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(i)

Following are the members of plagioclase family:


(a) Albite, Oligoclase, Andesine
(b) Andesine, Labradorite, Bytownite
(c) Oligoclase, Andesine, Labradorite
(d) Labradorite, Bytownite, Anorthite (e) All of these
(ii) Chaman Transform Zone is characterized:
(a) Mainly by strike-slip faulting with minor subduction
(b) Mainly by dip-slip faulting with minor subduction
(c) Mainly by subduction with minor strike-slip faulting
(d) Mainly by obduction with minor strike-slip faulting
(e) None of these
(iii) A blocky and fragmented form of lava occurring in flows with fissured
and angular surfaces is known as:
(a) Ad lava
(b) Ac lava
(c) Ab lava
(d) Aa lava
(e) None of these
(iv) The following formations are known respectively as Upper, Middle and
Lower Productus Limestone:
(a) Amb, Wargal and Chiddru
(b) Chiddru, Wargal and Amb
(c) Wargal, Amb and Chiddru
(d) Amb, Chiddru and Wargal
(e) None of these
(v) The following mineral shows two sets rhombic cleavage:
(a) Hornblende
(b) Grunerite
(c) Tremolite
(d) Actinolite
(e) All of these
(vi) Physical weathering process in which sheets of rock are fractured and
detached from an outcrop is termed as:
(a) Degeneration
(b) Transpiration
(c) Exfoliation
(d) Deformation
(e) None of these
(vii) Mohorovicic Discontinuity is the boundary between:
(a) Crust and Lithosphere

(b) Sima and Sial


(c) Crust and Mantle
(d) Crust and Asthenosphere
(e) None of these
(viii) Type of foliation associated with very fine grained pelitic rocks
metamorphosed to low grade is known as:
(a) Phyllitic Structure
(b) Gneissic Structure
(c) Schistose Structure
(d) Slaty Cleavage
(e) None of these
(ix) Which of the following statements is true?
(a) Apatite is harder than Fluorite
(b) Quartz is harder than Calcite
(c) Corundum is harder than Quartz
(d) Diamond is harder than all minerals
(e) All of these
(x) Among following which are classed as chronostratigraphic units:
(a) Era, Period, Epoch
(b) Group, Formation, Member
(c) System, Series, Stage
(d) Palaeozoic, Cretaceous, Miocene
(e) None of these
(xi) Which of the following group of rocks is known as basic igneous rocks?
(a) Monzonite, Syenite, Rhyolite
(b) Granite, Diorite, Granodiorite
(c) Trachyte, Andesite, Dacite
(d) Gabbro, Norite, Dolerite
(e) None of these
(xii) Antistress and stress minerals are discussed in the context of:
(a) Metamorphic rocks
(b) Sedimentary rocks
(c) Plutonic rocks
(d) Volcanic rocks
(e) All of these
(xiii) Island Arc is a linear or arcuate chain of volcanic islands at:
(a) Transform Plate Boundary
(b) Convergent Plate Boundary
(c) Mid-Oceanic Ridge
(d) Divergent Plate Boundary

(e) None of these


(xiv) Axial Fold Belt is the dividing feature between two basins.
(a) Indus and Kakar Khurasan
(b) Lower and Upper Indus
(c) Southern and Central Indus
(d) Indus and Balochistan
(e) None of these
(xv) Current ripples are used to indicate:
(a) Velocity of flow
(b) Direction of flow
(c) Line of flow
(d) Gradient of flow
(e) All of these
(xvi) Floating invertebrates are known as:
(a) Benthos
(b) Nektons
(c) Zooplanktons
(d) Phytoplanktons
(e) None of these
(xvii) Zaluch Nala is situated in:
(a) Eastern Salt Range
(b) Western Salt Range
(c) Surghar Range
(d) Central Salt Range
(e) None of these
(xviii) Expression of the septum on the wall surface of Ammonoids is known
as:
(a) Growth lines
(b) Suture
(c) Ribs
(d) Umbilicus
(e) None of these
(xix) Blue Schist is comprised of:
(a) Smectite and Quartz
(b) Glaucophane, Lawsonite and Quartz
(c) Epidote and Albite
(d) Marble and Quartzite
(e) None of these
(xx) The hinge line of a doubly plunging syncline is:

(a) Curvilinear
(b) Rectilinear
(c) Horizontal
(d) Vertical
(e) None of these

(i) Diamonds are stronger than graphite because they have:


(a) Van der Waals bonds
(b) covalent bonds
(c) ionic bonds
(d) metallic bonds
(ii) Bauxite, the principal ore of aluminum is actually which type of soil:
(a) pedalfer
(b) pedocal
(c) caliche
(d) laterite
(iii) The term groundwater recharge refers to:
(a) the supply of groundwater that remains stored in the ground for
long periods of time
(b) the infiltration and addition of water into the groundwater aquifer
(c) absorption of water by the soil
(d) how fast the groundwater is flowing
(iv) Which of the following aquifers are most at risk to contamination?
(a) deep, confined aquifers
(b) aquifers in igneous rocks
(c) shallow, unconfined aquifers recharged by rivers that drain
agricultural or industrial areas
(d) All of these
(v) Doubling of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is predicted to
cause:
(a) change in rainfall patterns
(b) increase in average global temperature of 1.2 *C
(c) northward movement of optimal growing zones
(d) All of these
(vi) Platinum and chromium deposits are typically associated with:
(a) pegmatites
(b) hydrothermal deposits

(c) black smokers


(d) igneous mafic layered intrusions
(vii) With increasing metamorphism, a shale will go through which of
the following textural changes:
(a) phyllite, gneiss, schist, slate
(b) schist, slate, gneiss, phyllite
(c) slate, phyllite, gneiss, schist
(d) slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss
(viii) Most petroleum is generated from source rocks deposited:
(a) in oxic to dysoxic
(b) dysoxic-to-suboxic
(c) suboxic-to-anoxic
(d) dysoxic-to-oxic environments
(ix) The main driving force behind secondary migration in absence of
hydrodynamics is:
(a) buoyancy
(b) capillarity
(c) surface tension
(x) Mendeleer proposed that, metallic carbides deep within the Earth
reacted at high temperature with H2O, to form hydrocarbons:
(a) methane
(b) ethane
(c) acetylene
(d) benzene
(xi) Good hydrocarbon source rocks are usually:
(a) Coarse grained
(b) fine grained
(c) medium grained
(xii) Oil and Gas Development Corporation was established in:
(a) 1956
(b) 1965
(c) 1961
(d) 1971
(xiii) First discovery of oil Field was made at Khaur in Potwar Basin in:
(a) 1885
(b) 1951
(c) 1915
(d) 1947

(xiv) The zone of leaching in a soil is also called the:


(a) A-horizon
(b) B-horizon
(c) C-horizon
(d) O-horizon
(xv) To be an aquifer, a rock unit must have::
(a) both permeability and porosity
(b) neither permeability nor porosity
(c) permeability, but not porosity
(d) porosity, but not permeability
(xvi) Which formation is most objective as reservoir rock in Potowar
region?
(a) Khewra sand stone
(b) Datta sand stone
(b) Pab sand stone
(d) Sakesar Lime stone
(xvii) Geologists use the equation called Darcys Law to calculate:
(a) the depth to the water table
(b) the discharge through an aquifer
(c) the water pressure in an aquifer
(d) the porosity of an aquifer
(xviii) Kalabagh Dam was proposed to built on:
(a) Swat River
(b) Kabul River
(c) Indus River
(d) Nilam River
(xix) Chromite ore mines are located in:
(a) Axial folded Belt
(b) Sulaiman Ranges
(c) Trans Indus Ranges
(d) Kharan Ranges
(e) None of these
(xx) Most of the Oil and Gas Fields of Indus Basin discovered in:
(a) Punjab Platform Area
(b) Thar Platform Area
(c) Sargodha High
(d) Kohat-Potwar Basin
(e) None of these

(i) Which of the following is a part of the definition of a mineral?


