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JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIC RESEARCH FOR MULTIDISCIPLINARY

Impact Factor 2.417, ISSN: 2320-5083, Volume 4, Issue 8, September 2016

THE ARCHITECTURAL OCTAGONAL PLANNING (DOME OF THE ROCK AND


EUROPEAN CHURCHES)
DR. MAHMOUD AHMED DARWISH*
*Professor of Islamic Archaeology, Faculty of Arts - Minia University- Egypt

Abstract
The Dome of the Rock considered one of the most important landmarks of Aqsa
Mosque in Jerusalem, built by Caliph Abdul Malik bin Marwan, (685-691 A.D), it is an
octagonal building has four doors, and within, another octagon based on pillars and
cylindrical columns, in inside it, the circle surrounding the Rock and the dome above it.
When the Crusaders conquered Jerusalem (1099), they turned the Aqsa Mosque as an
accommodation for soldiers. And transferred the Dome of the Rock into a church, and kept
control of Jerusalem until liberated by Saladin (1187). In the middle Ages, Jerusalem was a
source of inspiration for Europeans architects and photographers in general and the Italiansin
particular. Dome of the Rock became an element in the urban planning of the city, any
architectural or artistic perception to Jerusalem, did not prejudice the perception of the
control of the Dome of the Rock. The dome also controled of most of the urban planning of
Italian cities. In fact, the Rome imitation of Jerusalem in urban and architecture in ninthcentury AD, and attempted to portray Jerusalem in technically and imitated it architecturally.
The image of Jerusalem was a model is imitated of most important europian churches in Italy,
Constantinople, France and Germany. The importance of research in highlighting the
religious and artistic impact of the Dome of the Rock on the European architecture, in order
to highlight the octagonal planning, which was followed in the churches since the ninth to the
fifteenth centuries AD. This paper addresses - through the analytical method - octagonal
Dome of the Rock planning, Europeans have been affected by this planning to build a large
number of religious buildings, especially churches, and thus most affected by the spiritual
influence in Jerusalem in general and the Dome of the Rock in particular, it is clear that the
architectural, Islamic and Arabic identity in Jerusalem, imposed its presence in the religious
monuments.
Keywords: Dome of the Rock, Octagonal Planning, Religious Architecture.
Introduction
The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem (fig.1) is the first example of a religious building
with an octagonal ground plan in Islamic architecture1. he dome is placed over the rock,
where the prophet Mohammed end his Night Journey to Jerusalem and ascended to heaven2.
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Impact Factor 2.417, ISSN: 2320-5083, Volume 4, Issue 8, September 2016

The Dome is composed of an external wall, followed by a smaller octagon, and then comes
the dome circle; we can say based on the study of the planning of the Dome and previous
models it and planning of models that proceeded.
It was the only example of where the octagonal planning3, and It seems that, when the
Caliph Abdul Malik bin Marwan ordered to begin the construction of the Dome, the picture
of some similar Byzantine buildings in his mind, but the dome surpassed in magnitude and in
the scheme of the octagonal from the outside shape, and circular in the centre, all what is
known of domes, even it can be considered the building has no parallel4.
It consists of an external wall, followed by a smaller octagonal dome then come the circle;
there are two octagonal arcades around the dome. Hence, it can be said based on a study
Dome of the Rock layout and planning of previous models it, it was the only example of
where the eight planning5.
Before the advent of Christianity, Jerusalem was under the political authority of
Rome, to be liberated by Muslims (636 A.D). Christianity was moved to Rome by Peter who
established the Apostle Church. The center of Christianity then began to turn slowly from
Jerusalem to Rome6.
The center of religious authority has continued in Jerusalem as the spiritual centerin,
because it is the home and the call center of Christ, making it the center of attention of
Christians.
The status of Jerusalem in Christianity went through three stages: the first runs from
the beginning of Christianity and even recognition by the Emperor Constantine (306), where
the Christians were unable to make any presence in Jerusalem, as they could not make any
physical presence them out.
The second stage (306-636) when liberated by the Muslim Arabs, Christian was able
to achieve a political presence and bring about the dense existence and was building
Resurrection Church, and another group of churches, so that Jerusalem's architectural identity
has become a Christian.
The third stage, (636 until the present time), architectural identity has shifted from
Christianity to Muslim Arab, without prejudice the Christian human or material presence,
spiritual status of Jerusalem stayed in Christianity, but architectural Christianity identity
receded to become Arab Islamic, despite the Crusader occupation

(1099-1187), and

attendance of Urban Representative Christian churches .


