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A Simple BLDC Motor Drive for Solar PV


Array Fed Water Pumping System
Bhim Singh, Fellow, IET, and Rajan Kumar
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016, India

Abstract This paper deals with a buck-boost converter controlled solar


photovoltaic (SPV) array fed water pumping in order to achieve the maximum
efficiency of a solar PV array and the soft starting of a permanent magnet brushless DC
(BLDC) motor. The current sensors normally used for speed control of BLDC motor
are completely eliminated. The speed of BLDC motor is controlled through the variable
DC link voltage of a voltage source inverter (VSI). The VSI is operated by fundamental
frequency switching, avoiding the losses due to high frequency switching, in order to
enhance the efficiency of proposed system. The dynamic and steady state behaviors of
the proposed system are demonstrated under rapid variations in atmospheric
conditions. An experimental validation is also made to validate the design and simulated
results under real circumstances on a developed prototype.
Keywords BLDC motor, Buck-boost converter, Soft starting, Speed control, SPV
array, VSI, Water pump.
NOMENCLATURE
Vmpp, Impp, Pmpp

Voltage (V), current (A) and power (W) of SPV array at MPP

vpv, ipv, ppv

Instantaneous voltage (V), current (A) and power (W) of SPV array

Vm, Im

Voltage (V) and current (A) of solar PV module at MPP

Ns, Np

Numbers of modules connected in series and parallel

Duty ratio of buck-boost converter

Vdc, Idc

Rated average DC link voltage (V) and current (A) of VSI

Inductor of buck-boost converter (mH)

fsw

Switching frequency of buck-boost converter (Hz)

IL

Ripple content in inductor current (A)

DC link capacitor (F)

h, l

Highest and lowest values of VSI output voltage frequency (rad/sec.)

Frequency of VSI output voltage (Hz)

Numbers of poles in BLDC motor

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Nrated, N

Rated and instantaneous speed of BLDC motor (rpm)

Vdc

Ripple content in DC link capacitor voltage (V)

Kp

Proportionality constant of water pump (Nm/(rad/sec)2)

Rated speed of BLDC motor-pump (rad/sec.)

Rotor position ()

H1, H2, H3

Hall signals

S1, ...., S6

Switching states of VSI

vL, iL

Voltage (V) and current (A) of the inductor of buck-boost converter

vSW, iSW

Voltage (V) and current (A) stress on switch of buck-boost converter

vD, iD

Voltage (V) and current (A) stress on diode of buck-boost converter

vdc

Instantaneous DC link voltage of VSI (V)

ea

Instantaneous Back EMF of BLDC motor (V)

isa

Instantaneous stator current of BLDC motor (A)

Te

Electromagnetic torque developed by the BLDC motor (Nm)

TL

Pump load torque (Nm)

Pm

Mechanical power output of BLDC motor (W)

Efficiency
I. INTRODUCTION
The solar photovoltaic (SPV) power generation being noise-free, clean and abundant in

nature, is indeed becoming prominent among various renewable energies [1-3]. A continuous
reduction in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) panels and the power electronics devices, has
encouraged researchers and industries to utilize the solar PV array generated power for
different applications. The water pumping has gained a broad attention as a crucial and cost
effective application of the solar PV array generated power. A maximum efficiency of the
solar PV array is mostly achieved through a maximum power point tracking (MPPT)
algorithm [4-16] using the DC-DC converters. Various DC-DC converters such as buck [1011, 15], boost [12-14, 17], buck-boost [18], Cuk [19-20], SEPIC (Single Ended Primary
Inductor Converter) [8-9, 21-23] have been used for MPPT in different solar PV array based
applications. The aforesaid non-isolated DC-DC converters are compared in [24] to find a
best solution suiting an application with MPPT. It has been concluded that the best selection
of DCDC converter in the PV system is the buckboost DCDC converter since it is capable
of achieving optimal operation regardless of the atmospheric condition and load, hence
adopted in this work. On the other hand, when a buck or a boost converter is used for MPPT,

