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STRUCTURAL CALCULATION

OF
INVERTED T-SHAPE TYPE RETAINING WALL

INPUT DATA
CHECK STABILITY
REINFORCEMENT BAR
PRINT

EXIT

q (t/m2)

b11

b12

b13

Name of Structure
Location
Dimension
H = 22.50 m

(unit length)
B =
15.00
m
L =
1.00
m

b11 =
b21 =

b12 =
b22 =

H=h1

hw1

h32

hw2
h31

b21

b22

b23

Section of Retaining wall

h4

4.50
6.00

m
m

0.50
5.00

m
m

b13 =
b23 =

0.00
4.00

h1 = 17.50 m
h31 =
h32 =
2.00
m
0.50
h4 =
hw1 =
hw2 =
0.00
m
8.75
m
0.00
Basically passive earth pressure are not considered.
Therefore h4 = 0
q =
0.00
t/m2 Kh =
0.25

w =
t/m3
Backfill soil
2.00
1.00
c =
soil =
t/m3
1.80
o
sat =
=
t/m3
2.00
0.000
(for stability analysis)
=
30.0 o
t/m2
c =
0.00
Foundation soil
s' =
1.00
t/m3
B =
35.0 o
cB =
t/m2
0.00
Friction coefficient
=
0.95
Uplift coefficient
U =
1.00
Cover of bar
Wall
d back =
7
cm
d front =
10
cm
Footing
d upper =
10
cm
d lower =
10
cm

=
=

16.699
0.000

m
m
m
m

t/m3

(for structural analysis)

Safety factor
(normal) (seismic)
Overturning |e| < B/6=3.75 B/3=5.00
fs >
Sliding
2.00
1.25
Reaction of foundation soil
qmax > qa=qu/3 qae=qu/2
Allowable stress
Compressive ca =
kg/cm2
100
150
sa =
Tensile
kg/cm2
3000
4500
a =
Shear
6.5
9.75
kg/cm2
Young's modulus ratio
24
16

Normal Condition

Seismic Condition

DATA

|e| =

### m###

= 7.333 m

###

Fs =

###

#REF!
#REF!

###

PILE

###

Fs =

q1 =
q2 =

= 14.667 m

t/m2 ### qa = 311.667 t/m2

t/m2 ### qa = 311.667 t/m2
### ### ###

c) Reaction of foundation soil

#REF!
#REF!

q1 =
q2 =

1.528
1.472

t/m2
t/m

< qae =
< qae =

t/m2
t/m2

OK!
OK!

Name of Structure
Location

Normal Condition

100

kg/cm2

Allowable tensile stress ( sa)

Allowable shearing stress ( a)

=
=
=

3000
6.5
24

kg/cm2
kg/cm2

A
D

Item
b (cm)
h (cm)
d1 (cm)
d2 (cm)
d (cm)
M (ton m)
S (ton)

Normal
100.0
75.0
7.0
back
10.0 front
65.0
1.613
0.000

Seismic
100.0
75.0
7.0
back
10.0
front
65.0
9.035
0.000

Bar (As1)
Bar (As2)
Stress c
Stress s
Stress

D 22 D 12 3.0
180
0.00

250
250

D 22 D 12 -

OK!
OK!
OK!

Allowable shearing stress ( a)

Young's modulus ratio

A
D

C
B

250
250

16.7
1009
0.00

Allowable compressive stress ( ca)

Allowable tensile stress ( sa)

Seismic Condition

FIGURE
0
0.0
0.0
10.0
10.0
0.0
0.000
0.000

lower
upper

upper
lower

0
0.0
0.0
10.0
10.0
0.0
0.000
0.000

D
D

OK!
OK!
OK!
=

150

=
=
=

4500
9.75
16

0.0
0
0.00

D
D
OK!
OK!
OK!

0.0
0
0.00

OK!
OK!
OK!

kg/cm2
kg/cm2
kg/cm2

Item
b (cm)
h (cm)
d1 (cm)
d2 (cm)
d (cm)

Normal
100.0
75.0
7.0
10.0
65.0

Seismic
100.0
75.0
7.0
10.0
65.0

0
0.0
0.0
10.0
10.0
0.0

0
0.0
0.0
10.0
10.0
0.0

M (ton m)
S (ton)

0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000

Bar size and spacing (mm)

Bar (As1)
Bar (As2)
Stress c
Stress s
Stress

D 22 - 250
D 12 - 250
0.0
OK!
0
OK!
0.00 OK!

