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Unofficial Pre-midterm Study Terms

Study Question
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The Monarchy

The Republic

The Principate

Disclaimer: This is unofficial!

You are asking your fellow students for help, and I (Elizabeth) am in no way "correcting" these or
vouching for the information here. This should be viewed as sharing notes with your other students.
It can be helpful, but it could also be wrong, so best to double check against your own notes!


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The Monarchy: The roman monarchy marks the beginning of Rome.There were seven kings who ruled Rome at the
beginning of its history. April 21, 753 B.C. is the legendary date of the founding of Rome by Romulus. In this period, it is Hu
the classic one King rules all area. However, this created many conflicts and it only lasted from 753-509BC.
The Republic: The Roman Republic was the period of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the
Roman Kingdom (aka the monarchy), traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the
Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to
hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. This is the period that no one man can be powerful enough to rule the
entire country, however, laws are passed by many politicians and army generals. It marks the time of early democracy
in the human history.
The Principate is the first period of the Roman Empire, which extended from the beginning of Augustus Caesar to the
Crisis of the Third Century, after which it evolved into the dominate. It lasted from 27BC to 284AD. The principate is
characterized by a concerted effort on the part of the emperors to preserve the illusion of the formal continuance of the
Roman Republic.


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Aeneas is the credited founder of the Roman people (though not Rome itself) in Virgil's Aeneid. After escaping troy with
his father (Anchises) and his son (Iulus), Aeneus travels to Carthage where he meets, falls in love with (with the
assitance of Juno) and marries Dido. This, however, is a diversion from his fate (the founding of Lavinia in Italy) and so
Mercury is sent down to get him back on course. Aeneaus leaves driving Dido to commit suicide but not before
swearing vengence between her people and his and predicting Hannibal. Once in Italy, Aeneuas marries Lavinia (for
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whom he names his city) and fights Turnus (a local king who was supposed to marry Lavinia). Aeneas lives for a few
more years. His son will go on to found Alba Longa where Romulus and Remes will be born and who will eventually
found Rome. Aeneaus represents the Roman ideal of piety in his interactions with the gods, his relationship wiht his
father and his duty to his people.


Achates was a Trojan and a close friend of Aeneas. He accompanied Aeneas in the whole story. Achates first showed
up during the storm when heading to Sicily (Book 1). Achates led Aeneas to the Sybil in Cumae (Book 6). He is
portrayed as a faithful comrade.

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Ascanius/Lulus: Ascanius is the son of Aeneis and Aeneis' first wife, Creusa. Although he is a child throughout the
Aeneid, he displays bravery when he defends the Trojan camp against Turnus' attack by shooting an arrow and killing
Turnus' brother-in-law Numanus. Ascanius is also called Lulus, a name popularized by the Aeneid, that ties him to the
Julian family.



Dido is the founder of the Phoenician city of Carthage. She was originally from Tyre but fled after her husband was
assassinated by her brother, Pygmalion. She is also known for founding a city without shedding blood but through
cunning and diplomacy. In the Aeneid, she offers shelter to the shipwrecked Aeneas and his Trojans and later falls in
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love with him with the help of the Gods. When Jupiter forces Aeneas to leave for Italy, Dido get her heartbroken and kills
herself but before she does, curses Aeneas' descendants and hers to forever be mortal enemies.


Pygmalion is the evil brother of Dido, the founder and queen of Carthage. He murders Dido's husband, the wealthy
Tyrian merchant called Sychaeus in order to take over his wealth. Dido, however leaves Tyre with the wealth before
Pygmalion could put his hands on it.

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Sychaeus was the late husband of Dido, the founder of Carthage. He was a rich merchant in the city of Tyre but was
assassinated by his brother in law, Pygmalion, who wanted to take over hsi wealth.

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Juno is the queen of the gods and the Roman analog of the Greek goddess Hera. In the context of the Aeneid, Juno
despises the Trojans due to a beauty contest, and consequently unleashes her wrath on Aeneas's crew after the fall of
Troy because Aeneas is associated with the predicted destruction of Carthage, a city to which she holds dear. Although Wen
she ultimately fails to steer Aeneas from his destiny, Juno settles with Jupiter so that Latins would retain their Latin
identity, rather than be subsumed underneath the Trojans, and so that the Latins would recognize her as their patron





Aeolus is the ruler of wind in Greek mythology. He appears in Aeneid Book 1, where Juno asked him to bring a fierce
storm to the Trojans as they sail in search for a harbor. However, Neptune(the god of the ocean) then sensed the
presence of the storm and stopped Aeolus in time.

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Venus mother of Aeneas, and wife of Anchises. She is the goddess of beauty and erotic love. She tries to protect
Aeneas from Juno (when she tries to hurt him) in his journey. Venus is a benefactor of the Trojans




Neptune is the god of the sea and the counterpart version of Poseidon from the Greek religion. In the Aeneid, neptune
makes sure Aeneas makes it safely across his voyage to the promised lands of Italy. Although he was against the
Trojans during the Trojan war, Neptune was origanlly one of the woshipped gods of Troy. He apparently built the walls
of Troy.

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Jove is the King of the gods and his wife is Juno. His appearance in the last book (Book 12) in Aeneid shows him as
controlled and reasonable, especially when compared to his wife's volatile emotions and how she's bent on revenge.
Although he allows Aeneas to be distracted along his way to his destined land, he directs Aeneas' overall progress to
ensure that he is still pursuing his destiny in Italy. To me, Jove appears as the reigning power -- even Juno, who uses
her power to manipulate other divine figures and humans, obeys the words of Jove. He makes it appear as if the other
gods need to battle against each other to have their wills implemented while Jove's will is seen as "fate".

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Priam was the king of Troy during the Trojan war and was the son of Laomedon. After Hector was killed by Achilles he
went to the Greek camps, guarded by Hermes, to retrieve his son's body and give him a proper funeral. After the
temporary truce, the fighting resumed, Troy was sacked and razed. At the altar of Zeus, Priam's son(polites) was killed
in front of him and shortly after trying to launch a spear at Pyrrhus, he is killed at the same altar.

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Pyrrhus was the King of Epirus who invaded Italy in 280BCE. He won the battle of Asculum against the Roman army
albeit with great cost. This battle was where the term "pyrrhic victory" originated.



Hector was the Troy's great hero who is killed by Achilles, the Greek's hero, in the war at Troy. Hector is portrayed as a
very honorable man as agreat warrioir, husband, father and son. Aeneaus assumes many of these qualities as the
main survivor of the sack at Troy and thus Troy's legacy as Hector was meant to be. It is Hector's ghost, even, that
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warns Aeneaus to leave Troy with his family. Aeneaus' battle with Turnus at the end of the Aeneid is meant to mimic the
fight between Hector and Achilles with the Trojans finally winning.



