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International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research

ISSN 2351-8014 Vol. 27 No. 1 Oct. 2016, pp. 39-49


2015 Innovative Space of Scientific Research Journals
http://www.ijisr.issr-journals.org/

[ Architectural heritage of the Arab castles and forts in Khyber (Saudi Arabia) ]
Mahmoud Ahmed Darwish
Professor of Islamic monuments,
Faculty of Arts, Minia University, Egypt

Copyright 2016 ISSR Journals. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

ABSTRACT: Khyber is located in the northeast of the Medina, at a distance of 170 kilometers, has been a stronghold of the
Jews before and during the Islamic conquest. Muslims have been able to open Khyber forts including Na'em and Al-Sa'b and
Abi Alnezar then Alqmous and Aloutih and Al-Salalim.
Khyber forts erected on the Arab Planning for forts and castles, which were affected in the architecture forts and castles that
have spread in Egypt, the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant, and the distinction of being held irregularly ribs on the rocky hills
of high, clear idea disabilities through forts sloping (Tolos) on the way in Arabic, Which is to dusty slope which costs the
attacking armies hardship ups and downs, so as not to easily reach the fort. The idea was to create a high-forts are difficult to
climb vertical making them completely at the bottom and turned to the strengthening of curtain walls are so resistant to
bombardment or digging tunnels underneath or earthquakes by increasing the thickness of construction and fencing that a
thickness of at least at the top gradually rise and the use of ancient columns asourse in construction inside the walls
This research addresses the architectural study of the forts and castles in Khyber, as one of the tributaries of the architectural
heritage of this city, which was characterized by following the Arab architectural planning of military fortifications that had
prevailed in the Arabian Peninsula since ancient times. Through two axes: the descriptive study of the forts of Khyber and
analytical study, which include architectural planning and architectural elements and features of urban planning for the forts.
The research aims to highlight the architectural and military importance of the forts and castles of Khyber, the study of
architectural planning and architectural elements as one of the rings the evolution of Arab military fortifications.
The research also follows two approaches: descriptive and analytical study of these forts, and make a comparative study
between them and contemporary forts and castles to determine the architectural planning and elements, and to emphasize
that these forts and castles have been affected in architecture by the forts and castles that have spread in Egypt as well as in
the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant.

KEYWORDS: forts of Khyber, Medina, fortifications.


"! # . &#' )"( + - / & 0 12 3 "
3 (170)


:" #$ %
.4 & 567 ( 567 567 4+ : < ; 06 4 2 567 /
67 ("
; ;& 0 :A B C 6
" 2 & " 6= ; /
+E F 7 &6= ; 0 "?! >
67 1
-N " " ; 0
!
(Tolos) = 6= & 5
' G (H" 0)
?I &
&JK L"
M 1 /2E; :
2 G) 12 3 .56= / ; -6 P "7
' G "7 06 /
Q / A S G U = " ;
5 JK :/ /"= ) 2K) 7 S6
"7
A
/A / )#

/ 0A; /
<06
67
. A - W 3
K"? # ) P ; A "
" #K
3 # Y
G="#& ; 0 0 ; "?! > :
"
U/; 2 0 " 7E3
; &6= 0 # F= "
"
=" # 2 N
6= )I # 5 K 5 & = 5 . 60 U
; 0 :A B C \ # 3 U = ;
. 6= 2 0 & ( "?! > 0 I 0 0 "?! >
G="#P ! 7 7^3 0 I 0 /! !? #
&6= ; = 0 K ; F= /
I "= I 0 & 6= 5 ; / ; 2 # Q 6= U #
=" ) I 5 A/ F= " 3 . ; 0 = ;

Corresponding Author: Mahmoud Ahmed Darwish

39

"?! > 0 I 0 0 "3E


:A ; 0;& .
( & 67 :

U = 6 &

+E

6= ; / & " "2

6W U3

BC

G="#P = 6 = .

1
; "3 Ce " 5
0 2 = 56 5 J ( G 0 W (1 -GC) ; 0 / #
) )a
12 3
5 / 5 U "# ; / ; f0 7 A :A
/ W ; 539-555) 2 2.Q (.
4/ A 3 / 563-605) 62 U 2 5. (. U C 4 -; [2] [1] 4/ G 5 i 5
/' 2 " " / 4/ =2
0; 1+ 7 ;&
/
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)138( "&+ / \ / -

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N -N ; 0 . Y
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") &; / = A) .

