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National Assembly of Pakistan

The Pakistani National Assembly (Urdu: Qaum Asimbli'e Pkistn); is the lower house of the bicameralMajlis-e-Shura, which
also comprises the President of Pakistan and Senate (upper house). The National Assembly and the Senate both convene at Parliament House
in Islamabad. The National Assembly is a democratically elected body consisting of a total of 342 members who are referred to as Members of
the National Assembly (MNAs), of which 272 are directly electedmembers and 70 reserved seats for women and religious minorities. A political
party must secure 172 seats to obtain and preserve a majority.[4]
Members are elected through the first-past-the-post system under universal adult suffrage, representing electoral districts known as National
Assembly constituencies. According to the constitution, the 70 seats reserved for women and religious minorities are allocated to the political
parties according to their proportional representation.
Each National Assembly is formed for a five-year term, commencing from the date of the first sitting, after which it is automatically dissolved. The
National Assembly can also be dissolved at any time by the President of Pakistan, upon the advice of the Prime Minister of Pakistan.
Election for 13th National Assembly was held on 18 February 2008. On March 17, 2013 13th National Assembly was dissolved on completion of
its five-year term under Article 52 of the Constitution.[5][6] Pakistani general election, 2013 (for the 14th National Assembly) was held on May 11,
2013. Members of 14th National Assembly took oath on June 1, 2013.[7]
History[edit]
The first session of the first Constituent Assembly of Pakistan was held on 10 August 1947 at Sindh Assembly Building, Karachi. On 11 August
1947, Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was elected unanimously as the President of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan and the National
Flag was formally approved by the Assembly.

12 August 1947, a resolution was approved regarding officially addressing Mr. Muhammad Ali Jinnah as "Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali
Jinnah". On the same day, a special committee called the "Committee on Fundamental Rights of Citizens and Minorities of Pakistan" was
appointed to look into and advise the Assembly on matters relating to fundamental rights of the citizens, particularly the minorities, with the
aim to legislate on these issues appropriately.

On 14 August 1947, the Transfer of Power took place. Lord Mountbatten, Governor General of India, addressed the Constituent
Assembly of Pakistan. The Quaid gave a reply to the address in the House, on which the principles of the State of Pakistan were laid.

On 15 August 1947, Quaid-i-Azam was sworn in as the first Governor General of Pakistan. Mian Sir Abdur Rashid, Chief Justice of
Pakistan, administered oath of office from him. The Quaid remained in this position till his death i.e.11 September 1948.

Powers[edit]

Legislative Process Chart of National Assembly of Pakistan

... you are now a sovereign legislative body and you have got all the
powers. It, therefore, places on you the gravest responsibility as to
how you should take your decisions.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, in his presidential address to the First


Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on August 11, 1947[8]
The Constitution which was passed unanimously by the National Assembly in April 1973, provides a federal parliamentary system of
government, with the President as the ceremonial head of the State and an elected Prime Minister as the head of the government. Under Article
50 of the Constitution the federal legislature is the bicameral Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), which comprises the President and the two Houses,
the National Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly, Pakistan's sovereign legislative body, makes laws for the federation under
powers spelled out in the Federal Legislative List and also for subjects in the Concurrent List, as given in the fourth schedule of the Constitution.
Through debates, adjournment motions, question hour, and Standing Committees, the National Assembly keeps a check on the government. It
ensures that the government functions within the parameters set out in the Constitution, and does not violate the people's fundamental rights.
The Parliament scrutinizes public spending and exercises control of expenditure incurred by the government through the work of the relevant
Standing Committees. The Public Accounts Committee has a special role to review the report of the Auditor General. Senate, the upper house of
the Parliament, has equal representation from the federating units balancing the provincial inequality in the National Assembly, where the
number of members is based on population of the provinces. The Senate's role is to promote national cohesion and harmony, and work as a
stabilizing factor of the federation. The Senate numbers a total of 104 members who serve six-year terms which are alternated so that half the
senators are up for re-election by the electoral college every three years. The National Assembly consists of 342 members. The Constitution
empowers the President to dissolve the National Assembly, but the Senate is not subject to dissolution. Only the Parliament can amend
the Constitution, by two-thirds majority vote separately in each House.
Members of National Assembly[edit]
See also: List of Pakistan National Assembly Seats
Qualifications[edit]
The Constitution of Pakistan lists a number of requirements for members of the National Assembly in Article 62.
The constitution also details a number of disqualifications in Article 63, which include mental instability, insolvency, criminal conviction and
accepting dual-citizenship or relinquishing their Pakistani nationality, among others. Furthermore, an individual would stand disqualified if he or
she is found to have opposed Pakistan's ideology or worked against the integrity of the country, after its establishment in 1947.
Tenure[edit]
The National Assembly is elected for a five-year term on the basis of adult franchise and one person, one vote. The tenure of a Member of the
National Assembly is for the duration of the House, or sooner, in case the Member dies or resigns. The tenure of the National Assembly also
comes to an end if dissolved on the advice of the Prime Minister or by the President in his discretion under the Constitution. Under the 1973
Constitution, a member of Parliament may not hold the office of the Prime Minister more than twice. In the 1990s, Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz
Shareef proposed a bill to amend the 1973 constitution to allow a Member to serve a third term as Prime Minister.
Speaker and Deputy Speaker[edit]
According to The Constitution

(1) After a general election, the National Assembly shall, at its first meeting and to the exclusion of any other business, elect from
amongst its members a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker and, so often as the office of Speaker or Deputy Speaker becomes vacant, the
Assembly shall elect another member as Speaker or, as the case may be, Deputy Speaker.