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the MPP is tracked as if it is restricted to within the operating region. Besides that, due to the
large number of energy storage components, the Cuk converter, SEPIC and other derived
topologies of buck-boost converter [25] contribute to their main drawback. The other recently
proposed converters for MPPT are D converter [20], two input buck (TIBuck) converter [26],
boost-buck converter [27], combination of buck and buck-boost converter [28], push-pull
converter [29], transformer coupled dual input converter (TCDIC) [30], and two inductor
boost converter (TIBC) [31]. These converters have excessive number of reactive
components and sophisticated control.
An induction motor is extensively used in fluid pumps because of its robustness, low cost,
availability in local markets, low maintenance cost, and potential to operate even in the
hazardous and contaminated areas [31-32]. Some of the limitations of the induction motor are
not favorable for SPV array based water pumping such as prone to overheating if the voltage
is too low [25] and requirement of complicated control [32]. It deviates the researchers
towards an efficient and reliable motor with less complexity and capable to operate under low
voltage. The BLDC motors have the merits of high efficiency, high reliability, high
ruggedness, low electromagnetic interference (EMI), simple control, no maintenance,
capability to operate at low voltage, high torque/weight ratio, easy-to-drive features and
excellent performance over a wide range of speed [33-38]. It can undoubtedly compete with
the induction motor specially in SPV array based pumping applications where cost,
efficiency, simplicity, compactness and easy-to-drive features are the primary and essential
factors for consideration [39]. Moreover, this motor and pump technology, and integrated
design result in both increased component utilization and reliability [40].
SPV array fed BLDC motors have already superseded partially AC motor drives in the
various conventional energy based applications [41-44], including water pumping [17, 4548]. The BLDC motor is receiving popularity for water pumping application day by day
owing to its aforementioned advantages, constituting desirable features for this application.
The existing literature exploring SPV array based BLDC motor driven water pump [17,
45-47] are based on the configuration shown in Fig. 1(a). A DC-DC converter is used for
MPPT of SPV array as usual. At least two phase currents are sensed along with the Hall
signals feedback for control of BLDC motor, resulting in the increased cost. The additional
control scheme, increasing cost and complexity, is required to control the speed of BLDC
motor. Moreover, the voltage source inverter (VSI) is operated with high frequency PWM
pulses, resulting in the increased switching loss and hence the reduced efficiency. However, a

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Z-source inverter (ZSI) replaces DC-DC converter in [47], other schematic of Fig. 1(a)
remaining unchanged, promising high efficiency and low cost. Contrary to it, ZSI also
necessitates phase currents and DC link voltage sensing resulting in the complex control and
increased cost.
To overcome these problems and drawbacks, a simple, cost-effective and efficient water
pumping system based on SPV array fed BLDC motor is proposed, as shown in Fig. 1(b) by
modifying the existing topology (Fig. 1(a)). A DC-DC buck-boost converter is utilized to
extract the maximum power available from the SPV array. The additional functions of buckboost converter are soft starting and speed control of the BLDC motor coupled to a water
pump, by applying the MPPT algorithm appropriately. Due to the single switch and least
number of reactive components, this converter possesses very good conversion efficiency and
offers boundless region for MPPT. This converter is operated in continuous conduction mode
(CCM) resulting in a reduced stress on its power devices and components. Furthermore, the
switching loss of VSI is reduced by adopting fundamental frequency switching resulting in an
additional power saving and hence the enhanced efficiency. The phase currents as well as the
DC link voltage sensors are completely eliminated, offering simple and economical system
without sacrificing its performance. The speed of BLDC motor is controlled, without any
additional control, through the variable DC link voltage of VSI. Moreover, the soft starting of
BLDC motor is achieved by proper initialization of MPPT algorithm of SPV array. These
features offer an increased simplicity of the proposed system.
Such work is reported in [48] however, the operation of buck-boost converter is
constrained to the buck mode only. Its utilization is therefore not properly justified.
Moreover, the contribution of the work is distinctly neither highlighted nor represented.
Besides this, an experimental validation is nowhere presented and the reported work is
limited to the MATLAB/Simulink based simulation. The advantages and desirable features of
both the buck-boost converter and BLDC motor drive contribute to develop a simple,
efficient, cost-effective and reliable water pumping system based on the green energy. In this
work, the ratings of the solar PV array and the BLDC motor are selected such that the
proposed system operates successfully under all the variations in the atmospheric conditions
and the utilization of buck-boost converter is properly justified. The various performance
indices are analyzed through simulated results using MATLAB/Simulink environment
followed by the experimental validation on a prototype of the proposed system. Simulated