(a) a liquid that may become solid
(b) man-made
(c) definite chemical composition
(d) unorganized structure
(e) All of these
(ii) Which of the following minerals are arranged in order of increasing
hardness?
(a) talc, apatite, corundum, diamond
(b) topaz, quartz, fluorite, corundum
(c) talc, quartz, calcite, diamond
(d) quartz, topaz, diamond, fluorite
(e) fluorite, calcite, gypsum, talc
(iii) How do the crystal structures of micas and feldspars differ from
each other?
(a) feldspars are framework silicates, micas are double chain silicates
(b) feldspars are double chain silicates, micas are sheet silicates
(c) micas and feldspars have the same crystalline structure
(d) feldspars are single chain silicates, micas are double chain silicates
(e) micas are sheet silicates, feldspars are framework silicates
(iv) Sima is a general term used to refer to:
(a) rocks of the ocean basins
(b) rocks of the continents
(c) None of these
(d) all rocks that compose Earths crust
(e) rocks that compose the crust of terrestrial planets
(v) Which of the following parameters influences the viscosity of
magma?:
(a) temperature of the magma
(b) oxygen content of the magma
(c) depth of the magma beneath Earths surface
(d) quantity of minerals in the magma
(e) all of these
(vi) The Continuous Series of Bowens Reaction Series is composed of
minerals.
(a) with different chemical compositions but the same mineral
structures
(b) with different chemical compositions and different mineral
structures
(c) with similar chemical compositions and different mineral structures

(d) with similar chemical compositions and similar mineral structures


(e) None of these
(vii) Plutonic igneous rocks always have:
(a) olivine, calcium feldspar, pyroxene
(b) amphibole, sodium feldspar, biotite
(c) quartz, muscovite, potassium feldspar
(d) phaneritic texture
(e) None of these
(viii) Weathering processes:
(a) only affect igneous rocks
(b) only affect sedimentary rocks
(c) affect all rocks at Earths surface
(d) do not adversely affect rocks
(e) cannot be observed directly at Earths surface.
(ix) Mud cracks preserved in sedimentary rocks:
(a) are indicative of arid environments characterized by occasional rain
(b) occur only in rain forests
(c) occur whenever plants germinate in rocks
(d) have never been observed in nature
(x) Which of the following lists is arranged in order from lowest to
highest grade of metamorphic rock?
(a) gneiss, slate, schist, phyllite
(b) gneiss, schist, phyllite, slate
(c) slate, gneiss , phyllite, schist
(d) slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss
(e) phyllite, gneiss, slate, schist
(xi) The asthenosphere is:
(a) that portion of Earth where rocks behave as brittle solids
(b) that portion of Earth where rocks behave as plastic solids
(c) that portion of Earth where rocks behave as fluids
(d) that portion of Earth where rocks can be found
(e) None of these
(xii) Which of the following is associated with continent-continent
convergent plate boundaries?
(a) explosive volcanism
(b) andesite volcanism
(c) large, damaging earthquakes
(d) volcanic mountain chain
(e) All of these

(xiii) An example of a convergent plate boundary is:


(a) the Ouachita Mountains
(b) the Appalachian Mountains
(c) the Himalaya Mountains
(d) the Cascade Mountains
(e) All of these
(xiv) The strike of a layer is:
(a) the angle at which that layer intercepts a horizontal surface
(b) the degree to which the layer has compressed during mountain
building
(c) a line formed by the intersection of the layer with the Earths
surface
(xv) An anticline is a structure in which:
(a) the oldest rock layers are located at the top of the structure
(b) the rock layers dip away from the axis of the structure
(c) rock layers are down warped
(d) All of these
(xvi) The V-shaped outcrop pattern of a plunging syncline will:
(a) be tilted
(b) close in the direction of plunge
(c) open in the direction of plunge
(d) not be observed
(e) point toward the axis
(xvii) Which of the following is not a feature of an anticline?
(a) youngest rocks on the flanks
(b) oldest rocks near the axis
(c) layers dip toward the axis
(d) upwarped rock layers
(e) All of these
(xviii) Which of the following is not a principle used in relative dating?
(a) the Principle of Superposition
(b) the Principle of Original Horizontality
(c) the Principle of Faunal Succession
(d) the Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships
(e) The Theory of Evolution
(xix) What is the half-life of a radioactive element?
(a) the time required for one-half of a given quantity of the element to
decay to its daughter element
(b) the time required for all of the radioactive element to decay to its
daughter element

(c) half of the time required for a given quantity of the element to
decay to its daughter element
(d) the time required for the radioactive element to decay half of the
time
(e) if you observe a radioactive element, half the time it decays, half
the time it doesnt
(xx) The Principle of Faunal Succession states that:
(a) fossils preserved in rock layers are less complex in older rocks
(b) the Theory of Evolution is proven by the succession of fossils
observed in rocks
(c) the fossil record of life proves that life has succeeded on Earth
(d) it is unlikely that life could have succeeded on other planets
(e) None of these