Sinon was a Greek who pretended to be a deserter in order to manipulate the Trojans into bringing the Wooden Horse
into Troy. He told the Trojans that he had been left behind by the Greeks to die.







Anchises is the father of Aeneas, and husband of Venus. When Aeneas fled from Troy, he carries Anchises on his back,
which demonstrates his pietas. Anchises died on the way from Troy to Itaty, but in the underworld, Anchises shows
Aeneas a tableau of the events that will lead to Romes pinnacle, which enable Aeneas to realize his historical role and Anqi Song 14



Household gods. They were responsible for watching over the household and ensuring good fortune for the family.
Aeneas was renowned for his devotion to his household gods. As he was fleeing Troy, he was sure to save the statues A Halliday
of his household gods and keep them with him for the whole duration of his journey from Troy to Italy.
Laocoon: He was a Trojan priest of Neptune who was wary of the Trojan Horse and argued against bringing it in the
gates of the city. He threw a spear at the horse, almost exposing the Greeks hiding inside but the Trojans are then
convinced to bring it inside the city by the Greek Sinon. Laocoon continues to protest and then two snakes emerge from A Halliday
the sea and kill him and his two sons. The was seen as a sign of the gods to bring the horse inside and shows the
extent of interference by the gods.

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First wife of Aeneas, and mother of their son, Ascanius. Creusa fled with Aeneas and their family during the sack of Tro Abyasa Kamdani 12
Daughter of Jupiter and Leda, wife of Menelaus, consort of Paris; her abduction by him from Sparta was the cause of
the Trojan War








One of Dido's many suitors and the king of Newmedia. Dido recieves her kindom from him after fleeing her brother.
Iarbus is the king who says that Dido can have as much land as is enclosed in a cow's or ox's hide so Dido cuts the hide
into strips to outline her new city and the new kindom to come, Carthage. Iarbus also comes and tries to offer Dido his Sam Ridge 12
hand in marriage but she turns him down citing her dead husband, Sychaeus, a pattern she doesnt break until falling for

"a hunter.... strikes her from afar..... etc"

The quote is from Book 4 lines 86-92 of the Aeneid and reads "Dido burns with lovethe tragic queen. She wanders in
frenzy through her city streets like a wounded doe caught all off guard by a hunter stalking the woods of Crete, who
strikes her from afar and leaves the his winging steel in her flesh, and hes unaware but she veers in flight through
Dictes woody glades, fixed in her side the shaft that takes her life." Virgil is comparing Dido's instant infatuation with
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Aeneas with Silvia's deer being hit by a hunters bow. This could be taken as forshadowing for the killing of Silvia's deer
by Ascanius' hand that causes war with Latium, much like how Aeneas accidently hits Dido with the his love causeing
her to kill herself when he announces he's leaving.
This is from line 779 in book 4 of the Aeneid. As Dido kills herself because Aeneas leaves she gives a final cry of spite,
hate and anger. She curses the Trojan peoples and vows that her decendants and Aeneas' will never be at peace. This
line then, is Virgil foreshadowing the hatred between Rome and Carthage during the punic wars. Virgil lived from 70
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BCE to 19 BCE but the third Punic War was from 149-146 BCE so this is an attempt to provide a myth history reason for
the conflict similar to how Agustus is forshadowed to be a decendant of Aeneas as he is dipicted in the shield from book



"Come rising up from my bones, you avenger...."




the Sibyl





Volcanic caves near modern day Naples where Aeneas finds the Sibyl and descends to the underw Ivan Hu 14



The ferryman of Hades who carries souls of the newly deceased across the rivers that divided the world of living and wo Abyasa Kamdani 12

Avernus - ancient volcanic crater lake near Cumae (modern day Naples). In the Aeneid, this is the entrance to the
underworld. Aeneas and the Sibyl travel to the underworld using this entrance in Book 6.
The Sibyl is a character in Virgil's Aeneid, featured in Book 6. She is an oracle of Apollo and lives in Cumae, near
Naples and Lake Avernus. She gives Aeneas the task of finding the golden bough in order to take him to Dis, the
underwolrd. The Sibyl serves as Aeneas' guide through the underworld.


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The Fields of Mourning

Fields of Mourning is a fictional place that appears in Aeneid. Its a place in the underworld where lovers who committed
suicide dwell. It book 6 of Aeneid, Aeneas met Dido there. Aeneas speaks to Dido with some regret and sadness,
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claiming that he left her due to fate rather than his own will, but Dido turns away from Aeneas toward the shade of her
husband, Sychaeus, and Aeneas sheds tears of pity.


The Fortunate Groves

A place in The Aeneid. It is a sub-section of Dis (the Underworld) where Aeneas see his father Anchises. It is here
where Anchises explains to Aeneas his destiny and the future of the Roman people. This is also where Aeneas sees the Julia Lyter 13
procession of the future great Roman descendants that will go on to lead Rome to greatness.

But you, Roman, remember These will be your arts: The full quote on the Romans to be Aeneass descendants is
spoken by his father, Anchises, in book 6 of the Aeneid. He says to Aeneas, But you, Roman, remember, rule with all
your power/ the peoples of the earththese will be your arts:/ to put your stamp on the works and ways of peace,/ to
"But you, Roman, remember... these will be your arts" spare the defeated, break the proud in war (6.981-6.984). Anchises means that the Romans will be less artistic and
less refined in abstract matters than the Greeks in general, but that they will succeed in conquest. The scene takes
place in the underworld, entered by Aeneas at Cumae. Anchises sees the souls of those yet to be born, as part of his
experience of being in the Fortunate Groves.






Lavinia: she is daughter of Latinus, the king of Latins. Latinus was warned by his father Faunus in a dream that Lavinia
should not marry a Latin; instead she should marry a foreigner. On Aeneas arrival, he became the best suit. Aeneas
won the war against Turnus and finally married Lavinia. They had a son Silvius and the city Lavinium was named after Li
Turnus: in Aenieid, Turnus was the main opponent of Aeneas. Turnus was the king of the Rutuli and he was thought to
marry Lavinia. However, Lavinia was promised to Aeneas on his arrival. Juno fired a war between Turnus and Aeneas.
Aeneas killed Turnus out of anger in the end because Turnus killed Pallas. OR Turnus: Turnus, the ruler of the
Li/ Nho
Rutulians in Italy, is Aeneis' main antagonist in the Aeneid. He is to be married to Lavinia until Aeneis arrives. Although
Latinus, the king of Latium, is willing to allow Aeneis and the Trojans to settle in Latium, Turnus wages war against the
Trojans. Turnus eventually is killed by Aeneis at the end of the Aeneid.