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and experimental results demonstrate the suitability of the proposed system for solar PV
based water pumping.
II. PROPOSED SYSTEM CONFIGURATION AND OPERATING PRINCIPLE
Fig.1(b) shows the configuration of the proposed solar PV based buck-boost converter fed
BLDC motor drive for water pumping. From left to right, the proposed system consists of a
solar PV array, a buck-boost DC-DC converter, a VSI, a BLDC motor and a water pump. As
shown in Fig.1(b), the solar PV array generates the electrical energy and feeds the DC-DC
buck-boost converter. The IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) switch of the buck-boost
converter is operated through an incremental conductance (INC) MPPT algorithm such that
the operation of the solar PV array is optimized and the BLDC motor has the soft starting.
The buck-boost converter is operated in CCM to reduce the stress on the components and
semiconductor devices. Further, the buck-boost converter feeds power to the VSI, supplying
the BLDC motor coupled to a water pump. Switching sequence for the VSI is provided by the
electronics commutation of BLDC motor. An electronic commutation is a process of
decoding the Hall Effect signals generated by the inbuilt encoder of the motor according to
position of the rotor. The design and control of proposed system are elaborated in following
sections.
III. DESIGN OF PROPOSED SYSTEM
The various operating stages of the configuration shown in Fig.1(b) such as the solar PV
array, the buck-boost converter and the water pump are designed such that a satisfactory
operation is always accomplished under any kind of change in solar insolation level. A
BLDC motor of 1.3 kW rated power is selected and each stages of the proposed system are
designed accordingly, as follows.
A. Design of Solar PV Array
A solar PV array of 1.5 kW peak power capacity, somewhat more than required by the
motor, is selected so that the performance of the system is not affected by the losses
associated with the converters and the motor. The parameters of the solar PV array are
estimated at the standard solar insolation level of 1000 W/m2. A PV module AP-100,
manufactured by Astropower Inc. [49] with peak power of 100 W, maximum voltage of 16.1
V and maximum current of 6.2 A is considered to design a SPV array of required capacity.
First of all, the voltage of the solar PV array at MPP is selected in view of the DC voltage

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rating of the BLDC motor same as DC link voltage of the VSI. Selecting this voltage as Vmpp
= vpv = 241.5 V, the other parameters are estimated as,
The current at MPP, Impp = ipv =

p pv
= 1500/241.5 = 6.2 A
v pv

(1)

where ppv = Pmpp = 1500 W is the peak power capacity.


Numbers of modules connected in series are as,
Vmpp
= 241.5/16.1 = 15
Vm

Ns =

(2)

Numbers of modules connected in parallel are as,


I mpp
= 6.2/6.2 = 1
Im

Np =

(3)

where Vm and Im are voltage and current of a module at MPP.


B. Design of Buck-Boost Converter

The solar PV array voltage at MPP, vpv = Vmpp = 241.5 V appears as the input voltage
source whereas DC link voltage of VSI, vdc appears as the output voltage of the buck-boost
converter. The duty ratio, D of buck-boost converter is estimated, using the input-output
relationship as [50],

D=

Vdc
310
=
= 0.56
Vdc + v pv 310 + 241.5

(4)

where Vdc = 310 V is rated DC link voltage of VSI.


On the other hand, neglecting the buck-boost converter losses, an average current flowing
through DC link, Idc is as,
I dc =

Pmpp
Vdc

1500
= 4.8 A
310

(5)

An addition of the two currents, ipv and Idc flows through the inductor, L. The inductor, L is
estimated as [50],
L=

D * v pv
f sw I L

0.56* 241.5
= 3 mH
10000*11*0.4

(6)

where fsw is the switching frequency of the buck-boost converter and IL is an amount of
ripple permitted in the inductor current.
The highest and lowest frequencies of the VSI output voltage are considered to estimate the
DC link capacitor, C [27, 48]. The highest value of VSI output voltage frequency, h (in

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rad/sec.) is calculated corresponding to the rated speed of the motor (Nrated =1100 rpm) while
the lowest value of VSI output voltage frequency, l (in rad/sec.) is calculated corresponding
to the minimum speed of a motor required to pump the water (N=1100 rpm) as,

h = 2 f = 2

N rated P
3000* 4
= 2 *
= 628.3 rad/sec.
120
120

(7)

l = 2 f = 2

NP
1100* 4
= 2 *
= 230.38 rad/sec.
120
120

(8)

where f is the frequency of VSI output voltage in Hz, Nrated is rated speed of the BLDC motor
and P is the numbers of poles.
Since 6th harmonic component of VSI output voltage appears on DC link of VSI, limiting the
voltage ripple, Vdc in vdc to 1%, the DC link capacitor, C is estimated corresponding to h
and l as,
C (corresponding to h) =