Again, attention of Rome and the Vatican's turned to Jerusalem for control of the

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Church of the Resurrection, and the rest of the Christian holy places in the city.
When the Crusades occupied Jerusalem (1099), they turned the Al-Aqsa Mosque to
housing for soldiers, Chapel of Marwan to stable and turned the Dome of the Rock to a
church called "Temple of Solomon"8, they did not change architectural form of the Dome of
the Rock, but they changed the surface of the rock only, covered it by tiles and stayed an altar
above it, Crusaders control over Jerusalem is continued to be liberated by Saladin (1187)
(Lorimer, 1982, p.84), who ordered to remove the internal construction and returned the
mosque9.
In this period, especially since the founding of the church until the liberation of
Jerusalem (1099-1187), the conflict of imagination or consciousness of the Christian concepts
of Jerusalem are the spiritual and mundane concept10 The spiritual concept is the product of
an unspecified religious visions of cultural, urban and architectural elements11, were
perceptions of the clergy and architects in the broader mostly in the period at the end of the
Middle Ages (476-1453 AD) and Renaissance (14-16 A.D)

influenced by the Urban

Planning of Jerusalem, and was a source of inspiration for Italian architects in particular and
Europeans in general12. The religious concept was tangible, it was significant by the urban
elements includes buildings, roads, fences, and the urban planning which includes residential,
commercial, administrative and religious buildings.
Jerusalem - in Christian traditions - possesses architectural, Arab and Islamic identity,
characterized by the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque. Since the Dome of the Rock
with its visual personality, the most presence in the urban planning of the city13.
There is no architectural or artistic design for the city of Jerusalem, without the control of the
Dome of the Rock. Spiritual stature of Jerusalem has remained in Christianity, but the
architectural identity of Christianity receded to become an Arab Muslim, although the
Crusader occupation (1099-1187), and attendance of Urban Christian churches14.
When the Arab-Islamic Jerusalem - with its Urban and architectural Planning and its
Arab-Islamic identity -, is the earthly Jerusalem, the impact in the Italian cities specially in
the Middle Ages (11-14) and Renaissance was evident, where formed the idea of the ideal
city15.
Jerusalem has become a bilateral religous City, a unified identity and culture16, the
Urban and architectural planning and all the visual vocabulary became Arab Islamic, even the
buildings of non-Muslims, the bulk of the architectural elements and visual vocabulary of
Arab Islamists became the most important site of the city, including Al-Aqsa Mosque and the

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Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem has been documented the planning and construction in the
works of Arab geographers17.
As for rooting the octagonal planning of the Dome of the Rock, there is a team of
orientalists and researchers believe that the plan as a Roman descent, since there are some
buildings in Rome constructed in the reign of Emperor Constantine (324-337)18.

The origin of Octagonal Planning


Octagonal Planning is found in European cities during the Roman age, including that
found in Italy, in the city of VirofficVengda "Vitruvius", and planning fortifies angles eight
cylindrical towers (Fig. 2)19.
The octagonal planning in Palestinian churches is associated with Roman roots,
specialy the Dome of the Rock. The octagonal design adapted directly from the design of
some famous churches that existed in the Levant20, but differed in some of the details,
Creswell turn compared to building the Dome of the Rock with the Church of the
Resurrection scheme "The Holy Sepulchre" in Jerusalem (326) to contain the rock where the
tomb of Jesus Christ, and was built to contain the rock on which mohamed ascended to
heaven21.
But when studying this special plan the Resurrection Church, we find that it was
relying essentially on the design is not octagon, and thus we find here the focus of Creswell
study on the central dome, and therefore this example are excluded from our study of the
impact of the Church of the Resurrection on the octagonal planning, because the Church of
Resurrection plan does not match the reality of the Dome of the Rock layout in any way.
We find the octagonal planning at the beginning of the fourth century, was the construction of
Diocletian "Diocltien" shrine in Spalato "Spalato" (303)22, and octagonal planning abroad
and stationed around a circle. (Fig.3).
The Church of the Ascension "Anastasis" in Palestine (fourth century), which was
built in the reign of Emperor Constantine was designed an octagonal inside a circle around a
rock he was standing by Jesus Christ when ascended to heaven23. Consequently, we find
octagon from abroad, only the Church of planning, and is centered in position on the circuit,
which this design less complex and simpler in design of the Dome of the Rock, which
depends on the appraiser from home and abroad planning, it is full octagon outwardly and
inwardly in the Dome of the Rock planning.
The Church of Natifti "Nativit" in Bathleem "Bethlem"24.is one of churches dating