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3 K & 5 (Q / ;? 2 / 5 12 3 2 " "2
; !; /" G# ; -\ 5 " 1 / ; 5 #\ -E; 4/ I P / 5
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N
Q C :A 1 G#
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7

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/"0

3 / "0 :M 60" 4/2 67 " P ) / .1965 ; .1942 < 7 5 (1983 = 6 / P 4/2 67


; 4/ <" = 2 3 3 (2 5
N3 & 0 ! 0") 5 4/2 67 4/"02 4/2 E 4 "= 4 F 7 5 U
;) /Q -H ; H :2 5 U
4/ # = ; 0 1 67
P 6=" - / ! U ) " /
7
) 5 .1965 ; 5 A .1980 = .(1980 0 ; A/ )628( 7 #
! = 6 = J
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I B:M 5 4 # :7K A ; Q :/Q
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= 563K
.1978 N3; 5 .1979 - C ; .1993 / ! (1980 ! > K 5 4 2 /2 67 4 <06 0 ;: ;
! Y /2 67 5; # 0 ) #( ! "G /2 67 4 ! ( /2 67 4 ( ! & 4
-N 7 ) " ; 7;.(1983 N3 5
/2 67 & 4 67 Q 12 3
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(
; w

40


:3 = 6 ! F 7 0 Q / Y
! "G
;3 0
&4
Y " ; ; / )"( A =2 w
" ) 5 /.(1980
7 3

Vol. 27 No. 1, Oct. 2016

" 3 +&+
" Q Q /6 A

ISSN : 2351-8014

Mahmoud Ahmed Darwish

. 2 .1

01% 01

/
!2 4 2 567 12 3 "#

)) 4H .1965 ; 4 2 567 (2001 0# 5 0 5; <06 ;


) 4 2 567 G .1949 = .1980 ; G .1903 ) 1927 567 ) ;:
= 1E = 6 U

: .1981 .1983 = 6
.2004 ; .1983 N3 5
1965; .2001 0# 5; .1979 C 5;:7 5 .2003 .1985 /
B
: (1981 3 " " ; B"0
5 ! )
; G .1903 = F + / (1980 = 6 / ); (1979 - C > K
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W i B 3 B; = 6;

) # " I Y B
?I <06.(1979
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5 . 2 .1 (1 . ) 23

> -G K) .1965 ; 5 .1990 ; .2001 0# 5; 5 .1977 ; .1979 C 5; 7 5 .1987 ;:7 5.2003


.2004 ; # 5 .2008 ; .1983 N3 5; 5 .1957 ) ; .1969
.1970 / = .1977 ; 5 .1980 +K
) 5 .1965 ;5
: .1981 = .1975 .1916 # 0 .1983 = 6 = (1980 3 = 6 " ; 1! #

:(1979 - C ; .1981
5 : ) = #K ; 5 .1965
.1990 = .(1979 - C ; .1980 " < ; 0HP 5
5 Q / "= ) / .1971 2 .1965 /
<06
0 3 7 A 5 Q /; ;
+&+ B # 02 -G
.(1985

5 . .2 . 61

5 . .1 . 23

0 3 7 5 Q / 7 = 5 ; w; 56 ? - 0 02 -G " -
" = B2E; B0 : ;E ; y " 0

P 5 4/ I ;K ; 5 0 S #K{; ? ; N ; 12 3 3
U0 #K 5 Q /
w B G#
67 = 56 G 0 #) .1965 .1983 = 6 = 3 .(1980 0J 3 5
Q /
& H 2
& ; |Q
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= A G 3 #
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5 -0A "= I = 5 5G -; & =" B 5 w; ) 4/ .(1983 = 6 EA
5 ? - S NGK

" 2 / = F 7 56 / ! # 5 U
0 / 0J 4/ 4+ 5
; 5 \ 0 ? - U =+E" 56
\ > # U =) 56 .1965 ; 5 .1990 = .(1979 - C ; .1980
I
5 . 2 .1 .2

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; ! 2 + -N 4 = 6 ;) 4 2 567 0 ) (1979 - C ; .1927 > 0 U/; 2 N ! 3


5 = 6
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\ r Q /) F 7 (1965
;;: (1979 - C ; .1981 ? 4H & "
; G .1903 ) (1927 " 0"; : #K) .1965
\ Q) 3 3 (1965 ; = ? 56 ! 0
Y A M ) (1979 - C ; .1965 } ;B" 7 /
:.(1981
) C .1965
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; w
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; B 567 5 0 5; <06 w B !-
<06 - Q

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: .1981 .1983 = 6 ; G .1903 =
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) .1965 ; .2001 0# 5 .1985 /
0 # 0
= 6;
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(1979 - C ; .1980 = 6 " 1! #


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5 67 567 : ) (2 7
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: (1979 - C ; .1981 EA / J K)
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3
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67 ! 567; # ;
. 2 .3

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567 - 567 Q
.1977 = .1975 .(1970 # A

U ;67 B

& 4 () ; .1979 C 5 = ; .1969 G .1949 =

567 (8:3 7 ) : /2 67 /C ) .1965 ; 5 .1990 ; .2001 0# 5; 5 .1977 = ; .1969 !