I dc
4.8
=
= 410.7 F
6* h * Vdc 6*628.3*310*0.01

(9)

C (corresponding to l) =

I dc
4.8
=
= 1120 F
6* l * Vdc 6* 230.38*310*0.01

(10)

As per the estimation in (10), to ensure the satisfactory performance of the BLDC motor
pump, somewhat a higher value of C = 1500 F is selected.
C. Design of Water Pump

A water pump is selected and is designed using its torque-speed characteristics as [15],
Kp =

TL

3.2

( 2* *3000 / 60 )

= 3.24*105 Nm/(rad/sec)2

(11)

where Kp is a constant for selected water pump; TL is load torque offered by pump and is
rotational speed in rad/sec.
IV. CONTROL OF PROPOSED SYSTEM
The controls of the proposed system viz. MPPT and electronic commutation of BLDC
motor are elaborated in the following sections.
A. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)
The MPPT technique is mostly used to optimize the utilization of solar PV array. An INC
type of MPPT technique [4-6] is used here because of its high precision of tracking even
under rapid changes in the atmospheric conditions. The perturbation size is wisely selected
such that the oscillation around the peak power point is avoided and the soft starting of the

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BLDC motor is ensured under all the possible variations in the solar insolation level. A low
perturbation size is selected (0.001) to control the tracking speed. In order to achieve the soft
starting of motor, the output voltage of buck-boost converter is controlled at starting by
initializing the duty ratio as zero. Therefore, as the operating power point of solar PV array
moves towards MPP, the DC link voltage of VSI increases with a controlled rate. This results
in a reduced rate of rise of stator current, ensuring a soft starting.
B. Electronic Commutation
The switching signals for the VSI are generated through the electronic commutation of the
BLDC motor [33-34]. According to the angular position of the rotor, the encoder provides
three Hall Effect signals. These Hall Effect signals are logically converted into six switching
pulses used to operate the six IGBT switches of the VSI, as shown in Table I. Various
parameters and ratings of the BLDC motor, selected for the proposed system are indicated in
Appendix.
V. SIMULATED PERFORMANCE OF PROPOSED SYSTEM
The performance of the proposed solar PV powered buck-boost converter fed VSI-BLDC
motor-pump system is simulated in the MATLAB/Simulink environment using the Simpower-system toolbox. To elaborate the dynamic performance of the proposed system, the
solar insolation level is varied from 1000 W/m2 to 200 W/m2 and vice versa. The starting,
dynamic and steady state performances are evaluated using the simulated results as shown in
Figs. 2-3. These results verify the satisfactory performance of the proposed system even
under the rapid variations in weather condition.
A. Starting, Dynamic and Steady State Performances of INC-MPPT
An excellent tracking performance by the INC-MPPT technique at 1000 W/m2 and even
under the dynamically changing weather condition is verified as shown in Figs. 2(a) and 3(a)
respectively. A proper selection of the perturbation size avoids the oscillation around the peak
power point. Fig. 2(a) shows that the tracking time is intentionally increased (because of a
low perturbation size as 0.001) at the starting so that the BLDC motor has a soft starting. On
the other hand, negligible tracking time is observed under the dynamic condition, as
illustrated in Fig. 3(a).
B. Steady State Performances of Buck-Boost Converter
Figs. 2(b) and 3(b) present the steady state performance at 1000 W/m2 and dynamic
performance of buck-boost converter respectively. The inductor voltage, vL, inductor current