(2) Before entering upon office, a member elected as Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall make before the National Assembly oath in the
form set out in the Third Schedule.

(3) When the office of Speaker is vacant, or the Speaker is absent or is unable to perform his functions due to any cause, the Deputy
Speaker shall act as Speaker, and if, at that time, the Deputy Speaker is also absent or is unable to act as Speaker due to any cause, such
member as may be determined by the rules of procedure of the Assembly shall preside at the meeting of the Assembly.

(4) The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker shall not preside at a meeting of the Assembly when a resolution for his removal from office is
being considered.

(5) The Speaker may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office.

(6) The Deputy Speaker may, by writing under his hand addressed to the Speaker, resign his office.

(7) The office of Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall become vacant if:
1. (a) he resigns his office;
2. (b) he ceases to be a member of the Assembly;
3. (c) he is removed from office by a resolution of the Assembly, of which not less than seven days' notice has been given and which is
passed by the votes of the majority of the total membership of the Assembly.

(8) When the National Assembly is dissolved the Speaker shall continue in his office till the person elected to fill the office by the next
Assembly enters upon his office.

The Speaker of the House is the presiding officer of the National Assembly. The Speaker is assisted by the Deputy Speaker. Both officers are
elected from within the ranks of the National Assembly and, by current convention, are usually members of the majority party. The election of the
two officers is the first matter an incoming National Assembly deals with, as mandated by the constitution. Apart from presiding over National
Assembly debates, the Speaker may also assume the duties of Acting President, if the position is vacant (in case the President as well as
Chairman Senate are not available).
The current Speaker of the House is Sardar Ayaz Sadiq and the Deputy Speaker is Murtaza Javed Abbasi, both are from thePML-N.
Sessions[edit]
The life of National Assembly is divided into sessions. It had to meet for 130 days before the First Amendment passed on 8 May 1974 in the
constitution of 1973. According to this Amendment, maximum duration between successive sessions was reduced to 90 days from 130 days,
and there must be at least three sessions in a year. A session of the National Assembly is summoned by the President of Pakistan under Article
54(1) of the Constitution. In the summoning order the President gives the date, time and place (which is usually the Parliament House), for the
National Assembly to meet. The date and time for the summoning of the National Assembly is immediately announced over Radio and
Television. Generally, a copy of the summon is also sent to the Members at their home address. The National Assembly can also be summoned
by the Speaker of National Assembly on a request made by at one-fourth of the total membership of the National Assembly. If the National
Assembly is so requisitioned, it must be summoned within 14 days.
Procedure[edit]
Constitutional role[edit]
Article 50 of the Constitution provides that the Parliament of Pakistan shall consist of President and the two Houses known as the National
Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly has an edge over the Senate by legislating exclusively on money matters. With exception to
money Bills, however, both the Houses work together to carryout the basic work of the Parliament, i.e. law making.
Legislative procedures[edit]
The Bill relating to the Federal Legislative List can be originated in either House. If the House passed the Bill through majority vote, it shall be
transmitted to the other House. If the other House passes it without amendment, it shall be presented to the President for assent.
If the Bill, transmitted to the other House, is not passed within ninety days or rejected, it shall be considered in a joint sitting to be summoned by
the President on the request of the House in which the Bill was originated. If the Bill is passed in the joint sitting, with or without amendments, by
the votes of majority of the members of the two Houses, it shall be presented to the President for assent.
If the Bill is presented to the President for assent, he shall assent to the Bill in not later than ten days.If it is not a Money Bill, the President may
return the Bill to the Majlis-e-Shoora with a message requesting that the Bill be reconsidered and that an amendment specified in the message
be considered. The Majlis-e-Shoora shall reconsider the Bill in a joint sitting.If the Bill is passed again, with or without amendment, by vote of the
majority of the members present and voting, it shall be presented to the President and the President shall give his assent within ten days; failing
which such assent shall be deemed to have been given.
Under the Constitution, the Parliament may also legislate for two or more Provinces by consent and request made by those Provinces. If the
Federal Government proclaims State of Emergency in any province, the power to legislate about that province is vested in the Parliament. But
the Bills passed by the Parliament during the State of Emergency, shall cease to be in force after the expiration of six months from the date
Emergency is lifted. Nevertheless, the steps already taken under these Acts shall remain valid.

