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A

abutment An abutment is a supporting substructure, wall or grade beam, at the ends of a


bridge.
accessoriesThose items other than frames, braces, or post shores used to facilitate the
construction of scaffolding and shoring. Used colloquially to include all types of devices
embedded in concrete, such as bar supports, form ties, and special hardware. Except by
special arrangement, Reinforcing Bar Suppliers do not furnish items used for scaffolding and
shoring. If the Buyer requires the Reinforcing Bar Supplier to furnish bar supports, they will
be provided in accordance with CRSI recommendations.
ACI ACI is an acronym for "American Concrete Institute." See also "American Concrete
Institute (ACI)."
ACI Building Code The standard requirements for reinforced concrete design and
construction are issued by the ACI periodically. This code is designated ACI 318, with two
digits added at the end to represent the year of adoption. Most statutory (legal) building
codes are based on the ACI Building Code, but not always the latest edition and sometimes
with exceptions to certain sections. See also "building code."
ACI Detailing Manual The ACI Detailing Manual (SP-66) provides standards of practice
for the Rebar Detailer in showing reinforcement details.
addendum An addendum is issued by the Architect/Engineer and usually includes
changes or clarifications to the project drawings or Project Specifications. Addenda may
contain additional drawings or specification information.
add-on price On the estimate, there is normally an add-on price for grade and size.
aggregates In concrete mixtures, the aggregates of sand and various gravel types are
mixed with cement and water and formed together into a mass.
air-entrained concrete Air-entrained concrete has tiny air voids which result in a concrete
that is more resistant to freezing and thawing.
all-plastic bar supports All-plastic bar supports are manufactured from plastic, come in
various configurations, and are used to support individual bars. See CRSI Manual of
Standard Practice.
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alternate An alternate is a portion of the work that the Owner may consider adding to or
deleting from the project.
alternate add An alternate add is a portion of the work that the Owner may consider
adding to the project.
alternate bid amount An alternate bid amount is what is stated in the bid to be added or
deducted from the base bid amount proposed for alternate materials and/or methods of
construction.
alternate deduct An alternate deduct is a portion of the work that the Owner may consider
deleting from the project.
American Concrete Institute (ACI) The American Concrete Institute is a technical and
educational consensus organization whose purpose is to further engineering and technical
education, scientific investigation and research, and development of standards for the design
and construction of concrete structures.
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Organized in 1898, the American
Society for Testing and Materials is one of the largest voluntary standards development
organizations in the world. ASTM is a not-for-profit organization that provides a forum for
the development and publication of voluntary consensus standards for materials, products,
systems and services.
American Welding Society (AWS) The American Welding Society, founded in 1919, is a
nonprofit organization with a goal to advance the science, technology and application of
welding and related joining disciplines.
anchorage The term anchorage refers to the securing of reinforcing steel bars in reinforced
concrete either by straight embedment, embedment with hooks, or headed bars.
arch An arch is a curved structural member used to span an opening or recess.
Structurally, an arch is a piece, or assemblage of pieces, so arranged over an opening that the
supported load is resolved into pressures on the side supports.
Architect An Architect is a person or a firm that prepares the general design and
appearance of a building, prepares the project drawings and Project Specifications, and may
inspect the construction. The Architect represents the Owner.
Architectural Drawings Architectural Drawings show the general design and shape of
buildings by means of elevation views, plan views and sections specifying the various
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materials such as brick, concrete, glass, masonry, steel, stone and wood and their
dimensions.
area of steel The area of steel is the cross-sectional area of reinforcing steel required for a
given concrete section.
ASTM ASTM is an acronym for "American Society for Testing and Materials."
automatic bending machine An automatic bending machine that straightens, bends, and
shears rebar according to a preset computer program of instructions.
average unit price The sales department prices the rebar by either a lump sum price or an
average unit price. The average unit price is the price per pound that is all inclusive for the
mix of bar sizes to be furnished to a particular project.
AWS AWS is an acronym for "American Welding Society."
axle-steel reinforcing bars Axle-steel reinforcing bars are deformed reinforcing bars
rolled from carbon-steel axles from railroad cars. (ASTM A996)

B
band A band is a group of reinforcing bars in a slab, wall or footing which are distributed
evenly. See also "strips."
bar A bar, or rebar, is a reinforcing steel bar that is manufactured with or without
deformations. See also "deformed reinforcing steel bars," "plain rounds," and "rebar."
bar diameter Bar diameter is the out-to-out dimension perpendicular to the longitudinal
axis of a round bar or rod.
bar list A bar list, also known as cut list, is a bill of materials where all quantities, sizes,
lengths and bending detail dimensions are shown; in effect instructions to the shop for the
fabrication of the reinforcing bars.
bar list summary Concluding the bar list is a summary of the total weights, longest
lengths, a weight summary by bar size and classification for straight, heavy bent, light bent,
special bent, or other special fabrication, the longest dimension of a bent bar, and the longest
length of a straight bar for shipping purposes.

bar markings Bar markings, or mill marks, are rolled onto the rebar to identify the
producing mill, the rebar size, the type of steel (billet, low-alloy, rail, or axle) and grade of
steel. This term is not to be confused with "bar marks" which are used on the schedules or
bar lists to identify a particular rebar for placing purposes.
bar marks Bar marks are written on the schedules and bar lists to identify a particular bar,
usually bent. See also "mark."
bar number A bar number (approximately the bar diameter in eighths of an inch ) is used
to designate the rebar size. For example: A #5 bar is approximately 5/8 of an inch in
diameter. Bar numbers are rolled onto the rebar for easy identification. See tables in CRSI
Manual of Standard Practice for bar numbers.
bar off Bar off is the unloading of reinforcing bars from a truck bed by levering individual
bundles over the side with pinch bars.
Bar Placer A Bar Placer, or Placer, is a worker who handles and places the reinforcing
steel and bar supports. Also see "Ironworker," and "Metal Lather."
Bar Placing Subcontractor A Bar Placing Subcontractor is a Contractor or Subcontractor
who handles and places reinforcing steel and bar supports. Often colloquially referred to as a
"Bar Placer" or "Placer." (A Bar Placing Subcontractor is the employer of Ironworkers, etc.)
bar spacing Bar spacing is the distance between parallel reinforcing bars, measured from
center-to-center of the bars perpendicular to their longitudinal axes.
bar supports Bar supports are devices which are manufactured from wire, plastic, or
precast concrete that support, space, and maintain the position of the rebar to provide the
specified concrete cover to prevent corrosion of the rebar. See "all-plastic bar supports",
"precast concrete bar supports", and "wire bar supports."
base bid A base bid is the amount of money stated in the bid as the sum for which the
bidder offers to perform the work, not including that work for which alternate bids are also
submitted.
base price The base price on the estimate is the cost to purchase stock length material
from the mill.
basket A basket is a wire assembly used to support and space dowel bars along the
expansion joints in concrete slabs on the ground.
beam A beam is a horizontal structural member supporting loads from a floor or roof
system to columns, girders or walls.
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beam and slab floor construction Beam and slab floor construction is a reinforced
concrete floor system in which a solid slab is supported by beams or girders.
beam bolster A beam bolster is a continuous bar support used to support the reinforcing
bars in the bottom of beams.
beam bolster upper A beam bolster upper is a continuous bar support for the upper
(second) layer of bottom bars in beams.
beam cage A beam cage is the horizontal reinforcing bars and stirrups of a beam, tied
together to form a unit.
beam schedule The beam schedule is a table which gives the quantity, size and mark
number of beams; the quantity, size, length and mark numbers of longitudinal reinforcing
bars and stirrups (including stirrup spacing and pattern), and, where specified, the stirrup
support bars and beam bolsters. Schedules on Structural Drawings are similar but usually do
not include bar marks or dimensions.
belled end Belled reinforced concrete piers or caissons have a bottom end shaped like a
bell.
bend To bend means to form rebar into a shape other than straight.
bend table A bend table, or bender, is a table with a revolving mechanism or turntable that
has pins protruding from it. There are also pins that protrude from the fixed portion of the
table. When the rebar is placed between the fixed pins and the revolving pins, and the
mechanism is rotated a certain degree, and the rebar is bent between the pins. The result is a
rebar that is bent to the dimensions called for on the bending schedule.
bend test A bend test is performed as a requirement of ASTM to meet certain
specifications. This test checks the ability (ductility) of the rebar to withstand a tight bend
without visible damage (cracking) at the bend point.
bent Bent is a term normally used in highway construction. It refers to a frame of columns
and cap beams supporting longitudinal spans of a bridge structure.
bent bar A bent bar is a reinforcing bar which is bent to a prescribed shape such as a tie,
hooked bar, stirrup or truss bar.
bent cap A bent cap is a reinforced concrete beam or girder, extending across and
encasing the heads of columns or piers supporting longitudinal spans of a bridge structure.
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bid A bid is a formal offer by a Contractor, in accordance with the project documents, to
do all or a phase of the work at a certain price in accordance with the terms and conditions
stated in the offer.
bid alternate A bid alternate is a portion of the work that the Owner may consider adding
to or deleting from the project.
bid documents The Bid documents are the drawings and specifications issued by the
owners agent for the preparation of a bid and then used for the construction.
bid submittals Bid submittals, or bid documents, are a written or verbal communication
(quotation) of terms, conditions and dollar value of a bid.
bid work Bid work is all or a phase of the work to be completed at a fixed price in
accordance with the terms and conditions stated in the bid.
billet A billet is a piece of semi-finished steel, nearly square in section, formed by hot
casting an ingot or bloom, from which reinforcing bars are rolled.
billet-steel reinforcing bars Billet-steel reinforcing bars are bars rolled from steel billets
rather than bars rerolled from railroad rails or axles. Billet-steel is the type of reinforcing bar
most often furnished to (or specified for) a project.
black bar Black bar is another name for uncoated rebar.
bolt cutter A bolt cutter is a tool used by Placers to cut rebar at the jobsite. Smaller (wire)
mesh cutters are used to cut welded wire reinforcement or the wire encasing bundles of
rebar.
bond A bond is a uniting or binding element or force that creates adhesion. It is the
holding or gripping force between reinforcing steel and concrete.
bond beam A horizontal grouted element within a masonry wall in which steel
reinforcement is embedded; a horizontal reinforced masonry beam, serving as an integral
part of the wall
box culvert A box culvert is a tunnel-like reinforced concrete drainage structure with a
bottom slab, walls, and top slab, with one or more multiple spans, usually square or
rectangular in cross section.
box girder A bridge span which has a top and bottom slab with two or more walls that
form one or more rectangular bays. The wall heights may be variable in order to provide an
arched bottom slab.
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box girder deck A box girder deck is the top and bottom slab or deck portion of a box
girder bridge span.
bracket A bracket is an overhanging member that projects from a wall, column or beam to
support another member.
building code Building code are laws or regulations set up by building departments of
cities, states or governmental entities setting minimum requirements for construction,
design, and building practices. See also "ACI Building Code."
bulkhead A bulkhead is the partition that is placed in a form to hold fresh concrete, earth
or water.
bundle A bundle is a group of reinforcing bars or other related products packaged together
for handling.
bundle of bars A bundle of bars is a quantity of rebar, usually of one size and length,
wire-tied together, identified by tags and shipped to the jobsite as a unit. A bundle usually
consists of one size, length or mark (bent) of the rebar with the following exceptions; (1)
very small quantities may be bundled together for convenience, and (2) groups of varying
rebar lengths or marks (bent) that will be placed adjacent may be bundled together.
Maximum weight of bundles is dependent on regional practices and site conditions. The
weight of bundles is generally limited to approximately 3,000 pounds for convenience in
handling. See also "lift."
bundle tag A bundle tag is attached to a bundle of rebar and identifies the rebar size,
length, mark for bent bars and grade of steel.
butt-welded splice A butt-welded splice is a reinforcing bar splice made by welding the
butted ends.

