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LAPTOP MOTHERBOARD COMPONENTS

Objective:To identify the components of a Laptop Motherboard

Procedure: A system board also known as motherboard or main


board is the main circuit board in any laptop. Unlike desktop PC
system boards, laptop system boards come in thousands of
different shapes and sizes. Laptop motherboards are modelspecific. In other words, you cannot remove motherboard from a
Toshiba laptop and stick it into a Dell laptop. All parts inside a
laptop are connected to the system board, either directly via a
connector mounted on the system board or through a cable.
In a typical laptop the following ports and components are
permanently attached to the system board and cannot be easily
removed and replaced without soldering:
1. Hard drive (HDD) connector.
2. CD/DVD drive connector.
3. Memory (RAM) slots.
4. Battery connector.
5. Keyboard connector.
6. Audio (headphone and microphone) jacks.
7. Volume control wheel.
8. USB ports.
9. Ethernet (RJ45 aka network) port.
10. IEEE 1394 (Fire Wire) ports.
11. Video chip and some other components and ports.
System board, processor (CPU) and LCD screen are the most
expensive parts in any laptop. In some cases, when one of these
three parts fails, its cheaper to buy a brand new laptop than
replace the failed part. But each case is different so do your
research.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Laptop Servicing
Objective
1. Remove the battery and Hard disk
2. Removing the Ram

3. Removing the keyboard


Procedure:

Removing the battery


1. If your laptop is plugged in, either unplug it or disconnect the
power cable.
2. Turn your laptop over so the bottom is facing up.
3. Locate the battery latch on the bottom of the computer. The
image to the right shows some of the more common battery
latches found on laptops.
4. To remove the battery, slide the latch switch to the opposite
side and hold it in that position until the battery is released.
5. On some laptops, the battery pops out on its own. On others,
you'll need to pull it out gently with the tips of your fingers.

Removing the Hard disk


6. The exact method used to secure a hard drive differs a bit from
one laptop to the next, but most use between two and four
screws. They will be apparent, as they are in the picture above,
and probably Phillips-head. Just unscrew them.
7. Now lift up on the tab attached to the hard drive. You will first
need to slide the drive out a half-inch so that it detaches from
the SATA socket, then you can lift it away. The drive will still be
sitting in its hard drive cage, so you need to unscrew it before
completely removing it.

Removing the Ram


1. Turn off your laptop and unplug from power source and remove
battery.
2. Remove memory access panel.
3. Memory modules are held into place by spring or wedge style
clamps on each side of the modules. Open these before you
attempt to pull the existing modules out (if any are to be
removed).

Removing Keyboard
1. Turn off the laptop if it is running. Removing the keyboard while
the laptop is running may cause accidents.

2. Determine the location of the keyboard cover. This is a plate for


covering the screws of the keyboard. The keyboard cover
usually contains LED lights indicating if the laptop is running or
charging. It is commonly located on the top of the keyboard
and just below the monitor.
3. You can remove the cover by using a flathead screwdriver.
Place the screwdriver in the right slot. Use the screwdriver as a
lever to pull up the keyboard cover. There may be cases when
the cover is attached to the hinge cover. There are screws
attaching the keyboard cover to the hinge cover. Unfasten each
screw at the back of the computer. Do this before pulling up the
cover with the use of flathead screwdriver.
4. The screws holding the keyboard on the holding board will be
visible after removing the cover. There may be 3 to 4 screws
holding the keyboard in place. Carefully remove each screw
using the screwdriver. Place these screws into different
containers assigned for each of the screw slot. This is because
sometimes, the screws are different in size from one another.
5. Gently lift the keyboard in the direction of the laptop screen.
This is to view all the wires and cable connected to the
keyboard and the system board.
6. Properly remove the data cable from the motherboard. Do this
by gently pulling on the cable plug in a vertical direction.
7. Look for other wires attaching the keyboard to the laptop after
removing the data cable. Remove these other wires properly
from the system board.
8. Lift the keyboard from the laptop completely. Make sure there
are no wires connecting the keyboard and the system board
before completely removing the keyboard.
Network Cabling
Objectives
1. To identify the types of cables available.
2. To identify how the cables are used in networking.
3. Making Network cable using UTP Cable and testing.
Procedure
1. Commonly used network cables are
a. Coaxial cable
b. Unshielded Twisted Pair
c. Fiber Optics

2.

3. Steps for Making Network Cable


a. Strip 1 to 2 inches (2.5 to 5.1 cm) of the outer skin at the
end of the cable wire by making a shallow cut in the skin
with a utility knife. Run the knife around the cable, and the
jacket should slide off easily. There will be 4 pairs of
twisted wires exposed, each of them a different color or
color combination.
b. Fold each pair of wires backwards to expose the core of
the cable. Cut off the core and discard.
c. Straighten the twisted wires.
d. Arrange the untwisted wires in a row, placing them into
the position, running from right to left, in which they will
go into the RJ-45 connector.
e. Trim the untwisted wires to a suitable length by holding
the RJ-45 connector next to the wires. The insulation on
the cable should be just inside the bottom of the RJ-45
connector. The wires should be trimmed so that they line
up evenly with the top of the RJ-45 connector.
f. Insert the wires into the RJ-45 connector, making sure that
they stay aligned and each color goes into its appropriate
channel. Make sure that each wire goes all the way to the
top of the RJ-45 connector. If you don't make these checks,
you will find that your newly crimped RJ-45 connector is
useless.
g. Use the crimping tool to crimp the RJ-45 connector to the
cable by pressing the jacket and cable into the connector
so that the wedge at the bottom of the connector is
pressed into the jacket.

h. Follow the instructions above to crimp an RJ-45 connector


to the opposite end of the cable.
i. Use a cable tester to assure that your cable is working
properly when both ends are crimped.