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back to the beginning of the fourth century has been used in the construction of this model,
we find with a single octagonal planning centered (fig.4).
We find Oscenion "L'Aseension Church" holy house (378)25, the outside of the plan centered
on a circle. (fig.5).
It is the churches of the fifth century, we find Baptistr Constantine Church
"Baptistreconstantinien" in the Lateran "Latran" (the beginning of fourth century)26, it is to
be with octagonal planning (mid-fifth century). (fig.6).
We also find the Church of St. Simeon Castle "QalatSimanMartyriums" Syria (470),
the Architectural planning resulted from its intersection octagonal shape holds a central
wooden dome mounted on eight columns27.
We find the Church of the octagonal planning called the gift of God Church known as
the Theotokos "La Thotokos" which is located on Mount Gerizim near Nablus, on the part
of the rock that ascended from the Lord Jesus Christ (484), the first church, which maintained
its octagonal planning (fig.7)28.
The cathedral of Bosra (Syria) (512)is an example of the octagonal design (fig.8), the
geometric (octagonal and hexagonal) ground plan of the caldarium, carried forward as a basic
theme of the early churches in Syria29
Other buildings in Syria with an octagonal ground plan are the Church of St. George
at Ezraa (or Zora) (fig.9), the ancient ZoravaSouthern Syria30. This church is built in (515).
The small baptistery of Simean castle, (fig.10) was part of a much larger complex, consisting
of a cross-shaped church built around an octagonal court with the pillar of St. Simeon in the
middle31.
The Church of San Sergius and Bacchus in Constantinople (fig.11) is built by
Justinian, probably in 527 AD. The church became known as Little Hagia Sophia, because
the general principals of the building were the same as the Hagia Sophia (became a mosque
between 1506-1512), the ground plan was based on an octagonal, the building established a
further move of this type of plan from Syria to the west (Ravenna). The Christian architecture
in Western Europe was ready to pick up the octagonal as a sign of the multitude.
The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem got its first representative in Europe some
hundred-and-forty years earlier in the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna. Building started
under Archbishop Ecclesius (521534) and finished in 547.
It has a double octagonal plan with an inner and outer shell (fig.12). The diameter of
the dome is seventeen meters and its height of thirty meters. The church became, some two

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Impact Factor 2.417, ISSN: 2320-5083, Volume 4, Issue 8, September 2016

hundred and fifty years later in Carolingian times, the prototype of a number of octagonal
churches and chapels in Europe32.
Impact of Jerusalem on Europian cities
The Impact of Jerusalem on Italian cities, where it became a model for the evolution
of Italian cities, was the Popes believe that Rome - which St. Peter established its church - is
the new Jerusalem33. The Church of Rome is also considered a place of ancient Temple of
Jerusalem. Add to these two concepts, the Dome of the Rock imposed an architectural
presence on most European cities.
In fact, The Roman urban and architecturally tradition of Jerusalem back to the ninth
century AD, There are attempts to portray Jerusalem technically, architecturally and imitated,
to evoke the sanctity of the Christian faith34,so as not had by Christians, perhaps because of
political circumstances or because of the central practiced by the Church of Rome.
Again, Rome and the Vatican's attention turned to Jerusalem for control of the Church
of the Resurrection, and the rest of the Christian holy places in the city. Were the Crusades
and the occupation of Jerusalem (1099), and turned the Al-Aqsa Mosque to housing for
soldiers, Chapel of Marwan to stable and turned the Dome of the Rock to a church, and called
it the "Temple of Solomon"35, they did not change architectural form of the Dome of the
Rock, but they changed the surface of the rock only, covered it by tiles and stayed an altar
above it, Crusaders control over Jerusalem is continued to be liberated by Saladin (1187)36,
who ordered to remove the internal construction and all aspects of the church and returned
the mosque37.
In this period, specifically since the founding of the church until the liberation of
Jerusalem, the conflict of imagination or consciousness of the Christian concepts (Saint
Augustine, 1984, 18, pp.472- 474), are the spiritual concept and the concept of the mundane.
The spiritual concept is a product of religious visions38, non-specific urban and urban and
architectural elements, were perceptions of the clergy, photographers and architects in the
broader mostly in the period at the end of the Middle Ages (476-1453) and Renaissance (1416) subject to the Urban Planning of Jerusalem and influenced by it, and was a source of
inspiration for architects and photographers Italians in particular and Europeans in general39.
The worldly concept was tangible; representing urban elements includes buildings, roads,
fences, and the urban planning, which contains residential, commercial, administrative and
religious buildings.
In Jerusalem, the Christian city with the Arab-Islamic by distinctive architectural

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JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIC RESEARCH FOR MULTIDISCIPLINARY


Impact Factor 2.417, ISSN: 2320-5083, Volume 4, Issue 8, September 2016

identity of the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque. Since that, the Dome of the Rock and
the presence of visible figure in the urban planning of the city, and did not prejudice any
perception of architectural or artistic control of Jerusalem's Dome of the Rock it, especially in
the urban planning, architectural importance, urban and visual character of the Italian cities.
When Jerusalem was Arab-Islamic, planned by the Urban and fabric architecture and identity
architecture Arab-Islamic is the ground of Jerusalem, the impact was evident in the Italian
cities in particular the Middle Ages (11-14) and Renaissance, where formed the idea of the
ideal city40.
Jerusalem began to influence the urban planning of the Italian cities, the popes are
believed to Rome, which established the Church of St. Peter is the New Jerusalem41, also
considered the Holy Church of Rome place the old structure.
In addition to these two concepts that the Dome of the Rock architecturally exposed
the existence of the most European cities. In fact, the tradition of Rome to Jerusalem from
urban and architectural point of view in the ninth century, called attempts to portray
Jerusalem technically imitated architecturally to evoke the sanctity of the Christian faith42,
because they cannot visit, probably due because of political circumstances or because of the
central practiced by the Church of Rome.