Leaders[edit]
Leader of the House[edit]
The Leader of the House is the highest ranking representative of the majority party in National Assembly usually the Prime Minister.
List of All The Prime Ministers
Leader of the Opposition[edit]
The Leader of the Opposition is the highest ranking representative of the main opposition party.
List of Leaders of the Opposition
Committees[edit]
While recognizing the Committee System, the committees have been empowered to go into all matters of the ministry. A matter can be remitted
to a standing committee by the Speaker or the Assembly suo moto and without moving any motion.
The committees have also been empowered to invite or summon before it any member or any other person having a special interest in relation
to any matter under its consideration and may hear expert evidence and hold public hearing.
Composition and elections[edit]
The composition of the National Assembly is specified in Article 51 of the Constitution of Pakistan. There are a total of 342 seats in the National
Assembly. Of these, 272 are filled by direct elections. In addition, the Pakistani Constitution reserves 10 seats for religious minorities and 60
seats for women, to be filled by proportional representation among parties with more than 5% of the vote. As of 2006, there are 72 women
members in the Assembly.
Members of the National Assembly are elected by the people in competitive multi-party elections, to be held at most five years apart on universal
adult franchise. To be a member of electoral college, according to Article 62 of the Constitution, candidates must be citizens of Pakistan and not
less than 18 years of age.
2013 election[edit]
Main article: Pakistani general election, 2013
Results of the Pakistani general election, 2013[edit]

Political
Party

Votes

Elected seats
before
independents
joined

Elected seats
after
independents
joined

Reserved
seats
(Women)

Reserved seats
(Minorities/NonMuslims)

Total

Pakistan Muslim
League (N)

14,874,104

32.77%

129

147

36

189

Pakistan Peoples
Party

6,911,218

15.23%

33

33

42

Pakistan
Tehreek-e-Insaf

7,679,954

16.92%

28

28

35

Muttahida
Qaumi
Movement

2,456,153

5.41%

19

19

24

Political
Party

Votes

Elected seats
before
independents
joined

Elected seats
after
independents
joined

Reserved
seats
(Women)

Reserved seats
(Minorities/NonMuslims)

Total

Jamiat Ulema-eIslam (F)

1,461,371

3.22%

11

11

15

Pakistan Muslim
League (F)

1,072,846

2.36%

Pakhtunkhwa
Milli Awami
Party

214,631

0.47%

Jamaat-e-Islami

963,909

2.12%

National Peoples
Party

197,829

0.44%

10

Pakistan Muslim
League (Q)

1,409,905

3.11%

11

Awami National
Party

453,057

1.00%

12

Qaumi Watan
Party (Sherpao)

46,574

0.10%

13

Pakistan Muslim
League (Z)

128,510

0.28%

14

National Party

61,148

0.13%

15

Awami Muslim
League Pakistan

93,046

0.20%

16

Awami Jamhuri

71,175

0.16%

Political
Party

Votes

Elected seats
before
independents
joined

Elected seats
after
independents
joined

Reserved
seats
(Women)

Reserved seats
(Minorities/NonMuslims)

Total

Ittehad Pakistan

17

Balochistan
National Party

63,979

0.14%

18

All Pakistan
Muslim League

54,231

0.12%

19

Independents

5,880,658

12.96%

27

Total

45,388,404

100%

266

266

60

10

336

Composition of 14th National Assembly[edit]


Affiliation

Members

Swing

PML(N)

186

94

PPPP

42

83

PTI

35

36

MQM

24

JUI (F)

15

PML (F)

PkMAP

JI

NPP

PML(Q)

48

ANP

11

Others

Independents

n/a

12

Total

336

Ruling coalition majority

210

NOTE: Members of the PML (N)-led ruling coalition are marked in bold text

Swing determined by the data from the 2008 General Elections.[10]

Dissolution[edit]
National Assembly can be dissolved at the initiative of the Prime Minister. If dissolved, new elections are conducted for the Assembly. Article 58
of the Constitution of Pakistandeals with the dissolution of the Assembly:
58. Dissolution of the National Assembly:
(1) The President shall dissolve the National Assembly if so advised by the Prime Minister; and the National Assembly shall, unless
sooner dissolved, stand dissolved at the expiration of forty-eight hours after the Prime Minister has so advised.
Explanation: Reference in this Article to "Prime Minister" shall not be construed to include reference to a Prime Minister against whom a
notice of a resolution for a note of no-confidence has been given in the National Assembly but has not been voted upon or against whom
such a resolution has been passed or who is continuing in office after his resignation or after the dissolution of the National Assembly.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (2) or Article 48, the President may dissolve the National Assembly in his discretion
where, a vote of no-confidence having been passed against the Prime Minister, no other member of the National Assembly commands
the confidence of the majority of the members of the National Assembly in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution, as
ascertained in a session of the National Assembly summoned for the purpose.
Seat distribution[edit]
In the 14th Assembly, the seats have been allocated among the four provinces, federally-administered area, and capital territory of
Pakistan as follows:[11]
Province

