37.5

## Assume: Steel trusses

Span
L = 123
Truss spacing
e = 38
Truss depth
d = 7.4
Chord bar lengths Lc = 123/10 panels
Lc =12.3
Web bar lengths Lw = ([12.3/2]2+7.42)
Lw = 9.6
DL = 32psf
LL = 18psf (60% of 30psf for tributary area > 600 ft2)
= 50psf

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L = 123

w = 50 psf x 38/1000
w =1.9klf
P = w Lc = 1.9 x 12.3
P = 23.4k
Global shear (governs web bars)
V = 9P/2 = 9x23.4/2
V = 105k
Max. web bar tension (KL=0, no buckling)
Tw = V Lw/d = 105x9.6/7.4
Tw = 136k
Use ST 6x4x 5/16
Pall = 155 > 136

e = 38 truss spacing

Cw = Tw
Cw = 136k
Use ST 6x4 x
pall = 150 > 136

7.4

## Truss and Space Truss

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123

Span
Truss depth
Chord bar lengths
Lc = 123/10 panels
w = 50 psf x 38/1000
Global moment
M=wL2/8=1.9x1232/8
Chord bar forces
T=C=M/d=3593/7.4
Top chord (KL= 12.3)
Use 2 DL7x4x3/4
Pall=2x244
Bottom chord (tension)
A = T/Fa = 486/22
Use W12x79

7.4

KL length

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## Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-06

L = 123
d = 7.4
Lc =12.3
w =1.9 klf
M=3593 k
T=C=486k

Pall=488>486
A = 22 in2
A = 23.2>22
Joints MUST be
concentric (center
lines of bars meet
at ONE point)

## Speed skating rink, Heerenveen, Holland

Architect: Van der Zee & Ybema
Engineer: Arie Krijegsman, ABT
Assume: steel truss
Allowable stress
Fa=22 ksi
Truss span
L = 217
Truss spacing
e = 24
Truss depth
d = 19
DL = 0.6 kPa (12.5 psf)
LL = 0.5 kPa (10.4 psf)
= 1.1 kPa (22.9 psf)

L = 217

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w = 24 x 22.9 psf / 1000
w = 0.55 klf
(center truss carries round end loads)
Tributary area

A = (217/2)2/3

A= 12,278 ft2

## P=12,278 x 22.9 psf /16/1000

Global moment (M = PL/4+wL2/8)
M =18x217/4+0.55 x 2172/8
Chord bar force
C = T = M/d = 4,214 / 19
Bottom chord (KL=0, no buckling)
Use W8x35
Top chord unbraced length
KL = 217/12
Use W12x53

P = 18 k

M = 4,214 k
C =T = 222 k
Pall = 222, ok
KL = 18
Pall = 227>222

## Centre Pompidou, Paris

Architect: Piano and Rodgers
Engineer: Ove Arup
The Centre Pompidou has six exhibit levels 60x166 m
a mechanical zone at rear and a circulation zone in
Front. Steel trusses span between outriggers called
Gerberettes after 19th century Gerber Beam inventor.
The Gerberettes prevent eccentric column bending.
A-bracing between trusses in width direction
X-bracing in length direction

Assume:

## Fa = 207 MPa (30 ksi)

DL = 3.2 kN/m2 (67 psf)
LL = 4.8 kN/m2 (100 psf)
= 8.0 kN/m2 (167 psf)

w = 12.8 m (8 kN/m2)
Global moment
M = wL2/8 = 102(44.82)/8
Max. chord bar force
C = T = M/d = 25,590/2.5

Assume:

w = 102 kn/m
M = 25,590 kN-m
C=T = 10,236 kN

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## Fa = 207 MPa (30 ksi)

DL = 3.2 kN/m2 (67 psf)
LL = 4.8 kN/m2 (100 psf)
= 8.0 kN/m2 (167 psf)

w = 12.8 m (8 kN/m2)
w = 102 kn/m
Global moment
M = wL2/8 = 102(44.82)/8
M = 25,590 kN-m
Max. chord bar force
C = T = M/d = 25,590/2.5
C=T = 10,236 kN
Tension bars (2 bars)
A = T/(2Fa) = 10,236/(2x207x103)
A = 24,725 mm2
= 2(A/)1/2 = 2(24,725/)1/2
2 177 mm
Compression bars (try 2 375x30 mm)
r =(D2+d2)1/2/4 =(3752+3152)1/2/4
r = 122 mm
Unbraced length KL/r = 1000x44.7m/7
KL = 6,400 mm
Slenderness KL/r = 6,400/122)
KL/r = 53
Allowable buckling stress (from AISC table)
Fa =23.88 ksi/0.145
Fa = 165 Mpa
Cross section area (2 bars)
-6
2
2
A = 2x10 (375 -315 )/4
A =0.065 m2
Stress f = C/A = 10,236/(0.065x103)
f = 157 MPa<165
Truss and Space Truss

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## Web bar design

Max shear
V = wL/2 = 102(44.8)/2
V = 2,284 kN
Max. bar force (38 bar slope)
C = T = 2,284 / sin (38)
C=T = 3,710 kN
Tension bar (extended chord bar)
3710 < 10.236
Compression bar (try 270x30 mm pipe)
r = (D2+d2)1/2/4 = (2702+2102)1/2/4
r = 86 mm
Unbraced length (K=1)
KL = 1000 [(44.8/14)2+(2.5)2]1/2
KL = 4,061 mm
Slenderness
KL/r =4,061/86
KL/r = 47
Allowablw buckling stress (from AISC table)
Fa = 24.81 ksi/0.145
Fa = 171 Mpa
Cross section area
A = (2702-2102)/4
A = 22,610 mm2
A =22,610 mm2 (10-6)
A = 0.0226 m2
Stress
f = C/A = 3,710 kN/0.0226
f =164,159 kPa
f = 164,158 kPa / 1000
f = 164 MPa
164 < 171, ok
Truss and Space Truss