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iL, voltage stress on the IGBT switch, vSW, current stress on the IGBT switch, iSW, blocking
voltage of the diode, vD, current through the diode, iD, duty cycle, D and DC link voltage, vdc
are presented. The buck-boost converter is always operated in CCM regardless of the
variation in solar insolation level. Operating the converter in this mode reduces the stress on
the power devices and components. These converter indices follow the variation in the
weather condition and vary in proportion to the solar insolation level, such as vdc and D
shown in Fig. 3(b).
C. Justification for Utilization of Buck-Boost Converter
The utilization and suitability of buck-boost converter are distinctly demonstrated as
shown in Fig. 3(b). When the system is operated at 1000 W/m2, the buck-boost converter
plays a role of boost converter as shown by D (> 0.5). Moreover, the larger value of vdc than
vpv again verifies the operation of the converter in boost mode. On the other hand, during the
insolation level of 200 W/m2, the buck-boost converter plays a role of buck converter as
shown by D (< 0.5) and the larger value of vpv than vdc in Fig. 3(b). Therefore, working as
both the buck and boost converter through the change in its mode of operation by self,
depending on the atmospheric condition, a buck-boost converter offers unbounded operating
region for MPPT. Due to this fact, the use of this converter is justified. This demonstration
also reveals that the MPP would not be tracked, if buck or boost converter topologies are
used.
D. Starting, Dynamic and Steady State Performances of BLDC MotorPump
The starting and steady state behaviors of the BLDC motorpump at 1000 W/m2 is shown
in Fig. 2(c). All the motor indices such as the back EMF, ea, the stator current, isa, the speed,
N, the electro-magnetic torque developed, Te and the load torque, TL increase and reach their
corresponding values under steady state condition. The soft starting along with the stable
operation of the motorpump is observed and hence the successful operation of the proposed
system is verified. However, a small pulsation in Te results in due to the electronic
commutation of the BLDC motor. As the solar insolation level alters from 1000 W/m2 to 200
W/m2 and vice versa, all the BLDC motorpump indices vary in proportion to the solar
insolation level as shown in Fig. 3(c). The BLDC motor always attains a higher speed than
1100 rpm, a minimum speed required to pump the water at the minimum solar insolation
level of 200 W/m2. Performance of the BLDC motor-pump is not deteriorated by the weather
condition and it pumps the water successfully.

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VI. HARDWARE VALIDATION OF PROPOSED SYSTEM


A hardware prototype of the SPV array based water pumping system employing a buckboost converter with a BLDC motor is developed in the laboratory as shown in Fig. 4, in
order to validate the proposed system. The developed prototype consists of a solar array
simulator (AMETEK ETS 60017DPVF), a buck-boost converter, VSI, BLDC motor
coupled to a DC generator and a resistive load bank. As per the availability, a volumetric type
of water pump is realized by a DC generator fed resistive load bank. Neglecting the armature
voltage drop, this generator-load set becomes analogous to a volumetric pump. Generator
voltage and current are the replica of speed and torque of motor-pump respectively, thus
possessing the characteristics of a volumetric pump (torque proportional to speed). A real
time controller (dSPACE 1104) performs the MPPT and electronic commutation of BLDC
motor. A voltage sensor (LV-25P) and a current sensor (LA-55P) are used to sense the SPV
array voltage and current respectively. The optocoupler (6N136) is used to provide the
isolation between the controller and IGBT gate drivers.
The ratings of SPV array, buck-boost converter and BLDC motor used for simulation and
implementation are identical and given in Appendix. Experimental performance and
operation of the proposed system are analyzed in following sections.
A. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)
Test results for MPPT of SPV array at 1000 W/m2 and 200 W/m2 are shown in Figs. 5(a)
and (b) respectively. The recorded ppv - vpv and ipv - vpv characteristics clearly state that the
proposed system always operates at MPP regardless of the variation in solar insolation level.
Tracking efficiency for both insolation levels is observed more than 99%.
B. Performance of Proposed System at 1000 W/m2
The recorded waveforms of various indices of SPV array, buck-boost converter and BLDC
motor under steady state at 1000 W/m2 are shown in Fig. 6 and elaborated in the following
sub-sections. All the indices reach their rated values at the standard solar insolation level i.e.
1000 W/m2.
1) Performance of SPV Array: Fig. 6(a) shows the recorded SPV array indices ipv, vpv and
ppv along with the DC link voltage vdc. These indices correspond to the operation of the array
at MPP. Moreover, a higher value of vdc than vpv states that the buck-boost converter is
operating in boost mode.