(i)

Diamonds are stronger than graphite because they have:


(a) Van der Waals bonds
(b) covalent bonds
(c) ionic bonds
(d) metallic bonds
(ii) Bauxite, the principal ore of aluminum is actually which type of soil:
(a) pedalfer
(b) pedocal
(c) caliche
(d) laterite
(iii) The term groundwater recharge refers to:
(a) the supply of groundwater that remains stored in the ground for long periods
of time
(b) the infiltration and addition of water into the groundwater aquifer
(c) absorption of water by the soil
(d) how fast the groundwater is flowing
(iv) Which of the following aquifers are most at risk to contamination?
(a) deep, confined aquifers
(b) aquifers in igneous rocks
(c) shallow, unconfined aquifers recharged by rivers that drain agricultural or
industrial areas
(d) All of these
(v) Doubling of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is predicted to cause:
(a) change in rainfall patterns
(b) increase in average global temperature of 1.2 *C
(c) northward movement of optimal growing zones

(d) All of these


(vi) Platinum and chromium deposits are typically associated with:
(a) pegmatites
(b) hydrothermal deposits
(c) black smokers
(d) igneous mafic layered intrusions
(vii) With increasing metamorphism, a shale will go through which of the
following textural changes:
(a) phyllite, gneiss, schist, slate
(b) schist, slate, gneiss, phyllite
(c) slate, phyllite, gneiss, schist
(d) slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss
(viii) Most petroleum is generated from source rocks deposited:
(a) in oxic to dysoxic
(b) dysoxic-to-suboxic
(c) suboxic-to-anoxic
(d) dysoxic-to-oxic environments
(ix) The main driving force behind secondary migration in absence of
hydrodynamics is:
(a) buoyancy
(b) capillarity
(c) surface tension
(x) Mendeleer proposed that, metallic carbides deep within the Earth reacted at
high temperature with H2O, to form hydrocarbons:
(a) methane
(b) ethane
(c) acetylene
(d) benzene
(xi) Good hydrocarbon source rocks are usually:
(a) Coarse grained
(b) fine grained
(c) medium grained
(xii) Oil and Gas Development Corporation was established in:
(a) 1956
(b) 1965
(c) 1961
(d) 1971
(xiii) First discovery of oil Field was made at Khaur in Potwar Basin in:
(a) 1885
(b) 1951

(c) 1915
(d) 1947
(xiv) The zone of leaching in a soil is also called the:
(a) A-horizon
(b) B-horizon
(c) C-horizon
(d) O-horizon
(xv) To be an aquifer, a rock unit must have::
(a) both permeability and porosity
(b) neither permeability nor porosity
(c) permeability, but not porosity
(d) porosity, but not permeability
(xvi) Which formation is most objective as reservoir rock in Potowar region?
(a) Khewra sand stone
(b) Datta sand stone
(b) Pab sand stone
(d) Sakesar Lime stone
(xvii) Geologists use the equation called Darcys Law to calculate:
(a) the depth to the water table
(b) the discharge through an aquifer
(c) the water pressure in an aquifer
(d) the porosity of an aquifer
(xviii) Kalabagh Dam was proposed to built on:
(a) Swat River
(b) Kabul River
(c) Indus River
(d) Nilam River
(xix) Chromite ore mines are located in:
(a) Axial folded Belt
(b) Sulaiman Ranges
(c) Trans Indus Ranges
(d) Kharan Ranges
(e) None of these
(xx) Most of the Oil and Gas Fields of Indus Basin discovered in:
(a) Punjab Platform Area
(b) Thar Platform Area
(c) Sargodha High
(d) Kohat-Potwar Basin
(e) None of these

(i)

The quality of coal of Thar coal deposits is:


(a) Anthracitic
(b) Bituminous
(c) Lignitic
(d) Sub-bituminous
(e) All of these
(ii) Liptinite type of maceral group, after maturation is capable to generate:
(a) Condensate
(b) Oil
(c) Gas
(d) Coal
(e) None of these
(iii) Dolomite deposits of Jhampir (Sindh) occur in:
(a) Laki Formation
(b) Nari Formation
(c) Dungan Formation
(d) Kirthar Formation
(e) All of these
(iv) The heavy minerals, Zircon, Rutile and Apatite are found in:
(a) Sand and Sandstone
(b) Chalk and Limestone
(c) Kaolinite and Claystone
(d) Chlorite and Claystone
(e) None of these
(v) During geological mapping the following can be used as base map:
(a) Toposheet
(b) Aerial Photograph
(c) Satellite Image
(d) Habitation map
(e) All of these
(vi) Hemimorphite, Franklinite and Smithsonite are ores of:
(a) Cu
(b) Ti
(c) Cr
(d) Zn
(e) None of these
(vii) Following is a very well proven reservoir rock in Lower Indus Basin:
(a) Gaj Formation
(b) Nari Formation
(c) Goru Formation
(d) Parh Limestone
(e) None of these

(viii) F. H. Lahee and R. R. Compton are the authors of the famous books on the
subject:
(a) Geomorphology
(b) Field Geology
(c) Stuctural Geology
(d) Engineering Geology
(e) None of these
(ix) Khas Kheli oil field in lower Sindh was discovered in:
(a) 1991
(b) 1981
(c) 1971
(d) 1961
(e) None of these
(x) Warsak dam is built on:
(a) Kabul River
(b) Kurram River
(c) Gomal River
(d) Swat River
(e) None of these
(xi) Alpine-type Chromite deposits occur at:
(a) Chagai
(b) Kohistan
(c) Raskoh
(d) Muslimbagh
(e) All of these
(xii) Which of the following prospecting method is most suitable for locating
Asbestos, Pyrrhotite and Manganese?
(a) Air-born magnetic survey
(b) Ground magnetic survey
(c) Seismic method
(d) Electrical Resistivity method
(e) All of these
(xiii) To obtain information about magnetic minerals from Stereogram/Stereopair
following instrument is used:
(a) Stereometer
(b) Magnetometer
(c) Resistivitymeter
(d) Seismometer
(e) None of these
(xiv) Following rocks are not suitable as construction materials due to ASR and
ACR hazards respectively:

(a) Granite and Diorite


(b) Dolomite and Calcite
(c) Andesite and Dolomite
(d) Basalt and Gabbro
(e) None of these
(xv) Presence of Pegmatite is especially an indicator of possible occurrence of:
(a) Base-metals
(b) Radioactive minerals
(c) Magnetic minerals
(d) Non-metals
(e) All of these
(xvi) For exploration and determination of underground water quality most
suitable method is:
(a) Seismic
(b) Magnetic
(c) Geochemical
(d) Resistivity
(e) None of these
(xvii) If a map shows distribution of rocks and other geological materials
(features also) of different ages over the Earths surface or below, it is known as:
(a) Topographic Map
(b) Geological Map
(c) Physiographic Map
(d) Mine-Survey Map
(e) None of these
(xviii) A map which shows the surface contours on an imaginary surface to which
water would rise in a drilled well is termed as:
(a) Piezometric Contour Map
(b) Groundwater Contour Map
(c) Water Table Contour Map
(d) Sonometric Contour Map
(e) All of these
(xix) Following is the term describes the Iron-Oxide rich zone which lies above a
Sulphide bearing ore deposit:
(a) Greisen
(b) Genesis
(c) Gossan
(d) Gneiss
(e) None of these
(xx) Oil seepages in the Sulaiman Range are from the rocks of the following
ages:
(a) Triassic and Jurassic

(b) Jurassic and Cretaceous


(c) Cretaceous and Paleocene
(d) Paleocene and Eocene
(e) All of these

i) Following are the members of plagioclase family:


(a) Albite, Oligoclase, Andesine
(b) Andesine, Labradorite, Bytownite
(c) Oligoclase, Andesine, Labradorite
(d) Labradorite, Bytownite, Anorthite (e) All of these
(ii) Chaman Transform Zone is characterized:
(a) Mainly by strike-slip faulting with minor subduction
(b) Mainly by dip-slip faulting with minor subduction
(c) Mainly by subduction with minor strike-slip faulting
(d) Mainly by obduction with minor strike-slip faulting
(e) None of these
(iii) A blocky and fragmented form of lava occurring in flows with fissured and angular
surfaces is known as:
(a) Ad lava
(b) Ac lava
(c) Ab lava
(d) Aa lava
(e) None of these
(iv) The following formations are known respectively as Upper, Middle and Lower Productus
Limestone:
(a) Amb, Wargal and Chiddru
(b) Chiddru, Wargal and Amb
(c) Wargal, Amb and Chiddru
(d) Amb, Chiddru and Wargal
(e) None of these
(v) The following mineral shows two sets rhombic cleavage:
(a) Hornblende
(b) Grunerite
(c) Tremolite
(d) Actinolite
(e) All of these
(vi) Physical weathering process in which sheets of rock are fractured and detached from an
outcrop is termed as:
(a) Degeneration
(b) Transpiration
(c) Exfoliation

