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# AAINAA SABRINA BT ISMAIL

KIG 160001

BERNOULLIS THEOREM

KIG1003

ABSTRACT
This experiment is carried out to investigate the validity of Bernoullis theorem as applied to the steady
flow of water in a tapered circular duct. The experiment is also to measure the time taken to collect 5L of
water, the volumetric flow rates of the water, the fluid velocity at each tapping point, static head, and also
the total head. The relation among the pressure, velocity and elevation in a moving fluid (liquid or gas),
the compressibility and viscosity (internal friction) of which are negligible and the flow of which is
steady or laminar is indicated in Bernoullis theorem. The combination of venturi meter complete with
manometer tube and hydraulic bench were used in this experiment, in order to demonstrate the
Bernoullis theorem. The flow rate and total velocity was calculated by using Bernoulli and the difference
in velocity for both equations was also calculated from the data of the results. After all the readings have
been taken, the theoretical total head at each tapping and the total head probe were compared. Based on
the results taken, it has been analyzed that the velocity of the fluid is increased when it is flowing from a
wider to a narrower tube as the pressure is lower at constrictions and the pressure increased as the crosssectional area increases

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the validity of Bernoullis Theorem as applied to the flow of water in a tapered circular
duct.
To measure flow rates, static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent or divergent tube of
known geometry for a range of steady flow rates.
To determine either the theoretical velocity head agreed with the total head probe or not.

## AAINAA SABRINA BT ISMAIL

KIG 160001

BERNOULLIS THEOREM

KIG1003

INTRODUCTION
In fluid dynamics, Bernoullis principle states that for an inviscid flow, an increase in the speed of the
fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid potential energy.
Bernoullis principle is named after the Dutch-Swiss mathematician, Daniel Bernoulli who published his
principle in his book, Hydrodynamics, in 1738. Bernoullis principle can be applied to various types of
fluid flow, resulting in what is loosely denoted as Bernoulli equation. (Yates, 2010) Bernoullis principle
can be derived from the principle of conservation of energy. This states that, in a steady flow, the sum of
all forms of mechanical energy in a fluid along a streamline is the same at all points on the streamline.
This requires that the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy remain constant. Thus, an increase in the
speed of fluid occurs proportionately with an increase in both its dynamic pressure and kinetic energy,
and a decrease in its static pressure and potential energy. (Wikipedia) Fluid particles are subject only to
pressure and their own weight. If a fluid is flowing horizontally and along a section of a streamline where
the speed increases, it can only be because the fluid on that section has moved from a region of higher
pressure to a region of lower pressure. And if its speed decreases, it can only be because it has moved
from a region of lower pressure to a region of higher pressure. Consequently, within a fluid moving
horizontally, the highest speed occurs when the pressure is lowest and the lowest speed occur when the
pressure is highest. (Yates, 2010) Bernoullis equation holds that for fluids in an ideal state, pressure and
density are inversely related, in other words, a slow-moving fluid exerts more pressure than a fast-moving
fluid. Since fluid in this context applies equally to liquid and gases. The principle has many as many
applications with regard to airflow as to the flow of liquids. One of the everyday examples of Bernoullis
principle can be found on the airplane, which stays aloft due to pressure differences on the surface of its
wing.

Considering flow at two sections in a pipe, Bernoullis equation may be written as:
2

U1
p
U
p
1 Z1 2 2 Z 2
2 g g
2g
g
For this apparatus Z1 = Z2 and P = gh
Hence if Bernoullis Theorem is obeyed:

U2
2g
H=
+ h and is constant at all sections along the duct.
This equation is known as the Bernoullis equation.
U= the fluid flow speed at a point on a streamline
= the gravity acceleration
= the elevation of the point above a reference plane, with the positive z-direction pointing upward so
in the direction opposite to the gravitational acceleration
= the pressure at the chosen point
= the density of the fluid at all points in the fluid
H= total head
2

## AAINAA SABRINA BT ISMAIL

KIG 160001

BERNOULLIS THEOREM

KIG1003

Bernoullis principle is applicable for the explanation of the lift force on an aerofoil. For instance, the
flow of the air at the top of aerofoil has to move at a higher speed compare to the bottom part of the
aerofoil as to create a region of low pressure. While the air on the bottom part of the aerofoil has to travel
at lower speed in order to produce a region of higher pressure. Bernoullis principle applied in this case
where the different in speed will result the pressure to be different and as a result a lift force will be
created to life the aeroplane. Bernoullis principle is also applied in the Bunsen burner. The gas will flow
at high velocity in the narrow passage in the Bunsen burner as to create a region of low pressure.Later
then the atmospheric pressure will be drawn into it n mixed with the gas which allow the gas to be burned
and produce a hot fire.
The above references are as below:
1. W. David Yates (2010). Safety Professionals Reference and Study Guide, (3), 300.
2. Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernoulli%27s_principle
3. Y. Nakayama &R. F. Boucher. (1999) Introduction to fluid mechanis. Jordan Hill, Oxford, Great
Britian: Butterworth-Heinemann.
4. Frank M. White. (1998). Fluid mechanics (4thed). United States of America: Mcgraw-Hill College.