Octagonal planning in Christian Churches


When Constantine won the victory over Maxntios in (312 A.D), he favored the
Christian belief, and started to build churches, his octagonal church in Antioch also known as
the Golden Church, another churches in Jerusalem.The octagonal design is found in many
early Christian churches in Syria43. It is of historical significance that a similar situation to an
octagonal design in the middle of the eight century. Charlemagne (742/747814) became
acquainted with the achievements of Roman church architecture.
The ground plan of the San Vitale and its symbolic significance must have attracted
his attention, and he ordered to build a similar building in his capital Aachen
(Germany)(fig.13)44. The ground plan of the Mnster(Dome church) in Aachen is seen here
with

various

extensions,

which

were

added

over

the

years.

The

original

Carolingian Pfalzkapelle (Palatine chapel) 805 AD, is drawn in black, the Gothic additions
are cross-hatched and the Baroque affixture is marked with vertical lines.
The chapel in Aachen was copied in various places in Europe45. The Carolingian
church in Torhout (Belgium), started its history in the ninth century as a possible copy of

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Germigny-des-Prs with a ground plan of a Greek cross but might at some stage been
covered by an octagonal domed tower.
This latter suggestion remains a guess, because the outlay of the tower is not reflected
in the ground plan and there are no archeological sources to determine the upper part of the
oratorium46., flected in the ground plan and there are no archeological sources to determine
the upper part of the oratorium47. The octagonal plan of the church in Ottmarsheim48, which
was already earlier discussed, is inspired by the Palatine chapel in Aachen.
The building of the octagonal church in Ottmarsheim (Alsace, France) started in 1030.
The adjoining bell tower was erected in the fifteenth century (fig.14), the original church a
replica of the Palatine chapel in Aachen. The religious and symbolic significance of the
octagonal and numerological references in general was widely understood at the time of
construction in the middle of the eleventh century49, the church of Ottmarsheim (Alsace) on
the borders of the Rhine, east of Mulhouse, based on an octagonal design, the church was
built in the middle of the eleventh century.
The influence of the octagonal chapel in Aachen seemed fading in the later ninth
century or was restricted to the western part of the divided Carolingian empire50. The S.
Maria degli Fiore, (fig.15) better known, as the Cathedral of Florence (Italy), is an
impressive representation of the octagonal identity. It combines the ground plan of the
baptistery with the Renaissance geometrical spirit.
San Vitale of Ravenna and the various baptisteries in Italy51. including the
Baptistery of Florence, of which the first plan dated from the middle eleventh century
carried the symbolism of the eightfold forward through the ages to find a new meaning of
beauty in the Duomo in Florence52.
The history of the cathedral started between the fourth and fifth century when the city
of Florence enjoyed a period of wealth. The new church called Santa Reparata after her
miraculous apparition on the anniversary of her martyrdom. Sancta Reparata was born in the
third century in Caesarea (Palestine). The story of her life was rather pitiable. She was
tortured as a child of eleven years during the persecution of the Christians by Emperor Decius
(249/251 AD). She was thrown in the fire, but escaped unharmed. Later she was offered to
apostatize, refused and was beheaded.
The original cathedral was demolished after the Gothic-Byzantine war of the sixth
century. A rebuilding of the second Santa Reparata took place in the eight of the ninth
century, following the original dimensions with three naves, but with the addition of two side

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chapels in the area of the apse.