General

Women

Total

Punjab

148

35

Sindh

61

14

NWFP

35

Balochistan

14

FATA

12

Federal Capital
PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY

The Muslims of India had, since the middle of nineteen century, begun the struggle for a separate homeland on the basis of
the two Nation theory. The British rulers realized that the Hindus and Muslims of India remained two separate and distinct
nations and socio-cultural entities. The British rulers were left with no option but to eventually accept the demand of the
Muslims of India.
On 3rd June1947, Lord Mountbatten, the last Viceroy of India, called the conference of all the leaders of the Sub-continent
and communicated to them his Government's Plan for the transfer of power. At that time, a notification was issued in the
Gazette of India, published on 26th July 1947 in which the first Constituent Assembly of Pakistan was given shape with 69
Members (later on the membership was increased to 79), including one female Member.
The State of Pakistan was created under the Independence Act of 1947. The Act made the existing Constituent Assemblies,
the dominion legislatures. These Assemblies were allowed to exercise all the powers which were formerly exercised by the
Central Legislature, in addition to the powers regarding the framing of a new Constitution, prior to which all territories were to
be governed in accordance with the Government of India Act, 1935.
The first session of the first Constituent Assembly of Pakistan was held on 10th August 1947 at Sindh Assembly Building
Karachi. On 11th August 1947 Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was elected unanimously as the President of the
Constituent Assembly of Pakistan and the National Flag was formally approved by the Assembly.
On 12th August 1947, a resolution was approved regarding officially addressing Mr. Muhammad Ali Jinnah as "Quaid-i-Azam
Muhammad Ali Jinnah". On the same day, a special committee called the "Committee on Fundamental Rights of Citizens and
Minorities of Pakistan" was appointed to look into and advise the Assembly on matters relating to fundamental rights of the
citizens, particularly the minorities, with the aim to legislate on these issues appropriately. On 14th August 1947, the Transfer
of Power took place. Lord Mountbatten, Governor General of India, addressed the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan. The
Quaid gave a reply to the address in the House, on which the principles of the State of Pakistan were laid. On 15th August
1947, Quaid-i-Azam was sworn in as the first Governor General of Pakistan. Mian Sir Abdur Rashid, Chief Justice of Pakistan,
administered oath of office from him. The Quaid remained in this position till his death i.e.11th September 1948.

The foremost task before the first Constituent Assembly is of framing the Constitution for the
nation. On 7th March 1949, the Objectives Resolution, which now serves as the grund norm of
Pakistan, was introduced by the first Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan,
and later adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 12th March 1949. On the same day, a Basic
Principles Committee comprising of 24 Members was formed to prepare a draft Constitution on
the basis of the Objectives Resolution. On 16th October 1951, Prime Minister Nawabzada
Liaquat Ali Khan, mover of the Objective Resolution, was assassinated and Khawaja
Nazimuddin took over as the Prime Minister on 17th October 1951.
The final draft of the Constitution was prepared in 1954. By that time, Muhammad Ali Bogra
had taken over as the Prime Minister. However, just before the draft could be placed in the
House for approval, the Assembly was dissolved by the then Governor General Ghulam
Muhammad on 24th October1954. The Prime Minister was, however, not dismissed and was
asked to run the administration, with a reconstituted Cabinet, until such time as the elections
were held.
Maulvi Tamizuddin, President of the Assembly, challenged the dissolution in the Sindh Chief Court, and won the case. The
Government in return, went to the Federal Court, where the famous judgment was given by the then Chief Justice Muhammad
Munir, according to which Maulvi Tamizuddin lost the case.
The second Constituent Assembly of Pakistan was created on 28th May 1955 under Governor General's Order No.12 of
1955. The Electoral College for this Assembly was the Provincial Assemblies of respective Provinces. The strength of this
Assembly was 80 Members, half each from East Pakistan and West Pakistan. One of the major decisions taken by this
Assembly was the establishment of West Pakistan (One Unit), with the aim to create parity between the two wings (East and
West Pakistan). This Assembly also achieved its target by giving the first Constitution to the nation i.e. the Constitution of
Pakistan 1956. Choudhary Muhammad Ali was the Prime Minister at that time. The draft of this Constitution was introduced in
the Assembly on 9th January 1956 and was passed by the Assembly on 29th February 1956. The assent was given on it by
the Governor General on 2nd March 1956. This Constitution was enforced with effect from 23rd March 1956. Under this
Constitution, Pakistan became an Islamic Republic, hence 23rd March became our Republic day. It was the same day in 1940
that the historic Pakistan Resolution was adopted at Minto Park, Lahore.
On 5th March 1956, Major General Sikandar Mirza became the first elected President of Pakistan. The 1956 constitution
provides for Parliamentary form of government with all the executive powers in the hands of Prime Minister. President was
Head of the State and was to be elected by all Members of the National and Provincial Assemblies. He was to hold office for 5
years. The President was to act on the advice of Prime Minister, except where he was empowered to act in his discretion.
Under 1956 Constitution, Parliament was unicameral. Legislative powers vested in the Parliament, which consisted of the
President and the National Assembly comprising 300 Members divided equally between East and West Pakistan. In addition to
these 300 seats, five seats were reserved for women for each of the two wings, for a period of ten years: thus bringing the
total membership of the House to 310.
However, in the absence of any law to control the Political Parties and the problem of floor crossing, political instability
perpetually ensued. Although the first general election were scheduled for early 1959, President Sikandar Mirza abrogated the
Constitution, dissolved the National and Provincial Assemblies, and declared Martial Law, on 7th October 1958. He appointed
General Muhammad Ayub Khan, Commander-in-Chief of the Army, as the Chief Martial Law Administrator.
On 27th October 1958 General Muhammad Ayub Khan took-over as a second President of Pakistan. One of the first major
steps taken by General Ayub Khan was the appointment of a Constitution Commission on 17th February 1960. The objective
of this commission was to submit proposals, as to how best democracy can be strengthened and molded according to the
countrys socio-political environment and Islamic principles of justice. The Commission submitted its report to the government
on 29th April 1961. On the basis of this report a new Constitution was framed and given to the nation on 1st March 1962.