## AAINAA SABRINA BT ISMAIL

KIG 160001

BERNOULLIS THEOREM

KIG1003

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
Apparatus
Hydraulics Bench, Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration Apparatus, Stop watch

PROCEDURE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

By using the adjustable feet, the apparatus is leveled on the Hydraulics Bench.
The inlet valve was closed in the hydraulics bench.
The pump and power switch were switched on.
The inlet valve was opened very slowly to fill the apparatus with water.
No air bubbles was ensured in the connecting tubes and manometers.
The inlet valve was carefully adjusted and tube no 1 was set to the highest point.
The ball valve was closed and the reading of volume and time was taken to determine the flow
rate.
All the pressure readings were recorded and the water flow rate and time for the particular
pressure were measured.
Step 6 was repeated for different sets of pressure.
The inlet valve was closed and the pump and power were switched off.
The stopwatch was returned to the laboratory staff.

## AAINAA SABRINA BT ISMAIL

KIG 160001

BERNOULLIS THEOREM

KIG1003

## RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Calculations
Calculating volumetric flow rate, Q

Q=

Volume , V
Time , t

For example,
Volume = 1000L = 1 m
5L = 0.005 m
Time = 33 seconds
For V (L/s) = 5/33 = 0.1515 L/s
To convert L/s into m/s, we divide it by 1000:
So, 0.1515/1000 = 1.5152 x

10

m/s

## Calculating fluid velocity from volumetric flow rate, U

U=

flow rate ,Q
cross section area, A

For example,
For h1 the cross section area A1 is used:
U=

U=

1.5152 104
490.87
7

3.0867 10

m/s

U2
H= +h
2g

## AAINAA SABRINA BT ISMAIL

KIG 160001

BERNOULLIS THEOREM

KIG1003

Results
Reading 1
Volume: 5.0 L
Time: 33s
Table 1 : Reading 1
Area of
cross
section
mm
490.87

Manometer
level, h

Diameter
of cross
section
mm
25.0

0.1190

Probe
manometer
levels
mm
260

Fluid
velocity,
U
m/s
0.2424

Theoretical
velocity
head, U/2g
mm
2.995x10

Theoretical
total head,
H
mm
0.2630

Mm
260

13.9

151.75

230

0.1190

260

0.7842

0.0313

0.2613

11.9

111.22

200

0.1190

260

1.0700

0.0584

0.2584

10.7

89.92

175

0.1190

255

1.3234

0.0893

0.2643

10.0

78.54

98

0.1190

250

1.5152

0.1170

0.2150

25.0

490.87

173

0.1190

145

0.2424

2.995x10

0.1760

Tube
No.

Tube No.

Diameter
of cross
section
m

Area of
cross
section
mm

Flow
rate, Q
l/s

Manomet
er level, h

Flow rate,
Q
m/s

mm

Probe
manomete
r levels
mm

Fluid
velocity,
U
m/s

Theoretic
al velocity
head,
U/2g
m
4.85x10

Theoretic
al total
head, H
m

25.0

490.87

250

0.1515

248

0.3086

0.2549

13.9

151.75

205

0.1515

245

0.9984

0.0508

0.2558

11.9

111.22

170

0.1515

245

1.3622

0.0946

0.2646

10.7

89.92

135

0.1515

245

1.6848

0.1447

0.2797

10.0

78.54

35

0.1515

240

1.9290

0.1897

0.2247

25.0

490.87

140

0.1515

150

0.3086

4.85x10

0.1449

Reading 2
6

## AAINAA SABRINA BT ISMAIL

KIG 160001

BERNOULLIS THEOREM

KIG1003

Volume: 5.0 L
Time: 32s

Table 2: Reading 2

Reading 3
Volume: 5.00L
Time: 42s
Table 3: Reading 3
Diameter
of cross
section
mm

Area of
cross
section
mm

Manometer
level, h

Flow
rate, Q
l/s

Probe
manometer
levels
mm

Fluid
velocity,
U
m/s

Theoretical
velocity
head, U/2g
mm

Theoretical
total head,
H
mm

25.0

490.87

260

0.1563

265

0.3184

5.167x10

0.2652

13.9

151.75

210

0.1563

265

1.0300

0.0541

0.2641

11.9

111.22

169

0.1563

265

1.4053

0.1007

0.2697

10.7

89.92

125

0.1563

260

1.7382

0.1540

0.2790

10.0

78.54

0.1563

255

1.9901

0.2019

0.2069

25.0

490.87

130

0.1563

185

0.3184

5.167x10

0.1352

Area of
cross
section
mm
490.87

Manometer
level, h

Flow
rate, Q
l/s

Mm
250

0.0463

Probe
manometer
levels
mm
250

Fluid
velocity,
U
m/s
0.0943

Theoretical
velocity
head, U/2g
mm
4.532x10

Theoretical
total head,
H
mm
0.2505

Tube
No.