Arnolfo di Cambio again enlarged its size in a plan in 1294 and the first stone was
ceremoniously laid on the eight of September 1296. The ground plan followed the classical
outlay of a basilica with a trefoil shaped tribune on which thecupola rests. The cupola aimed
at a diameter of forty-five meters. The construction of the cupola was the work of Filippo
Brunelleschi (13771446)53.
The final execution of the dome of Santa Maria del Fiore Cathedral was the work of
Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446). Brunelleschi worked in the meantime on the plan of
the Rotonda of Santa Maria degliAngeli, also in Florence. The building started around 1434,
but was not finished during Brunelleschis lifetime (fig.16)54. The octagonal design in
Germany, as established in the Carolingian PfalzKapelle in Aachen (in the early ninth
century), remarkable predecessors, other than the traditional reference to the San Vitale
Church in Ravenna: the Gallo-RomanUmgangstempel55.
An octagonal example is situated geographically some hundred and eighty kilometers
to the south east of Aachen and can be found in the city of Mainz56 (fig.17).
The octagonal temple in Mainz was dating from the last part of the first century AD to the
beginning of the second century. The temple had a double wall and could be either round,
square of octagonal. These temples might have influenced Emperor Charlemagne some
sixth centuries later to build his Aachen chapel in just the same way. The mausoleum of
Emperor Diocletian in Split (Spalato) also followed the octagonal tradition of
the Umgangstempel. The imperial complex was built in the fourth century.
There are number of churches with an octagonal ground plan in Germany. The ground
plan of the Busdorf Church in Paderborn (Nordrhein-Westfalen) (fig.18). The crypt of the
Stephansdom in Kourim (Bohemia) (fig.19) was part of a religious complex built by the
Cistercians Order. The Roman/Gothic church was of the basilica type, with large towers on
its side. The crypt (underground chapel), called Katerinka, has an octagonal plan. The theme
is reflected in the ribs of the roof as an eighth pointed star. This form of a roof might be the
oldest of this type on the Continent (outside England).
The S. Aegidius Church is the hallmark of the small town of Oschatz in Saxony with
two spires of seventy-five meters. The church started as a chapel of wooden church in the
eleventh century. The first stone church dated from the fourteenth century, but was
demolished in 1429. The rebuilding took place from 1443 onwards and was in Gothic style.
The crypt underneath the altar choir took shape in 1464, following an octagonal design

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(fig.20).
The octagonal church of Ludorf (Saxony, Germany) (fig.21) was consecrated in May, 1346.
The idea of the ground plan might be introduced by visitors to the Holy Land, who saw the
Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.
Conclusion and search results

The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is the first example of a religious building with
an octagonal ground plan in Islamic architecture. It was the only example of where
the octagonal planning, and It seems that, when the Caliph Abdul Malik bin Marwan
ordered to begin the construction of the Dome, the picture of some similar Byzantine
buildings in his mind, but the dome surpassed in magnitude and in the scheme of the
octagonal from the outside shape, and circular in the center, all what is known of
domes, even it can be considered the building has no parallel.

The spiritual concept of Jerusalem is the product of an unspecified religious visions of


cultural, urban and architectural elements, were perceptions of the clergy and
architects in the broader mostly in the period at the end of the Middle Ages (476-1453
AD) and Renaissance (14-16 A.D) influenced by the Urban Planning of Jerusalem,
and was a source of inspiration for Italian architects in particular and Europeans in
general, the religious concept was tangible.

Jerusalem - in Christian traditions - possesses architectural, Arab and Islamic identity,


characterized by the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque. Since the Dome of the
Rock with its visual personality, the most presence in the urban planning of the city.

Octagonal Planning is found in European cities during the Roman age, including that
found in Italy, in the city of VirofficVengda, and planning fortifies angles eight
cylindrical towers.

We find the octagonal planning at the beginning of the fourth century, was the
construction of Diocletian shrine in Spalato (303), and the Church of the Ascension
in Palestine (fourth century), which was built in the reign of Emperor Constantine was
designed an octagonal inside a circle around a rock he was standing by Jesus Christ
when ascended to heaven. Consequently, we find octagon from abroad, only the
Church of planning, and is centered in position on the circuit, which this design less
complex and simpler in design of the Dome of the Rock, which depends on the
appraiser from home and abroad planning, it is full octagon outwardly and inwardly in
the Dome of the Rock planning.

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The Church of Natifti in Bathleem is one of churches dating back to the beginning of
the fourth century has been used in the construction of this model, we find with a
single octagonal planning centered.

We find Oscenion "L'Aseension Church" holy house (378), the outside of the plan
centered on a circle, we find Baptistr Constantine Church in the Lateran (the
beginning of fourth century), it is to be with octagonal planning (mid-fifth century).

We also find the Church of St. Simeon Castle in Syria (470) with octagonal shape
holds a central wooden dome mounted on eight columns.

We find the Church of the octagonal planning called the gift of God Church known as
the Theotokos which is located on Mount Gerizim near Nablus, on the part of the rock
that ascended from the Lord Jesus Christ (484), the first church, which maintained its
octagonal planning.

The cathedral of Bosra (Syria) (512) is an example of the octagonal design, the
geometric (octagonal and hexagonal) ground plan of the caldarium, carried forward as
a basic theme of the early churches in Syria.

Other buildings with an octagonal ground plan are the Church of St. George at Ezraa,
the ancient Zorava Southern Syria (515). The small baptistery of Simean castle.

