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Legal Framework

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UNIT 2 Legal Framework:


Multilingualism in educational systems: from
Europe to Valencian Community
CONTENTS

I.- LEGAL FRAMEWORK IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT


1.- Introduction: multilingualism in the world
2.- A framework to European plurilingualism
3.- White Paper on Education and Training (1996)
4.- The Common European Framework of Reference
II.- LANGUAGES IN THE SPANISH EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
III.- LEGAL FRAMEWORK IN OUR AUTONOMIC CONTEXT
1.- General legal framework
2.- Implications of the general laws in the Valencian Education
System
3.- Educational system and languages in contact: Bilingual
Educational Models
4.- Bilingual and plurilingual educational programs
5.- Plurilingual Decree 127/2012

OUTCOMES

To get to know aspects of multilingualism worldwide.

To make a first approach to European multilingualism.

To know the Common European Framework of Reference

To learn about bilingualism in the EU countries.

To get to know the general regulations and legal framework about linguistic
programs in educational systems .

To learn about bilingual education models.

To analyze the general legal framework for education in our country and our
autonomous community.

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To get familiarized with the different multilingual educational programs in


Valencian Community.

To know the general organization of the Valencian educational system and the
legal framework, with special attention to bilingual and multilingual education
programs and the school planning documents that develop them.

To learn about plurilingualism in our educational system using the Decree


127/2012.

I.- LEGAL FRAMEWORK IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT


1.- Introduction: multilingualism in the world
To get a first approach to multilingualism in the world, we will open this unit watching a
couple of videos about multilingualism in Australia and in the USA.
TASK 1: "Towards Multilingualism" 1. Through this introductory video you will learn about the
benefits of multilingual education within a culturally diverse society and get ready to
ANSWER the questions in your handout 2.
TASK 2: "The importance of Foreign Languages. Did you know what the situation is like in US? 3 ".
Before watching the video, the questionnaire 4 about the situation of foreign languages in the us
educational system

2.- A framework to European plurilingualism


In his article, "The Types of the European Plurilingualism: Gateways to Creation of
Transnational Identities?", Boivoj Hnzdo addresses the current plurilingualism in the
member states of European Union 5. He seeks to answer three main questions:
whether the process of globalization and European integration leads to the increase of
plurilingualism amongst the EU citizens;
whether there are any plurilingualism models within EU that may be associated with
transnational European identities; and
whether there is a certain plurilingualism model that could create some sort of an all
European identity.
TASK 3: Read the mentioned article, as it can be an interesting source of sociological data
on language knowledge and teaching in EU countries. The data throughout the text serves
as a basis of the actual analysis, which is to predict several plurilingualism models within the
European language communities. Find the answers to these questions:
1.- How can plurilingualism be understood?
2.- What is multilingualism associated with?
1

Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KWzUT1UXO14 (running time: 07':23") Released on 24/10/2012


See Appendix 1: Towards multilingualism. Video practice
3
Video:The importance of Foreign Languages. Did you know what the situation is like in US? (running time: 3:48)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GpI1fNSk8m0
4
See Appendix 2: The importance of Foreign Languages. Did you know?
5
Source: http://alppi.eu/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/The-Types-of-the-European-Plurilingualism.pdf
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3.- What does first language mean?


4.- What do we understand by second language?
5.- How can a foreign language be explained?

3.- White Paper on Education and Training (1996)


The White Paper on Education and Training was the response to face the substantial
historical and social changes that had expanded the European boundaries by the end of the
last century. These changes demanded the expansion of knowledge, where foreign
languages naturally have a decisive role.
This document 6 was designed with two clear aims:
1.- to provide an analysis and
2.- to put forward guidelines for action in the fields of education and training.
It also stresses the importance for Europe of investment, particularly in education and
research. This investment in knowledge plays an essential role in employment,
competitiveness and social cohesion.
The main objectives of the White Paper on Education and Training are:

- encourage the acquisition of new knowledge;

- bring school and the business sector closer together;

- combat exclusion;

- develop proficiency in three European languages;

- treat capital investment and investment in training on an equal basis.

