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92

Water Supply undWastewater Engineering

4. The analysis aids in determining the optimum-dose of chemicals to be usi,C


in the treatment ; .
- ", -,,
5. The analysis of natural *atc.'g*cs.*, fiOicatiJn of is sclFpuriiying cap3cr:l
4

3. When the water-quality remains more or


say one day or more

aswellasiscapabilityto.withstand.PoHu+ionl*'o...

4. When the sample reiluires iinmeniae alu


for D.O. carbon dioxide, residaal chlorine. teml

5.2 COLLECTION AND PRESERVATIOI'I OF SAMPLES

Composite samples: Composite samples

5.2.1 Introduction
The sample that is collccted for anal.vsis should be a true representative of *c
water-quality of the source coliection and small enough in volume to be transpon .d
conveniently and handled in the laboratory.

General precautions
i. The sample shall be handled in such a way that

it does not deteriorate

become confaminated bcfore it reaches the laboratory


2. Before filling, the sample bottle should be rinsed two or three times with tlu
water being collected, unless the bottle contains a preservative or de-chlorinating
agent
3. Each sample should bc labeled giving the information regarding (a) name
the collector, the date, hour and exact location (b) the water temperature, and i;
any other data that may be needed for correlation.
4. To collect thc samplc from wells, the well has to be pumped sufficiently u
ensure that the samplc rcpresents tle ground water source.
5. When samples are collected from a river or stream, the sampling points shouU
be from top to bottom in the middle of the stream or from side to side at mid-dept}6. Proper location, depth and frequency of sampling are important while colleaing the sample from lzrkes and reservoirs, because the quality of water changer
considcrably due to various causes, such as seasonal stratificalion, rainfall, run-of

and wind.

5.2.2 Methods of sampling


The method of sampling is influenced by (a) the type of equipment available in tlu
field and the latroratory, (b) the nature of tre tests that are to be conducted, and (c,
the purpose for which the results of the analysis are utilised. The different types 0{
sampling procedures used are as follows.

Grsb or catch sampling. A single catch sample collected from the sampling
spot at any instant, to determine the character of the sample at that particular instaru
is known as a grab sample. The frequency of grab sampling depends upon the
magnitude of fluctuation in the quality of the source. Grab sarnples are required in
the following cases
1. When frequent variation of certain constituents li.ke pH, and chlorine demanJ

occur, grab samples are collected and tested instantaneously for correcting the op
erational procedures in the treatment plant
2. When the unusual occurence of certain impurities arc noticed

:r:

ples collected at the same sampling poLnt at J:i


dure is also called time-composite samplLn;. C:
quality over a given period of the source. But
mination of the efficiency of a wastewater r33:
which is required. A composite sample repre>-i
as standard for most determinations.
In such cases, composite or intcgrated >u:'l
predetermined time intervals of 30 minut:s :r
lollected and mixed or composited ovcr a
mixed and the average sample taken for r'a'is
routine analysis of such &ings as solids, BOD' r

li-i

Preparation of composite sample'. Take indii rc


tle having a diameter of at least 35 mm at t"
120 ml. Collect these portions every hour, rn
every five minutes, and mix them at the end of
are used, add them to the sample bottle inidelli
are preserved as soon as collected. It is desrr:
individual samples in volumes proportionai n
to three litres is sufficient.for sewage and tndt

Integrated samples: Mixtures of grab sam;


simultaneously, or as nearly so as possible, are
or stream, the water composition varies a;rc:
composition of water is esrimated by integrarl
representing various points in the cross-secuon
Therefore, collrcting integrated samples is a
quires special equiPment.

Sample containers: The type of sampie cr;


depends on the properties of the sample. Fcr
leached from glass but plastic and Eace levei:
to the walls of glass containers. Simiiarl,v. or1
plastic contrainers, except those made oi tl;l
fluoroethylene (TFE). A summary of specui

given in.Table 5"1.

5.2.3 Preservatiorl of samPles


During the period between sampling and ansl'