The ground plan pf the Church of San Sergius and Bacchus in Constantinople,
probably in 527 AD, became known as Little Hagia Sophia, was based on an
octagonal, the building established a further move of this type of plan from Syria to
the west (Ravenna).

The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem got its first representative in Europe some
hundred-and-forty years earlier in the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna (547).

The church became, some two hundred and fifty years later in Carolingian times, the
prototype of a number of octagonal churches and chapels in Europe.

The Impact of Jerusalem on Italian cities, where it became a model for the evolution
of Italian cities, was the Popes believe that Rome - which St. Peter established its
church - is the new Jerusalem. The Church of Rome is also considered a place of
ancient Temple of Jerusalem. Add to these two concepts, the Dome of the Rock
imposed an architectural presence on most European cities.

Rome and the Vatican's attention turned to Jerusalem for control of the Church of the
resurrection, and the rest of the Christian holy places in the city. Were the Crusades
and the occupation of Jerusalem (1099), and turned the Al-Aqsa Mosque to housing
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for soldiers, Chapel of Marwan to stable and turned the Dome of the Rock to a
church, they control over Jerusalem is continued to be liberated by Saladin (1187),
who ordered to remove the internal construction and all aspects of the church and
returned the mosque.

The spiritual concept is a product of religious visions, non-specific urban and urban
and architectural elements, were perceptions of the clergy, photographers and
architects in the broader mostly in the period at the end of the Middle Ages (4761453) and Renaissance (14-16) subject to the Urban Planning of Jerusalem and
influenced by it, and was a source of inspiration for architects and photographers
Italians in particular and Europeans in general.

The worldly concept was tangible; representing urban elements includes buildings,
roads, fences, and the urban planning, which contains residential, commercial,
administrative and religious buildings.

In Jerusalem, the Christian city with the Arab-Islamic by distinctive architectural


identity of the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque. Since that, the Dome of the
Rock and the presence of visible figure in the urban planning of the city, and did not
prejudice any perception of architectural or artistic control of Jerusalem's Dome of the
Rock it, especially in the urban planning, architectural importance, urban and visual
character of the Italian cities.

The ground plan of the Mnster (Dome church) in Aachen is seen here with various
extensions, which were added over the years. The original Carolingian Pfalzkapelle
(Palatine chapel) 805 AD, the Gothic additions are cross-hatched and the Baroque
affixture is marked with vertical lines. It was copied in various places in Europe. The
Carolingian church in Torhout (Belgium), started its history in the ninth century as a
possible copy of Germigny-des-Prs with a ground plan of a Greek cross and covered
by an octagonal domed tower.

The octagonal plan of the church in Ottmarsheim, which was already earlier
discussed, is inspired by the Palatine chapel in Aachen.

The building of the octagonal church in Ottmarsheim (Alsace, France) started in 1030.
The adjoining bell tower was erected in the fifteenth century, the original church is a
replica of the Palatine chapel in Aachen

The S. Maria degli Fiore, better known as the Cathedral of Florence (Italy), is an
impressive representation of the octagonal identity. It combines the ground plan of the
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baptistery with the Renaissance geometrical spirit.

San Vitale of Ravenna and the various baptisteries in Italy. including the Baptistery
of Florence, of which the first plan dated from the middle eleventh century carried
the symbolism of the eightfold forward through the ages to find a new meaning of
beauty in the Duomo in Florence.

The octagonal design in Germany, as established in the Carolingian PfalzKapelle in


Aachen (in the early ninth century), remarkable predecessors, other than the
traditional reference to the San Vitale Church in Ravenna.

The octagonal temple in Mainz was dating from the last part of the first century AD to
the beginning of the second century. These temples might have influenced Emperor
Charlemagne some sixth centuries later to build his Aachen chapel in just the
same way.

The mausoleum of Emperor Diocletian in Split (Spalato) also followed the octagonal
tradition of the Umgangstempel. The imperial complex was built in the fourth
century.

There are number of churches with an octagonal ground plan in Germany. The ground
plan of the Busdorf Church in Paderborn.

The crypt (underground chapel) of the Stephansdom in Kourim (Bohemia), has an


octagonal plan.

The crypt of S. Aegidius Church is the hallmark of the small town of Oschatz in
Saxony, underneath the altar choir took shape in 1464, following an octagonal design.

The octagonal church of Ludorf (Saxony, Germany) was consecrated in 1346.

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43. Moscrop, J.J. 2000, Measuring Jerusalem, Leicester University Press, London.
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Ideal Jerusalem, (Former reference).
47. Peters, F.E., 1985. Jerusalem, Princeton University Press, N.J., USA.
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Harmondsworth, Middlesex.
49. Rajab, M. M., 1981, the Islamic buildings in the Umayyad style, Al-Daraa magazine, 4, Daraa of the
King Abdulaziz, Riyadh.
50. Sabar, S. 1998. Messianic Aspirations and Renaissance Urban Ideals: The Image of Jerusalem in the
Venice Haggadah, published in The Real and Ideal Jerusalem.
51. Saint Augustine, 1984, The City of God, translated by Marcus Dods, The University of Chicago Press,
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52. Silver, L. 1998. Mapped and Marginalized: Early Printed Images of Jerusalem, published in The Real
and Ideal Jerusalem.
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Australia.