In initial education, the focus is shifting back to acquiring and mastering basic skills,
particularly the "three Rs":

reading,

writing and

arithmetic.

There is also a general movement towards advanced learning of foreign languages towards
the proficiency in three community languages. This is an extract with the most relevant
points from the fourth general objective (page 51):

It is no longer possible to reserve proficiency in foreign languages for an elite or


for those who acquire it on account of their geographical mobility.

In line with the resolution of the Council of Education Ministers of 31 March 1995, it
is becoming necessary for everyone, irrespective of training and education routes
chosen, to be able to acquire and keep up their ability to communicate in at least two
Community languages in addition to their mother tongue.

In order to make for proficiency in three Community languages, it is desirable for


foreign language learning to start at pre-school level.

It seems essential for such teaching to be placed on a systematic footing in primary


education, with the learning of a second Community foreign language starting in
secondary school.

You can read the official document at: http://europa.eu/documents/comm/white_papers/pdf/com95_590_en.pdf


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It could even be argued that secondary school pupils should study certain subjects in
the first foreign language learned, as is the case in the European schools.

To sum up, we can conclude with these four aims related to the European Quality Label:

Promote the learning of at least two Community foreign languages by all young
people.

Encourage innovatory language-teaching methods.

Spread the daily use of European foreign languages in schools of all levels.

Foster awareness of Community languages and cultures, and their early


learning.

4.- The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages 7


As we have seen in the previous sections, the concept of plurilingualism has grown in
importance in the Council of Europes 8 approach to language learning in recent years. The
Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEF) establishes the
following distinction between "plurilingualism" and "multilingualism":

Plurilingualism differs from multilingualism, which is the knowledge of a number of


languages, or the co-existence of different languages in a given society.

Multilingualism may be attained by simply diversifying the languages on offer in a


particular school or educational system, or by encouraging pupils to learn more than
one foreign language, or reducing the dominant position of English in international
communication.

The plurilingual approach emphasizes the fact that as an individual persons experience
of language in its cultural contexts expands, from the language of the home to that of
society at large and then to the languages of other peoples (whether learnt at school or
college, or by direct experience), he or she does not keep these languages and cultures in
strictly separated mental communicative compartments. There are metacognitive skills
which are common to all languages.
From this perspective, the aim of language education is profoundly modified. It is no longer
seen as simply to achieve mastery of one or two, or even three languages, each taken in
isolation, with the ideal native speaker as the ultimate model. Instead, the aim is to
develop a linguistic repertory, in which all linguistic abilities have a place. This implies, of
course, that the languages offered in educational institutions should be diversified and
students given the opportunity to develop a plurilingual competence.
Furthermore, once it is recognized that language learning is a lifelong task, the
development of a young persons motivation, skill and confidence in facing new language
experience out of school comes to be of central importance.
In this educational context, the Common European Framework of Reference has an
essential role. These are eight of its main objectives:
1) to provide a common basis for the elaboration of language syllabuses, curriculum
guidelines, examinations, textbooks, etc. across Europe.
7
8

You can read the complete document at: http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/source/framework_en.pdf


See: http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/cadre1_en.asp
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2) to describe in a comprehensive way what language learners have to learn in order to


use a language for communication and what knowledge and skills they have to
develop so as to be able to act effectively in a cultural context .
3) to define levels of proficiency which allow learners progress to be measured at each
stage of learning and on a life-long basis.
4) to overcome the barriers to communication among professionals working in the field
of modern languages, which arise from the different educational systems in Europe.
5) to provide the means for educational administrators, course designers, teachers,
teacher trainers, examining bodies, etc., to reflect on their current practice, with a
view to situating and coordinating their efforts and to ensuring that they meet the real
needs of the learners for whom they are responsible.
6) to enhance the transparency of courses, syllabuses and qualifications, thus
promoting international co-operation in the field of modern languages.
7) to facilitate the mutual recognition of qualifications obtained in different learning
contexts
8) promote European mobility.
For this purpose, the CEF not only provides a scaling of overall language proficiency in a
given language, but also a breakdown of language use and language competences which
will make it easier for practitioners to specify objectives and describe achievements of the
most diverse kinds in accordance with the varying needs, characteristics and resources of
learners.