.1983 G .1949 .1970 / = .1977 ; 5 .1980 +K .1968 &G
.1977 / .1974 2;:7 5 .2003 ;5
.2004 ; # 5 .2008 ; .1983 N3 5; 5 .1957 ) ; .1969 = .1975 .1983 = 6 ; G.1903

41

Vol. 27 No. 1, Oct. 2016

ISSN : 2351-8014

0 ; = 56 567
= .1980 (1970 # A /C = 6
0 & # w ? u &) +e " S7 0 .(1975

5 . .3 .

5 . .5 .

) 4L K = ; .1969 G(1949

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5
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.7 . -.

5 . .8 .

= " 5 &H B Q) 4?H .(1982 1 # #K -"3 5


0 Y 5 Q / ; -
Q 12 3B2
5 =" 5 56= ; 5 U 4/ 67 5I

C ; A7 A 5 A7K 2 3 5 & a7 A N3 12 3 )"= "


; .
3 B2 ="
Q 5 B2 ? Q
; 5 Q/

-3 I % .9 . H ) $

42

Vol. 27 No. 1, Oct. 2016

.10 .-$ , ) $1

ISSN : 2351-8014

Mahmoud Ahmed Darwish

2.90) B( " !6 B) "G ; " 5 = A ! A 5 5 5 0 = (9 7 ) 56 i :


) ; H; = 56 } :
" G 5 ; 5 ) A )1.50( 1.0) /G #( 5 = A
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A 5K ; = 56 A7 (10 7 ) B
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.(1993
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K ; -N 2 G+ J' ; A & "= 6.

60 12 3 F 7 A U " = t ; B!!? W # "! - B


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6
"! 0 / " 5 -3 B = 5 =2 4/ /# < 6 5 B 2 K
; ; " ( 7 B"= 5 0#
/ #K ;"= 5 6 = . 4U "= 6 5 ) "? 5 2 ! #K K W = 6
! U 6

?I = / u\ L2
A A2 67 4L0 & 1
3
" 12 3 2 N
:w A "2 A 0C = ) .1968 3 |2
: 3 ; 0 567 -G ?: &M +E ! -3 K +E 2
.1971 GC .1985 .[5] 1986
3 -; QK ; = A 3 &
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" S E = 6 G C 5

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)> & " P

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2
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& ;K /2
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.(1958

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; 5 ; "! G -
= 5 56 7 0
A ;! 0 = Q - = 56 7 0 6 3 ? = # = wI f 7
'

) ; ( " ; 0 S
I = 6 J' ; B 7 ; wI
A - = ") 56
) ;^
M W
J "= / ( ; H / H.[6]
= 5 4H 3 56 - H
!
& 5 = 6 = )(Tolos
?I = " G (H '
4 A ; /2E 1

: = 6 " 12 3
/ ; -6 P =(7:3 7 ) 56
/ 06 G "7 '
; 0 " " -N = ?6 U S G A Q /
/ u / )#\ L2

/ 0A; /
<06
12 3 ) G 2 67
: i - )"(
6 :A ; 0;& M
) G = > = A ; -I K; . 0 ?U = 6 A U " t ; ; " # 5 S E 5 7 5 - e
= ?I 7 ; / -3 : W # ;
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"?! > " -N
BG # S62 5 - ;K Q \ 0 - .
5
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67 1
L"2 -"G 5 ?J -"3 J ; ?6 ? < ? 7 Y
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"7
A
A7 ; = (11 7 ) 56 /A
"' L
:QK ) 5 A ; -"G = A . ?H
" P ; A )
#K "

= ' 2 G 3
" B"2 ; J 5 Q / 3 U "!
3 = Y ; W U ; A= ; ; 4+ 5 ; PM
5G 5 5 0

y
G &
Y =" &I 3 -H 4 6
)
5 : 2G "
5
/
W :; ;K 3
; 0 . # 2 3 B )2 1 : 5
4/ = 4/ Y -H
E
= :Q
B A
; ; W U3
:3 " -G ; 4/
; =" / "? H0; /H0
" 3

. 2A
2

43

Vol. 27 No. 1, Oct. 2016

ISSN : 2351-8014

3 .2 R 1

- A 1 A ? 5 Q = A M
0 3 7 A 3 F 7 5 Q / S
" G = 5 56 # 02 -G
/ " G = 5 56 -N 5 0 /) S
5 & 0 Y 5 Q / : ; :-M
/
"L
: -N "" Q /
5 Q / "= / -\ #'
0 ; ; B <06
.1 J 3 5 = A 3

G #

5 0

!J ? .