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fig. 1. The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem


Source: cochard, 1936, fig.12.

fig.2. The city of VirofficVengda "Vitruvius",


Source: Morris, 1974, fig.5

fig.3. Diocletian "Diocltien" shrine in Spalato "Spalato"


Source: cochard, 1936, fig.12/2

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fig.4. The Church of Natifti "Nativit" in the city of Bathleem "Bethlem"


Source: cochard, 1936, p.84, fig.12/5

fig.5. Oscenion "L'Aseension Church"


Source: cochard, 1936, fig.12/7

fig.6. Baptistr Constantine Church in the Lateran "Latran", Rome


Source: cochard, 1936, fig.12/2

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fig.7. the Theotokos "La Thotokos" near Nablus


Source: Al-Tall, 1989, fig.5

fig.8. The cathedral of Bosra (Syria) 512 AD


Source: Baldwin, 1929, fig.243.

fig.9. The Church of St George at Zorah (Syria) 515 AD.


Source: Baldwin, 1929, fig.243.

fig. 10.The baptistery of KalatSimean in the convent complex of St. Simeon Stylites
Source: Kuilman, 2011, fig.244.

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fig.11. The Cathedral of St. Sergius, Bacchus and Leontius in Istanbul (Turkey),
Sorce: Kuilman, 2011, fig. 247

fig.12. The San Vitale Church in Ravenna (Italy)


Source: Kleinbauer, 1973, fig.16

Fig.13. TheMnster(Dome church) in Aachen


Source: Kuilman, 2011, fig.252

.14. The church of Ottmarsheim (Alsace)


Source: Baldwin, 1929, fig.250 fig

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fig.15. The church of S. Maria degliFiori in Florence


Source: Gtz, 1968. fig.123

fig. 16. The Church of S. Maria degliAngeli (Duomo) in Florence


Source: Pevsner, 1943-1961, figs.52-53

fig.17. The octagonal temple in Mainz


Source: Kuilman, 2011, fig.258

fig.18. The Busdorf Church in Paderborn (Nordrhein-Westfalen)


Source: (Kuilman, 2011, fig.258A

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fig.19. The Stephans Church in Kourim, Bohemen