The Common Reference Levels


It seems that an outline framework of six broad levels gives an adequate coverage of the
learning space relevant to European language learners for these purposes.
A
Basic user
A1
Breakthrough

A2
Waystage

B
Independent user
B1
B2
Threshold
Vantage

C
Proficient user
C1
C2
Effective
Mastery
Operational
Proficiency

SOME EXAMPLES OF LANGUAGE DESCRIPTORS 9


C2

C1

B2

OVERALL ORAL PRODUCTION


Can produce clear, smoothly flowing well-structured speech with an effective
logical structure which helps the recipient to notice and remember significant
points.
Can give clear, detailed descriptions and presentations on complex subjects,
integrating sub-themes, developing particular points and rounding off with an
appropriate conclusion.
Can give clear, systematically developed descriptions and presentations, with
appropriate highlighting of significant points, and relevant supporting detail.
Can give clear, detailed descriptions and presentations on a wide range of

Structured overview of all CEFR scales:


http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/education/elp/elp-reg/Source/Key_reference/Overview_CEFRscales_EN.pdf
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B1
A2

A1

C2
C1

B2

B1

A2
A1

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subjects related to his/her field of interest, expanding and supporting ideas with
subsidiary points and relevant examples.
Can reasonably fluently sustain a straightforward description of one of a variety of
subjects within his/her field of interest, presenting it as a linear sequence of points.
Can give a simple description or presentation of people, living or working
conditions, daily routines, likes/dislikes, etc. as a short series of simple phrases
and sentences linked into a list.
Can produce simple mainly isolated phrases about people and places.
OVERALL WRITTEN PRODUCTION
Can write clear, smoothly flowing, complex texts in an appropriate and effective
style and a logical structure which helps the reader to find significant points.
Can write clear, well-structured texts about complex subjects, underlining the
relevant salient issues, expanding and supporting points of view at some length
with subsidiary points, reasons and relevant examples, and rounding off with an
appropriate conclusion.
Can write clear, detailed texts on a variety of subjects related to his/her field of
interest, synthesising and evaluating information and arguments from a number
of sources.
Can write straightforward connected texts on a range of familiar subjects within
his field of interest, by linking a series of shorter discrete elements into a linear
sequence.
Can write a series of simple phrases and sentences linked with simple
connectors such as: and, but and because.
Can write simple isolated phrases and sentences.

CONSOLIDATION: VIDEO PRACTICE


TASK 4: In order to get a general idea about multilingualism in Europe, you may watch this
video 10 by Elisabeth Feigl where she explains why multilingualism is so important in Europe
nowadays. Elisabeth Feigl contributed to the "Poliglotti4.eu" project by selecting language
tools for learners and teachers and organizing the evaluation of these tools, all tools and
information are available on the Poliglotti4.eu website in the language tool section.
TO KNOW MORE
a) Take a look at the following selection of EU-funded classroom projects using several
languages form the EU.
(Source: http://europa.eu.int/comm/dgs/education_culture )
b) Read the article "The Challenge of Plurilingual Education: Promoting Transfer Across the
Language Curriculum" by Luciano Mariani
(Source: http://www.learningpaths.org/papers/plurilingualnaples.htm )

10

Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PJT5ph7QGUU (05':59 Released on 16/05/2012 )


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II.- LANGUAGES IN THE SPANISH EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM


TASK 5: WATCH the video El plurilingismo se impone en la escuela 11 about plurilingualism
in Castilla-La Mancha and draw some conclusions on this matter.
TASK 6: In the final installment of two-part series Spotlight on Spain, Marta Genis of the
Universidad Nebrija discusses the status of languages within the education system and the
importance of this to Spain as a whole. This is an extract of the main ideas about
"Languages in the Spanish Education System" 12:
The preservation of cultural and linguistic diversity should be a main priority of
Spanish language policy as it can affect greatly the rich variety of languages we enjoy.
Cultivating language skills is absolutely necessary in this plurilingual world of ours for
various reasons:
1. firstly, they are the most outstanding vehicles for culture;
2. secondly, they help value and respect other cultures, accepting differences
more easily and
3. thirdly, they enable people to benefit from opportunities in employment and
mobility.
In addition, using different languages is necessary in order to participate in the social
and political life of our plurilingual European countries.
Thus, it is vital to adapt the education system to these new human needs since
language is the most important mark of identity.
The models for languages in education in Spain vary not only between areas, but
also within them.
For example, in Valencia (a bilingual community) there are different language models
for non-university education.
In the Castilian-speaking area Valencian is taught as a subject and the usual
teaching language is Castilian.
In the Valencian-speaking area there are several programs which include beginning
with Valencian taught as a subject and gradually incorporating other subjects in that
language; and teaching wholly in Valencian.
TASK 7: To consolidate vocabulary, go to Appendix 3, "Working with words".

III.- LEGAL FRAMEWORK IN OUR AUTONOMIC CONTEXT


In this section, we will study the different regulations governing language programs. We will
also introdce the linguistic models that have been implemented in schools so far, as well as
the new model originated by the decree of plurilingualism.

11

Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=23IwacIgjVs
SOURCE: http://languagerichblog.eu/2011/11/07/spotlight-on-spain-%E2%80%93-languages-in-the-spanisheducation-system/
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1.- General legal framework


a) Spanish constitution
Article 3.
1. Spanish is the official language of the state. All Spanish citizens have the duty to know
it and the right to use it.
2. The other Spanish languages are also official in the respective Autonomous
Communities in accordance with their Statutes.
3. The richness of the linguistic modalities of Spain is a cultural heritage that is an object
of special respect and protection.
b) Organic law LO 5/1982 LO 1/2006 (Statute of Autonomy of the Valencian Community,
DOGV nm. 5238)
Article 6.
1. The language of the Valencian Community is Valencian.
2. Valencian is the official language in the Valencian Community, as is Spanish, which
is the official language of the state. Everyone is entitled to know them and use them and
to receive teaching of Valencian and in Valencian.
3. The Government will guarantee the normal and official use of the two official
languages, and will take the necessary measures to ensure their knowledge.
4. No one shall be discriminated against because of their language.
5. Special protection and respect for the recovery of the Valencian language is granted.
6. The law shall establish the criteria for applying the autonomous language in
administration and education.
7. Predominant areas where one language or the other are used, are established by
the Law, as well as those cases when a person can be exempted from the teaching and
the use of Valencian.
8. The Valencian Language Academy is the institution that establishes the norms for
the Valencian language.
c) Law of use and teaching of Valencian
Article 19.
2. (), at the end of the cycles in which the incorporation of Valencian teaching is
declared mandatory, and of which language students have initiated their studies in, an
equal level of competence in Valencian and in Spanish, both orally and in writing, should
be achieved.
Articles 35 and 36 establish the predominant Valencian speaking areas (Art. 35) and
Spanish speaking areas (Art. 36)

2.- Implications of the general laws in the Valencian Education System


1. Valencian is one of the official languages of the Valencian Community.
2. Learning the Valencian language is compulsory in the Valencian Education System.
3. All students must achieve an equal command of the two official languages at the end of
compulsory schooling.
4. The pedagogical organization of the education system must ensure the achievement of
the previous goal.
5. The education system should extend the use of Valencian as a language of instruction.
6. All teachers must understand both official languages of the community.
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7. Educational administration should ensure availability of competent teachers in different


languages for each school so that they can accomplish their Educational Project.
8. Education administration has to foster and move towards plurilingualism and implement
progressively these programs in all kinds of schools.

3.- Educational system regarding languages in contact: Bilingual


Educational Models
Objectives
The aim is monolingualism: to leave
student's L1 behind and teach only using
L2.
The dominant language L2 becomes, the
sooner the better, the only language used
in teaching, and the subordinated language
L1 remains finally as a mere subject or
disappears completely.
The aim is bilingualism and biliteracy.
Student's L1 is maintained so that it can
become the basis for L2 learning, but the
L1 is not developed.
The less spoken language is studied as a
subject, being used as a vehicle in teaching
only for students that have it as their mother
tongue, but not by users of the most spoken
language.
The aim is bilingualism and biliteracy as
well as extension of the minority language
into the community and nationally.
The two languages in contact have to be
studied as a subject and used as a
vehicular language in teaching by the two
collectives of speakers: the less spoken
and the most spoken language.