- 0 2 Q
;" > - G
.2 1! 7 = 6 ; ; w 5 ? Y =" (3:1 7 ) - MK
67 = 56 G 0 # G #
Q /
& H 2
; {; ? ; N
P 5 4/ I - ;K ; 5 0 S #K.

.3 #K ? Q
. Q/
.4
.5

=56

; ;K "

i /

/ & 5 -6 A

;K

A ? Q

7 " - ?6
;= 56
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0 ;K = A G
= P " Y " - ?6 I 4 = 6 .(7:1 7 ) B
5 =56
i

U = 6

"

?"

?I Y

w B 3 ? -
U0 #K 5 Q / =56

:-M

= /) S 0

5 4 &# A7 ; /" 1

; ? U/; I = 6.

5 -0A "= I = 5 5G -; & =" B 5 w


5 ? - S NGK
& ; |Q
= 56
U 2 G " N
0 / 0J 4/ Y 4+ 5 " =56
! ; 5 \ 0 ? - U =+E" 56
; EA W U 4/
\ > # U =.56
i
B) "G :
w
i
; ;

B ) ; H; = 56
567 ; & 4 - " " G ; 5 / -3; ?J
3
5 2 G 5 2 / U "
" !6 A 5 5 0 = 56 i : ; A7 !
K ) . 3 ; ? 567 -G &

G , 3 =A 4H 56

. C
? ;{ ) \ u\ L7
Y A M 3 3 ; ? B ! 0 " )G = 6 !

3 .2 .1 ,T T
; 2 f0B
"! U ?> = )G; B" / Y 5 ;P
" & G"7
! -N
3 4 " B G="#P #K "
?!>
?" ) ; ;E 3 /# Y = 5 ;P 6 P ; 5 A B 5 0 4 L 6 ; 4/ ; - 0 ! ; "#
2 #K ; 0 I 5 B 1 "C N ) 1985

) ;U/ "! 1 G02U K
; )I #
.(1988
; " 0
" = G="#P 2 Q 2 5 #K " = /; 1
0 G 0 ; #K E3 ?!
WU
A N3 3 : -M
: ; -\ #
&JK ; 0\ "! # G # : Q " 0
50
/ 06 -/
& 5 2 S G # # 5 Q /
5G " P "7 - / w 5 Q / . / 2 " G (H '
0" # # " ; .
S = A " I -N
Y = 6 " N
A Q / A "2 / ; -6 P "7 2 G
! 4+ #K A "2 " ; A G "= # '
/ )# 12 3 H/ ?6 " A M ;

/ 0A; /
<06
" ; 12 3 ) G 2 67
! ) W " H = 6.
" ; N"# wI 0 5K
75 i 0

#K
" Y"

=
" 3
/ 12 3 )I
4A M K "
"; L
12 3 M /"y
; "
/ U #K [7] [5] 2 N ) -6 5 3 3
(1984 / #K : Q 0 " / ; = 6 6
)
L2 :) . .1968 3;>(1953
A
" " 6 = 6 6 2 # " 1y 2
0B
? Q
) ;>(1953
; +&N # ) ;> .(1953 / #K 6= ; G ) 6 (1968 3 #K K
1! 7 = 6 K
# ' G# ) ) (1967 G : K #E; 6 (1988 = C) 0 " . / <06
= ' 2G
" B"2 ; J ; 5 Q / ; = A 3 U "!
3 = Y ; W U ; 4+ 5 ; PM
G &
) = Y =" 56 -H 5 5G 3 . Q / 4 I
5 : 2G "
3
; 0 N ) #.(1985
" ; 4/ = A Y 3 -H
5G A E 5 5 0

y
5 6 Q / 0 ") 0J 12 3 0
Q;
; #K - A - A2

) 5G (1968 3 :Q -3 - J 0 A/ B / ; 5 W #K 3 ; 6
G #B
=-0A; 56
G 5 ;P
& #K \
/\:Q GC) . K .(1986 3 !2:
/\:Q" -)#K
; ; & 5 7 ; A \ G #
) H (1958 3 W # -U #K.
"! 0
U ) 4 ; ; ; #K ) ( "" 2 1= 5 0 #K 7#

1 67 #K ; ;K
" 5 B = 5 =2 4/ /# < 6 5 B 2 K . 567 "0 ) #K (13 -N 6=" 7 ;K " ; !
# 567 N 0 ; (J ) GC) . 2 .1986 .(1968 3
Q ;K ;0
# 567
3

-3
) G

!H & /2E3 wI r A ) 4Q /;> A2 3 (1953 . ;K "