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Allecto (the Fury): furies are personified curses in Roman and Greek mythology/psuedo-history. This particular Fury
originally sent to torment Amata and drives her mad; she then appears to Turnus to warn him of his impending doom in
book 7 of the Aeneid and he ignores her. Subsequently she shoves a torch in his chest and from then on he's "cursed"
in a way and is always angry which impairs his judgement. This is all still a part of Juno's machination's against Aeneas Woodson
and the Trojans; she still rebels against the knowledge that the Trojans will prevail and hopes that Turnus' "power up"
will turn the tides in her favor. It doesn't.


Allecto (Fury)












Silvia's deer

In Virgils Aeneid, Silvias deer was a magnificent animal nurtured by Tyrrhus, the keeper of the kings herds. His
daughter Silvia dotes on the deer. Ascanius shot Silvias deer during hunting. Even though, Ascanius meant no harm,
he provoked a war against Latium.


Gates of War

In Aeneid Book 7, whenever the Romans prepared to march into battle against an enemy, they would open the Gates of
War. The Gates of War was an enormous gates of brass and iron constructed by Mars, the god of war. Opening these
gates, they believed themselves to be releasing the Furies who would encourage soldiers to fight. The Gate of War was Yongsheng Li 12
opened by Juno.







Latium is at the mouth of the Tiber River. Latinus, the king of Latium, welcomed Aeneas during his exile. Latinus wanted
to married his daughter Lavinia to Aeneas, but she had been promised to Turnus. This decision provoked conflicts
between Aeneas people and the Latium local tribes. As a result of the negotiation between the Jove and Juno, people Yongsheng Li 13
in Latium were able to keep their Latin tradition in return of losing the war. Therefore, people in Latium honored Juno.
Turnus was the king of the Rutulians and in Virgil's The Aeneid he competed with Aeneas to marry Livinia and become
king of the Latins. Etruria was above Latium and Livy later writes about the conflict created out of this conflict. The
Rutulians were strongly connected to the later Etruscan peoples and so myth history here was explaining why real world Sam Ridge 13
conflicts happened for the Romans (who started out as Latins).

Camilla: a young girl who fought against the Trojans in the last books of the Aeneid. She was the leader of the Volsci
and was Turnus' ally. She had superhuman powers and was practically unstoppable, but was eventually defeated by
the Trojans and their allies. This came about when she singled in on one soldier -- Chloreus, and this made her so
distracted that another soldier--Arruns, killed her with a spear. Camilla's defeat symbolized how the coming of the
Trojans brought an end to the rural "Golden Age" of Italy.

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Nisus is the elder friend of Euryalus in the Aeneid, and the two as a pair volunteer to establish communication with
Aeneas to warn him of Turnus's attack. On their expedition, they slaughter their sleeping enemy, but because Euryalus Wen
loots a conspicuous helmet, the two are eventually caught and killed. It is also ambiguous as to whether the relationship
between Nisus and Euryalus was platonic or romantic.




Numanus Remulus

Euryalus was the lover of Nisus. The couple volunteered to deliver the message from Ascanius to Aeneas but when
they snuck out at night, they noticed that the Latin army was asleep. Siezing this opportunity, they killed many of the
captains in the enemy camp. However, Euryalus decided to take the helmet of a Latin captain as a token but was
spotted by enemy horsemen. Euryalus was captured while Nisus was able to escape but decided to save his lover. In
the end, both men got killed, Their heads were put on stakes and paraded before the Trojans by the enemies. When
Euryalus' mom heard about his son's death, she wept with grief, lowering the morale of the Trojan men.

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After sneaking into a Latin camp to kill enemy soldiers as they slept, Nisus and Euryalus escaped to return to the
Romans. Before leaving the camp, Euryalus stole and put on the reflective, expensive helmet that belonged to
Messapus. The helmet reflected light into the eyes of patrolling Latin soldiers and gave away the position of the two
Romans. Euryalus theft of the helmet, along with his taking of other spoils at the camp, is meant to draw attention to the Tevin Franklin 12
negative consequences of greed, as part of the overall theme of luxury being an unacceptable vice to the Romans, as
Virgil implies.


Messapus' Helmut






Father Apennine

Father Appennine refers to the mountain range that runs along the Italian peninsular.

Faunuss Olive Tree: Aeneas defiled the tree by cutting it down to make way for combat space. During his single
combat with Aeneas, Turnus prays to Faunus to hold on to Aeneass spear, which is lodged in the stump. Turnus
reminds Faunus of his previous honoring of Faunus in ritual, and of Aeneass failure to do so. This scene highlights the Tevin Franklin 13
importance of ritual to the Roman gods, more so than practiced passive belief. It also demonstrates yet again the
profound, direct effect on Roman life that Virgil implies that the gods have, showing that gods and Romans can go so far
as to have direct conversation.


Faunus' olive tree




Palls' sword belt


In ancient Rome, Jaturna was the Goddess of fountains, wells, and springs. She was also the sister of Turnus, and
aided him in the fight against Aeneas by taking him away from battle when he was about to be killed as well as giving
him a sword when he dropped it in battle.

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Pallas sword belt: Pallas sword belt is the item that triggers Aeneass desire to kill Turnus as an act of vengeance after
Turnus killed Pallas and looted his valuables. This item fits with the theme of luxury in the epic, comparable to
Messapus helmet. The belt is described as being jewel encrusted, and had it not been so recognizable, Aeneas might Franklin
have spared Turnus.

Tribune of the Plebs

Tribune of the Plebs: A government position in the Republic, and on the Cursus Honorum. Members were always
elected from the Plebeian class. They were sacrosanct - if they were threatened the entire plebs could strike and
abandon the city. Were responsible for protecting the plebs against the patricians, and could veto any other magistrate.
However the veto could be undone by a veto on that veto from another Tribune of the Plebs. Although theoretically
powerful they tended to be from the upper echelons of the plebs and thus kept to the conservative line espoused by the
Senatorial class. After the Battle
of the Allia in 390 BC however, they did propose the radical solution of relocating to Veii after the sack of Rome.
Gauls: They were the Celtic peoples that lived north of the Romans. In 400 BCE, when Rome was still a small state, the
Gauls invaded and successfully defeated the Romans. This was the first and only time that anyone had reached and
breached Romes city walls. Rome had attempted to push the Gauls back. However, they failed, and lost most of their
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army. According to Livy, almost all Roman citizens withdrew to the citadel, leaving the old senators waiting in the city.
As the Gauls entered the city, they found it empty except for the old men before they massacred them and set fire to the
city, completing the sack of Rome.








Transalpine Gaul


Cisalpine Gaul




Capitoline Hill

This is a part of the Roman home. It was one of the main rooms in the Roman home that was often open to the Roman
public (virtually everyday). It was here that the Romans conducted much of their business. Probably most significant as
the site of the patron/client relationship where clients (often former slaves of the patron) would come to visit with the
patron. The larger the amount of clients that the patron had, the more influential the patron appeared. Within the atrium Julia Lyter 13
people mingled and there was usually food laid out for the guests. In this way it was also a sign of wealth to have a
great many clients since the patron was feeding them and providing them with services. In return, clients were expected
to be seen with patrons as they walked to the forum, and vote in favor of the patron's interests.
Transalpine Gaul; The land of the Gauls, but on the far side of the Alps. This means the side where modern Germany G. Lee
and such is.
Cisalpine Gaul: The land of the Gauls, but on this side of the Alps. This is the side where the Italian peninsula lies.