D 22 - 250
D 12 - 250
0.0
OK!
0
OK!
0.00
OK!

D
D

0.0
0
0.00

D
D
OK!
OK!
OK!

0.0
0
0.00

OK!
OK!
OK!

STABILITY
STRUCTURE
REINFORCEMENT BAR
FIGURE
WOODEN PILE

Stability6/21

Slab of Headpond (B = 44 m)
1. Design Data
1.1 Dimensions

+ 454.100

44.00

1.00

m (unit length)

0.75

+ 435.700
H

1.2 Parameters

Section of Slab

=
=

0.00
0.00

t/m2 (for normal condition)

t/m2 (for seismic condition)

2.00

t/m3

1.00

t/m3

soil

1.80

t/m3

s'

1.00

t/m3

sat

2.00

t/m3

cB

0.00

t/m2

normal

|e|<B/6=7.33m

0.00

t/m2

35.00

seismic

|e|<B/3=14.67m

30.00

0.95

(Friction coefficient)

1.00

(Uplift coefficient)

0.000

0.000

= 16.699

qmax<qa

0.000

(for structural analysis)

(for stability analysis in normal condition, = )

normal

=
=

20.00

seismic

qmax<qae

28.27

15.00

(for stability analysis in seismic condition, see Section 2.3)

(for structural analysis in seismic condition, = 1/2 )

Safety factor

= 14.036

( =Arc tan(Kh) )

(=satw)

Overturning

Sliding
normal

fs > 2.00

seismic

fs > 1.25

Reaction of foundation soil

Kh

qa=qu/3
qae=qu/2

0.25

2. Stability Calculation
2.1 Case 1 (Normal condition, without vertical live load)

454.100
44.00

h1

19.15

qa2

435.700

P2

0.75

P1

qa1

No.
1
2

44.00
44.00

x
x

0.75
18.40

Total (1 to 3)
qu1
44.00
Total ( 1 to qu1)

18.40

Description
x
2.00
x
1.00

W
66.000
809.600

X
22.000
22.000

875.600

-1.00

-809.600
66.000

22.000

WxX
1,452.00
17,811.20
19,263.20
-17,811.20
1,452.00

Stability7/21
Coefficient of Active earth pressure
Cos2(-)

Ka =

Cos2 x Cos(+) x
(for stability analysis)

0.000

Sin(+) x Sin

1+

Cos(+) x Cos

0.000

Cos (-)

0.750

Sin(+)

0.500

Cos2

1.000

Sin

0.500

Cos(+)

1.000

Cos

1.000

Ka =

=
Cos2(-)

Cos2

Cos(+)

Ka' =

16.699

20.000

0.947

Sin(+)

0.766

0.917

Sin

0.500

0.802

Cos

0.958

Coefficient of Passive earth pressure

Cos2(+)

Kp =

Cos2 x Cos(-) x

=
Cos2(+) =
Cos2
=
Cos(-) =

Cos(-) x Cos

=
=
=
=

0.000
0.500
0.500
1.000

qa1 = Ka x h1 x ( w)

6.383 ton/m

qa2 = Ka x h2 x ( w)

6.133 ton/m

Kp =

No.
Pa1
Pa2

0.000
0.750
1.000
1.000

Sin(+) x Sin

1o

Sin(+)
Sin
Cos

3.000

0.250
6.133

Description
0.75
x
0.50
0.75

x
x

H
0.094
4.600

Total

Y
0.250
0.375

HxY
0.02
1.73

4.694

1.75

(3) Stability Calculation

a) Stability against overturning
B = 44.00 m
WxX-HxY
X =

W
X

21.974

21.974

0.026

< B/6

0.95

66.000

62.700

ton

b) Stability against sliding

H
Sliding force :

4.694

HR = x W

Resistance :

(friction coefficient : =
HR
H

=
44.00

Fs =

1.75

66.000

B
e =

1,452.00

ton
=

0.95 )

62.700

=
4.694

13.358

>

2.00

OK !