# Q # ) 8.(
A2 ;K
; (1987 = C) 5 #E; W U3
; #E; 0 5 C 6 60 ) 2 #;> (1953 ;K " ?" ) A7K

44

Vol. 27 No. 1, Oct. 2016

ISSN : 2351-8014

Mahmoud Ahmed Darwish

u .(1978 ; ) 2 3 # 3 567) &3 =&; ( ; ; 5 0 60 ) 2 (1971 |2 #E; 1


"? =" / / 5 2 G ; Y A7 /I | ).(1987 = C
;
; #K ;& ; I )6 !2: " #E; : " 12 3 ( 2) G # w 12 3; ; /Q ; & yJ
U)2
/
; f0 7K 12 3
/
3; "0 -
/ -3 5 ; 0 e 5 G # M = A K U 3 5B Q
? G U = > ; 0 3 " B 5 3 "
P" ; W #K !2: " P
5 0 . Q <
#
? ) Q ? " " ; ( P
K
5 Q
0 12 G = 6 "0 !2:
;
" #G="#
) ..(1969 3
; " 2 #K ;" < ?"#P Y

N3 0 ;
= 6 6 = 6 C :A ; 0 0 Y # F 7 10 "Q
"# u# "/
5 ?2 W 67
A
2 = 6 0
U = 6 U 60 ) F 7 2 / #K = ;K ; 6
\ 6 # 67
/ .W U3 A2
S 5 0 =A
/ 06 -/
/ Y 2 S G # # 5 Q /
" <06
?6
5 A
/Q 12 3:QK )
#K ;K = A !
S = A

" Q ; +E
=
" " ;K ; = M A " 4L :QK " 0 ; ! 5 ? ; ! wI 5 = . A 0 #K " 0 ;= 6
"7
" +E ; = 6 0 .
+E ; #K 6 " / #K 2 N #E; W U3 = 6 K
3 .2 .2 - )
&
- 7 5 4 ; B U 2

; 4 & ; / 6 5 W ; 5 # #K 3
/ - 0 "
=
) GC (1986 6 - Y 0 S K - 2 N & w G B 0 56= 4Q / ? \

= 6 K
5 -/
) B A .(1969 3 2 B; = 2
+ &L
&!2P ; 5 = 56# P
7 ) 0;> (1953 Q - ; 0 6= ; 2 N
"" ; - !0" 0 0
;/
;E; Q F 7 & -
; & .[6] 3 =" 4
; K " 4 I 3 =" 4 & ; / 3 =" ; 0
F 7 5 - ) 0 " <06 I / /
I 0 ; = 6 6 0
+E
5 ?2 W 67
< Q G#A2
A; G G ; -3
=
;
; 5 ?J ? < )(
"= 5 "3 4+ & ? -

2 Q " ! : A = . 3 " 4"3 J


B
567 ;
"?) .S
; 0 W 0 -=H
<"0
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( .11 .

) $1

B 2Q
: Y -
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)V6% .12 .

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.2 .2 .3 6:)V
) ;> (1953 & 2 2 # !2:' &#
& K
60 Q
Q G="#P = ;
1 ?"#
3 -GC -M: A ; YC 5 "! B & 5 ?"# -\ # J 0 5 4Q / ? 1 ?"# : #E; -M ;
uG0 0 -\ / 5 5 0
=" 5 J G & N3 a7 :-M
Q /
/
67
U = 6.
M% % 3 .3 Q 0$

2 Y " : " 1=J ' 2 1 "


Q <! " 4L 3 ; "A A
:3 5"Q
" G
2 0 4
4 A ! A 0 Y ;y
! =I
.[8] y L2 Q
K B ! #
=6 ].[9
Q = - 2U A 0 6; 0 L f0; 5
) U ! ; / =)

) 0 U
" P ; - # 5 B = 5 P AC ? - P 0 =
U B 1
4M
A U G : /A ) 3 ) ; Q "7P ' 2 2 N3K " G u#K
12 3 4+ 5
' 2 2
Y G
:
IK ; + [8] / 0 " ( & -N "?! > 02
= ; = 6 ] ( " [10 / 5 K " G
" 4 6
L
3 .3 .1

W, Q 0$

! "G
6 5 G 567
( I # > !? 4 6
-N "?! > B!# " B2 = > ; B = 6
-G3
?! >
4+ B " U "+E
B 7 = 6 K B 7
0 Q / i; 4
:3 = 6 F 7
"?! > 3 . C / " = / "? - -"G
" ; B 6K
(
" F 7 = 6 ; 0 N ) W(1988