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Tallest of the 7 hills of Rome and known as the symbolic heart of Rome. Historic and religious center of Rome. Located
on the hill was the great Temple of Jupiter, the temple of Juno, the temple of Vitrus, the citadel, the Tabularium (where Stephen Georgiou 13
state archives were kept), and, at the foot of the hill, the temple of Saturn. When the Gauls sacked Rome in 390 BC, it
was the only section of the city to evade capture.




Social War


Wealthy Islands


The Citadel






Vesta/Vestal Virgins


Rhea Silvia

Veii - an Etruscan town near Rome. It appears in Book 5 of Livy's History of Rome. After the Gallic sacking of Rome,
many senators liked the prospect of moving the capital to Veii. The Dictator Camillus gives a long speech shaming this Shaw
notion and Livy displays his representation of the speech in the work. The speech moves many people but it is in fact a
military omen that causes the proposition to be voted down.
Social War: A war that Rome waged with the city-states on the Italian peninsula that had been its allies in order to bring
them under formal control. Rome won a military victory but in the end the allied states' rights were still upheld, and any
of their citizens was entitled to become a Roman citizen. OR Social War (90-88 BC): A war between the Roman
Republic and their allies after bitter resentment of being treated as allies/client-states rather than fellow Latins. During
the war the Roman Republic tasked itself with keeping the rest of their allies loyal and shutdown the revolt. The Italians, Singh/ Ramos
as they called themselves, had already established a currency and a coalition. They won a battles but the Romans
didn't let up and ultimately won. In the end, the Lex Julia was passed which gave the rest of the Italians and allies of
Rome that ability to get citizenship.

Brother to Romulus. He was a cofounder in Rome creation myth. There are several myths out there to how he actually
died. The basis of the creation story was the brothers were trying to decide who had the right to rule the city. They
decided to decide it by using augury, or bird watching for a sign. Remus got a sign of 6 birds 1st so his followers
declared him the winner. However Romulus got a sign of 12 birds, so his followers said he won and a battle ensued
over number vs which one 1st. Remus was killed during this battle and Romulus declared the winner. In another
account, Romulus gave the order for anyone to be killed to whoever crossed the wall that was being built. As a joke
Remus jumped over the wall and was murdered for breaking the decree set by his brother.

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A senate of a hundred elders put into place by Romulus. These elders were refered to as "Patres," meaning fathers.

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Vesta / Vestal Virgins: the priestesses of the goddess of the hearth, Vesta. A pre-Roman order, perhaps originating in
Alba Longa. They become a powerful political entity in time, due to their perceived blessedness from the gods. The
mythical origins of Romulus and Remus begin with their mother as a Vestal Virgin who is seduced and raped by a man
she claimed to be the god of war, Mars.



The fabled founder of Rome. Him and his twin brother, Remus, were left adrift on the Tiber River as babies, and were
eventually raised by a she-wolf. They grew up and became shepards, eventually deciding to start a city after discovering
their noble roots. While accounts vary, all agree on two things--that the city location was decided through augery and
that Remus was killed. The most circulated story of Remus's death involves him jumping over the borders of the new
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city that Romulus had plowed into the fresh earth, where the walls of Rome are planned to go, and ends up being killed
by Romulus who states "So perish every one that shall hereafter leap over my wall." Romulus ends up naming the city
after himself (Rome).



The Sabines were an Italic tribe from the central Apennines. The Rape of the Sabine Women is a Roman legend in
which the first generation of Romans abducted their wives from the Sabine tribe. The story illustrates important themes V. Nguyen
of Roman culture such as the emphasis on procreation and it establishes traditions for Roman weddings.





Mars: Mars is the god of war (Ares in greek) who is the supposed father of Romulus and Remus. After their mother,
Rhea Silvia, was made a vestil virgin by her uncle who stole the throne from her father and killed her brothers, she is
seduced by Mars and later gives birth to the twins. Mars, then, becomes a very important god for Roman identity which Millard
makes sense given Rome's pride in their ability to win wars.



Augury is the interpretation of the natural or uncontrollable world to identify the will of the gods, spirits, and other
supernatural forces. The best example in this course was observing the birds to see whether Romulus or Remus would Geary
be king. Birds were a common form of augury because they were closer to the gods in the sky. Also common was stuff
like sneezing, clouds, or the contemporary version of "vibes". These practices, though almost always misinterpreted
(about 50% of the time in 50-50 scenarios), could help determine what was going to happen, a powerful tool indeed.


Parilia April 21



Parilia: Rome's birthday party. Like almost every Roman holiday, it means lots of sacrifices (eating meat) and ritual
prayer. Unlike other festivals, it involves jumping over flames in order to cleanse yourself. Ovid ponders the origin of this Wu
festival, wondering if it came from Rome's founding or predates the official founding of the city.
the people or the general public

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David 14

Anthony Chang



An insula was by far the most common type of housing in ancient rome. It was an apparetment-stye living setup, in
which most of the population lived with the exception of the wealthiest citizens.




The Tarquins were an Etruscan family line, two of them among the earlly kings of Rome. They are most notable for
being deposed by Brutus in 509 BC, spruned on mostly due to Sextus Tarquinius raping Lucretia. After being exiled
from Rome, the Tarquins attempted to retake the throne by inciting rebellions and revolutions in Rome and the
neighboring cities, but they ultimately failed.




Lucius Tarquinius Superbus ("The Proud")

Sextus Tarquinius




Lucius Junius Brutus


The highest rank on the social ladder in the Roman republic. One had to either be born into this class or reach the
status of consul (considered novus homo:"new man"). Nobiles held much of the power in Rome, as they were in charge S. Georgiou (12)
of the military, held high positions of power in the Senate, and often owned large sums of money. The nobiles basically
ran Rome, even if the Plebs could technically vote and have a say in matters.


A patron is tied to their client(s) by reciprocal obligation to be loyal (fides). Their duties included maintenance (food,
money, often only token) and legal support for clients. A patron with more clients appeared more powerful and

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A client is tied to their patron through fides. Their duties included attendance (morning call (salutio)) and
accompaniment to the forum, especially during elections, and voting for their patrons. Many ex-slaves became clients
and the relationship was even inherited.