7.333

OK !

Stability8/21
c) Reaction of foundation soil
W

6xe
x (1 +

q1,2 =
B

)
B
6x

66.000

q1 =

0.026

x (1 +
44.00

) =

1.505

t/m2

<

qa

311.667

t/m2

OK !

) =

1.495

t/m2

<

qa

311.667

t/m2

OK !

44.00
6x

66.000

q2 =

0.026

x (1 44.00

44.00

1.495 t/m2

- t/m2
1.505 t/m

- t/m

in case, e > 0
(applicable)

in case, e < 0
(not applicable)

Reaction of Foundation Soil in Case 1

2.2 Case 2 (Seismic condition)

454.100

44.00
+ 435.700

qa2
h1= 19.15

P2
0.75

P1

qa1

= Same as Case 1

=
=
=

30.00 o
=
0.000

0.00 o
=
16.699
0.00 t/m2 (for seismic condition)

o
o

(for stability analysis)

(for structural analysis)

=
14.036 o
( = Arc tan(Kh) )
Kh
=
0.25

Cos2()

Kae =

1+

Sin( x Sin()
Cos() x Cos()

0.000

tan =

Sin Sin ( + - )
Sin Cos ( + - )

sin =

Sin ( + )
Sin

Sin (+ ) ==

0.243

Sin

0.486

28.27

Sin

0.500

29.08

then

Stability9/21
Sin(+-) =

0.683

tan

0.538

Cos2(--)=

0.924

Sin(

0.851

Cos

0.970

Sin(--)

0.275

1.000

Cos(-)

1.000

15.00

Cos2

=
Cos(+) =
Kae =

Cos(+-)=

0.730

0.740

=
Cos (--)=

16.699

1.000

Sin(

0.707

0.970

Sin(--)

0.275

=
Cos(+)=

0.917

Cos(-)

0.958

Cos
Cos2

Kae =

0.698

Cos2()

Kpe =

Cos x Cos2 x Cos() x

=
Cos2(-)=
Cos
=
Cos2
=
Cos()=
Kpe =

0.000
0.924
0.970
1.000
0.969

Cos() x Cos()

Sin(
Sin(-)
Cos(-)

=
=
=
=

28.27
0.030
0.275
1.000

10.092 ton/m

9.697 ton/m

1.193

qa1 = Kae x h1 xw
qa2 = Kae x h2 xw
No.
1
Pa1
Pa2

Sin( x Sin()

0.25
0.40
9.697

Description
66.00
0.750
x
0.50
0.75

x
x
x

H
16.500
0.148
7.273

Total

Y
0.375
0.250
0.375

HxY
6.19
0.04
2.73

23.921

8.95

(3) Stability Calculation

a) Stability against overturning
B = 44.00 m
WxX-HxY
X =

W
X

21.864

21.864

0.136

< B/6

0.95

66.000

62.700

ton

b) Stability against sliding

H
Sliding force :

23.921

HR = x W

Resistance :

(friction coefficient : =
HR
H

=
44.00

Fs =

8.95

66.000

B
e =

1,452.00

ton
=

0.95 )

62.700

=
23.921

2.62

>

1.25

OK !

7.333

OK !

Stability10/21
c) Reaction of foundation soil
c-1) in case, |e| < B/6

(applicable)

6xe
x (1 +

q1,2 =

66.000
q1 =

6x

0.136

x (1 +
44.00
66.000

q2 =

) =

1.528

t/m2

<

qae

467.500

t/m2

OK !

) =

1.472

t/m2

<

qae

467.500

t/m2

OK !

t/m2

qae

t/m2

44.00
6x

0.136

x (1 44.00

44.00

(not applicable)

2xW
q1' =
=
3 x (B/2-|e|)

1.472 t/m2
1.528 t/m2

- t/m2

(applicable)

(not applicable)
- t/m2

- t/m2

- t/m2

(not applicable)

(not applicable)

Reaction of Foundation Soil in Case 3

2.4 Bearing Capacity of soil
(1) Design Data
B

35.00

44.00

cB

0.00

t/m2

s'

1.00

t/m3 (=satw)

0.75

1.00

m (unit length)