C
CAD CAD is an acronym for Computer Aided Design
cage A cage is the vertical reinforcing bars, hoops, and ties of a column for one lift which
are tied together to form a unit or a column cage. The horizontal reinforcing bars and stirrups
of a beam are tied together to form a beam cage. Also see "beam cage" and "column cage."

caisson A caisson, commonly called a drilled pier or shaft, generally refers to a column
used as a foundation member in construction. Caissons are usually large diameter piers
which extend through soil or water to a firm bearing strata. Drilled shaft is a term that
describes a caisson in soil formed by auger drilling to a bearing strata.
call-out A call-out is a note on a drawing with a leader to the feature.
candy-stick tie A straight tie (bend Type T9), sometimes called a cross-tie, consists of one
90 end hook and one 135 end hook. It is intended to retain longitudinal bars, one inside
each hook.
cantilever A structural shape, beam, truss, or slab that extends beyond its last point of
support
cantilever beam A cantilever beam which extends beyond the support in an overhanging
position with the extended end unsupported. Similarly, an extended slab is called a
cantilever slab.
cap girder A cap girder is a structural member on top of the column that supports bridge
deck beams.
cap tie A cap tie is the top closure piece of a two-piece closed tie. It consists of a straight
length with a 90 hook at one end and a 90 or 135 hook at the other end. It "caps" the open
end of a normal U-shaped bottom stirrup. It is usually used to facilitate assembly of
reinforcing bars in formwork for beams or girders where closed stirrups are required.
caisson A caisson, or drilled pier, is a reinforced concrete column with or without a casing,
cast-in-place in a hole, or auger-drilled shaft, previously bored in soil or rock, and used as a
foundation member in construction. Caissons are usually large in diameter and extend
through soil or water to a firm bearing strata.
cast-in-place Cast-in-place refers to concrete that is deposited and allowed to harden in
place.
cast-in-place concrete Cast-in-place concrete is concrete that is deposited and allowed to
harden in the place where it is required to be in the completed structure, as opposed to
precast concrete. See also "precast concrete."
cast-on-grade Cast-on-grade is a concrete member (grade beam or slab) that is placed
against the earth.

cement Cement is a powder of alumina, silica, line, iron oxide, and magnesium oxide
burned together in a kiln and finely pulverized and used as an ingredient of mortar and
concrete. Cement, when mixed with water, is used as a binding agent, a substance to make
objects (aggregates) adhere to each other.
certified mill test reports Certified mill test reports, CERTS or CMTRS, are reports from
the producing steel mill showing the grade of steel, weight, rebar size, minimum yield
strength, actual yield strength, actual tensile (ultimate) strength, heat number, bend test and
elongation (measure of ductility), chemical composition, carbon equivalent, and weight
variation. See CERTS or CMTRS.
CERTS CERTS is an acronym for "certified mill test reports."
chamfer A chamfer is a beveled outside corner or edge on a beam or column, or a
triangular wooden strip placed in the corner of a form to create a beveled corner. See also
"fillet."
change order A change order is a written order to the Contractor signed by the Owner and
Architect/Engineer, issued after the execution of the contract authorizing a change in the
work or an adjustment in the contract sum or the contract time.
circumferential A complete circle or a circular arc is circumferential. It is used to describe
the set of reinforcing bars that are at right angles to radial rebar in a two-way circular mat.
clearance The clearance, frequently called concrete cover, is the distance from the face of
the concrete to the reinforcing steel. See "concrete cover" for a more in-depth definition.
close The close is the completion of a successful sales agreement, which includes closing
the sale and signing the contract between the Fabricator and the General Contractor.
closed stirrup A closed stirrup, as opposed to an open stirrup, is a one-piece or two piece
stirrup that has four sides.
CMTRS CMTRS is an acronym for "certified mill test reports."
CMU CMU is an acronym for Concrete Masonry Unit.
code See "ACI Building Code" and "building code."
coils Rebar is wound into coils as a means of packaging from the mill, allowing smaller
sizes of rebar to be furnished in long lengths, similar to wire. Reinforcing bar stock is
furnished in coils of continuous material 3,000 to 6,000 feet in length (usually in sizes #3 to
#6) for fabrication by an automatic bending machine.
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cold joint A cold joint is a construction joint in concrete that occurs at a place where the
concrete placement has been interrupted.
cold-drawn wire Cold-drawn wire is steel wire that is hot rolled from billet rods then
cold-drawn through a die.
column A column is a vertical member supporting a floor beam, girder, or other member,
and supporting primarily vertical loads.
column cage A column cage is the vertical reinforcing bars, hoops, and ties of a column
for one lift, tied together to form a unit.
column capital A column capital is the upper flared cone-shaped section (mushroom
head) on circular columns or a pyramid-shaped section on square columns.
column footing A column footing is the foundation under a column that spreads the load
out to an area large enough so that the bearing capacity of the soil is not exceeded.
column lift A column lift is a segment of column between two floor slabs.
column schedule A column schedule is a table that gives the mark number and size for the
column, number of pieces and size and length of vertical bars, ties or spirals and any bar
mark numbers required.
column strip A column strip is the portion of a floor or roof system over the columns and
consisting of the two adjacent quarter panels on each side of the column center line. See also
"middle strip."
column ties Column ties are reinforcing bars that are bent into a square, rectangle, Ushape, circular or other shape for the purpose of holding column vertical rebar laterally in
place.
combined footing A combined footing is a reinforced concrete footing that supports more
than one column.
compression Compression is the force or stress resulting from two forces causing or
tending to cause the member to be condensed or pushed together.
compression bars Compression bars are steel Reinforcing bars that are used to resist
compression forces.

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compression butt splice A compression butt slice is an end bearing bar to bar splice held
in axial alignment by an end bearing sleeve device (mechanical splice). See CRSI
Reinforcing Bars: Anchorages and Splices.
compression member A compression member is any member in which the primary stress
is longitudinal compression.
compressive strength Compressive strength is the ability to withstand the forces of
compression or being pushed together.
concentrated load A concentrated load is any load that is acting upon a relatively small
area of contact. See also "uniform load."
concrete Concrete is a mixture of one part of cement, about 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 parts of a fine
aggregate (usually sand) and about 3 to 5 parts of a coarse aggregate (such as gravel, crushed
stone or blast-furnace slag), and clean water. By varying the proportions of the mixture,
concrete with different crushing strengths may be obtained. These strengths can be varied
from about 3,000 to 10,000 pounds per square inch, and higher. The mixture is plastic, and
in normal temperature will set up firm in hours (known as an initial set), will be selfsupporting in a few days, and will attain full rated strength normally in 28 days. Concrete is
strong in compression but relatively weak in tension and shear.
concrete cover The concrete cover, sometimes called clearance, fireproofing, or concrete
protection, is the distance from the face of the concrete to the reinforcing steel. The concrete
cover provides fire protection and protection against corrosion of the rebar and rust staining
on the surface of the reinforced concrete members. The Engineer specifies the concrete
cover on the rebar. See also "fireproofing."
concrete masonry unit A concrete masonry unit, or CMU, is a masonry unit made of
Portland Cement, water and aggregates, formed into a rectangular prism.
concrete member A concrete member is a component of a reinforced concrete structure,
such as a foundation, column, wall, beam, floor, or roof.
concrete mix design Concrete mix design is the selection of proportions of ingredients to
make the most economical use of available materials to produce concrete of the specified
properties.
Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute (CRSI) Since its founding in 1924, CRSI's primary
objective has been to promote the increased use of reinforced concrete construction. CRSI is
a national trade association representing Producers and Fabricators of reinforcing steel,
epoxy coaters, bar support and splice manufacturers, and other related associates and
interested professional Architects and Engineers.
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concrete section The concrete section is the section in the Project Specifications that
specifies the reinforcement requirements, and all other criteria for the concrete.
construction joint A construction joint is the separation between two placements of
concrete.
construction schedule A construction schedule is a calendar schedule that lists the dates
when each portion of the project is expected to be started and completed.
contact pressure Contact pressure is pressure acting at and perpendicular to the contact
area between footing and soil, produced by the weight of the footing and all forces acting on
it.
contact splice A contact splice is a means of lap splicing two reinforcing bars by placing
them in direct contact. See also "non-contact splice" and "lap splice."
continuous beam A continuous beam is a beam that extends over three or more supports
(including end supports).
continuous high chair A continuous high chair is a bar support consisting of a continuous
longitudinal upper member with evenly spaced legs used to support reinforcing bars near the
top of slabs. See also "individual high chair."
continuous wall footing A continuous wall footing that rests upon the earth and supports
walls extending around the perimeter of the building.
continuously reinforced concrete pavement Continuously reinforced concrete pavement
is pavement without transverse contraction or expansion joints and with sufficient
reinforcement to keep transverse cracks tightly closed.
Contract Documents Contract documents cover the required work, and include the
project drawings, and Project Specifications.
contract file The contract file includes all documents regarding the negotiations, the
estimate, the sales agreement, and all other documents other than the project drawings and
Project Specifications.
contraction joint A contraction joint is a saw-cut, formed, or grooved joint that allows for
shrinkage in a concrete slab.
Contractor A Contractor is the person, firm, or corporation with whom the Owner enters
into an agreement (contract) for construction of the work.
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conveyor A conveyor is a device for moving materials; usually a continuous belt, an