General elections under the new Constitution were held on 28th March 1962 and elections to the special seats reserved for
women were held on 29th May 1962. The first session of the third National Assembly was held on 8th June 1962 at Ayub Hall,
Rawalpindi.
The Constitution of 1962 envisaged a Federal State with Presidential form of government, with National Assembly at the
centre and the Provincial Assemblies in the Provinces. The Legislatures, both at centre and in provinces were unicameral. The
Federal system had been curtailed by allowing the Provincial Governors to be appointed directly by the President. All executive
authority of the Republic of Pakistan, under the Constitution, vested in the office of the President. President appointed his
Cabinet members who were directly responsible to him.
The electoral system was made indirect, and the `Basic Democrats', for both wings were declared Electoral College for the
purpose of electing the Assemblies and the President. Basic democrats were 80,000 in number (40,000 from each East & West
Pakistan). The total membership of the National Assembly was 156, one half of whom were to be elected from East Pakistan
and other half from West Pakistan, also three seats were reserved for women from each province. The term of this Assembly
was three years. The norm was established that if the President was from West Pakistan, the Speaker was to be from East
Pakistan and vice versa. One of the major achievements of this Assembly was the passage of Political Parities Act, 1962.
On 25th March 1969 the second Martial law was imposed and General Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan took-over as the
President of Pakistan and Chief Martial Law Administrator (CMLA). He later issued a Legal Framework Order (LFO), under
which the first ever general elections were held on 7th December 1970. This was the first Assembly elected on the adult
franchise and population basis. It consist of 313 members, 169 from East Pakistan and 144 from West Pakistan including 13
reserved seats for women (6 were from West Pakistan and 7 from East Pakistan). Soon after the elections, due to grave
political differences, the Province of East Pakistan seceded from West Pakistan and became Bangladesh. On 20th December
1971 Mr. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto took over as the President of Pakistan as well as the first civil Chief Martial Law Administrator.
The first session of the National Assembly, due to the delay caused by the separation of East Pakistan, was held on 14thApril
1972 at the State Bank Building, Islamabad, in which all 144 Members from West Pakistan and two from former East Pakistan
(Mr. Noor-ul-Amin and Raja Tridev Roy who had chosen to join Pakistan) participated. On 17th April 1972 an Interim
Constitution was adopted by the National Assembly, which provided for a Presidential form of Government. Under this
Constitution, the National Assembly was not to be dissolved earlier than 14th August 1973. The Interim Constitution dealt in
detail with the distribution of powers between the Centre and the Provinces.
The Assembly also formed a Constitution Committee on 17th April 1972 to prepare the first draft for framing a
Constitution. The report of the Committee was presented with a draft Constitution on 31st December 1972. It was
unanimously passed by the Assembly in its session on 10th April 1973 and was authenticated by the President on 12th April
1973. This Constitution, called the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan 1973, was promulgated on 14th August
1973. On the same day, Mr. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto took oath as the Prime Minister, while Mr. Fazal Illahi Choudhary took oath as
the President of Pakistan.
The 1973 Constitution provides for a parliamentary form of government where the executive authority of the state vests with
the Prime Minister. The President, according to the Constitution, is at the apex, representing the unity of the Republic.
From 1947 to 1973, the country had a unicameral system of legislature. Under the 1973 Constitution, Pakistan adopted
bicameral system at the centre, called The Parliament, composing the President, the National Assembly and The Senate.
Originally, the general seats of the National Assembly were 200 with additional 10 seats reserved for women, bringing the
total strength to 210. The newly created Upper House i.e. the Senate had 63 members. Later in 1985 through a Presidential
Order (P.O. No. 14 of 1985), seven seats were added to the general seats and ten to the reserved seats for women in the
National Assembly. Ten seats were exclusively reserved for minorities to be filled through separate electorate system. Thus the
total strength of the lower house reached to 237 members. Similarly the strength of Senate was also increased from 63 to 87.
Under the 1973 Constitution the National Assembly is elected for five years term, unless sooner dissolved. The seats in
National Assembly, unlike the Senate, are allocated to each province and other units of the federation, on the basis of
population. The Constitutional provision of 20 special seats for women lapsed in 1990, thus decreased the Assembly strength