(2) Ultimate Bearing Capacity of soil, (qu)

Calculation of ultimate bearing capacity will be obtained by applying the following
Terzaghi's formula :
qu

###
###
###

Shape factor (Table 2.5 of KP-06)

1.00

Shape of footing :

=
1

0.50
(strip)

1.00
1.30
1.09
(= 1.09 + 0.21 B/L)
(= 1.09 + 0.21 L/B)
1.30

Shape of footing
1 strip
2 square
3 rectangular, B x L
(B < L)
(B > L)
4 circular, diameter = B

0.50
0.40
0.40

0.30

Bearing capacity factor (Figure 2.3 of KP-06, by Capper)

Nc

57.0

Nq

Nc
0
5
10
15
20
25

5.7
7.0
9.0
12.0
17.0
24.0

###
###
###
###
###

44.0

Nq

0.0
1.4
2.7
4.5
7.5
13.0

=
0.0
0.0
0.2
2.3
4.7
9.5

41.0

Stability11/21
30
35
37
39 >

qu

36.0
57.0
70.0
82.0

23.0
44.0
50.0
50.0

( x c x Nc)

0.000

(soil x z x Nq)

33.000

( x soil x B x N)

902.000

20.0
41.0
55.0
73.0

935.000 t/m2

qa

qu / 3

311.667 t/m2

qae

qu / 2

467.500 t/m2

(safety factor = 2 , seismic condition)

Structure12/21
3. Structure Calculation
3.1 Normal Condition
A

44.00

0.75

A
1

in case, e > 0
3
1.495 t/m

1.505 t/m2

in case, e < 0
3

- t/m2

t/m2

a) Section A-A
No.
1
2

44.000
44.000
44.000

Description
0.75
2.00
-1.50
-0.01
0.50

Hc
66.000
-65.780
-0.220
0.000

Total

A-A

Sd

0.000

ton

Md

X (from C-C)
22.000
22.000
14.667

1.613

Hc x X
1,452.000
-1,447.160
-3.227
1.613

ton m

Structure13/21
3.2 Seismic Condition
(2) Footing
in case, e < B/6

44.00

44.00
0.75

0.75
A

1.472 t/m2
1.528 t/m2

- t/m2

2
3

- t/m2
- t/m2

- t/m2

a) Section A-A
No.
1
3

44.000 x
44.000 x
44.000 x

Description
0.75
x
2.00
-1.47
-0.06
x
0.50

Sce

0.000

Hae
66.000
-64.768
-1.232
0.000

Total
=

ton

Mce

9.035

Description
Section A - A

Bending Moment
Normal
Seismic
1.613
9.035

Shear Force
Normal
Seismic
0.000
0.000

X (from A-A)
22.000
22.000
14.667

ton m

Hae x X
1,452.000
-1,424.896
-18.069
9.035

Structure14/21

Structure15/21

Re-bar 16/21

Reinforcement Bar Arrangement and Stress

Name of Structure
Location

:
:

Slab of Headpond (B = 44 m)

Normal
Lower
Upper
161,333
0
0

Seismic
Lower
Upper
903,467
(0)
0

Bending moment
Shearing force (joint)
Axial force

M
S
N

kgfcm
kgf
kgf

Height of member
Covering depth
Effective height
Effective width
Young's modulus ratio

h
d'
d
b
n

cm
cm
cm
cm
-

75.00
10.0
65.00
100.0
24

75.00
10.0
65.00
100.0
24

Asreq

cm2

0.91

5.12

Required R-bar
R-bar arrangement
Reinforcement
Perimeter of R-bar

22@250

12@250

12@250

As
U

15.21
27.65

cm

18.44

18.44

Compressive stress
Allowable stress

c
ca

kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

3.0
100.0

16.7
100.0

Tensile stress
Allowable stress

s
sa

kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

Allowable stress

kgf/cm2
kgf/cm2

180.2
3000.0
ok
0.00
6.50
ok

ok
1009.3
3000.0
ok
0.00
6.50
ok

Mr
Mrc

kgfcm
kgfcm
cm
kgf/cm2
kgfcm
cm
kgf/cm2

3,368,062
5,578,186
18.622
6121.5
3,368,062
21.971
62.2

4,470,188
10,162,759
23.054
7578.5
4,470,188
26.453
47.6

Dist. from neutral axis

Resisting Moment
Mr for compression
x for Mrc
s for Mrc
Mr for tensile
x for Mrs
c for Mrs