articulated system of buckets, a confined screw, or a pipe through which material is moved
by air or water.
corrosion Corrosion is a deterioration of the rebar evidenced by rusting.
cost estimate A cost estimate is prepared by making quantity take-offs from contract
drawings. Unit prices are applied to the quantities, including the quantity of man hours, to
arrive at the cost.
cost projections After the project drawings, or contract drawings, and Project
Specifications are completed, the Architect/Engineer prepares cost projections for the Owner
projecting the cost of the construction of the structure.
coupler A coupler is a threaded mechanical device for joining reinforcing bars, thus
providing transfer of either axial compression or axial tension or both from one rebar to the
other.
coupling sleeve A coupling sleeve is a non-threaded splice device fitting over the ends of
two reinforcing bars, thus providing transfer of either axial compression or axial tension or
both from one rebar to the other.
course A course in concrete construction is a horizontal layer of concrete, usually one of
several making up a lift; in masonry construction, a horizontal layer of concrete masonry or
brick.
cover The cover, or concrete cover, sometimes called clearance, fireproofing, or concrete
protection, is the distance from the face of the concrete to the reinforcing steel. The concrete
cover provides fire protection and protection against corrosion of the rebar and rust staining
on the surface of the reinforced concrete members. The Engineer specifies the concrete
cover on the rebar. See also "fireproofing."
cribbing Cribbing, or dunnage, are wooden blocks or boards that are used in a horizontal
or vertical position to separate bundles of rebar. Also known as "dunnage".
cross tie A cross tie, sometimes called a candy-stick tie (Bend Type T9), is a single-leg
column tie consisting of one 90 end hook and one 135 end hook. It is intended to retain
longitudinal bars, one inside each hook.
CRSI CRSI is an acronym for "Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute."

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culvert A culvert is a drain pipe or crossing, under a road or embankment, which can be
full circle or arched in shape. Any structure not classified as a bridge, which provides a
waterway or other opening under a road or highway.
cure To cure is the process of maintaining a satisfactory moisture content and temperature
in concrete during its early stages so that desired properties may develop.
curtain A curtain is a single layer of vertical and horizontal reinforcing bars in a wall. If a
wall had a layer of reinforcement at each face, it would be a double curtain wall.
cut list A cut list is a bar list or a bill of materials where all quantities, sizes, lengths and
bending detail dimensions are shown; in effect instructions to the shop prior to fabrication of
the reinforcing bars.
cut-to-length By special order, larger quantities of reinforcing bars of one size and length
can be cut at the mill, saving fabrication labor and scrap loss.

D
dead load The dead load is the weight of the material from which the structural member is
built, such as the concrete in a reinforced concrete beam or the steel in a structural steel
beam. The dead load includes the weight of other members bearing on that member.
deck A deck is the form upon which concrete for a slab is placed, also the floor or roof
slab itself.
deck slab In bridge construction, a deck slab is the roadway surface.
deflection Deflection is the bending that occurs in a member under its own weight or
because of externally applied loads.
deformations Deformations are ridge-like protrusions on rebar that enhance bond in
concrete. Also known as ribs.
deformed rebar Deformed rebar are steel reinforcing bars manufactured with
deformations (protrusions ) to provide a locking anchorage with the surrounding concrete.
deformed reinforcing steel bars Deformed reinforcing steel bars are steel reinforcing
bars manufactured with deformations (protrusions ) to provide a locking anchorage with the
surrounding concrete.
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Department of Transportation (DOT) A government agency responsible for highway


design and construction.
Design Team The Design Team for a project consists of the Architects and all of the
Engineers, including the Structural, Mechanical, Electrical, and Civil Engineers.
design-build Design-build is a construction arrangement in which the Contractor provides
both the design work and building construction services.
designing Designing is the preparation of Structural Drawings to show general
arrangement of the structure, size and reinforcement of members, and other information
necessary for construction and the preparation of Placing Drawings.
Detailer The Detailer is the person who prepares the Placing Drawings complete with bills
of materials with sufficient information (1) for the Fabricator to cut and bend the reinforcing
bars; (2) to order other concrete related products; and (3) for the Ironworker or Placer to
install the rebar at the jobsite.
development length (d ) The development length is the embedment length required to
develop the design strength of the reinforcement at the critical section.
diagonal shear Diagonal shear or diagonal tension is a reaction to the internal stress at an
angle (as opposed to either vertical or horizontal shear) that results in cracking or failure of
the member.
diagonal tension Diagonal tension or diagonal shear is an internal stress at an angle as
opposed to either vertical or horizontal shear.
distribution rib In long span one-way joist floor or roof construction, one or more cross
ribs (perpendicular to the joist ribs) per span are used to equalize bending of the loadcarrying ribs. A load concentrated on one load-carrying rib is thus "distributed" and adjacent
joists participate in supporting the load.
dobies Dobies are precast concrete bar supports, concrete blocks, with or without tie wires,
that are used to support bars above the subgrade or to space rebar off vertical formwork and
above horizontal formwork. See CRSI Manual of Standard Practice.
domes Domes are the prefabricated forms used for two-way (waffle slab) concrete joist
construction.
DOT DOT is an acronym for "Department of Transportation," such as a state or federal
highway department.
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dowel A dowel is a bar connecting two separately cast sections of concrete. A bar
extending from one concrete section into another is said to be doweled into the adjoining
section. Examples: Footing dowels into a column or horizontal wall bars doweled into an
adjacent wall section. A dowel may be a plain or deformed bar, depending upon the purpose.
dowel bar substitute A dowel bar substitute is a two-piece dowel that is used to avoid
penetrating the forms with a conventional dowel. The first piece, an internal threaded
component, is fastened to the form face and is encased in the first concrete placement. The
second piece, an external threaded component, is screwed into the first piece after the
formwork is removed from the concrete placement.
dowel sleeve A dowel sleeve is a tube made of light metal, plastic or cardboard placed on
one end of a dowel bar that allows free movement at an expansion joint.
dowel template A dowel template is a frame which outlines the dimensions for setting
dowel bars into footings for columns and walls. See also "template."
drafting machine A device that affixes to a drafting table that allows the draftsman to
create drawings by the manual method.
Draftsman A Draftsman is one who prepares drawings. See also "Rebar Detailer."
drilled pier A drilled pier, or caisson, is a reinforced concrete pier, or caisson, or pile with
or without a casing, cast-in-place in a hole previously bored in soil or rock. It is a column
used as a foundation member in construction. Caissons are usually large diameter piers
which extend through soil or water to a firm bearing strata. Drilled shaft is a term that
describes a caisson in soil formed by auger drilling to a bearing strata.
drilled shaft A drilled shaft is more often called a drilled pier, or caisson. Drilled shaft is a
term that describes a caisson in soil formed by auger drilling to a bearing strata. The drilled
shaft is also the hole or shaft that is bored into the soil or rock, which is then filled with
concrete. Reinforcing steel may also be placed in the shaft. See "caisson", "drilled pier."
drop panel A drop panel is the structural portion of a flat slab that is thickened (by
"dropping" the form) throughout an area surrounding a column, column capital or bracket.
drops After the rebar is sheared, the short end pieces that are left are called drops and are
too short to be of use and are scrapped.
dunnage Dunnage, or cribbing, are wooden blocks or boards that are used in a horizontal
or vertical position to separate bundles of rebar. Also called cribbing.

16

E
elevation view An elevation view is a two-dimensional graphic representation of a
structure, or parts thereof, seen in a vertical plane viewed from a given direction. Elevation
views show the side views and height of a structure or portion of a structure.
elevations An elevation is a certain height above or below a datum, such as sea level. The
elevations are used to determine the height of the various members or floors in a structure.
elongation Elongation is the lengthening of a rebar under a tensile load. As long as the
tension does not exceed the yield strength, the rebar will return to its original length with
removal of the load.
enclosure walls Enclosure walls are intended only to enclose space and not to support any
other portion of the structure.
end-bearing sleeve An end-bearing sleeve is a splice device which fits over the abutting
ends of two reinforcing bars for the purpose of assuring transfer of only axial compression
from one rebar to the other.
endo Endo is the dimension from the end of a reinforcing bar to a point of reference along
its longitudinal axis; i.e., any rebar is positioned in the form transversely by "cover" or
"spacing" and longitudinally by "cover" or "endo."
Engineer An Engineer is a licensed professional, responsible for the design of reinforced
concrete and other materials, which make up the complete structure. See also "Structural
Engineer."
Engineering Drawings Engineering drawings, more properly called Structural Drawings,
are produced by the structural engineers who are members of the design team.
epoxy coating Epoxy coating is an organic, non-metallic coating applied to reinforcing
steel by electrostatic spray to prevent corrosion.
epoxy touch-up Epoxy touch-up is the repair of damaged epoxy coating due to fabrication
and handling.
estimating Estimating rebar is determining the cost of reinforcement required in a
construction project for bid purposes. Tonnage in each rebar size and grade for each class of
fabrication must be separately determined and appropriate costs applied.