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equestrian order


plebians/ plebs




Lucius Junius Brutus: Founder of the Roman Republic who overthrew the Tarquin dynasty after the rape of Lucretia. He Oo
was also one of the first pair of consuls. He executed two of his sons for trying to reinstate the Tarquins in Rome.
Lucretia was the wife of Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus. She was deemed the most domestic of the wives and was raped
by Sextus after he threatened to dishonor her by placing her body next to a slaves. Her suicide caused anti-monarchist Chuang
rebellion that overthrew the monarchy, leading to the rise of the Roman Republic, in which Brutus and Collatinus
became leading consuls.


The third and youngest son of the last King of Rome. His rape of Lucretia leads to the end of the monarchy's rule in
Rome (which ended in 509 BC). This is caused by a revolt incited by Brutus, which forces Sextus to flee to Gabii, where Stephen Georgiou 13
he unsuccessfully tried to make himself king and was instead killed in revenge for his past actions.



Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was the seventh and last king of Rome. He ruled until the establishment of the Roman
Republic in 509 CE. He claimed the throne by having his wife, older brother and predecessor, Servius killed and ruled
cruelly and tyranically. The Tarquins were an Etruscan family who ruled the Roman Monarchy for three generations.
Tarquinius Superbus was the father of Sextus Tarquinius, who is known for his rape of Lucretia. The rape of Lucretia is
recognized as the catalytic event that caused the public, led by Lucius Junius Brutus, to overthrow Tarquinius Superbus Aline Halliday 12
and create a republic. Tarquinius Superbus repeatedly tried to take back Rome after being overthrown. The first time,
he sent ambassadors to the senate on the premise of collecting Tarquin valuables, but they were really attempting to
persuade senators to help reinstate Tarquinius Superbus to the throne but the plot was discovered and conspirators
were executed.

Patricians were the upper class in the Roman Republic. According to Livy, patricians were the decendants of the first
100 men appointed as senators by Romulus, who were referred to as "fathers." Thus the distiction between patricians Steven Yang 12
and plebeians was based purely on birth. While patricians had more political priviledges, not all were more well off than
plebeians. In fact among the senatorial class, plebeians and patricians, were equally wealthy.
Equites: Wealthy working class of the Romans. Serves in the military in the form of cavalry due to the fact that they can
afford to bring their horses to battle.. Rarely allowed into the senatorial order. Notable senator who is also an equite is Oo
Marcus Tullius Cicero, the famous Roman orator.
The equestrain order, also known as "equites," were an aristocratic class of Roman citizens. Ranking close-to/below the
patricians, they are most notable for not pursuing senatorial careers and focusing on business and commerce, whether Anthony Chang
or not they achieved any military success.
Portion of the Roman population who were not patricians, as determined by the census. They are of lower social status
than patricians. They were generally the working class and had no individual power but when grouped together, had
Wallace Yung 13
significant influence. They mostly couldn't read or write so not too much is known about their daily lives.

senatorial order



exposure of children



Julian Laws






Papia-Poppaean Law







Salutatio is the word from which the word, "salutation" is derived. It is a morning ritual that took place at the start of
every day in the Roman Republic. It was a ritual that symbolized a sign of respect between patrons and clients. Clients
greeted patrons, but patrons did not greet clients in return.

Jane Nho 12

Exposure of Children: When a child is born in a roman family, the child is named after seven days if the pater families
decides to keep the baby. If he does not decide to keep the baby, the baby is exposed. Infanticide was pretty prevalent. Lagisetti
Some Romans even thought it was peculiar that other groups of people actually kept all their children.

A paedagogus was an educated slave who worked to tutor the children of their masters. Their duties included things like
walking the children of their masters to and from school, and teaching the children the basic skills of reading and writing Aline Halliday 12
before they started the next stage of their formal education with a Grammaticus. Many paedagogues in Rome were
originally from Greece.
Papia-Poppaean Law: The Papia-Poppaean Laws were passed in A.D. 9 to supplement the Julian Laws. These laws
were meant to strengthen marriage by encouraging the enforcement of penalties for celibacy. One specific law allowed Rucker
women to stay unmarried for two years after a husbands death and eighteen months after a divorce. The laws were
named after the two consuls Papius and Poppaeus, both bachelors.



patria potestas


















duco vs. nubo







Patria Potestas: This was the ownership of the children by the oldest male living parent of the household. This authority
held by the pater familias included even being able to deem capital punishment on their children. This extreme form
wasn't usually exercised though. Even after a son was married, patria potestas made it so that the pater familias had
authority over him. OR Patria potestas: The ultimate authority that the pater familias, the male head of the Roman
Lagisetti/ Chang
family, had over his dependents. Patria potestas is an example of Rome's patriarchal society, as fathers felt obligated to
have deformed or otherwise unwanted children killed or sold into slavery. This is why daughters were often married
away at young ages; if they had any complaints, they couldn't argue against the pater familia, and it was ultimately for
the betterment of the family.
Paterfamilias literally tanslates to "father of the household." This position is held by the oldest male of the household
(typically the father, but sometimes an older brother depending on the situation). The paterfamilias held supreme control
Sierra Lee 12
over the members of his household through patria potestas, and therefore retained the right to marry off, sell, expose,
etc, their dependents. A further example of the patriarchical themes that can be found within ancient Roman society.
Lupercalia: Roman festival that was apparently even older than Ancient Rome. In Lupercalia, the luperci (high-born
young men who served as priests) would perform sacrifices in a grotto (said to be that of the she-wolf who raised
Romulus and Remus), cut hide of goat into strips, and race about the city striking bystanders. Women would stand by
the path of the luperci hoping to get struck because it was supposed to induce fertility. One theory as to the origin of
Lupercalia is that there was a prophecy that Roman matrons would have to be mounted by goats to conceive that was
interpreted as the whipping ritual. Another theory is that Faunus, hoping to rape Omphale, was thwarted by Hercules
and Omphales' switched clothing. As a result, he swore that nakedness was more important and closer to truthfulness.
One significant aspect of Lupercalia is that it was unclear even to practicing Romans whom the ceremony was in honor
of--this shows the emphasis the Roman religion placed on action rather than thought.
Nomen: The family's clan name, placed between the praenomen and the cognomen. The nomen is kind of like the
larger family name, not as specific as the cognomen but still carried down through generations, unlike the praenomen. It Pellegrini
was very rare for people to have more than one nomen, as they were not given like cognomens.
Praenomen: The praenomen is the ancient Roman equivalent to a first name, and is a given name which, for men, need
not correspond to the fathers praenomen. Women, however, did not have a distinct praenomen, but were instead
simply given the female version of their fathers praenomen. An example would be the name Livia, given to a woman
with a father by the name of Livius.
Cognomen: The specific branch of the family clan name, placed at the end of the name after the nomen. The often
mean rude or silly things, like Caesar (Shaggy), but can also be given for great feats or successes, like Africanus, which
was added to the name of Publius Cornelius Scipio after his victory over Hannibal in Africa. Some people had multiple Pellegrini
cognomens, either from birth or given later in life, and some had none at all. Adopted boys took all of the new family's
name except he would usually retain a cognomen from his original family.
Duco vs. nubo: Duco and nubo are two different ways to say I marry in Latin. Duco is for a man, and it means I lead
(to my home). Nubo is for a woman, and it means I put on a veil.