Source: Kuilman, 2011, fig.258B

fig.20. The S. Aegidius Church in Oschatz (Saxony) Germany


Source: Kuilman, 2011, fig.258C

fig.21. The octagonal church of Ludorf (Saxony) Germany


Source: Kuilman, 2011, fig.258D

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Creswell, 1924, p.20. 1929, p.70etseq; 1969, p.65. Ali, 1946. Goitein, 1950.Crinson, 1996, pl.1.Slavik, 2001,
p.60. Davidson, and Gitlitz, 2002.Islam, & Al-Hamad, Zaid, 2007, p.139, 2, 109128.Stark, 2009,
p.33.Avner,2010, pp.43-44.cochard, 1936, 79-84, figs.10-12, no.12.In Arabic: Al-Maqdidi, 1909, pp. 165-171.
Strang, 1970, pp.126-169). It begun in 684 AD,Kuilman, 2011, Fig.248p.313. Curatola, 1981-1983.
2
Creswell, 1924.Ali, 1946.Goitein, 1950.Slavik, 2001.Davidson, Linda, and Gitlitz, 2002.Islam, & Al-Hamad,
Zaid, 2007.Stark, 2009.Avner, 2010.
3
In Arabic: Al-Maqdisi, 1909, pp.171. Strang, 1970, pp.126-169.
4
Creswell, 1929.p.20. cochard, 1936, 79-84, figs.10-12, no.12. In Arabic: Al-Maqdisi, 1909, pp.165-169.
Strang, 1970, pp.126-127-169.
5
In Arabic: Al-Maqdisi, 1909, p.169.
6
Lorimer, 1982, 1, pp.83-84.
7
Gilbert, 1985, pp.220.
8
Nardi-Rainer, 1998.pp.218. Fleck, 1998, pp.448-452.
9
Sabar, 1989, pp.218-301.
10
Saint Augustine, 1984.18, pp.472-474.
11
Hopkins, 1970, pp.96-97.Peters, 1985, pp.129-130.Ahlstrom, 1993, pp.527-530. Wightman, 1993, pp.86184:186-191-201. Linder, 1998, pp.166-172.Smith, 1998, p.188.Nardi - Rainer, 1989, p.218. Sabar, 1998,
p.301.Silver, 1998, p.314.Ousterhout, 1998, p.402, In Arabic: Al-Tabari, 1967, 3. Al-Maqdisi, 1909, pp.165171. Maqqar, 1992, pp.65-83.Al-'Aabed, 2001, pp.1-70.Helal, 2001, pp.77-105.McDowell, 2002, 1, pp.8384.Lorimer, 1982, pp.83-84.
12
Collins, 2000, 1, pp.267-453.Moscrop, 2000, pp.14-15. In Arabic: Hilal, 2001, pp.16-19-61-62.
13
Creswell, 1924, p.20. 1929, p.70etseq; 1969, p.65. Ali, 1946.Goitein, 1950.Slavik, 2001. Davidson, and Gitlitz
2002. Avner, 2010.Islam & Al-Hamad, 2007, 1, p.139, 2, pp.109128.Stark, 2009, p.33.Avner, 2010, pp.4344.cochard, 1936, 79-84, figs.10-12, no.12, In Arabic: Al-Maqdidi, 1909, pp.165-171. Strang, 1970, pp.126169.
14
Gilbert, M. 1985, p.220.
15
Ousterhout, 1989, p.407.
16
Procopius, (6th century), 1971, VII, pp.345-349.
17
In Arabic: Al-Tabari, 1967, 3. pp.609. Al-Maqdisi, 1909, pp.165-171.
18
Al-Tall,1989, p138.
19
Morris, 1974, p. 114, figs. 5-9.
20
Rajab, 1981, p.213; Al-Tall, 1989, pp.123, 128-139, figs.2-10.
21
Al-Tall, 1989, p.127, fig.2.
22
cochard, 1936, p.79-84, fig.12/1.
23
Creswell, 1929, p.40.Al-Tall, 1989, pp.129-130-137, fig.3A.
24
cochard, 1936, p.84, fig.12/5.
25
cochard, 1936, p.84, fig.12/7.
26
cochard, 1936, p.83, 84, fig.12/2.
27
De Vogu, 1865-1877, p.141 et seq., pls.139etseq; Dieill, 1925, pp.35-38; Krencker, 1934, pp.62-89;
cochard, 1965, pp.61-90, figs.1-14, pls. X-XV. Krautheimer, 1965, p.110. Al-Tall, 1989, pp.124-132-137-146
fig.7)
28
Bulter, 1929, p.124, Div. II, Section B, pl.XXIII, cochard, 1936, pp.61-79, 81, fig.12, 8, Krautheimer, 1965,
pp.116-117, Creswell, 1929,p.112.Al-Tall, 1989, pp.130-131-137-144 fig.5.
29
Baldwin, 1929, Fig.243, p.308.Kleibauer, 1973, p.89ff.
30
Davies, 1952, fig.244 left.
31
Kuilman, 2011, fig.244, p.309. see also figs.187188.
32
Kuilman, 2011, fig.249p.314.Davies, 1952, fig.21.Kleinbauer, 1973, fig.16.Janson, 1962/1986.figs.306 -308.
33
Ousterhout, 1998, p.407.
34
Fleck, 1998.pp.448-452.
35
Nardi-Rainer, 1998.p.218. Fleck, 1998, pp.448-452.
36
Lorimer, 1982, pp.59-84.
37
Sabar, 1998.pp.218-301
38
Lorimer, 1982, 1, 1, pp.83-84, 3, p.59. In Arabic: Al-Tabari, 1967, 3. pp.609. Al-Maqdidi, 1909, pp. 165-171,
Maqqar, 1992, Al'Abed, 2001.
39
In Arabic: Hilal, 2001, pp.16-19-61-62.
40
In Arabic:Maqqar, 1992, pp.65-83.
41
In Arabic:Al-Tabari, 1967, 3. Al-Maqdisi, 1909, pp.165-171.
42
Fleck, 1998, pp.448-452.
43
Baldwin, 1929, fig.245.

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44

Baldwin, 1929, fig.250p.315.Gall, 1956.Gtz, 1968.


Timmers, 1985.pp.104145. Era, &Ciggaar, figs.201-202.
46
Courtens, 1969.p.316fig.251.
47
Courtens, 1969.p.3.
48
Kuilman, 2011, fig.252p.317.
49
Wedepohl, 1967.
50
Verbeek, 1967, pp.113-156.
51
Kuilman, 2011, fig.64.
52
Kuilman, 2011, fig.255p.320.
53
Kuilman, 2011, fig.256p.321.Gtz, 1968.fig.123.
54
Kuilman, 2011, fig.257p.322.Pevsner, 1943-1961, figs.52-53.
55
Kuilman, 2011, figs.101-168.
56
Kuilman, 2011, fig.258p.323.Behn, 1963.
45

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