Mrs

cm2

4.52
ok

22@250

ok

Reinforcement
As
cm2

12@250
4.52
ok

12@250
4.52
ok

As min =

15.21
27.65

12@250
4.52
ok

4.52
ok

12@250
4.52
ok

4.5 cm2

D12@250
D12@250

0.75
D22@250
D12@250

44.00

Section of Slab

4. Wooden Pile

4.1 Bearing Capacity of a Pile

(1) Design data
Diameter of wooden pile
Length of pile
Area of pile section
Perimeter of pile
SPT N-Value

D
L
A

=
15.0 cm
=
2.00 m
= 1/4 x x D2
= xD
=
30

Ni : Average N value in a soil layer

fi : friction of soil
= 0.20 x Ni

=
=

=
=

0.018 m2
0.471 m

30
6.00 t/m2

(2) Ultimate vertical bearing capacity, (qu)

qu = (40 x N x A) + ( x fi x li)
= ( 40
x
30.0 x
0.018 )+( 0.471 x
6.00 x
= 21.206 + 5.655
= 26.861 ton/pile

2.0 )

(3) Ultimate vertical bearing capacity, (qu)

qa = qu/n

= 26.861 / 3

8.954

ton/pile

(safety factor : n = 3)
4.2 Allowable horizontal bearing capacity
Horizontal bearing capacity depend on displacement of a pile
(1) Design data
Class of timber (pile)
: III Class
E = 80,000 kg/cm2
(Young's modulus)
= Allowable horizontal displacement
N = SPT N-value is assumed as

=
=

0.01 m
30

x D4
I =

= 2,485.0 cm4

(I : Moment of Inertia for a pile)

64
(2) Horizontal bearing capacity of one pile (Ha)
=
0.20
Kh = x E x D-3/4
=
0.20 x(
=

Kh x D

28

28

30.0 )x(
22.041

N
15.0 )-3/4

Kh x D

=
4 x

22.041 kg/cm3

x 15.0

=
4 EI

Ha =

E =

80,000 x

2,485.0

22.041 x

15.0

0.025 cm

= 13,020.22

kg

ton

0.025
13.020

(3) Allowable horizontal bearing capacity due to the stress of a pile itself
Ha = 2 x x Ma
= Allowable stress of timber III class

75.00 kg/cm2

x D3
W =

= 331.34 cm3

; (W : section modulus of a pile)

32
Ma =

Ha = 2 x x Ma
=
2
x

W
0.025

75.00 x

331.34 = 24,850.5 kg cm

x 24,850.5 = 1,262.06 kg/pile

1.262 ton/pile

Allowable horizontal bearing capacity acting on the pile top depend upon the allowable
stress of pile itself.
4.3 Spacing of Pile
Ha =

1.262 ton/pile

Hr = H - Hf

; (Ha : Horizontal load carried by pile)

= H - V x tan(2/3)
Ha

Spacing of pile

=
=

0.00

23.921 - 318.692 =

###

ton/m

1.262
=

Hr
Spacing of pile

=
=

0.00

-294.772
m (center to center) by horizontal force

V = 875.600 ton/m
qa =

8.954 ton/pile

: Vertical load carried by pile

: Allowable vertical bearing capacity of a pile

qa
Spacing of pile

8.954
=

0.01

875.600

Vp =
qa =

#REF! ton/m
8.954 ton/pile
=

m ),

8.954
=

Vp

2.00

qa
Spacing of pile

#REF! m

#REF!

2.00

m ),

12th Oct, Stability Analysis

Uplift pressure are added for stability analysis.
Reinforcement Bar Arrangement
Reinforcement bar for Footing (heel) are collected.

Jan. 7, '03 Stability

Calculation formula in case of (B/6 < e < B/3) under seismic condition are corrected.
(distributed width of reaction of foundation soil)
Structure
Calculation formula in case of (B/6 < e < B/3) under seismic condition are corrected.
(distributed width of reaction of foundation soil)