A freeborn, legally married woman who is a citizen of Rome but does not hold any privilege to vote or hold position in
the political office. A matrona is also usually a mother of a family and some of the wealthy families have mothers with
the ability to negotiate privately to provide influence.






The dowry was what a bride's father or other legal gardian promised to give her husband upon their marriage. It was to
be used to support the women and the chiuldren and not for the husband's own usage. If there were a divorce then the
dowry would be expected to be returned to the wife's family and not retained by the husband. Men, then, would need to Cheyenne Millard 12
keep track of the women's dowry specifically when managing expenses so that it would not be used incorrectly and can
be righfully returned upon termination of marriage.




The stola was the traditional garment of Roman women, corresponding to the toga, or the pallium, that was worn by
men. The stola was made of linen.Originally, women wore togas as well, but after the 2nd century BC, the toga was
worn exclusively by men, and women were expected to wear the stola. At that point, it was considered disgraceful for a Ivan Hu 14
woman to wear a toga; wearing the male garment was associated with prostitution and adultery.
Turia: Turia was the late wife of Quintus Lucretius Vespillo; he praised her at length in her eulogy. Most of the eulogy
consisted of wonder at her pietas.Some anecdotal evidence Vespillo brings up includes her leading investigations into
the murder of her parents, her fighting Vespillo's proscription and arranging his hiding, and even offering to divorce
Vespillo once it becomes clear that they are an infertile couple. The eulogy's laudatory qualities show what qualities the
Romans thought important in women, mainly pietas and the unbending need to help their husbands and elders.







Controversiae: The other teaching technique in the Rhetor level of learning. Controversiae was used for forensic style
cases where the student would advocate for a position in the manner of a lawyer at a trial. This took the form of complex
thought experiments about implementing imaginary laws. These scenarios were totally useless when applied to actual Ridge
legal cases because they dealt with extremes but at least students were required to argue for and against any position
they took.




Suasoriae: The word is used to describe one of two teaching techniques in the practice of oratory within the third level of
Roman education, taken at age 15 or 16, called Rhetor. Suasoriae refers to deliberative cases where the student would
practice persuasion by attempting to convince a historical figure of a position. In reality this would be practiced in the
Senate or local town halls or leadership areas but students were told to practice on historical figures because they are
an Exempla (see another entry) and thus highlight a particular Roman quality that can be played off of.










Bulla: An amulet worn around the neck of boys to protect them against evil spirits. This amulet like locket would be
made of different material depending on social class. Some boys even wore it to distinguish themselves from slaves, so Vogel
they wouldn't be raped or hurt.
Litterator - The teacher for early stages of Roman education. The litterator taught elementary reading, writing and math - V. Nguyen
education that was useful for everyday life. There was a great emphasis placed on memorizing texts.
Grammaticus: Aimed towards students ages 10 and 11, the Grammaticus teaches students to read and appreciate
literary works. Part of their job is to instill a love of poetry within children, which is an important part of the Roman social
scene. They also instruct students on subjects such as math and astronomy, but only when related to literature. While S. Lee
most Romans had education at the Litterator level, only the upper class had the resources necessary to afford any
further education (meaning Grammaticus and Rhetor).




A rhetor was the final stage in a Roman boy's education, and few went on to reach this level. Usually for boys aged 15
or 16 years old, a rhetor was a teacher for mostly oratory studies, and was focused on making students into either
politicians or lawyers. There were two popular forms of exercises, the first being "suasoriae", where the student would
attempt to convince others of their position on a matter through speeches, thus preparing them for a career as a
politician and honing their skills of persuasion. The other exercise was called "controversiae", where the student would
present evidence and use existing laws in order to argue a position, practicing to be some kind of lawyer. In general
Roman girls did not recieve training from a rhetor, since they were prepared to be a wife and mother from birth.




The word 'ludus' translates to our concepts of game and play. To the Romans, it also meant elementary school where
students were taught basic math and literacy. Education wasn't readily available to anyone outside of the upper classes, Darwin Wu 14
but as the first step on the educational ladder, ludi were inexpensive enough that they educated a much larger portion of
the population than the next two phases, the grammaticus and rhetor.




Codex: Is the first form of a modern day book. Instead of using scrolls, it had transitioned to a codex. It consists of
sheets of paper or other materials bound together on one side. It can be seen as one of the biggest advances in ancient Vogel
times, still being used today.






novus homo




Lustration is a purification ceremony. It is a solemn purification (often in the form of a sacrifice) in the name of the
people of Rome. One important lustration was held every 5 years after a census by the censor. During this specific
lustration, an animal sacrifice, called suovetaurilia, was offered. In Latin, lustraction is lustracio.

Chetana Lagisetti 13


Nations conquered by the Romans became provincias. Provinces were generally governed by former consuls, known
as proconsuls, or former praetors. Governors of these provincias held imperium, or absolute power, over the land that
they governed. Rome started acquiring its first provinces after the First Punic War. Under Caesar Augustus, Roman
provinces were classified as public if their governors were appointed the Senate, or Imperial if they were appointed by
the emperor. In general, the newer provinces has governors appointed by the emporer.

Steven Yang 12



A moral model. Exemplum were held in very high esteem in Roman society and were often used to illustrate what it
means to be a good Roman citizen. The Roman concept of honor was tied in with being seen as an exemplum.
Examples include Aeneas (for his pietas), Cato (for his frugality), Turia (as a dutiful wife), and Lucretia (as a Roman
woman and for her matron pietas).

Nick Pellegrini 13

Sierra Lee 13

Novus homo means "new man" in Latin. Cato the Elder is an example of novus homo. He was the first man of the family
to get to Senate. Novus homo refers to someone with a Senate position whose family had never before had a consul in Chuang
its rank.

Mos Maiorum - This phrase represented the unwritten code from which the ancient Romans derived their social norms.
It is the core concept of Roman traditionalism, distinguished from but in dynamic complement to written law. Cato the
Elder was a huge proponent of this ideology and had great disdain for Romans during his time who did not live their
lives according to this realm of thinking. Mos Maiorum centered around the tradition of Rome's elders and set a
standard for the way by which Romans should lead their lives. It focused on living simply and engaging in pietas the
way that Romans always had since their founding.



mos maiorum






Punic Wars

Punic Wars: The three wars between Rome and Carthage. The first one took place from 264 to 241 BCE, the second
one from 218 to 201 BCE, and the last one from 149 to 146 BCE. The last one is especially important because it is in
this war that Rome totally destroyed Carthage and took all its territory, turning it into the provincia Socii. The Punic Wars
establishes Romes total dominance over the western Mediterranean.