17

exclusions An exclusion is a portion of the work that is not included in the bid quotation.
Example: Exclude the Pump House, or bar supports
expansion joint An expansion joint is a separation between two sections of concrete and is
provided to allow for free movement due to temperature changes. The sections are usually
divided by a strip of metal, cork, or bituminous material, and are sometimes tied together
with dowels, using sleeves or coatings at one end.
extra An extra is additional work requested of a Contractor, not included in the original
project, which will be billed separately and will not alter the original contract amount.

F
fabricated rebar package A fabricated rebar package is the estimate prepared by the
Fabricator after making a quantity take-off from the contract drawings for all the rebar on a
project. The Fabricator presents the package price to the General Contractor to be included
in the General Contractors bid to the Architect, Engineer, and Owner.
fabrication Fabrication is the actual work performed on the reinforcing bars such as
cutting, bending, bundling, and tagging.
Fabricator The Fabricator is a company that is equipped for the storage, shearing,
bending, bundling, tagging, loading, and delivery of reinforcing bars, and is capable of
preparing Placing Drawings and bar lists.
factory precast reinforced concrete Precast concrete is concrete members cast elsewhere
then lifted to its final position in the structure. Usually, precast concrete consists of
individual members such as columns, wall panels, beams or girders erected and connected to
form the building frame.
far face Far face (as of a wall) is the face farthest from the viewer and may be the outside
or inside face, depending on whether viewer is inside looking out or outside looking in,
respectively.
fiberglass or steel pans Fiberglass or steel pans or domes are prefabricated forms or
domes used for one-way and two-way concrete joist construction.
field lifts - Field lifts are bundles of reinforcing bars required for field handling by the
Placer. A field lift may consist of a single bundle or two or more smaller bundles tied
together.
18

fill face The fill face is the surface of the wall against the earth.
fill slab A fill slab is a secondary slab (not a structural or load-carrying slab) used to 'fill' a
depression or to form a ramp or stair. Many times a fill slab is provided to allow placement
of ceramic tile or similar flooring.
fillet A fillet is a beveled inside corner, usually at 45, to avoid a sharp 90 change in
direction at the intersection of two concrete members. See also "chamfer."
fireproofing Fireproofing refers to encasement of structural steel for fire protection. See
also "concrete cover."
flame cutting Flame cutting or torch cutting refers to the process of cutting reinforcing
bars with an oxyacetylene torch.
flat plate slab A flat plate slab is a flat slab which is reinforced in two directions without
drop panels or column capitals, generally without beams.
flat slab A flat slab is a reinforced concrete slab that is reinforced in two directions, with
drop panels, generally without beams, and with or without column capitals.
floor A floor is a horizontal member that divides a building into stories and is the lower
base of the story.
floor plan The term floor plan is used interchangeably with plan view. The floor plan
shows the view of the structure looking down from the topsimilar to an aerial view. See
also "plan view."
FOB FOB is an acronym for "free on board."
footing The footing is the part of a foundation for a structure that rests upon earth and
supports walls or columns.
footing schedule A footing schedule is a schedule that appears on a Placing Drawing that
shows the sizes, dimension, bends, and required reinforcement.
form saver A form saver is a mechanical splice device. See the CRSI publication,
"Reinforcement Anchorages and Splices."
forms Forms are used to form the ribs of joist floor construction. See also "domes" and
"pans."

19

formwork Formwork is a temporary structure usually constructed of wood, steel, or


fiberboard that supports the weight of the freshly placed concrete. It also has to support the
construction loads such as materials, equipment and workers, and the weight of the
formwork itself. The formwork is designed to mold the concrete to the desired size and
shape, and is removed after the concrete has hardened sufficiently for the member to support
itself plus any construction loads.
foundation The foundation is the substructure through which the loads are transferred to
the earth.
foundation mat A raft foundation, or foundation mat, is a continuous slab of reinforced
concrete laid over soft ground or where heavy loads must be supported to form a foundation.
foundation wall A wall below the floor serving as a support for a wall, pier, column or
other structural part of the building.
free on board (FOB) Free on board is a shipping term where the Seller quotes the Buyer a
price that covers all costs up to and including delivery of goods.

G
galvanizing A zinc coating is applied to reinforcing steel by dipping in a molten bath of
zinc to prevent corrosion. This process is known as galvanizing.
general conditions The general conditions is that part of the Contract Documents which
sets forth many of the rights, responsibilities and relationships of the parties involved or of
the contract. See also "special conditions" and "supplementary conditions."
General Contractor A General Contractor is the person, firm, or company that enters into
a contract with the Owner for the construction of the project and takes full responsibility for
its completion. The Contractor may enter into subcontracts with others for the performance
of specific parts or phases of the project.
General Notes General Notes are found on contract drawings. These notes concern more
than just one specific area of the project.
gin poles Gin poles are a single vertical guyed pole for supporting lifting tackle.
girder A girder is the principal beam that supports other beams.

20

grade Grade is a term used to describe the top elevation of a ground surface. Grade is the
finished earth elevation on which concrete is placed. The term grade also defines the grade
or strength of the steel.
grade beam A grade beam is a low foundation wall or a beam usually at ground level,
which provides support for the walls of a building.
grade mark A grade mark is a marking rolled onto the surface of a reinforcing bar to
identify the grade of steel.
grade of steel The grade of steel is the means by which an Engineer specifies the strength
properties of the steel required in each part of a structure, using ASTM designations to
distinguish them. See CRSI Manual of Standard Practice.
grid A grid is usually an orthogonal arrangement of reinforcing bars. It may describe a
rebar mat or bar curtain. In a plan view layout, it may describe the location of principal
column centerlines.
groove weld A groove weld is the arc weld used to join two reinforcing bars, or a
reinforcing bar to a steel plate or angle to make a lap splice.
grout Grout is a fine-grained concrete which contains no coarse aggregate.

H
hairpin bars Hairpin bars are reinforcing bars, usually small sizes, bent to a hair pin shape
and used for such purposes as short hooked spacer bars in columns and walls and for special
dowels.
haunch A haunch is the bottom portion of a beam or girder that increases in depth towards
the support. A haunch is also a column bracket for support of additional members.
header A header is a short reinforced concrete beam, joist, or slab edge generally used at
floor openings to support other similar members terminating at the opening.
heavy bending Heavy bending refers to reinforcing bar sizes #4 through #18, which are
bent at not more than six points in one plane (unless classified as "light bending" or "special
bending") and single radius bending.
hickey A hickey is a hand tool with a side opening jaw that is used in developing leverage
for making bends on bars or pipes in place.
21

high chair A high chair is a bar support used with a support bar to provide support for top
reinforcing bars in slabs or joists. It may also be used to support upper mats of rebar in slabs
without support bars. See also "continuous high chair."
high early strength cement High early strength is a type of cement used in concrete when
a faster rate of setting is required. It will cause the concrete to attain the design strength in
about one-half or one-third of the time of ordinary cements.
high-lift grout construction High-lift grout construction is a technique of masonry wall
construction in which the grouting operation is delayed until the wall has been laid up to a
full story height. See also "low-lift grout construction".
high strength concrete High strength concrete is a concrete with a specified 28 day
strength of 8,000 psi or greater, as compared to usually specified strengths of 3,000 to 5,000
psi.
hi-jackers Hi-jackers are used in drilled pier or caisson construction. It is a special type of
bar support used to maintain the specified clearance of the vertical bars from the bottom of
the drilled shaft.
honeycomb Honeycomb are voids left in concrete due to poor compaction after
placement.
hook A hook can be a 180 degree hook or a 90 degree hook. This hook occurs at the free
end of a reinforcing bar to provide anchorage in concrete. For stirrups and column ties only,
hooks of either 90 degrees or 135 degrees are used.
hook on, hook off Hook on and/or hook off is the act of placing or removing chokers or
slings on or off a bundle of reinforcing bars and connecting or disconnecting the crane hook.
hoops Hoops is a term used to describe square, rectangular, or circular ties in one piece.
They have special closed ties with 10-bar diameter tail extensions on end closure hooks.
Hoops are a detail used in earthquake resistant frames.
horizontal bar A horizontal bar is a reinforcing bar that runs horizontally or laterally, as
in a beam.
horizontal shear Horizontal shear is the internal stress in a concrete member as it deflects
between the compression at the top surface and the tension at the bottom surface.
horse A horse is a wood or metal support, used in groups of two or more, to hold main
reinforcing in a convenient position for placing ties or stirrups while pre-tying column,
beam, or pile cages.
22

I
I-beam An I-beam is a beam in the shape of a capital I. I-beam describes either a precast
concrete beam or a structural steel beam but usually refers to a steel beam.
imperial designations Imperial designations, or inch-pound designations, are units of
measurement used in the U.S., based on the inch and pound.
inch-pound designations Inch-pound designations, or imperial designations, are units of
measurement used in the U.S., based on the inch and pound.
inclusions An inclusion is a portion of the work or project specifically included in the bid
quotation. Examples: Include a Pump House, or welded wire reinforcement.
individual high chair An individual high chair is a bar support used with a support bar to
provide support for top reinforcing bars in slabs. It may also be used to support upper mats
of rebar in slabs without support bars. See also "continuous high chair."
industry standards Industry standards are the standards published by the ACI, CRSI and
ASTM organizations for use in the reinforced concrete industry.
in-place In-place is a term used to describe rebar that is placed in position in the formwork
by the Fabricator's personnel rather than the General Contractors.
inserts Inserts are devices that are buried in concrete to receive a bolt or screw to support
angles, machinery, etc.
inside face The inside face is the surface of the member that is within the structure, such
as the inside face of an exterior wall. The inside face is not exposed to weather. See also
"outside face".
integral elements Integral elements are elements that act together as a unit, such as
concrete joists and top slab. Reinforced concrete members may be made integral by bond,
dowels or being cast in one piece.
integrally-cast Integrally-cast refers to structural members, such as concrete joists and top
slab, which are cast in one piece. See also "monolithic."