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Gerberettes
Define zones for
circulation in front
and ducts at rear

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Lateral bracing:
length direction
width direction

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Gerber beam
The Gerber beam is named after its inventor, Gerber, a
19th century professor at Munich.
The Gerber beam has hinges at inflection points to
reduce bending moments, taking advantage of
continuity, to allow settlements without axtra stress.
The Gerber beam was developed in response to
frequent failures, caused by unequal settlements of 19th
1 Simple beams over three spans
2 Reduced bending moment in continuos beam
3 Failure of continuous beam due to unequal foundation
settlement, causing one span to double and the
bending moment to increase four times.
4 Gerber beam with hinges at inflection points reduces
bending yet allows unequal settlement without failure.

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## PRISMATIC TRUSS AND TRUSS FRAME

IBM sports hall, UK
Architect: Nicholas Grimshaw

Sainsbury Center, UK
Architect: Norman Foster
Engineer: Anthony Hunt
Truss frames may consist of
prismatic trusses or flat trusses.
Truss frames provide both
roof and wall support and resist
Prismatic trusses resist buckling

Prismatic truss

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Truss details
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Partial truss
Gusset plate to join double L bars
Gusset plate to join double channel bars
Gusset plate to join pipe bars
Welded tubing joint

Double L-shapes

Double channels

Pipes

## Tubing (square or rectangular)

Note:
Use concentric joints to avoid bending stress

SPACE TRUSS

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## Space trusses span 2-ways

and thus are only effective
for equal spans both ways.
A longer span would only
carry a small fraction of load.
Javits Convention Center
New York
Architect: I M Pei
Engineer: Weidlinger

## Currigan exhibit hall, Denver

Architect: Muchow, Ream, and Larson
The space truss is expressed inside and along
the roof edge outside. Inverted truss pyramids
support define the organization.
The space truss has four modules of 240x680
combined length.
The truss is two layers deep to reduce buckling
length of web bars.
Top and bottom grids, 10x10. are offset by half
a module and joined by pyramidal web bars.
Truss bars consist of twin-Ls, joined by gussets.
The span/depth ratio is 6.5, DL = 13 psf.

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## Festival Plaza, Expo 70, Osaka

Architect: Kenzo Tange
Engineer: Yoshitomi Suga
Six towers support the 108x292 m space truss.
Pneumatic roof panels provide natural lighting.
Top and bottom grids, 10.8 m square, offset by
half modules, are joint by web bars, also 10.8 m,
for span/depth ratios of 11.5 and 8 in length and
width, respectively.
Assembled at ground from 350-500 mm pipes and
Mero joints, the space truss was raised by
hydraulic jacks.

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## Larkspur ferry terminal, San Francisco

Architect: Jacques De Brer
Engineer: Kaiser Engineers
The Terminal for 2000 daily passengers is an
equilateral triangle of 192 side length
Three inverted truss pyramids support the truss
Plastic roof panels provide natural lighting

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## Olympic Arena Barcelona

Architect: Arata Isozaki
Engineer: Mamoru Kawaguchi
The 1992 Olympic arena features a 106x128m
space truss of 5 (Pentadome) units with hinged
joints for assembly near ground and hydraulic
lifting to final position.
Hinged columns along the periphery allowed the
lateral displacement needed during erection.
Linear skylights accentuate the intersection of
the five units.

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Mero joint
The popular Mero joint provides concentric onnections
for space truss bars in any direction.
Mero is an abbreviation of:
the first 2 letters of Dr. Meneringhausen, the inventor,
and the first 2 letters of Rohr, German for pipe.
A
B
C
D
E
F

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123

Node
Web bar
Chord bar
Roof support
Wall support
Joint support

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Static model
Assume: axial resistant model
Strain scale (to amplify deflection)
Ss = m/o = 5/1
Geometric scale
Steel original
Wood model
Force scale: Sf = Ss Pm/Po Sf = Ss
Sf=SsSg2Em/Eo=5(1/50)21500/30000
Sf=0.0001
Cross section geometric scale
Am/Ao = Sg2 Eo/(Em Ss)
Am/Ao = (1/50)2 x 30000/(1500x5)
Top chord: 2 MC 12x45 (A = 2x13.2 in2)
Am=2x13.2/625= 0.042
Bottom chord: W12x79 (A = 23.2 in2)
Am= 23.2/625= 0.037
Compression web: 6x4x1/2 (A = 6.36 in2)
Am = 6.36/625 = 0.01 in2)
Tension web: 6x4x5/16 (A = 5.61in2)
Am = 5.61/625 = 0.009 in2)
Pm = Po Sf = 23,400# / 10000

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Ss = 5
Sg = 1:50
Eo = 30000 ksi
Em = 1500 ksi
AmEm/(AoEo)
Sf = 1:10000
Sc = 1:625
use 0.2x0.2
use 0.2x0.2
use 0.2x0.05
use 0.2x0.045
Pm = 2.34#

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