(d) Deformation
(e) None of these
(vii) Mohorovicic Discontinuity is the boundary between:
(a) Crust and Lithosphere
(b) Sima and Sial
(c) Crust and Mantle
(d) Crust and Asthenosphere
(e) None of these
(viii) Type of foliation associated with very fine grained pelitic rocks metamorphosed to low
grade is known as:
(a) Phyllitic Structure
(b) Gneissic Structure
(c) Schistose Structure
(d) Slaty Cleavage
(e) None of these
(ix) Which of the following statements is true?
(a) Apatite is harder than Fluorite
(b) Quartz is harder than Calcite
(c) Corundum is harder than Quartz
(d) Diamond is harder than all minerals
(e) All of these
(x) Among following which are classed as chronostratigraphic units:
(a) Era, Period, Epoch
(b) Group, Formation, Member
(c) System, Series, Stage
(d) Palaeozoic, Cretaceous, Miocene
(e) None of these
(xi) Which of the following group of rocks is known as basic igneous rocks?
(a) Monzonite, Syenite, Rhyolite
(b) Granite, Diorite, Granodiorite
(c) Trachyte, Andesite, Dacite
(d) Gabbro, Norite, Dolerite
(e) None of these
(xii) Antistress and stress minerals are discussed in the context of:
(a) Metamorphic rocks
(b) Sedimentary rocks
(c) Plutonic rocks
(d) Volcanic rocks
(e) All of these
(xiii) Island Arc is a linear or arcuate chain of volcanic islands at:
(a) Transform Plate Boundary

(b) Convergent Plate Boundary


(c) Mid-Oceanic Ridge
(d) Divergent Plate Boundary
(e) None of these
(xiv) Axial Fold Belt is the dividing feature between two basins.
(a) Indus and Kakar Khurasan
(b) Lower and Upper Indus
(c) Southern and Central Indus
(d) Indus and Balochistan
(e) None of these
(xv) Current ripples are used to indicate:
(a) Velocity of flow
(b) Direction of flow
(c) Line of flow
(d) Gradient of flow
(e) All of these
(xvi) Floating invertebrates are known as:
(a) Benthos
(b) Nektons
(c) Zooplanktons
(d) Phytoplanktons
(e) None of these
(xvii) Zaluch Nala is situated in:
(a) Eastern Salt Range
(b) Western Salt Range
(c) Surghar Range
(d) Central Salt Range
(e) None of these
(xviii) Expression of the septum on the wall surface of Ammonoids is known as:
(a) Growth lines
(b) Suture
(c) Ribs
(d) Umbilicus
(e) None of these
(xix) Blue Schist is comprised of:
(a) Smectite and Quartz
(b) Glaucophane, Lawsonite and Quartz
(c) Epidote and Albite
(d) Marble and Quartzite
(e) None of these
(xx) The hinge line of a doubly plunging syncline is:

(a) Curvilinear
(b) Rectilinear
(c) Horizontal
(d) Vertical
(e) None of these
(i) Which of the following is a part of the definition of a mineral?
(a) a liquid that may become solid
(b) man-made
(c) definite chemical composition
(d) unorganized structure
(e) All of these
(ii) Which of the following minerals are arranged in order of increasing hardness?
(a) talc, apatite, corundum, diamond
(b) topaz, quartz, fluorite, corundum
(c) talc, quartz, calcite, diamond
(d) quartz, topaz, diamond, fluorite
(e) fluorite, calcite, gypsum, talc
(iii) How do the crystal structures of micas and feldspars differ from each other?
(a) feldspars are framework silicates, micas are double chain silicates
(b) feldspars are double chain silicates, micas are sheet silicates
(c) micas and feldspars have the same crystalline structure
(d) feldspars are single chain silicates, micas are double chain silicates
(e) micas are sheet silicates, feldspars are framework silicates
(iv) Sima is a general term used to refer to:
(a) rocks of the ocean basins
(b) rocks of the continents
(c) None of these
(d) all rocks that compose Earths crust
(e) rocks that compose the crust of terrestrial planets
(v) Which of the following parameters influences the viscosity of magma?:
(a) temperature of the magma
(b) oxygen content of the magma
(c) depth of the magma beneath Earths surface
(d) quantity of minerals in the magma
(e) all of these
(vi) The Continuous Series of Bowens Reaction Series is composed of minerals.
(a) with different chemical compositions but the same mineral structures
(b) with different chemical compositions and different mineral structures
(c) with similar chemical compositions and different mineral structures
(d) with similar chemical compositions and similar mineral structures
(e) None of these

(vii) Plutonic igneous rocks always have:


(a) olivine, calcium feldspar, pyroxene
(b) amphibole, sodium feldspar, biotite
(c) quartz, muscovite, potassium feldspar
(d) phaneritic texture
(e) None of these
(viii) Weathering processes:
(a) only affect igneous rocks
(b) only affect sedimentary rocks
(c) affect all rocks at Earths surface
(d) do not adversely affect rocks
(e) cannot be observed directly at Earths surface.
(ix) Mud cracks preserved in sedimentary rocks:
(a) are indicative of arid environments characterized by occasional rain
(b) occur only in rain forests
(c) occur whenever plants germinate in rocks
(d) have never been observed in nature
(x) Which of the following lists is arranged in order from lowest to highest grade of
metamorphic rock?
(a) gneiss, slate, schist, phyllite
(b) gneiss, schist, phyllite, slate
(c) slate, gneiss , phyllite, schist
(d) slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss
(e) phyllite, gneiss, slate, schist
(xi) The asthenosphere is:
(a) that portion of Earth where rocks behave as brittle solids
(b) that portion of Earth where rocks behave as plastic solids
(c) that portion of Earth where rocks behave as fluids
(d) that portion of Earth where rocks can be found
(e) None of these
(xii) Which of the following is associated with continent-continent convergent plate
boundaries?
(a) explosive volcanism
(b) andesite volcanism
(c) large, damaging earthquakes
(d) volcanic mountain chain
(e) All of these
(xiii) An example of a convergent plate boundary is:
(a) the Ouachita Mountains
(b) the Appalachian Mountains
(c) the Himalaya Mountains
(d) the Cascade Mountains

(e) All of these


(xiv) The strike of a layer is:
(a) the angle at which that layer intercepts a horizontal surface
(b) the degree to which the layer has compressed during mountain building
(c) a line formed by the intersection of the layer with the Earths surface
(xv) An anticline is a structure in which:
(a) the oldest rock layers are located at the top of the structure
(b) the rock layers dip away from the axis of the structure
(c) rock layers are down warped
(d) All of these
(xvi) The V-shaped outcrop pattern of a plunging syncline will:
(a) be tilted
(b) close in the direction of plunge
(c) open in the direction of plunge
(d) not be observed
(e) point toward the axis
(xvii) Which of the following is not a feature of an anticline?
(a) youngest rocks on the flanks
(b) oldest rocks near the axis
(c) layers dip toward the axis
(d) upwarped rock layers
(e) All of these
(xviii) Which of the following is not a principle used in relative dating?
(a) the Principle of Superposition
(b) the Principle of Original Horizontality
(c) the Principle of Faunal Succession
(d) the Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships
(e) The Theory of Evolution
(xix) What is the half-life of a radioactive element?
(a) the time required for one-half of a given quantity of the element to decay to its daughter
element
(b) the time required for all of the radioactive element to decay to its daughter element
(c) half of the time required for a given quantity of the element to decay to its daughter
element
(d) the time required for the radioactive element to decay half of the time
(e) if you observe a radioactive element, half the time it decays, half the time it doesnt
(xx) The Principle of Faunal Succession states that:
(a) fossils preserved in rock layers are less complex in older rocks
(b) the Theory of Evolution is proven by the succession of fossils observed in rocks
(c) the fossil record of life proves that life has succeeded on Earth

(d) it is unlikely that life could have succeeded on other planets


(e) None of these