23

Ironworker An Ironworker is a worker who handles and places steel and ornamental iron,
including all types of reinforcing steel and bar supports. The Ironworker ties and places
reinforcing steel in the formwork, or builds the rebar cages that are then lowered into the
formwork by a crane. In the Metropolitan area of New York City, depending upon local
union jurisdiction, these workers are called Lathers. Colloquial terms frequently used
include Rod-Setter, Rod-Buster, and Bar-Setter. See also "Bar Placer" and "Metal Lather."

J
jamb bars Jamb bars are rebar placed on each vertical side of a wall opening.
job file A job file is a file folder containing all correspondence and Contract Documents
other than the drawings for a particular project or portion of a large project.
joist A joist is a relatively small, T-shaped beam used in a parallel series in reinforced
concrete floor construction.
joist chairs Joist chairs are bar supports which hold and space the reinforcing bars in the
bottom of a joist. A joist chair-upper supports the top bars in a joist.
joist floor A joist floor is a one-way floor framing system. Sometimes called a "pan slab".
joist schedule A joist schedule is a table on the Placing Drawing giving the quantity and
mark of the joists; the quantity, size, length, bending details of reinforcing bars and usually
the quantity of joist chairs in each joist. A similar table will be found on a Structural
Drawing, but length, bending dimensions and chairs will not be shown.

K
key A key is a slotted joint in concrete, such as tongue and groove, used to provide shear
bearing.
keying action Keying action occurs with the normal expansion and contraction of
concrete. The keys or tongue and groove joints in concrete help prevent the members from
moving out of place.

24

Key Plan A small schematic plan of the large Plan View usually placed in the lower right
hand corner of a drawing on which elevations or sections of the walls are detailed. The
section or elevation cuts are shown on the key plan to orient sections on the Placing
Drawings in relation to the pages on which they are show in detail.

L
label A label is a bar identification used in computer detailing.
lap splice The overlapping of two reinforcing bars by placing them side by side; similarly,
the side and end overlap sheets or rolls of welded wire reinforcement . Also, a lap splice is
the length or overlap of two reinforcing bars, also referred to as lap. See also "contact splice"
and "non-contact splice."
lap-splice connector systems Lap-splice connectors are prefabricated plastic or metal
boxes or strips of foam acting as keyway forms and containing prefabricated anchorage and
lap splice reinforcement. The lap splice reinforcement is field-straightened with a pipe
and/or hickey when the keyway form is exposed for the next pour.
lateral Lateral, or transverse, refers to reinforcing that is at right angles to the long
direction of the member (crosswise).
lateral restraint Lateral restraint is a term used to describe rebar restraining concrete from
expanding sideways.
laydown area The laydown area is the location where the rebar is placed prior to loading
on the trucks for shipment to the jobsite. Also, may be the area at the jobsite where the rebar
is off loaded.

d d (Pronounced L sub d) is the development length of reinforcing bars.


letter of intent A letter of intent is a document from a Contractor or Owner to a Supplier
stating agreement to the terms and conditions of the bid quotation, authorizing start-up of the
work.

25

lift A lift is two or more smaller bundles of reinforcing bars combined for unloading as a
unit. A lift is also a unit of reinforcing bars tied together for shop or field convenience. Lifts
are classified in two categories; "shop lifts" and "field lifts." Straight and bent rebar are not
combined in the same lift. Maximum weight of a lift is dependent on regional practices and
site conditions. The term "lift" also describes the concrete placed between two consecutive
horizontal construction joints, particularly when formwork is reused and lifted. See also
"bundle of bars."
light bending Light bending refers to all #3 and all stirrups and column ties, and all
reinforcing bars #4 through #18 which are bent at more than six points, bent in more than
one plane, radius bent with more than one radius in any one bar, or a combination of radius
and other bending.
line weight Line weight is the thickness of a line in a drawing or sketch. For clarity in the
drawing, different components (e.g., rebar, concrete surface, dimensions) are usually drawn
with different line weights.
liner A liner is a type of formwork that is used to form a drilled pier or column. A special
liner also can be used to texture the concrete face.
lintel A lintel is a beam that supports the wall above a window or door opening.
live load A live load is any load that can be moved; for example, people, furniture,
equipment, machinery and vehicles.
load A load is any weight that exerts force on a reinforced concrete member, including
dead loads and live loads, that are concentrated in a specific area or distributed uniformly.
longitudinal bar A longitudinal reinforcing bar is any bar that is placed in the long
direction of the member.
low-alloy steel reinforcing bars Low-alloy steel is the type of reinforcing steel
conforming to ASTM A706, used in seismic design, or if the rebar is to be welded.
low-lift grout construction Low-lift grout construction is a technique of masonry wall
construction in which the wall sections are built to a height of not more than 5 feet before the
cells of the masonry units are filled with grout. See also "high-lift grouting.
lump sum price/bid A lump sum price or bid is a single monetary amount to cover all
labor, equipment, materials, services, and overhead and profit for completing the
construction of a variety of unspecified items of work without the benefit of a cost
breakdown.
26

M
manifest A manifest is a list or bill of materials carried by the truck driver showing the
reinforcing steel and accessories loaded on the truck that is being shipped to the jobsite.
mark A mark is a series of letters, numbers or a combination of both used to designate (a)
the parts of a structure or (b) the identity of a bent bar. See also "bar marks."
masonry section The masonry section is the section in the Project Specifications that
specifies the reinforcement requirements for the masonry and all other criteria.
masonry walls Masonry walls are walls constructed using concrete masonry units (CMU),
often called "concrete blocks" and frequently faced with brick or other exterior finish above
ground.
master bundles A master bundle is a group of marked and tagged smaller bundles of rebar
that are grouped together in one bundle and tagged as a master bundle.
mat A mat is a large footing or foundation slab used to support an entire structure. Also a
two-way grid of reinforcing bars.
mat foundation A mat or mat foundation is a large footing or foundation slab used to
support an entire structure. Also a two-way grid of reinforcing bars.
material supply bid A material supply bid is a bid for furnishing material only. It does not
include installation labor.
material take-off This transfer process means that you take all the reinforcing steel that is
shown on the Placing Drawings and transfer that information to the bar lists. Also the first
step in estimatingthe process of estimating quantities of materials on the Structural
Drawing to prepare a bid. See also "estimating."
maximum shipping length The longest length of rebar that is permitted to be shipped
without acquiring an over-size permit required by governmental regulations.
Mechanical Drawings Mechanical drawings which show piping for water, sanitary, gas,
and drains; heating, ventilating and air conditioning ducts and other mechanical equipment.
mechanical splice A mechanical splice is the complete assembly of an end-bearing sleeve,
a coupler, or a coupling sleeve, and possibly additional materials or parts to accomplish the
splicing of reinforcing bars.
27

mesh Mesh is a nickname for "welded wire reinforcement."


Metal Lather A Metal Lather is a worker who installs furring and metal lath, places
inserts in concrete for support of ceilings; and in the Metropolitan Area of New York City,
fabricates and places reinforcing steel (which are delivered to the jobsite in straight lengths)
and bar supports. See also "Bar Placer" and "Ironworker."
middle strip The middle strip is the portion of a floor or roof system which occupies the
middle half of the span between columns. See also "column strip."
mill marks Mill marks, or bar markings that are rolled onto the rebar to identify the
producing mill, the rebar size, the type of steel (billet, low-alloy, rail, or axle) and grade of
steel.
mill stock length Rebar comes from the steel mill in 20, 40, or 60 foot pre-cut stock
lengths.
mill tags Mill tags are attached to rebar bundles or coils to identify the bar size, quantity,
length, heat number, and grade of steel, along with the name of the producing mill.
miscellaneous iron Miscellaneous iron are steel items such as lintel angles, inserts, plates,
form braces, spreaders and other structural shapes attached to or embedded in reinforced
concrete.
monolithic Monolithic is when concrete members are cast in one operation. See also
"integrally-cast."

N
near face Near face (as of a wall) is the face nearest the viewer and may be inside or
outside, depending upon whether viewer is inside looking out or outside looking in,
respectively. See also "far face."
neutral axis The neutral axis is an imaginary surface or line near the middle of a member
that represents the part of the member that is not in compression or tension.
nominal diameter A nominal diameter is the diameter of a plain round bar of the same
weight per linear foot as a deformed bar.
non-contact splice A non-contact splice is when two lap spliced bars are not in contact
with each other. See also "contact splice" and "lap splice."
28

O
offset bend Offset bend is two equal and opposite bends in the interior of a reinforcing bar
which leave each end of the rebar parallel but offset a predetermined distance. It is usually
used to offset column vertical rebar from the story below either to clear vertical rebar for a
lap splice in the story above or to allow for column faces offset up to 3 inches.
one-way joist system A joist floor is a one-way floor framing system.
one-way slabs A one-way slab is a floor system that has main reinforcing bars in one
direction only and is supported by walls or beams.
one-way system A one-way system is the arrangement of steel reinforcement within a
floor or roof system where the main reinforcement is in one direction and the temperature
reinforcement is perpendicular to the main reinforcing.
open bid An open bid is a condition in which bids are accepted from all interested and
qualified bidders, usually on public work projects. See also "publicly-funded projects."
open stirrup An open stirrup has three sides and is generally open at the top.
out-to-out Out-to-out is an overall dimension; end-to-end dimension; outermost side to
opposite hand outermost side.
outside face The outside face is the surface of the member that is outside the structure,
such as the outside face of an exterior wall. The outside face is exposed to weather. See also
"inside face".
Owner The Owner is the corporation, association, partnership, individual, or public body
or authority that the Contractor enters into agreement with and for whom the work is
provided.