from 237 to 217. Under the Constitution, elections to the 10 seats reserved for minority were held on separate electorate
basis.
Despite the tenure of the Assembly being five years, as prescribed in the Constitution, Mr. Z.A.Bhutto, on 7th January 1977
announced the holding of elections before time. Consequently, on 10th January 1977, he advised the President to dissolve the
National Assembly. Elections were held on 7th March 1977. The opposition charged the government with rigging the elections
to the National Assembly and thereafter boycotted the Provincial Assemblies elections. Since the opposition had not accepted
the National Assembly elections result, they did not take oath. This resulted in severe political crisis and Martial Law was
imposed by the then Army Chief, General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, on 5th July 1977.
On 24th December 1981, under Presidential Order (P.O.15 of 1981) a Federal Council (Majlis-e-Shoora) was constituted by the
President. Its members were nominated by the President. The first session of this Council was held on 11th January 1982. In
this way, limited and controlled political activities were resumed, as a result of which general elections were later held for the
National and Provincial Assemblies on 25th February 1985, on non-party basis.
On 2nd March 1985, the revival of Constitution Order (P.O.14 of 1985) was issued in which a large number of amendments
were made in the Constitution. The first session of the National Assembly was held 20th March 1985. Mr. Muhammad Khan
Junejo, was nominated as the Prime Minister of Pakistan by the President (General Zia-ul-Haq). He received vote of confidence
on 24th March 1985.
In November 1985, the 8th Constitutional Amendment was adopted by the Parliament. Besides changes in other Articles in
the Constitution the significant Article 58(2)(b) was added, according to which the President acquired discretionary powers to
dissolve the National Assembly. On 29th May 1988 the Assembly was dissolved by the President by using the power acquired
under Article 58(2)(b).
The General elections for the eighth National Assembly was held on 16th November 1988. The first session was convened by
the President on 30th November 1988. Mr. Miraj Khalid was elected as a Speaker National Assembly on 3rd December 1988.
Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto was nominated as Prime Minister of Pakistan and took the oath of the Office on 2nd December
1988. The Assembly was dissolved by the President, Ghulam Ishaq Khan under Article 58(2)(b) on 6th August 1990.
The General elections for the ninth National Assembly was held on 24th October 1990. The first session was held on 3rd
November 1990. Mr. Gohar Ayub Khan elected as Speaker National Assembly and he took oath on 4th November 1990. Mian
Muhammad Nawaz Sharif took oath as Prime Minister of Pakistan on 11th November, 1993. The Assembly was dissolved by
the then President, Ghulam Ishaq Khan, under Article 58(2)(b) on 18th April 1993. The dissolution of the National Assembly
was challenged in the Supreme Court of Pakistan and after hearing the case the Assembly was restored by the apex court on
26th May 1993. The Assembly was dissolved on the advice of the Prime Minister on 18th July 1993.
The elections for tenth National Assembly was held on 6th October 1993. The first session was held on 15th October 1993.
Syed Yousaf Raza Gillani took oath of the office of the Speaker National Assembly on 17th October 1993. Mohtarma Benizar
Bhutto administered the oath as Prime Minister of Pakistan on October 19th October 1993. The Assembly was dissolved by the
President Farooq Ahmad Khan Laghari on 5th November 1996.
The elections for eleventh National Assembly was held on 3rd February 1997. The first session was held on 15th February
1997. Mr. Illahi Bukhsh Soomro took oath of the office of the Speaker National Assembly on 16th February 1997. Mian
Muhammad Nawaz Sharif took oath as Prime Minister of Pakistan and Leader of the House on 17th February 1997. The new
Assembly came into power with an overwhelming majority. The Article 58(2)(b) was later on omitted from the Constitution
vide 13th Amendment in the Constitution in April 1997.
It may be pertinent to note at this point that while, ostensibly, sixteen amendments have been made in the Constitution so
far, the ninth and the eleventh Constitutional Amendments were, however, passed by the Senate alone and fifteenth by the
National Assembly alone, hence these amendments lapsed. The fourteenth Amendment in the Constitution empowered a
check on floor crossing of legislators.