Decadence- means a decline of standards, morals, dignity, religious faith, or just arts and literature. People tend to
attribute decadence and luxury to the fall of the Western Roman empire.







The census was considered the main and most important job of the censor. It happened every 5 years (this 5 year term
was called a lustrum). The census was done to get a register of the citizens and their property. In this way, the censor Chetana Lagisetti 13
who undertook the census could also move someone down the social ladder if he did not believe they should be at a
certain social rank or status.


Latifundia: Huge agricultural estates that were slave hubs. Although Rome always had a slave-owning culture, this
culture began to get much larger as the Romans began to get wealthier and wealthier. This caused the family farm to go
to ruin because once slaves were doing all the work family members stopped coming back to work on their farms. As
people began to spend more money on buying slaves, buying peasant land, and importing Greek art, Rome
experienced large economic changes that Cato the Elder was famous for responding to.
The censor was an elected official was in charge of overseeing the census, keeping up public morality and keeping up
with parts of the governments financnes. The census was first instituted after the start of the Republic. Originally the
consols had ownership of these census and keeping up with public morality. However, as time passed and the plebs
gained control of the consols the patricians wanted to take that power away from them. To do so, they took away the
duty of the census from the consols and institued censors to keep up with the census, government finances and public
morality. This kept going on for about 400 years.

Scott Vogel 12






Campus Martius

Luxury: Luxury is considered in most Roman contexts to be a vice, and is a central theme in the Aeneid in defining
Roman identity. Example items of importance to this theme from the Aeneid are Pallass sword belt, Messapus helmet,
and Aeneass royal purple attire in the scene when he is about to be wed to Dido. In actual Roman life, luxury was
shunned by figures such as Cato the Elder, who worked with his slaves, and Augustus, who was frugal with what he ate Tevin Franklin 13
and preferred the food of the common people. Luxury generally means anything in excess, which is subject to change
as culture changes, so consider how at different times and in the eyes of different Romans, concepts like the Golden
Age under Saturn and bathing every day in a warm bathhouse are believed to be basic standards of living.
The Campus Martius, or the Campus of Mars, is the location where the militia of rome would meet, and armed civic meetings were
held. As a kind of tradition, voting in the Roman Republic was restricted to Romans who served in the army, so elections were held in
the Campus Martius. As a result, the Campus Martius was the only place within the walls of the city of Rome where you could walk
around armed without any repurcussions.. one wonders how many murders were staged there. During elections in the Campus
Aric Belsito 13
Martius, because of the military legacy, equestrians, for example, were expected to bring horses/chariots as they were originally part
of the Roman cavalry. Citizens also brought armor, though it was usually of much lower quality. Equipment brought by senators was
also generally expected to be better than that the equestrians brought.

Lesbia/Clodia: Lesbia/Clodia is a wealthy widow in early 50s BCE who had a scandalous reputation and a string of
lovers. She is the love interest in Catulluss poems in which he outwardly and clearly expresses his emotions,
specifically regarding love, hate and his friendships. Catullus sees Lesbia as a woman with great sex appeal and gains
pleasure when he sees the Lesbia is lovesick over him, which she shows by criticizing Catullus in front of her husband.
Their flirtation progresses and the series of Catulluss poems follow their relationship as he admires her from afar, dates Nikkhoo
her once she's a widow and falls passionately in love with her. Then, when she breaks up with him, Catullus gets
jealous and upset when he sees her flirting with other men so and writes poems stating that shes a whore and tells his
friends to deliver hate mail to her.







The caldarium was a hot and steamy room in a Roman bathhouse, similar to a sauna. It was heated by a hypocaust, an
underfloor heating system, and hot water that was piped in from a large tank in the furnace room. With the exception of Ethan Rucker 12
Scipios bathhouse, the caldarium was usually heavily windowed to bring in sunlight to heat the room as much as
possible. Public bathhouses that only had one caldarium would usually have separate hours for men and women.




Hypocaust: Romans love bath, and a hypocaust is a hollow space under the floor of an ancient Roman building,
typically baths, into which hot air was sent for heating a bath or a room in general. We have seen archaeological sites of Song
hypocaust during our section.




The frigidarium was the last room to visit in a Roman bathhouse, after the caldarium and the tepidarium. It contained a
large cold pool, which Romans would use to close their pores at the end of their visit. Scipios frigidarium, like most, was Ethan Rucker 12
located on the northern side of the bathhouse in order to receive the least amount of sun. His also had an exit from the
bathhouse, so that one could leave straight from the frigidarium without having to go back through the other rooms.


Otium/Negotium: Two contrasting times of activity in Roman life; otium refers to leisure time in such pursuits as playing
games, resting, engorging, and pondering. It represents a time of ease and no worry and was emphasized by Catullus
in his Poems as an overwhelming force that constantly tested one's sense of duty. Negotium is best described as
business - essential matters and work. As everything that was required to keep the Roman state functioning, negotium Chan
was never doubted in utter importance and devout citizens such as Cato the Elder who were able to discretely
accomplish effective otium and negotium were lauded as models of the state.












Romans were known to love baths, which made the Roman bath houses an important place of leisure. Arguably the
most important aspects of a traditional bath house were the frigidarium (cold plunge), tepidarium (warm water and air),
and the caldarium (hot tub and hot air). A bath house may also incorporate features such as a sudatorium (sauna) or a Sierra Lee 12
palaestria (exercise room/wrestling school). The bath houses demonstrate the themes of luxury and otium within ancient
Roman society
A tepidarium was a type of Roman bath that was a warm temperature, not as hot as a caldarium but not as cold as a
frigidarium. They were usually heated by hypocausts underneath the floors of the bathhouses. The tepidarium is
believed to be the most pleasent of the three types of baths, and some think that Romans would first enter a tepidarium Nick Pellegrini 13
before moving to a caldarium or frigidarium. A tepidarium was also used to open up the pores before one would go into
a massage.
Otium: Leisure time, as opposed to negotium, or business. A Roman businessman would go to the forum for negotium
in the day, and everything afterward when he was done with work is known as otium.





Devotio is the vow in which you mortgage your soul conditioned on the fate of the enemy, meaning you devote yourself
and say you want to be killed as long as the enemy is taken with you. This is usually done before battle in a ceremony
done by a priest. This involves committing the self and the enemy to the Earth and the Mans, or the collective dead.
Tara Nikkhoo 12
This is a solemn promise in a prayer followed by a rush off into enemy ranks hoping they kill you. Publius Decius Mus in
340 BCE demonstrates devotio.




Aediles: These people were elected officials whose duty was to deal with city management. These roles included
managing the streets, markets, water, the grain-supply and ludi (public games). In the Cursus Honorum, there would be Yung
four Aediles. Two of them would be "plebian aediles" who were of the plebian class and the other two would be "curule
aediles", positions open to both patricians and plebians.



cursus honorum



P. Decius Mus

Cursus honorum: Similar to a list of political offices held by a person or the racetrack of honors. It includes the
positions of Quaestor (financial administration), Aedile (city management), Tribune of the Plebs (protects commoners
from the aristocrats), Praetor (consuls understudy), Consul (supreme magistrate), and censor (takes census and
purifies the state).