45

Vol. 27 No. 1, Oct. 2016

ISSN : 2351-8014

" 4 H ;^ 2 #K / 7 < Q W U3
0 7 # 2 #) .(1982 3 C 5 2 = 6 H < Q
.(1991
/; A L N ) y .1988
J / C "
12 3 #K 0 = ! ; 2 = # G3 - 0 56
"
2 Q
" ! -N
&I
[ I\ 3 .3 .2

3 I% (Z

-N

3 / 0A /G #

7 P

2 "3 /; 6

= A

5 F 7 y 12 3 /2 # 6= 2 67 12 3 C \
2

7 0
/; I&" /\ ; :3 7 - (!#K ? Y =" Q :0 = 7 - ) M G
.(14-13 7 ) / ; J

; "

" J
G

A \ ! 7 5 S 0 "3 -N F =; A 7 0 -
;E I&" / 2
" :
L2 " 4 6 HY J
) ? (50-46 Q W Y J 7 / / !2 - = 6
3 W # # = \>
? I 6"QP
/ ' J ! 0
"
K
7 ? EA 0
&L - " 0 0CK ) u; .(1982 4

1% .13 .
^ A \ 3 .3 .3

1% .14 .

7 /
:; 4/ Q "7
" 3
) N3

7 = 6 I 7 3
5
/; 2 / /H 0 G ; M ? 4 ; -
" B Q <#
! S / ) f 7 Q B AC

= 5 y
:Q 5KF 7 / 7 J
) f Q = A "2 y / 0. 2
5 /" = 2 3 U ACK - 0

: _ 3 .3 .4 ; R 13 5 1
) 2 " P 3 F 7 / -G ) I " /J
0CK /J 0 u C I
#
) 7( ; 2:1.5) 5( ;
-
? 3 = ; I \
:3 ; 3:2) 5(
; 5 ;K \
! / - ) (.
3 " B Q 4 5 A 0" P "7 /Q
2
U -0A < "G& P / /; "3
? 5 : / "0
A ) & 0#( ; ) - 0

; 4) 5(
"

3 7 uL

2 ! 0CK u G P "7
: ;" /Q 053 E; /\ /"2
U 3
" - L 0
.
; B
-

L 4 "?! > 02
G
K
12 3 H
( ; "2 / 5
5 0C u
&L =
U ) M ;"
-N Y >wH ?) I f + / 0CK /J 0 .u

2 :
H

"

) M G
-N Y >wH 0

) (5:1) 5 /
"
K

= ; ; K 3 Y J
"
; / = / )2
3 -0Q "
L Y H 0 !w" -\ # ?"# ; / -3 5
7 & 5 W " Q 0 =2P 7
- L K 3 /2
;
) ; 5 ; " 5 : 5
; 5 5 Q Q -N 5 0 0
w.
#
) H
= W =" I / 3
- L
#
) N (1988
.&0
3 .3 .5- `

) f Q = EA 0

; ! ; " -G ; Y -G <3 ; 5 Ye

) ; U ; /Q 2 !
- L
3 7 / A 5 -)# Q -3U


: ;

$A

3
2
; A G # 2 wI U W ; C 5; F 7 = != "7 w wI / = \> ? Q
" :
4" =" -3 "
5 - 5 0# ? " # ?" F 7 = # 3
I 12 3 " 6 )"= J
- w ? 5 <2 A ' e 3 7 /i 3 . > J H F 7
-N / -
; ;= G 12 3 U H
:A 0 U " -N L ;> ; 5 -
H G ) M
?) 7 5 S 0C u C M C "=4G
W#
L
!0P ; # 7 y . K 0
Y = F 7 ? I 6 5 4/ G L ? Q
? -N F 7 ) "Q
" =" U ) 4 2 :" J U U K ; / &.
Q /2 / ;/

46

Vol. 27 No. 1, Oct. 2016

ISSN : 2351-8014

Mahmoud Ahmed Darwish

3 .3 .6 ` 1 -
0 ) "0 F 7 " +E 5 ; 6 = 6 ; / y 0 2 7 = 4 5 F 7 5 / ; &0 " - G 6
"0
!0 M # 7 ; " 5 ) 5 ; M ) M H " Q 0 3 = ; y
- =56
; 5 ) M ? Q ) -N F 7M
= ; 5 ) " " 4L > " I) - G.(1999
G ) w
?! > = 56 6
F 7B2
7
6
" ; B &L
UA /
) U &

= ; 7 5 A <2K; 0 )" 7
3 +
= ; 7 Q +&+ 5 [11] <2 3 0 -
0 F 7 (1991 5 ! = 6 ; 5 = A (! ># = J' 56 /
I 4 ) # #K
567 L2 ' 7 U ) ; 2 ) 0 B2^ 5
3

7^; Y w" 7 ; B 5 /A
J
S 6 " 3 Q = 5 - U ) ; 5; # Q )" 3 [12] B
: = A ; H / & 5 H ; W )U ; 5 B . 56=; 4
3 F 7 - U/ 3
) .