P
pad A pad is a footing; also a block of concrete to support machinery.
pans Pans are the prefabricated forms used for one-way concrete joist construction.
parallel bar A parallel bar is a device used by a draftsman that is attached to a drafting
table and is used in manual detailing.
29

parapet A parapet is the extension of the main walls above the roof level, and is used for
architectural appearance. It is also bridge railings of reinforced concrete.
partition wall A dividing wall between rooms or areas, generally non-load bearing.
PCA PCA is an acronym for Portland Cement Association.
pedestal A pedestal is a short pier used as a base for a column.
pier A pier, generally called a drilled pier or caisson, or drilled shaft, generally refers to a
column used as a foundation member in building construction. A pier is a large area
foundation column in building construction; also a large column or wall type of bridge deck
support.
pier cap A pier cap is the top part of a bridge pier which distributes the concentrated loads
from the bridge uniformly over the pier.
pier schedule A pier schedule is a schedule that appears on a Structural Drawing that
shows the sizes, dimension, required reinforcement, and elevations for drilled piers.
pier sled A pier sled is a type of bar support that maintains the concrete cover at the sides
of the pier.
pier wall A wall that supports the bridge deck is frequently called a pier wall, many times
seem in flood control channels.
piers section The piers section is the section in the Project Specifications that specifies the
reinforcement requirements, and all other criteria for the piers.
pilaster A pilaster is a column which is partially embedded in a wall, or a portion of a wall
enlarged to serve as a column.
pile A pile is a concrete, steel, or wood member driven through soil or water to a firm
bearing strata (it may be cast-in-place into a drilled hole or a pipe sleeve).
pile cap A pile cap is a reinforced concrete structural member (footing) constructed on the
tops of piles. It distributes loads from the structure to the piles. See also "bent cap."
pipe culverts A reinforced concrete wing wall and head wall is required for reinforcement
at the end of pipe culverts.
pitch Pitch is the center-to-center spacing between turns of a spiral.
30

Placer A Placer, or Bar Placer, is a worker who handles and places the reinforcing steel
and bar supports. Also see "Ironworker," and "Metal Lather."
Placing Drawings Placing Drawings are detailed drawings which give the size, location,
spacing of the bars, and all other information required by the Placer or Ironworker for
placing the rebar.
Placing Subcontractor A Placing Subcontractor is a Contractor or Subcontractor who
handles and places reinforcing steel and bar supports. Often colloquially referred to as a "Bar
Placer" or "Placer." (A Bar Placing Subcontractor is the employer of Placers, Ironworkers,
etc.)
plain round A plain round, or smooth round, is a bar without deformations, generally used
as dowels in expansion and construction joints. Also known as smooth round. See also
"deformed reinforcing steel bars" and "rebar."
plan view The plan view, or floor plan, is the top view of any floor, roof, or foundation of
a structure.
Portland Cement Association (PCA) - The Portland Cement Association represents cement
companies in Canada and the United States. PCA was founded in 1916 to "improve and
extend the uses of cement and concrete." In Canada, the Association operates as the
Canadian Portland Cement Association.
post-tensioning Post-tensioning is a method of prestressing reinforced concrete where
tendons are tensioned after the concrete has reached a specified strength. See also
"prestressed concrete."
pounds per square inch (psi) Pounds per square inch is the unit of measure used in the
inch-pound system for expressing load or stress.
Pre-assembled In reference to concrete reinforcement, preassembled is the assembly of a
number of separate pieces into the complete arrangement of reinforcement required for a
structural concrete unit prior to installation in final position. Column, beam or girder
reinforcement is thus preassembled into "cages"; footing or slab reinforcement into "mats";
and wall reinforcement into "curtains."
precast concrete Precast concrete is reinforced concrete cast elsewhere then lifted to its
final position in the structure. Usually, precast concrete consists of individual members such
as columns, wall panels, beams or girders erected and connected to form the building frame.

31

precast concrete bar supports Precast concrete bar supports, sometimes called "dobies,"
are precast concrete blocks, with or without tie wires, that are used to support bars above the
subgrade or to space rebar off vertical formwork and above horizontal formwork. See CRSI
Manual of Standard Practice.
precast pile A precast pile is a reinforced concrete pile manufactured in a casting plant or
at the jobsite and driven into place by a pile hammer. See also "caissons, drilled shafts, piers,
piles."
preload table A preload table, or table, is a platform or table where the Shake-Out Man
untangles (shakes-out) the stock length rebar prior to the transfer to the shear line for
shearing.
prestressed concrete Prestressed concrete is reinforced concrete in which the tendons are
stretched and anchored to compress the concrete. See also "post-tensioning."
privately-funded projects Privately-funded projects are sent to a pre-selected group of
Contractors for their bid on the project and are financed by an individual's or a groups'
private funds.
Production Scheduler A Production Scheduler is the person who organizes the
fabrication shop work flow in order to provide material in a timely and cost efficient manner.
The Production Scheduler determines the priority of the work to be fabricated and the order
in which it is to be processed.
project drawings Project drawings are the drawings, which, along with the Project
Specifications, completely describe the construction of the Work, required or referred to in
the Contract Documents. Examples include Placing Drawings and Structural Drawings.
Project Specifications Project specifications are the written documents that specify the
requirements for a construction project in accordance with the various criteria established by
the Owner.
psi PSI is the acronym for "pounds per square inch."Abbreviation of pounds per square
inch used in measuring load, pressure, or stress.
publicly-funded projects Publicly-funded projects are placed for open bid to all
Contractors and are usually financed by tax revenue bonds. See also "open bid."
punching shear The term punching shear is used to describe the potential action or
stresses within a floor slab adjacent to a supporting column (the load may cause the column
to 'punch' through the slab).
32

Q
quadrant A quadrant is one-fourth of a regular area; it is usually taken as one of the
portions of a circle or square as divided by N-S and E-W lines.
quotation A quotation is the publishing of a written or verbal bid. A bid quotation is an
outline of the work to be performed, the material to be furnished, and exceptions, the
documents on which the quotation is based, and the dollar amount.
quote The price, generally confidential, submitted prior to bid openings, for which a
Subcontractor or Supplier agrees to furnish work or materials in accordance with the
Contract Documents.

R
racks Racks are temporary metal or wooden supports for that portion of rebar that extends
beyond a construction joint and is not supported by existing formwork or tying to adjacent
rebar.
radial The radial is the direction of a straight line out from the center point of a circle.
Spokes of a wheel lie on radial lines. It is used to describe one set of rebar associated with
two-way mats in circular tank floors or roofs.
radius bent Radius bent refers to reinforcing bars that are bent to a radius larger than that
specified for standard hooks; it is a bar curved to fit into circular walls, as the horizontal
rebar in a silo. See CRSI Manual of Standard Practice for the Radial Prefabrication table.
raft foundation A raft foundation, or mat foundation, is a continuous slab of reinforced
concrete laid over soft ground or where heavy loads must be supported to form a foundation.
rail-steel reinforcing bars Rail-steel reinforcing bars are deformed reinforcing bars which
are rerolled from used railroad rails. (ASTM A996)
rebar Rebar is an abbreviated term for standard deformed reinforcing steel bars. See also
"deformed reinforcing steel bars," and "plain round."
Rebar Detailer The Rebar Detailer is the person who prepares the Placing Drawings
complete with bills of materials with sufficient information (1) for the Fabricator to cut and
bend the reinforcing bars; (2) to order other concrete related products; and (3) for the
Ironworker or Placer to install the rebar at the jobsite.
33

Rebar Placer A Rebar Placer, or Placer, is a worker who handles and places the
reinforcing steel and bar supports. Also see "Ironworker," and "Metal Lather."
re-entrant corner A re-entrant corner is a 90 degree, inside corner.
reglet A reglet is a long, narrow slot formed in concrete to receive flashing or to serve as
anchorage.
reinforced concrete Concrete containing reinforcement and designed on the assumption
that the two materials act together in resisting forces.
reinforced concrete construction Reinforced concrete construction is a method of
construction or framing buildings and other structures using reinforced concrete and other
related materials.
reinforced concrete member A reinforced concrete member is a component of a
reinforced concrete structure, such as a foundation, column, wall, beam, floor, or roof.
reinforcement Reinforcement are steel reinforcing bars or wires embedded in concrete
and located in such a manner that the rebar or wires and the concrete act together in resisting
loads.
request for information (RFI) A request for information is a written request from a
Contractor to the Owner or Architect for clarification or information about the Contract
Documents following contract award.
retaining wall A retaining wall is a wall that has been reinforced to hold or retain soil,
grain, coal, sand, and other bulk granular materials.
RFI RFI is an acronym for "request for information."
ribs Ribs are deformations or ridge-like protrusions on rebar that enhance the bond in
concrete. The ribs are also the bottom portion of the narrow beam of a one-way joist or
waffle slab floor system.
rigid frame A rigid frame is a structure consisting of a rigid skeleton of structural
members, where the stability of the frame is provided by the rigidity of the joints.
rings Rings are circular complete circles or circular arcs. Ring bars reinforce ring-shaped
elements such as pipes, chimneys, circular silo walls, or water storage tanks.
run A run is two or more bars that are lapped to provide continuous reinforcing along the
entire length of a member.
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runway A runway is the temporary decking that is over an area where concrete is being
placed. It is usually made of movable panels and supports on which buggies of concrete
travel to points of placement.