S. Lee

Publius Decius Mus was a Roman consul. He is notable for his devotio sacrifice in the Battle of Vesuvius. An oracle
foretold that a general and the opposing army would die; P. Decius Mus then devoted himself to give his army the
victory in the battle. Livy tells the story and he is held up as an example of honor and tradition.

Vivien Nguyen 14

Quaestor - It was the lowest magistrate level within the cursus honorum that most upper class Romans would begin
their political careers as they attempted to climb the political latter and reach the ultimate goal of becoming a consul.
The quaestor was basically responsible for administering the public finances of the community. In today's context a
quaestor would be the equivalent of a treasurer or anybody that is responsible for handling financial issues. It is also
important to mention that the comitium elected 20 individuals to the position and you had to be at least 31 years of age
to advance to the next magistrate position, which was called an aedile.






colleges/ collegiality







A Roman citizen was "sacrosanct" if any physical harm to their body was punishable by law. Every member of the
Tribune of the Plebs was sacrosanct. Sacrosancticity was an important protection for the Tribune of the Plebs, which
was not recognized by the Roman State.

David Clark 13




"I forbid" in Latin. It was put in place so the tribunes could stop any attempt for the patrician dominated Senate to take
away plebian rights. Consuls could also veto and if one of the two vetoed a bill, it did not pass.

Wallace Yung 14




Consuls: In the Cursus Honorum (the racetrack; of honors), there would be 2 consuls. A consul is considered a super
magistrate and are considered to the highest level of leadership and acted like chairman of the Senate. In order to
prevent corruption, the consul would serve of term of only a year.





A promise made to the gods. The Romans had a very contractual relationship with their gods, which was based on
concepts such as Do ut Des or "I give so that you may give." Votum can be simple (such as the promise of an
offering/worship) or more extreme (such as a devotio)

Sierra Lee 13



"dinner on the Capitoline"








pax deorum

Magna Mater


There were two praetors; this postition was the one directly below consul in the Roman Republic. The praetor might act
as a commander of the army or as an elected magistrate in the government. The position was created to relieve judicial Vivien Nguyen 14

Accoridng to Livy, Maharbal, Hannibal's calvary commander, urges Hannibal to press onwards to Rome after Hannibal's
recent win at Cannae. Maharbal asserts that in five days, Hannibal will be eating dinner on the Capitoline. Nonetheless, David Clark 13
Hannibal decides to wait.
The Roman word for the 1st day of a month. No matter what month, long or short, the Kalends alwasy remained on the Nick Pellegrini 12
"peace of the gods"
The central goal of Roman state religion was to have a beneficial state of peace between Rome and its deities. This
involved the Roman gods safeguarding Rome while the Romans provided the gods with their desired worship.
Side note: pax means "a state of order or harmony", so pax decorum could also be remembered as a state of
order/harmony with the gods


Magna Mater: Originally a major Anatolian goddess, Magna Mater is commonly known today as Cybele and was
previously worshiped in a cult within the Greek pantheon before Roman ascension as a mystical, foreign deity. She was
brought into the mainstream Roman pantheon after the disastrous Battle of Cannae. Upon consulting the Sibylline
Books, the Romans came to believe, among many other extreme measures, that bringing her to Rome would restore
the faith the gods held in them. Embodied as a meteorite, Magna Mater's relocation to Rome represented another link to
their assumed Trojan pasts being restored - hearkening back to pastoral times of glory, splendor, and above all, victory.



pontifex maximus

The pontifex maximus is the chief senator on the committee of senators that is officially in charge of determining how
often Romans need to put in a 13th month on the calendar, depending on lunar and solar eclipses. Adding a 13th month
and cutting out some days as February is known as intercalation. This system was put into place to compensate for the
Roman Calendar that only had 355 days and was very important for farmers to know when to plant and harvest crops. Tara Nikkhoo 12
Eventually this system ends up failing and breaks down in the late republic. Julius Caesar eventually decides to get rid
of this and add an extra day to February every 4 years.




The Roman word for the 13th or 15th of a month. The Ides changes based on the month it is in, where the longer
months have Ides on the 15th and the shorter months have it on the 13th. The longer months are March, May, July, and
October. For example, May 12 in Roman times would be the 4th before the Ides of May, since Romans counted down to Nick Pellegrini 12
the next Ides, Nones, or Kalends, and used dates inclusively. One special Ides would be the Ides of March, on which
Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 B.C. in Rome.






do ut des



numen/ numina

Cannae- The site of the second major Roman military defeat, the first being against the Gauls around 390 BCE. At
Cannae the Romans faced off around 216 BCE against the Carthaginian military leader Hannibal. This battle resulted in
the loss of somewhere between 40,000-60,000 Roman and Allied troops and one Roman consul. This was significant
because it was another instance that defined Roman identity, some of the remaining troops wanted to desert the war
efforts, but were held accountable and rallied by Scipio to remember their honor and complete their duty. The response
to the news of the Roman defeat in the city of Rome was also significant, because it was very much centered around
Lyter/ Ramos
religion and attempting to set themselves right with the Gods in order to avoid having their city conquered by the
Carthaginians. OR Battle of Cannae: One of the most famous battles of the Punic Wars, which had Hannibal Barca
decisively defeat a huge Roman Republic army. An 50k-86k ration of troops had no effect on Hannibal, using a doubleenvelopment strategy, the Carthaginians surrounded and crushed the Roman army. Following the battle, a number of
city-states defected to Carthage and further gave Carthage the chance to come out as the victor in the war.
Do ut Des- This is a saying that means "I give that you may give". This is a concept that represents the religious
practices of the Romans. They did not have a close personal relationship with any of the Gods, but rather took negative
occurrences to mean that they had somehow offended the Gods and used offerings and other religious practices as a Lyter
way to bargain with the Gods or set themselves right in the eyes of the Gods. In doing this they attempted to restore the
"pax decorum" or the right relation between the city and the Gods.


Intercalation was a mechanism to account for extra time accumulating in year. It involved cutting February shorter and
adding a 13th month. While a usual year was 355 days, an intercalated year was 378 days. Intercalation was the
responsibility of the Pontifex Maximus.



a form of divination; it involved the interpretation of signs found in the entrails of sacrificial animals, Side note: men skill Georgiou


epic simile

Epic similes are from the Greek tradition from writers like Homer. Virgil, since he was mimicking the Greek style when




Cornelii Scipiones

Sahana Rangarajan 12


Cornelii Scipiones- Scopio is the cognomen for this family. A male from this family will be named Cornelius Scipio and Salazar