Model

COMPENSATORY
or TRANSITIONAL
(Substractive
program/ weak)

MANTEINANCE

Addresses

The two languages in


contact have to be studied
as a subject and used as a
vehicular
language
in
teaching
by
the
two
collectives of speakers: the
less spoken and the most
spoken language.

(Additive program/
moderate)

ENRICHMENT
(Additive program/
strong)

Designed for the whole


community and not just for
the less spoken language
speakers.

4.- Bilingual and plurilingual educational programs


One of the basic premises of bilingual and plurilingual education was and is that all
students, regardless of their geographic origin, regardless of their usual language, and their
sociocultural backgrounds, were to achieve the same objectives at the end of compulsory
education. But if we look at the reality in schools, several factors, including the socio
linguistic context, the diversity of students and the attitudes and expectations of parents,
make up quite diverse application contexts throughout our different territories.
Consequently, the heterogeneity of these starting positions has marked differences in the
route to be followed by each school in order to reach the objectives, which are the same for
all students at the end of compulsory education.

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Up until now the bilingual education enrichment model aimed that students should reach
an equal linguistic competence in any of the official languages, and a positive psychosocial
behaviour and tolerance.
Therefore, we offered an education system which was structured in bilingual educational
programmes and, more recently, plurilingual: i.e., an organizational pattern with three or
more languages that articulates a minimum set of provisions -related to the curriculum
design and development, the social and administrative use of the less spoken language,
the use of a foreign language in one part of the curriculum and the organization of
resources-so that pupils and students, regardless of the usual language and sociocultural
experiences they bring to school, had to achieve the objectives in all based on
psycholinguistic and socio linguistic reality in order to achieve predetermined
goals, were adopted.
Attending to the growing social demand to incorporate more presence of foreign languages
at schools for personal and professional development, the Plurilingual Educational
Programs have gained more and more strength. These programmes are a way of school
and of educational organization, in which more than two languages are used as a means of
instruction, and that tries to provide students who are linguistically and culturally diverse
from the beginning, with competence in two or more languages, an optimal command of
one or two foreign languages, the contents of different subjects, and an enriching
sociocultural integration 13.
Plurilingual Educational Programs in the Valencian Community articulate the referred
factors to:
- The curriculum area: vehicular use of languages (Specific Design of the Program, DPP or
School Linguistic project, SLP).
- The use of Valencian area: administrative or social, academic or pedagogic management,
didactic interaction, interrelation with social-family context
Therefore, all the organizational documents of the school must be consistent with the
programme chosen in order to meet the specific requirements of the school context.
The classification of programs has been based on three elements:
1. the territory,
2. the basic learning language and
3. students usual language:
a) Spanish speaking predominant area: Valencian language is usually treated as a
subject, outside of bilingual educational programs. Optionally, a bilingual educational one
can be developed.
b) Valencian speaking predominant area:
- Teaching through Valencian Program (PEV)
- Linguistic Immersion Program (PIL) (Only in Primary Education)
- Progressive incorporation program (PIP)
The elements taken into account when specifying the different programs are:
The language of the environment, commonly used in the social environment and the
regular context of students.
13

See Appendix 4

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The need for a major vehicular use in Valencian language, from an additive
plurilingualism perspective.
The attitude of parents towards the presence of Valencian at school.
The basic learning language in which reading and writing will be introduced, and in
which most part of the contents will be taught.
The vehicular use of the different languages: Valencian, Spanish and Foreign
Language/s.