S
sand plate A sand plate is a flat steel or plastic plate or strip that is fastened to the legs of
bar supports for use on soil.
scaffolding Scaffolding is a temporary structure for the support of deck forms, runways or
workers.
scale To scale is to reduce the size from which placing and Structural Drawings are made.
For example, 1/8" = 1'-0".
schedule A schedule is a table on Placing Drawings to give reinforcing bars size, shape,
and arrangement of similar items. See also "beam schedule," "column schedule," "joist
schedule," "slab schedule."
screed A screed is a template to guide finishers in leveling off the fresh concrete surface.
Screeding is the operation of rough leveling.
screed chairs Screed chairs are supports to fix the depth of slabs and to hold guides for
leveling off concrete.
section A section is a cut-away view through a general plan or elevation view to explain
details.
seismic design A seismic design is a specific design used in areas where earthquakes are
likely. It refers to special and specific code provisions that may require closely-spaced
stirrups and ties in beams and columns, the use of low-alloy rebar (for ductility) and
additional rebar to resist possible reversal of internal stresses due to the whipping action of
the structure.
Shake-Out Man The Shake-Out Man is the person who untangles the rebar by shaking it
until it can be separated from the other reinforcing bars and is then arranged on the shake-out
table in preparation for shearing.

35

shake-out table The shake-out table, or preload table, is a platform (table) where the
Shake-Out Man untangles (shakes-out) the stock length rebar prior to the transfer to the
shear line for shearing. Also known as preload table.
shear 1. (v) To shear is to cut the rebar to prescribed lengths. 2. (n) A piece of equipment
that cuts the rebar to the correct length by using two equal opposing forces. 3. (n) Shear is
the stress, or vertical or diagonal tension, resulting from two forces (downward pressure and
upward resistance) causing or tending to cause elements within the member to move along
the plane of contact.
shear reinforcement Shear reinforcement refers to rebar in a concrete member that is
designed to resist internal shearing stresses. Example: stirrups in beams.
shear strength Shear strength is the ability to withstand internal shear stresses.
shear table A shear table is the portion of the shearline that is found in front of the shear
to convey the steel to the shear; and at the end of the shearline, and another table is used to
gauge the cutting length of the rebar, and to receive the steel that will be dumped into the
sorting bins.
shearer The person who operates the shear is referred to as a shearer.
shearhead A shearhead is a preassembled unit of reinforcing steel placed around a column
within the slab of a flat plate or flat slab floor system to transmit loads from the slab to the
column.
shearline The shearline, or shear table, is where the rebar is laid in straight rows to be fed
into the shearing machine where several reinforcing bars are cut simultaneously. See also
"shake-out table."
shearwall A shearwall is a wall designed to resist horizontal lateral forces as from wind or
earthquake.
shelf angles Shelf angles are structural angles with holes or slots in one leg for fastening to
the concrete to support brick work, stone, or terra cotta.
shop lifts - Shop lifts are units of reinforcing bars loaded for shipment. A shop lift may
consist of one or more bundles, the same as field lifts, or consist of two or more field lifts.
See also "field lifts."
shop order list A shop order list is a list of the rebar to be bent or sheared to the
appropriate dimensions.
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side bars Side bars are horizontal rebar in each face or side of a concrete beam, placed and
spaced between the top and bottom beam bars. Side bars are usually called for in beams with
depths of 36 inches or greater.
simple beam A simple beam is a beam without restraint or continuity at its supports. See
also "single span beam."
single span beam A single span beam is a beam that spans or covers the distance between
two end supports with no middle support. See also "simple beam."
skewed When an object is skewed, it is placed at an angle other than 90.
slab A slab is a flat section of floor or roof either on the ground or supported by beams,
walls, or columns.
slab bolster A slab bolster is a continuous bar support used to support bottom slab bars.
slab on grade A type of foundation with a concrete floor which is placed directly on the
soil. The edge of the slab is usually thicker and acts as the footing for the walls.
slab schedule A slab schedule is a table on the Placing Drawings which gives the quantity
and mark of the slabs; the number of pieces, size, length and bending details of the
reinforcement in each slab.
sleeve A sleeve is a tube which encloses a bar, dowel or anchor rod.
sling A sling is a short length of wire rope, with a spliced eye at each end or a spliced eye
at one end and a hook at the other, used to encircle a bundle of reinforcing bars for hoisting
purposes.
slip form A slip form is a system of formwork for concrete construction that permits
continuous casting. Vertical slip forms are used in building tanks, silos, etc., and horizontal
slip forms are used in paving.
smooth round A smooth round, or plain round, is a bar without deformations, generally
used as dowels in expansion and construction joints. Also known as smooth round.
soffit The soffit is the bottom surface of a slab, beam, joist or girder.
soil pressure The soil pressure, or contact pressure is pressure acting at and perpendicular
to the contact area between footing and soil, produced by the weight of the footing and all
forces acting on it.
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solid head In a waffle slab, the area surrounding a column where no dome forms are
placed.
sorting Sorting is the breaking up of the bundles of reinforcing bars after unloading, so
that all items are readily accessible.
spalling Spalling is the development of spalls or fragments, usually in the shape of flakes,
detached from a larger mass by a blow, action of weather, pressure or by expansion within
the larger mass.
span A span is the horizontal distance between supports of a member such as a beam,
girder, slab or joist; distance between piers or abutments of a bridge.
spandrel beam A spandrel beam is a beam in the perimeter of a building, spanning
between columns and usually supporting a floor or roof.
spandrels The perimeter edge of a structure which supports the exterior cladding.
special bending All bending to special tolerances, all radius bending in more than one
plane, all multiple plane bending containing one or more radius bends, and all bending for
precast units.
special conditions The special conditions section is a section of the contract
specifications, other than the general conditions and supplementary conditions, which may
be prepared for a particular project. They are specific clauses setting forth conditions or
requirements peculiar to the project under consideration, and covering work or materials
involved in the proposal and estimate, but not satisfactorily covered by the general
conditions. See also "general conditions" and "supplementary conditions."
special fabrication All bending to special tolerances, all radius bending in more than one
plane, all multiple plane bending containing one or more radius bends, and all bending for
precast units are referred to as special bending or special fabrication.
specs Specs is a nickname for the "Project Specifications."
spiral A spiral is a continuously coiled reinforcing bar or wire.
spiral column A spiral column is a column in which the vertical reinforcing bars are
enclosed within a spiral.
spiral spacers Spiral spacers are usually made of channels or angles, punched to form
hooks, which are bent over the spiral to maintain it to a definite pitch.
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splice A splice is the joining of one reinforcing bar to another by lapping in contact or
noncontact,, mechanical splices or welding; the lap between sheets or rolls of welded wire
reinforcement.
spread footing A spread footing is a footing which supports one or more columns or piers
or a wall by bearing on earth or rock. Sometimes a simple mat footing is called a spread
footing.
spreader bar A spreader bar is a steel beam that is suspended from a crane and has two or
more hooks or shackles, onto which slings are attached to eliminate the possibility of
bending reinforcing bars in a bundle due to handling. Sometimes called a "strong back."
stable bearing layer A firm soil strata.
staggered splices Staggered splices are splices in rebar (lap, mechanical, or welded), that
are not located at the same point.
staging Staging is the temporary platform working space in and around a building under
construction or repair; scaffolding.
standard details The standard details are the Structural Drawing details that are common
to many jobs and have been made into permanent drawings. Sometimes these details are
placed on one sheet called a standard detail sheet.
standee Standee is a term used in some localities to designate a special bar bent to a Ushape with 90 bent legs extending in opposite directions at right angles to the U-bend. It is
used as a high chair resting upon a lower mat of reinforcing bars and supporting an upper
mat.
steel or fiberglass pans Steel or fiberglass pans or domes are prefabricated forms used for
one-way and two-way concrete joist construction.
stem bars Stem bars are reinforcing bars that are used in the wall section of a cantilevered
retaining wall or in the webs (walls) of a box girder. When a cantilever retaining wall and its
footing are considered as an integral unit, the wall is often referred to as the stem of the unit.
stirrup hooks Stirrup hooks have a ACI standard type bar bends with dimensions
applicable to bars used as column ties or beam stirrups.
stirrup support bars Stirrup support bars are bars used to support stirrups in the top of a
beam when top longitudinal bars are not scheduled.