Mm

Reading 4
Volume: 5.00L
Time: 108s
Diameter
Tube
of cross
No.
section
mm
1
25.0
2

13.9

151.75

245

0.0463

250

0.3051

4.744x10 4

0.2497

11.9

111.22

240

0.0463

250

0.4163

0.0212

0.2612

10.7

89.92

235

0.0463

250

0.5149

0.0135

0.2485

10.0

78.54

220

0.0463

248

0.5895

0.0177

0.2377

25.0

490.87

233

0.0463

235

0.0943

4.532x10

0.2335

Table 4: Reading 4
7

## AAINAA SABRINA BT ISMAIL

KIG 160001

BERNOULLIS THEOREM

KIG1003

DISCUSSION
The objectives of this experiment is to investigate the validity of the Bernoulli equation when applied to
the steady flow of water in a tapered duct and to measure the flowrates and both static and total pressure
heads in a rigid convergent and divergent tubeof known geometry for a range of steady flow rates.
This experiment is based on the Bernoullis principle which relates between velocities with the pressure
for an inviscid flow. To achieve the objectives of this experiment, Bernoullis theorem demonstration
apparatus along with the hydraulic bench were used. This instrument was combined with aventuri meter
and the pad of manometer tubes which indicate the pressure of h1until h8 but for this experiment only the
pressure in manometer h1 until h6 being measured.A venturi is basically a converging-diverging section
(like an hourglass), typically placed between tube or duct sections with fixed crosssectional area. The flow rates through the venturi meter can be related to pressure measurements by using
Bernoullis equation. From the result obtained through this experiment, it is been observed that when the
pressure difference increase, the flow rates of the water increase and thus the velocities also increase for
both convergent and divergent flow. The result show a rise at each manometer tubes when the pressure
difference increases. As fluid flows from a wider pipe toa narrower one, the velocity of the flowing fluid
increases. This is shown in all the results tables, where the velocity of water that flows in the tapered duct
increases as the duct area decreases, regardless of the pressure difference and type of flow of each result
taken. There must be some parallax and zero error occurs when taking the measurement of each data. The
observer must have not read the level of static head properly. Moreover, the eyes are not perpendicular to
the water level on the manometer. Therefore, there are some minor effects on the calculations due to the
errors and this can be seen from the result obtained which there is few value calculated get negative
values for U. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Bernoullis equation is valid when applied to steady
flow of water in tapered duct and absolute velocity values increase along the same channel. Although the
experiment proof that the Bernoullis equation is valid for both flow
but the values obtain might be slightly differ from the actual value. This is because there issome error
maybe happen during the experiment is done. While taking the reading of the manometer, there might be
possibility that the eye position of the readers is not parallel to the scale.Thus, this error will contribute to
the different in the values obtained. Other than that,the readers must take the accurate reading from the
manometers. In order to get the accurate value, the water level must be let to be really stable. Thus, a
patient is needed in order to run this experiment successfully because sometimes the way the experiment
is conduct may influence the result of the experiment.

## AAINAA SABRINA BT ISMAIL

KIG 160001

BERNOULLIS THEOREM

KIG1003

CONCLUSION
The results show the reading of each manometer tubes increase when the pressure difference increases.
From the result obtained, we can conclude that the Bernoullis equation is valid for convergent and
divergent flow as both of it does obey the equation. For both flow,as the pressure difference increase, the
time taken for 5L water collected increase and the flow rates of the water also increase. Thus, as the
velocity of the same channel increase, the total head pressure also increase for both convergent and
divergent flow.

REFERENCES
1. Holzner, S. (n.d.). Use Bernoullis Equation to Calculate Pressure Difference between Two
Points. Retrieved from
http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/use-bernoullis-equation-to-calculate-pressure-diff.html
2. Fitzpatrick, R. 2012. Bernoullis Theorem. Retrieved from
http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/336L/Fluid.pdf
3. Anonymous. (n.d.). Bernoullis Theorem Lab. Retrieved from
http://www.markedbyteachers.com/university-degree/engineering/bernoulli-s-theoremdistribution-experiment.html