Teaching through Valencian Program (PEV)


In predominant Valencian speaking areas, centres with a majority of Valencian Teaching
through Valencian Program, which will involve the use of Valencian as a basic learning
language throughout the infant and primary education. The Teaching through Valencian
Program continues in ESO, in a coherent way. In this program, most non-linguistic subjects
have Valencian language as the vehicular language for learning.
Linguistic Immersion Program (PIL)
Schools which have a major Spanish speakers number of students, located in predominant
Valencian speaking area, may adopt the linguistic immersion programs, in which, from the
voluntary choice of families and the respect to the students usual language, students will
achieve mastery of both official languages and a good performance in the content of other
subjects, by using a specific methodology. The linguistic immersion programmes continue
as a Teaching through Valencian program in secondary school (ESO), in a coherent way.
Progressive Incorporation Program (PIP)
Primary: Schools located in predominant Valencian speaking areas that do not apply the
Teaching through Valencian Programme or Linguistic Immersion Programme; adopt the
Progressive Incorporation Programme, in which the basic language for learning is Spanish.
The Specific design of the PIP will include, at least, the subject of Natural, Social and
Cultural Environment, taught in Valencian after the third year of primary education.
Schools located in predominant Spanish speaking areas, stated in Article 36 of the same
law and who wish to join a bilingual education program, must count on the parents or
guardians expressly stated will and on the schools organizational possibilities, to start with.
Spanish speaking Area
Centres in predominantly Spanish speaking areas located in Article 36th of the Law of Use
and teaching of Valencian will be able to join a bilingual education program, always
counting on the previous stated will of parents or guardians.
Enriched Bilingual Education Programs (PEVE, PILE, PIPE)
Order of 30th of June, 1998 (DOGV no. 3258 of 14 July 1998), allows any school in the
Valencian Community to incorporate the use of a foreign language as a vehicular or an
instruction language in Primary School.
In this respect, Resolution of 30th of July, 2008 lays down the basic requirements, criteria
and procedures to implement a plurilingual education program that allows a first approach
in promoting English language in the second cycle of infant education from 4-year-olds
onwards in schools teaching part of the curricular contents through this language 14.

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From 2010 onwards, Secondary Schools could apply for the experimentation of the plurilingual program. The

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All these enriched programs have been converted into two plurilingual programs by
Decree 127/2012:
PPEV: (Valencian Teaching Plurilingual Program): Valencian is the language base.
PPEC (Spanish Teaching Plurilingual Program): Spanish is the language base.

5.- Plurilingual Decree 127/2012


Objectives:

To improve the linguistic competence of the citizens of the Valencian Community, in


foreign languages as well as in Valencian and Spanish.
To give a coofficial treatment to languages that guarantees the acquisition of
linguistic competences both in Valencian and in Spanish.
To respond to the growing social demand to advance progressively towards
plurilingualism and linguistic diversity which defines the most advanced societies.
To acknowledge the efforts made by the Valencian Community teaching centres
towards plurilingualism.
To encourage and stimulate the already existing plurilingual programs
To facilitate the indispensable teacher training in curricular languages and in the
specific methodology required for the application of plurilingual programs.

TO KNOW MORE
http://www.gva.es/contenidos/publicados/multimedia/pdf_plur_cast.pdf

requirements can be seen at this website: http://www.edu.gva.es/ocd/sedev/val/pluri_sec.htm

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APPENDIX 1

TOWARDS MULTILINGUALISM
- An introductory video WATCH this University video exploring the
benefits of multilingual education within a
culturally diverse society and get ready to
ANSWER the questions:
Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KWzUT1UXO14
(Running time: 07':23" Released on 24/10/2012)

1.- How is "multilingualism" described by the first speaker?

2.- Which main differences would you spot between the two multilingual classroom situations?

3.- FILL in this table with appropriate figures:


Languages spoken throughout the world, according to UNESCO
World's population believed to speak approximately 20% of the languages in the
world
Different mother tongues that can be spoken among students of a same school
Australians that were born or have at least one parent born overseas
Languages spoken in Australia, according to statistics
8.- State three benefits of multilingualism.

9.- Write down some reasons for the students in the video to learn foreign languages.

10.- State some of the advantages of multilingualism.


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APPENDIX 2

The importance of Foreign Languages. Did you know?