39

stirrups Stirrups are reinforcing bars used in beams for shear reinforcement; typically bent
into a U-shape and placed perpendicular to the longitudinal reinforcing steel, encasing the
longitudinal bars. See also "ties."
stock bays The rebar inventory is stored in area called stock bays.
stock length bars Rebar comes from the steel mill in 20, 40, or 60 foot pre-cut stock
lengths. It is also referred to as mill stock lengths.
story The term, story, when numbered, identifies each floor level in a building; structural
elements at any one level are labeled for that level. Example: 2nd story (or floor) beams or
slabs or columns.
stress Stress is the internal effect within a structural member caused by an external load or
force.
strips Strips are bands of reinforcing bars in flat slab or flat plate construction. The
column strip is a quarter-panel wide each side of the column centerline and runs either way
of the building, from column to column. The middle strip is half a panel in width, filling in
between column strips, and runs parallel to the column strips to fill in the center part of a
panel. See also "band."
strong back A strong back is a steel beam that is suspended from a crane and has two or
more hooks or shackles, onto which slings are attached to eliminate the possibility of
bending reinforcing bars in a bundle due to handling. Sometimes called a "spreader bar."
Structural Drawings Structural drawings which show foundation and floor plan views,
with elevations, sections, details, and schedules required to build the structure. It is the basis
a Rebar Detailer uses to prepare Placing Drawings. For reinforced concrete structures, they
include the sizes and general arrangement of reinforcement bars.
Structural Engineer A Structural Engineer is a licensed professional Engineer,
responsible for the design, drawings, and specifications of a structure. See also "Engineer."
structure A structure is any type of building, tunnel, road, bridge, or any other edifice that
is built or constructed.
strut A strut is a short column or compression brace (may be horizontal).
Subcontractor A Subcontractor is a Contractor who performs some part of the General
Contractors obligation under the contract.
subgrade Subgrade is the soil supporting a structure, such as pavement or footing.
40

submittal The submittal is the documentation or correspondence submitted to others for


consideration, decision and/or approval.
submittals subsection The submittals subsection is one of the sections in the Project
Specifications that specifies how and when drawings are to be submitted.
substructure The substructure is the foundation or the portion of the structure below
grade, or it is everything below the beams in bridge construction.
superstructure The superstructure is the frame of the building usually above grade.
Portion of a bridge above the piers and abutments.
supplementary conditions The supplementary conditions section is a part of the Contract
Documents which supplements and may also modify the provisions of the general
conditions. See also "general conditions" and "special conditions."
support bars Support bars are bars that rest upon individual high chairs or bar chairs to
support top reinforcing bars in slabs, joists or beams. They are usually #4 bars, sometimes
#5, and may replace a like number of temperature-shrinkage rebar in slabs when properly lap
spliced.

T
take-off The take-off is sometimes referred to as a material take-off. This transfer process
means that you take all the reinforcing steel that is shown on the Placing Drawings and
transfer that information to the bar lists. It is also the first step in estimatingthe process of
estimating quantities of materials on the Structural Drawing to prepare a bid. See also
"estimating."
take-off print A take-off print, sometimes called a check print, is a copy of the completed
Placing Drawing. It is used to check off the bars from the print as you list them on the bar
list in order that all items of reinforcement are accounted for and listed.
T-beam A T-beam is a beam which has a T-shaped cross-section.
temperature-shrinkage Temperature-shrinkage stresses that are caused by the changes in
temperature which cause concrete to expand or contract. When it contracts, hairline cracks
form in the concrete. The natural curing process of concrete also produces some shrinkage.
Rebar is placed in concrete to prevent some of the pulling apart that causes the cracks.

41

temperature-shrinkage bars Temperature-shrinkage bars are reinforcing bars that are


distributed throughout the concrete to minimize cracks due to temperature changes and
concrete shrinkage, usually placed at right angles to the main reinforcement. See also
"temperature-shrinkage."
template A template is a device to locate and hold dowels, to lay out bolt holes or inserts.
See also "dowel template."
tendon A tendon is a steel element such as wire, cable, bar, rod or strand, or a bundle of
such elements, used to impart prestress to a reinforced concrete member.
tensile strength Tensile strength is the ability to withstand the forces of tension or being
pulled apart.
tensile weakness Tensile weakness refers to the fact that concrete is strong in compression
but relatively weak in tension.
tension Tension is the force or stress resulting from two forces acting on a member
causing or tending to cause the member to be extended or pulled apart.
test cylinders Concretes design strength is measured with the use of test cylinders.
Concrete is poured into cylindrical molds, cured for a period of time, then compressed to
determine the point at which the concrete fails under compression.
T-girder A T-girder is a girder which has a T-shaped cross-section.
tie bars Tie bars are reinforcing bars at right angles and tied to the main reinforcement to
keep it in place. They are also bars extending across a construction joint.
tie wire Tie wire is a soft annealed wire (generally No. 16, No. 16, No. 15, or No. 14
gauge) that is used to secure intersections of reinforcing bars for the purpose of holding them
in place until placing the concrete is completed.
tied column A tied column is a column that is laterally reinforced with ties.
ties A tie is a closed hoop of small size reinforcing bar that encases longitudinal
reinforcing in columns. They may be circular, square, or rectangular.
tilt-up wall A tilt-up wall is cast-in-place wall constructed flat (or horizontal), then tilted
up or lifted into final vertical position in the structure.
tolerance Tolerance is the allowable variation from a given dimension, quantity or
position.
42

torch cutting Torch cutting or flame cutting refers to the process of cutting reinforcing
bars with an oxyacetylene torch.
torsion Torsion is the force which tends to twist a structural member.
transverse Transverse, or lateral, refers to reinforcing that is at right angles to the long
direction of the member (crosswise).
trim bars Trim bars are the additional bars required around the sides and corners of
openings in slabs and walls.
truss bars Truss bars are bent up and down to act as both top and bottom reinforcement.
two-span beam A two-span beam is supported by three columns in a straight line.
two-way flat plate slab A two-way flat plate slab consists of main reinforcing in both
directions without drop panels or column capitals.
two-way flat slab A two-way flat slab is a reinforced concrete slab that is reinforced in
two directions, with drop panels, generally without beams, and with or without column
capitals.
two-way joist system A two-way joint system, or waffle flat slab, is a reinforced concrete
floor or roof system with deep square indentations in the soffit. The indents lighten the slab
by removing concrete which adds no strength. It spans in two directions and is suitable for
large spans. (Named after the waffle-like appearance of the underside of the finished floor).
two-way system A two-way system is the arrangement of steel reinforcement within a
floor or roof system where the main reinforcement is in both directions perpendicular to each
other, intended to resist stresses due to bending in two directions.

U
uniform load A uniform load is any load that is distributed evenly over a relatively large
area of contact, such as a carpet or fill slab. See also "concentrated load."
upper beam bolster The upper beam bolster is a bar support for the upper or second layer
of bottom reinforcing bars in beams or girders and top bars in bridge deck slabs.
upturned beam An upturned beam is a concrete beam whose top surface extends above
the slab it is supporting.
43

V
vertical bar A vertical bar is any reinforcing bar used in an upright or vertical position, as
in a column. "
vertical shear Vertical shear is the internal stress in a reinforced concrete member
occurring close to a supporting member caused by the downward action of the load and the
upward resistance of the supporting member.
vibrator A vibrator is an oscillating machine used to agitate and consolidate fresh concrete
to eliminate voids or "honeycombs" before the concrete hardens.
void form A void form is any type of formwork that molds the concrete into a specific
shape forming a void or space. See also "domes" and "pans."

W
waffle slab A waffle slab, or two-way joist slab, is a reinforced concrete joist floor or roof
system with ribs running in both directions creating deep square indentations in the soffit. It
is suitable for long spans. (Named after the waffle-like appearance of the underside of the
finished floor).
wales Wales are braces for two or more form panels, palings, or studs, usually horizontal.
Often incorrectly called walers.
wall A vertical structural member which encloses, divides, supports or protects a building
or room.
wall bearing structure A wall bearing structure is a structure with the slabs (i.e., the
floors or roof) supported on walls, generally of masonry, eliminating columns and some of
the beams.
wall footing A wall footing is the part of a foundation for a structure that rests upon earth
and supports walls.
wall spreader A wall spreader is an accessory, usually fabricated from reinforcing bar to a
"Z" or "U" shape, used to separate and hold apart two faces or curtains of reinforcement in a
wall.
water-cement ratio The water-cement ratio is the number of gallons of water per sack of
cement.
44

web reinforcement Web reinforcement is reinforcement that is placed in a concrete


member to resist shear and diagonal tension.
weep hole A weep hole is a drainage opening in a wall.
welded splices Welded splices is a means of joining two reinforcing bars by electric arc
welding. Rebar may be lapped, butted, or joined with splice plates or angles.
welded wire reinforcement (WWR) Welded wire reinforcement is a wire product
manufactured by means of welding the crossing wires at their intersection, usually in flat
sheets (or rolls) and often used for shrinkage-temperature reinforcement in joist slabs, slabs
on ground and in highway pavements. Also known as wire mesh. Incorrectly referred to as
fabric.
welding Welding is the connecting or joining of two pieces of steel by use of high
temperature that uses molten material which when cooled, fuses the ends into a continuous
mass.
wind braces Wind braces are brackets or struts placed at columns to reduce bending of the
structure due to high wind forces.
wing wall A wing wall is a short retaining wall at the end of a bridge or culvert to retain
the earth.
wire bar supports Wire bar supports are manufactured from steel wire and come in
various configurations. Wire bar supports can be used individually to support single bars or
can be continuous to support a series of rebar. See CRSI Manual of Standard Practice.
wire mesh Mesh, or welded wire reinforcement, is a wire product manufactured by means
of welding the crossing wires at their intersection, usually in flat sheets (or rolls) and often
used for shrinkage-temperature reinforcement in joist slabs, slabs on ground and in highway
pavements.
Wire Reinforcement Institute (WRI) - The Wire Reinforcement Institute is an association
of Producers of welded wire reinforcement and wire products for concrete structures and
precast/prestressed components. The purpose of the Institute is to advance the industry
through scientific research, educational activities, engineering, product development and
general construction technology.
wire ties Wire ties are used to secure intersections of reinforcing bars to hold them in
place until the concrete has been placed.

45

work Work is the entire project (or separate parts) which is required to be completed under
the Contract Documents. Work is the result of performing services, furnishing labor, and
supplying and incorporating materials and equipment into the construction, all as required by
the Contract Documents.
work order The work order is a production list of material and the fabrication that is to be
done to the material by a certain date.
wrapping Wrapping is the reinforcing bars or welded wire reinforcement surrounding a
structural steel column or beam to reinforce concrete or plaster fireproofing.
WRI An acronym for "Wire Reinforcement Institute."
WWR An acronym for "welded wire reinforcement."
yield strength Yield strength is the load limit to which a reinforcing bar will stretch and
return to its original length.

Z
zinc coating A zinc coating is applied to reinforcing steel by dipping in a molten bath of
zinc to prevent corrosion. Also known as galvanizing.

46