Chief of Army Staff General Pervaz Musharraf, who was also Chairman Joint Staff Committee, took over the government from
Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and declared himself as Chief Executive through a Proclamation of Emergency, on 12th October
1999. Through Provisional Constitutional Order (PCO) issued on October 14th 1999, he held the Constitution in abeyance,
suspended the Senate, National and Provincial Assemblies, Chairman and Deputy Chairman Senate, Speaker, Deputy Speaker
National and Provincial Assemblies and dismissed the Federal and Provincial governments. The President Mr. Muhammad Rafiq
Tarar was, however allowed to continue in his office. Under PCO (order No. 6) 29th October 1999, (as amended by C.E. Order
No.5, 4th July 2001), the National Security Council was established for the purpose to tender advice to the Chief Executive
(later on President), on matters relating to Islamic ideology, national security, sovereignty, integrity and solidarity of Pakistan
so as to achieve the aims and objective as enshrined in the Objectives Resolution 1949.
Syed Zafar Ali Shah, MNA and Illahi Bukhsh Soomro, Speaker National Assembly, challenged the suspension orders in the
Supreme Court. The Court in its judgment on 12th May 2000 validated the military takeover by giving three years time frame
to the government, starting from 12th October 1999. The Court in its judgment asked the government to complete its agenda
and then hand over powers to the elected government. The court also allowed the military government to bring necessary
Constitutional Amendments, provided that those should not change the basic feature of Federal Parliamentary democracy,
independence of judiciary and Islamic provisions in the Constitution. The court reserved the right of Judicial Review and power
of validity of any act or any action of the government, if challenged, in the light of State necessity.
On 20th June 2001, through a notification (C.E. Order No.1) the Chief Executive assumed the office of the President of
Pakistan under President's Succession Order, 2001. On the same day, through another Order (C.E. Order No. 2, 2001), the
President converted the orders of suspension of legislative bodies and their presiding officers, in to dissolution.
The elections for twelfth National Assembly was held on 10th October 2002.
The inaugural session of the National Assembly was held on November 16, 2002 and Ch Amir Hussain and Sardar Muhammad
Yaqoob were elected Speaker and Deputy Speaker respectively on November 19, 2002. Mir Zafar ullah Jamali was elected
Leader of the House on November 21, 2002 .Speaker Chaudhry Amir Hussain gave the ruling on June 14, 2003 that LFO is the
part of the Constitution of Pakistan. On this issue, Opposition Parties submitted a resolution for vote of no confidence against
Speaker National Assembly on June 20, 2003 which was rejected on June 28, 2003.
National Assembly of Pakistan expressed confidence in the leadership of President General Pervez Musharaf through the
resolution on January 1, 2004. President General Pervez Musharaf addressed the Joint Session of the Parliament on January
17, 2004. Prime Minister Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali resigned from his office on June 26, 2004. Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain was
elected the 21st Prime Minister of Pakistan on June 29, 2004 and obtained a vote of confidence from the National Assembly on
June 30, 2004. Mr. Shaukat Aziz was elected the Leader of the House on August 27, 2004 and was administered oath of the
Prime Minister of Pakistan on August 28, 2004. National Assembly of Pakistan completed its Constitutional tenure on
November 15, 2007. After the resignation from the post of Chief of Army Staff, Mr. Pervez Musharaf administered the oath of
President of Islamic Republic of Pakistan on November 29, 2007. The date of next General Election was fixed for January 28,
2008. After the assassination of Muhatarma Benazir Bhutto on December 27, 2007, date of election was rescheduled for
February 18, 2008
The first session of the National Assembly was held on 17th March 2008. Dr. Fehmida Mirza and Mr.Fasial Karim Kundi were
elected Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly respectively on March 19, 2008. Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani was
elected the Prime Minister of Pakistan by the House on March 24, 2008 and unanimously obtained the Vote of Confidence from
the House on March 29, 2008. Mr. Pervez Musharaf submitted his resignation from his office to the Speaker National Assembly
on August 18, 2008 and Mr. Asif Ali Zardari was elected 13th President of Pakistan for next five years on September 6, 2008.
He addressed the Joint Session of the Parliament on September 20, 2008.
President Asif Ali Zardari during his address to the Joint Session of the Parliament on March 28, 2009 asked the Speaker
National Assembly to form a Committee of both Houses for the purpose of proposing amendments in the Constitution in the
light of Charter of Democracy (COD). After consultation with the leadership of all political parties in the Parliament, Speaker
National Assembly announced the Constitutional Reforms Committee (CRC) on April 29, 2009.