) (5

% 3 .3 .7 1
a)7
1 ?"# "
"?
5 ; A = " M
A / # #
A = -\ #
# 4L0 / + ) Q

; <2 A A7K
+E 0C u :0 = 5 ! 3 0 # #K
=
2 " G UQ 5 S #K ? - AC -N .-+K 4
; # #K W )
; /\/
)"7 ) M
7 P: Q ) M
; :QK ) ; = A U
7 / ; ? .[13]

) A ; 2
?"# !& " 0 ! =
Y
& = \>
/ "2 ?"# B
= BJ 0 A A ^) B2
= (!#K
: A 5 /" 7 ! " / :
A
\$

bc

"

5 "= 6
E 2 #
"# 5 /
=6= 6
W 12 3 3 = 6 0" ; B C G#
1
03 7
S
& /A

; 6" P ;
0 F 7 B2
(1990 B 5 A 0 y
Q = ; F 7 0 uG0 f ;K 0C u 5 - " 6
" < )?2 7 Q (!# A / & / u - 0
; ?:2
= \> 5 S #K :0 = .
5
G ? Q

A ># ?6 7 ; A7K 6
=2 .5
/
( 4/'

U ; ;E 7

"?! > 0 I 0 0 & ( "?! > 0 6= 2 G" F 7 = +&+ 5 56 # 02 -G


# "=
5 & : ; : -M " G = 5 56 -N 5 0
/
A 5 Q / 1 A 5 = A M "L
5 -6
; ;K " i /
5 Q / "= . / : #K ? /2E; Q
) / 0 ; ; B <06
;K.

?! ! / 0 I 0 ;= 6 6 0 B C :A ; 0;& F 7 5 #K " 0
+E 67

67
i . -
567 ; - ) 0 " <06 I / /; ?JA2
\ .
"" ;i 0 - = 56 i #K I 5 0 3:Q ;
: Y -
1 N = 6 u# "?! > #K 0 A
"
& ( "?! > 0 6= 2
16 # =
) B Q 2 " B Q /; <# / /H 0 Y J ; I 5
I
\ ; N3
A
.&0
2 )"= ? Q ;B; " W U

47


' &# I 0 :3 # "?! ! 0 .37
;
) - IE .(1982 4 = H

; 4
; 5 +K 6301238/ ) .(1980 - G " t 3 "G ; - ; 0 2 .148-221-218
; 4 62K
B 5 )!6 KY =
?"
; 5 9441537/ ) 7 .(1993\ Y 2K ! #K #
"G - "G 2 Y.641
Q = ( I Y = G 3 G.14

# 0 ; N
; 5 A 6471249/ ) .(1980
; < 7 5 245859/ ) .(1942 ? Y = : ? 7 " "C r ; 53 / .249-248
;:7 5 4561064/ ) Q .(2003 Y = 7 I 2 5 #K 0 .421-213-212
: : 1 ) ; G .300
? ) Y =
; 7 5 354965/ ) .(1987
; 5 8081405/ ) .(1957 0 " ? "G ; - 2 4 .795
; 5 240854/ ) .(1977 5; ) t Y = 3 0 #i 2 ; - # . .83-82
; 5 321933/ ) / Q .(1987 w 7 1 ; - - 53 2 /.274
! 1/1 1/2 7.77
; 0# 5 230845/ ) .(2001 ! G "=
w \ - ; 0 2 2 .135-134-133-132
; # 5 7341333/ .(2008) +K
" C 4 / Y = Q - 2 /)IK 1 .193-192-190
; C 5 262875/ ) .(1979 t
S J 2 .200-197
4631070/ ) .(1983 " 6 w C Y =
;5
0 < 0C Y = K 2 ; 13.3
; 4 5 A 7511350/ )14061986/( . 0
; N3 5 7741373/ ) .(1978 / ) ; - G 4 .198
7 ; - 0 3 .376-375-368-363-276
)!6 Y =
; N3 5 7741373/ ) .(1983
)!6 Y = 5 7 " ; ; 0 3 .493-348-347-344
; 5 218833/ ) .(1990
Vol. 27 No. 1, Oct. 2016

ISSN : 2351-8014

48

1395) ; w1975/( 5 .3
+e " S7 0 - !
; 5 .222-221-218-208-207-195-184-183-159
; = - C:M .(1979) 7
G 4871094/ ) 4A0 .(1949 5 4A0"# # )!6 Y = 2 3 523-522-521.745
4.1380
A0 !0 <"G ; - 0 4 -216
/ 4581065/ ) .(1985 -\P 0 7 <7 I Y = 0
.226-225-224
Q B ) .(1990 # ; ! A 5 0 4I ' - &# 14 .65-48
C .(1970) 7 # A M :A ; 1 .613-254
\ 0 ' 1; + = Q &# 5 9 .54
Q .(1933) S
+e ; 0 0 6 6
& 7
; w
\ ( 5 !"5
Q -G ).(1982
.19
.540-539