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2) Operation of Buck-Boost Converter: Fig. 6(b) exhibits vL and iL along with the
voltage and current stress of IGBT switch, vSW and iSW respectively. It is observed from
recorded waveforms that the converter operates in CCM, resulting in a limited stress on the
devices. Likewise, Fig. 6(c) exhibits vD and iD along with vSW and iSW at the same operating
condition. The recorded iSW and iD contain the current of decoupled capacitor directly
screwed on the same module. A small ringing in iSW and iD is clearly visible.
3) Performance of BLDC Motor: Fig. 6(d) shows the stator currents isa, isb, isc along with
the speed, N. The motor is drawing the rated current and it is running at its rated speed,
resulting in the water pumping with full capacity.
C. Starting Performance of Proposed System
Figs. 7(a) and (b) represent the various performance indices ipv, vdc, isa and N at the starting
for 1000 W/m2 and 200 W/m2 respectively. The BLDC motor has a soft start for both
standard and minimum solar insolation levels. As the MPPT algorithm moves operating point
towards the MPP, all these indices also reach their steady state values.
D. Dynamic Performance of Proposed System
Figs. 8(a) and (b) represent the dynamic behavior of various performance indices, ipv, vdc,
isa and N under the dynamically varying solar insolation level from 200 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2
and vice versa respectively. This large variation is considered to demonstrate the
effectiveness of the proposed system at worst condition. It is clearly observed that the MPP is
effectively tracked and the performance is not affected by the unexpected dynamics.
Moreover, the speed is not diminished below 1100 rpm in any case, testifying the
uninterrupted water pumping. The buck-boost converter quickly changes its mode of
operation from buck mode to boost mode and vice versa depending upon the available solar
insolation level.
E. Efficiency Estimation of Proposed System
Considering the experimental measurements, a very good efficiency is obtained for the
proposed water pumping system. Table II and Fig. 9 show the efficiency estimation of the
SPV array fed BLDC motor-pump, subjected to the variation in atmospheric condition,
where Ppv, Pm and are respectively the maximum power available from the SPV array,
mechanical power output of the BLDC motor and efficiency of the overall system. Hence this
efficiency estimation includes the efficiency of MPPT algorithm, buck-boost converter, VSI
and BLDC motor pump. An efficiency of 72.2% is obtained at the minimum solar insolation

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level of 200 W/m2. As the insolation level increases beyond 500 W/m2, efficiency of the
system gets over 80%.
F. Comparative Analysis of Proposed System with Conventional Scheme
The proposed water pumping system exhibits several merits over the conventional scheme.
A comparative analysis between these two schemes considering their various attributes such
as simplicity, cost, efficiency, sensors requirements and control is presented in Table III. The
proposed system seems as a better replacement of the existing one.
VII. CONCLUSIONS
The starting, dynamic and steady state behaviors of the proposed solar PV array based
buck-boost converter fed BLDC motor have been validated for water pumping. The proposed
system has been designed, modeled and simulated in MATLAB/Simulink environment and
implemented on a developed hardware prototype. Simulation and test results have been found
precisely similar. The buck-boost converter has offered an unbounded region for MPPT. The
fundamental frequency switching of VSI, the absolute elimination of current and voltage
sensing elements, and the speed control without any additional control scheme or circuit are
the significant features which have contributed to develop a simple, cost-effective and
optimized efficiency system for water pumping without scarifying its performances. The
proposed system has been designed, such that the performance is not deteriorated by the
weather condition and efficiency limitations of the converters and motors. Based on the
simulation and experimental results, a BLDC motor with the buck-boost converter has been
proved as a suitable and compatible combination for solar PV based water pumping
regardless of the weather condition.
APPENDICES
A. Selected Parameters of Solar PV Array
Open circuit voltage, Voc = 300 V; Short circuit current, Isc = 7.2 A; Maximum power, Pmpp
=1.5 kW; Voltage at MPP, Vmpp = 241.5 V; Current at MPP, Impp = 6.2 A; Ns = 15; Np = 1.
B. Parameters of Buck-Boost Converter
fsw = 10 kHz; L = 3 mH; Capacitor, C = 1500 F.
C. Parameters for BLDC Motor
Stator phase/phase resistance, Rs = 3.58 ; Stator phase/phase inductance, Ls = 9.13 mH;
Torque constant, Kt = 0.74 Nm/A; Voltage constant, Ke = 78 VL-L/krpm; Rated speed, Nrated =
3000 rpm; No. of poles, P = 4.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Authors are very thankful to Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of
India, for supporting this work under Grant Number: RP02926.
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TABLE I
SWITCHING STATES FOR ELECTRONIC COMMUTATION OF BLDC MOTOR
(o)
NA
0-60
60-120
120-180
180-240
240-300
300-360
NA

Hall Signals
H3 H2 H1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1

S1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0

Switching States
S2 S3 S4 S5
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0