After the marathon consultation in 77 meetings, CRC under the Chairmanship of Senator Raza Rabbani presented report of the
Committee on 18th Amendment in the Constitution to the Speaker National Assembly on March 31, 2010. The historic 18th
Constitutional Amendment was presented and passed by the National Assembly on April 8, 2010 and Senate on April 15, 2010
respectively. After the assent of the President on April 19, 2010, 18th Amendments became part of Constitution of the Islamic
Republic of Pakistan. 19th Amendment was passed by the National Assembly on December 22, 2010 and Senate on
December 30, 2010 respectively. 19th Amendment became part of the Constitution after the assent of the President Asif Ali
Zardari on January 1, 2011. 20th Amendment was passed unanimously by National Assembly and Senate on February 20,
2012.
Syed Yousaf Raza Gillani was disqualified from April 26, 2012 by the Order of the Supreme Court of Pakistan on June 19,
2012.
Raja Pervez Ashraf was elected the Prime Minister of Pakistan on June 22, 2012 by the National Assembly and administered
oath of the Office of the Prime Minister of Pakistan on same day.
In pursuance of Article 52 of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan the 13th National Assembly stands dissolved
on the completion of its constitutional term of five years on 16th March 2013.
Justice (R) Mir Hazar Khan Khoso took oath as caretaker Prime Minister Islamic Republic of Pakistan on 25th March 2013 and
completed his tenure on June 5, 2013 after conducting successful general elections in the country on 11th May 2013.
The first Session of the 14th National Assembly was held on June 1, 2013 and Speaker Dr. Fehmida Mirza administered the
oath from the newly elected Members. Sardar Ayaz Sadiq was elected as Speaker of the 14th National Assembly of Pakistan
and Mr. Murtaza Javed Abbasi as Deputy Speaker with more than two third majority of votes on 3rd June 2013. Mian
Muhammad Nawaz Sharif elected as third time Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and took oath of the Office
on 5th June 2013. The transition of power from one elected government to the newly democratically elected government was
smooth and historic milestone achieved in a very transparent manner.
Mr. Asif Ali Zardari, the President Islamic Republic of Pakistan addresses both Houses Assembled together (Majlis-i-Shora) on
10th June 2013 under clause 3 of Article 56 of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
The election for the President of Islamic Republic of Pakistan was held on 30th July 2013 and Mr. Mamnoon Hussain was
elected to the office of the President. Mr. Asif Ali Zardari completed his tenure of five years on 9th September 2013 as
President Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Mr. Mamnoon Hussain took oath of the office of the President Islamic Republic of
Pakistan on 9th September 2013.
Composition
The Parliament of Pakistan, according to the Constitution of 1973, is bicameral. Article 50 of the Constitution clearly states that the Parliament of
Pakistan consists of the President and two Houses known as the National Assembly and the Senate.
National Assembly
Punjab

Sindh

Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa

Balochistan

FATA

Federal
Capital

Total

General

148

61

35

14

12

272

Women

35

14

60

Non-Muslims

--

--

--

--

--

--

10

183

75

43

17

12

342

Total

Feder
Khyber
Punj Sind
Balochis
al
Pakhtunk
FATA
Total
ab
h
tan
Capit
hwa
al
General

148

60

35

14

11

270

Women

35

14

60

NonMuslims

Total

--

--

--

--

--

--

10

183

74

43

17

11

340

The National Assembly has a total of 342 members, including 60


seats reserved for women and 10 for non-Muslims, as per Article
51. The seats in the National Assembly are allocated to each
Province, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and the
Federal Capital on the basis of population, as officially published
in the last preceding census. The present allocation of seats is as
under:

Current Status
Below table shows current status of seats in the National
Assembly on which oath is taken by the member. This number can
be different from original allocation of seats if some seats are
vacant or oath is not taken.

Committee System
The Standing Committees of the House play an important role of oversight and monitoring the working of the relevant Ministries of the
Government. In the parliamentary democracies, the Committees are regarded as eyes, ears, hands and even brain of the Parliament. Another
saying about the importance of the Committee is the Congress in session is Congress in
Exhibition, while Congress in its Committee Room is Congress at work. (Joseph P.
Haris)
There shall be a Standing Committee of the Assembly for each Ministry of the
Government (Rule 198). The Standing Committees examine Bills referred to them by the
House and submit its reports to the House. Upon introduction, a Bill other than a Finance
Bill, shall stand referred to the Standing Committee concerned with the subject matter of
the Bill (Rule 122)
The National Assembly Rules of Procedure contain special provisions empowering the
Standing Committees to examine the expenditures, administration, delegated
legislations, public petitions and policies of the Ministry concerned and its associated
public bodies and may forward its report of findings and recommendations to the Ministry and Ministry shall submit its reply to the Committee.
In addition to two non-Departmental Standing Committees, viz Standing Committee on Public Accounts and Committee on Government
Assurances; and three Domestic Committees, namely Committee on Rules of Procedure and Privileges, House and Library Committee and
Business Advisory Committee;
All the Standing Committees under rule 200, their members are required to be elected by the Assembly within thirty days after the election of the
Leader of the House.
In addition to Standing Committees, the Assembly can constitute, in accordance with the provisions of rule 244, Select Committees on Bills and
Special Committees to carry out functions specified in the motion.