= ; 285898/ ) "3 .(1969 W# 53 =| 4 0 :A 7 Y = # A
= ; 2 -743-742-740-732-731
= 10441635/ ) .(1980 2 0 # 5 K E 0 ;
.761-744
= 6261228/ ) 4A0 .(1977 I ; - 2 3 409-398 4 233 5 63 .364-253
.437
; .571-609-490-228
! K Y = 7 "G 2
= 9001495/ ) .(1975 !0
0 ; 0 .
? ; = .(1977) 5 +i
?! > ' &# i / 2 4 6 ; "2 .877-855
) .(1997 A 0 y
5
; G ) .(1903 t ? u 7 ; u )2 u)2 2 4 .53-48-47-45-44.213
I I 0 " 5 / !0 4' &# 60;= L 0 4I ' &#
=2 .(1991) 5

= # ; Q 0 .185-171
60 5 ; !# 0 5 6 A " ? 7 .123-109
.(1958) 5 7 0 G 0
3
1 .3-GC 74-73-70-69-66-65-47
6
.(1968) 5 7 r A
3
.(1969) 5 7 & = 6 A " ? 15 .89-74-69
3
# ")3 4L K : ; 1 2 .384
S # 0# .(1983) 5 = 3 G 0
A 6 #E 0 -' G# .
&#&# = 0 C ) 67 .(1989
) > !? .(1982 H7 0 w; 9 .8-7
#
5 7 - 3 6 .545-510-502
5;P Y =
/ 5811185/ ) .(1970 C S2e
.86-85-67
6
GC = 2 ) .(1986 0
. .72-69
" Q 0 A' - &#
Q = Y#
/ ) .(1980 :M
&I Y = 5 /0 A ?! ; 0 A
G & = ; 5 7
2 189804/ ) C .(1971 "3
- ; 0 1 1 .73-72
+e ; A 5 "= S 2/3 ; 0.104
.(1987) )!6 = C
.(1988) )!6 = C # 0 ) ! By +e 6 .4-3 -GC
& y ; A 0 2 2 3 Q 0 "?! > 0 Q - 0# W
I = .(1999) 7 " - G ) M +E
.56-37
0 " C 4 / Y = 5 Q & 5 -193-191-188-186-181
= 6 9421535/ ) - # .(1983 / C #
.248-215-214-204
! 310923/ ) .(1977 t -# = Y = ; ) -H; 4 1 0 - 3 .14-10-9
.314
?" = Y = ! < 62K 4 "G - 0
# 0 1016/ ) .(1916 K
7 G 0 .169-138-13
" )1985( . 0 = ; ; 5 L "! 3 A Y W
N=
' 4 &# 28 0 1 G .263-235-138-12
" ) .(1988
N=
= Q ( I ) G' G# .63
) = G ; .(1967) C' G#
= Q &A - 0# 0Q 2 ) G 2 Y.31) .(1984 & = 6
- }2 w)
.241-186--135-134
4 0 ; 7 Y = # A 1
) ; 8231415/ ) .(1969 42 w ! ;
Q 0Q
6' )1087-1570. "? Q (. ) = :0 #
.(1985) 7 #i G 0 6
?" y +e 6 .286-285
7 2 .256
w # ) +&N)!6 Y =
&G6341237/ ) .(1968 )"3P
' G# B Q 6 SI < 2 .40
; Q ) .(19785 #
10 .272-72-90
;> = i ) .(1953 ) A
.166
A 0 IK 2
M 8161413/ ) Y = .(1981 6 ;" ? 4 0 A/= Y =
1 -237-227
# 5 K =) " = Y = 1
: 8451441/ ) .(1981 " #K ;

.242-241
17 -251
" S E " Q !
K #i 6 0
7331332/ ) /2 .(2004'

.256-255-251

Vol. 27 No. 1, Oct. 2016

ISSN : 2351-8014

Mahmoud Ahmed Darwish

.191-190 K 2 # # < 0 K + .(1971) " G2P |2


.35 3K
5; = Y = 0 :Q )I .(1974) 946/334 2 /
-659:650-648:637-536-531-376 2 375 1 "< ; G 4 u2 Q # Y = w .(1965) 822/207
.729-704-693-684-676:674-670:663
.167-165-116 . 0 ;& / t .(1927) - \ # )
.56 2 ; ; 0 t .(1957) 896/284 ; 0

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