S6
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0

TABLE II
EFFICIENCY ESTIMATION OF PROPOSED SYSTEM
(%)
S (W/m2)
P (W)
P (W)
pv

200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000

300.47
450.71
600.95
751.19
901.42
1051.66
1201.9
1352.13
1500

216.88
347.68
471.6
594.6
722
857.54
988.2
1116.25
1245

72.2
77.14
78.5
79.2
80.1
81.6
82.2
82.6
83

TABLE III
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROPOSED AND CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM
Scheme
Attributes
SPV array
Sensors
BLDC motor
Control

MPPT
BLDC motor

VSI operating frequency


Losses (VSI)
Efficiency
Cost
Compactness

Conventional

Proposed

1-Voltage & 1Current

1-Voltage &
1-Current

3- Hall, 2-Current
& 1-Voltage

3- Hall

Simple

Simple

Complex
High frequency
PWM
High
Low
High
Low

Simple

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Fundamental
Low
high
Low
High

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(a)

(b)
Fig. 1 Configuration of the SPV array fed BLDC motor driven water pumping system, (a) conventional, (b)
proposed

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(a)

(b)

(c)
Fig. 2 Performance of SPV array - buck-boost converter fed VSI-BLDC motor pump at 1000 W/m2, (a) SPV
array variables, (b) Buck-boost converter variables, (c) BLDC motor-pump variables

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(a)

(b)

(c)
Fig. 3 Performance of SPV array - buck-boost converter fed VSI-BLDC motor pump under varying solar
insolation level conditions, (a) SPV array variables, (b) Buck-boost converter variables, (c) BLDC motor-pump
variables

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CPU

DC supply

SPV array
simulator
DSO

Isolation circuit
Sensor
board

dSPACE 1104

VSI

Resistive
Load

BLDC motor

Buck-boost
converter

DC generator
Fig. 4 Photograph of developed experimental prototype of the system

(a)
Fig. 5 MPPT performance at (a) 1000 W/m2, (b) 200 W/m2

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(b)

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Ch.1: (vL) 500 V/div.


Ch.1: (ipv) 10 A/div.
Ch.2: (vpv) 200 V/div.

Ch.2: (iL) 20 A/div.

Ch.3: (ppv) 2 kW/div.


Ch.3: (vSW) 500 V/div.
Ch.4: (vdc) 200 V/div.
Ch.4: (iSW) 30 A/div.

(a)

(b)

Ch.1: (iD) 20 A/div.

Ch.1: (isa) 10 A/div.

Ch.2: (vD) 500 V/div.

Ch.2: (isb) 10 A/div.

Ch.3: (vSW) 500 V/div.

Ch.3: (isc) 10 A/div.


Ch.4: (N) 4 krpm/div.

Ch.4: (iSW) 20 A/div.

(c)
(d)
Fig. 6 Steady state performance of (a) SPV array, (b)-(c) Buck-boost converter, (d) BLDC motor, at 1000 W/m2

MPP tracked
MPP tracked
Ch.1: (ipv) 10 A/div.

Ch.1: (ipv) 5 A/div.

Ch.2: (vdc) 200 V/div.

Ch.2: (vdc) 100 V/div.


Soft starting

Soft starting

Ch.3: (isa) 10 A/div.

Ch.3: (isa) 5 A/div.

Ch.4: (N) 4 krpm/div.

Ch.4: (N) 2 krpm/div.

(a)
(b)
2
2
Fig. 7 Starting performance of proposed system at (a) 1000 W/m , (b) 200 W/m

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MPP tracked
MPP tracked

Ch.1: (ipv) 10 A/div.

Ch.1: (ipv) 10 A/div.

Ch.2: (vdc) 200 V/div.

Decreased solar insolation


Ch.2: (vdc) 200 V/div.

Increased solar insolation

Ch.3: (isa) 10 A/div.

Ch.3: (isa) 10 A/div.

Ch.4: (N) 4 krpm/div.

Ch.4: (N) 4 krpm/div.

(a)

(b)

Fig. 8 Dynamic performance of proposed system under varying solar insolation level (a) 200 W/m2 to 1000
W/m2, (b) 1000 W/m2 to 200 W/m2

Pm (W)

(%)
84

1400

82

1200

80

1000

78

800
76

600

74

400

72

200
0

70
200

300

400

500

600

700

800

S (W/m2 )

Fig. 9 Efficiency and power with solar insolation level

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900

1000

(%)

Ppv (W) & Pm (W)

Ppv (W)
1600