BEFORE WATCHING
*Read the following questions and choose the answer you consider to be correct.
1.- How many living languages are there in the world?
a) 6.192

b) 5.387

c) 7.810

2.- Which language has the greatest number of native speakers?


a) English

b) Russian

c) Chinese

3.- Which language has the greatest number of non-native speakers?


a) English

b) Spanish

c) German

4.- How many children in China are studying English?


a) 200 million

b) less than 200 million

c) more than 200 million

5.- How many children in the US are studying any foreign language?
a) 580.000

b) 170.000

c) 24.000

6.- Which language is not listed as critical need by the US Department of Defense?
a) Arabic

b) German

c) Korean

7.- ___________ of US elementary schools offer foreign languages.


a) 31%

b) 53%

c) 77%

8.- How many undergraduates study a foreign language at university in US?


a) 80%

b) 49%

c) 8%

9.- __________ of college degrees in US are in a foreign language.


a) 10%

b) 1%

c) 15%

10.- Bilinguals show a _____________ decline in mental powers with age.


a) slower

b) faster

c) dramatic

* Watch the video and check your answers.


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APPENDIX 3

WORKING ON KEY VOCABULARY


Spotlight on Spain Languages in the Spanish Education System
In the final installment of our two-part series Spotlight on Spain, Marta Genis of the
Universidad Nebrija discusses the status of languages within the education system and the
importance of this to Spain as a whole
SOURCE: http://languagerichblog.eu/2011/11/07/spotlight-on-spain-%E2%80%93-languages-in-the-spanish-education-system/

TASK 1
FOLLOW THE HINTS TO FILL IN THE GAPS IN THIS EXTRACT WITH ENGLISH WORDS.

The ... (1) to . (2) in a (3) is . (4) in


todays ... (5). It is also a pressing .. (6) within the ... (7) of
European ... (8), as movement of .. (9) and workers between the
. (10) of the ... (11) Community .. (12) along
with foreign .. (13), cultural . (14) and communication of
. (15) and (16).

TASK 2
GO ON COMPLETING THE TEXT WITH THE WORDS PROVIDED IN THE BOX
There is, (1), a great . ... (2) for providing students with a
.. (3) in a . (4) in . (5)
education. Spain, a .. (6) country, with ... (7) official .. (8), lots
of ..... (9) and many ... (10) languages present in .
.... (11), should be ... (12) to ...(13) foreign languages.
communicative competence
everyday life
immigration
multilingual

compulsory
foreign language
languages
sensitive

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dialects
four
learning
social demand

therefore

CLIL

Legal Framework

APPENDIX 4

16

UNIT 2

CLIL

Legal Framework

UNIT 2

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CONSELLERIA DE CULTURA, EDUCACI I CINCIA, 1989. Dossier d'Ensenyaments en


valenci. Suport nm 3, Generalitat Valenciana.
ESCOLANO, J., ESPAA, A., MIR, M., PASCUAL, A. 1992. El Projecte i el Pla de
Normalitzaci Lingstica d'un centre d'Educaci Infantil i Primria. Nm. Extraordinari,
Generalitat Valenciana.
ESPAA, A., PASCUAL, V., 1993. Guia per a l'Anlisi del Context del Centre. Nm.
Extraordinari, Generalitat Valenciana.
ORIOLA, R, SORIANO I CABO, M.J., CUNYAT, S., MONCLS, C., 1992. El Programa
d'Immersi. Suport nm. 8, Generalitat Valenciana.
PASCUAL, V., SALA, V., 1991. Un model educatiu per a un sistema escolar amb tres
llenges. 1. Proposta organitzativa, Generalitat Valenciana.
PASCUAL, V., SALA, V., 1991. Una proposta de planificaci educativa dins el model
d'enriquiment d'educaci bilinge en el sistema valenci. Suport 5, Generalitat
Valenciana.
PASCUAL, V., 2006. El tractament de les llenges en un model d'educaci
plurilinge.(Suport nm. 15), Generalitat Valenciana.
LEGISLATION
All regulations related to the subject can be found by clicking the "Legal Framework"
at http://www.edu.gva.es/ocd/sedev/val/sedev.htm

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