Several phenomena associated with superconductivity are expressed in terms of concentration of superconducting electrons, penetration depth and temperature etc. The empirical relation for the density of superconducting electrons and the relation in terms of penetration depth are discussed in the present paper. These empirical relations are obtained on the basis of experimental data. These relations are derived mathematically on the basis of thermodynamically and electro dynamically properties with interaction between superconducting electrons and phonons.

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Several phenomena associated with superconductivity are expressed in terms of concentration of superconducting electrons, penetration depth and temperature etc. The empirical relation for the density of superconducting electrons and the relation in terms of penetration depth are discussed in the present paper. These empirical relations are obtained on the basis of experimental data. These relations are derived mathematically on the basis of thermodynamically and electro dynamically properties with interaction between superconducting electrons and phonons.

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DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/1769

RESEARCH ARTICLE

THE FORMULATION BETWEEN PENETRATION DEPTH AND CRITICAL TEMPERATURE OF

SUPERCONDUCTORS BY THERMAL PHYSICS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY.

1.

2.

Department of Chemistry, Jai Narain Vyas University Jodhpur, Rajasthan-342001, India.

Department of Physics, Jai Narain Vyas University Jodhpur, Rajasthan-342001, India.

....

Manuscript Info

Abstract

.

Manuscript History

Received: 12 August 2016

Final Accepted: 22 September 2016

Published: October 2016

Key words:superconductivity, penetration depth,

critical temperature, electron density and

phonons.

in terms of concentration of superconducting electrons, penetration

depth and temperature etc. The empirical relation for the density of

superconducting electrons and the relation in terms of penetration

depth are discussed in the present paper. These empirical relations are

obtained on the basis of experimental data. These relations are

derived mathematically on the basis of thermodynamically and electro

dynamically properties with interaction between superconducting

electrons and phonons.

Copy Right, IJAR, 2016,. All rights reserved.

....

Introduction:Superconductivity is the phenomenon in which the electrical resistivity of the material is zero around the transition

temperature (Tc). It was discovered by in 1911 by H.K.Onnes[1].The superconducting state is an ordered state of the

conduction electrons of the metal. The order is in the formation of loosely associated pairs of electrons. The

electrons are ordered at temperature below the transition temperature and they are above the transition temperature

[2-3]. The nature and the origin of the ordering electrons was described by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer [4]. The

theory of superconductivity requires a net attractive interaction between electrons in the neighbourhood of the fermi

surface, which gives the basic concept of cooper pairs and interaction with lattice [5]. Basic theory of

superconductivity relates to transitions with respect to critical temperature , critical magnetic field, superconducting,

concentration of electrons and London penetration depth [6-10]. Currently the mechanism of high temperature

superconductivity is also investigated which is ceramics compounds [11-12]. In this paper, we establish the relation

between critical temperature and the density of superconducting electrons and also the relation between the London

penetration depth and critical temperature, which is given in empirical analysis already.

Theory:Consider a fermi surface at which Cooper pairs are formed and electrons interacts with lattice, so energy density of

phonons in superconductors is u while the density of concentration of superconducting electrons is different at

various levels in superconductors.

Now, pressure P exerts on superconducting electrons

uCos 2 2Sin

P dP

d

4

0

0

Address:- Department of Chemistry, Jai Narain Vyas University Jodhpur, Rajasthan-342001, India.

134

ISSN: 2320-5407

u

Cos 2Sind

2 0

u

(1)

P

3

P

Thermodynamically, relation between total interaction energy (E) and pressure (P) is given as

E

P

T

P (2)

V T

T V

Since the total interaction energy of phonons in superconductor is given by

E= u V

Where, V is the volume of superconductor.

d u, V

T

V

T

T du u

u

3 dT 3

T du 4u

3 dT

3

du

dT

4

u

T

u u

3 3

(3)

Normal state concentration of electrons in superconductor is n n. Then interaction energy density of phonons per unit

concentration of superconducting electron is

u

at critical temperature TC.

nn

u

nn

C

du

dT

4

u

T

0

u nn TC4

(4)

Therefore, the total concentration of electrons is n 0 in superconductor at absolute zero temperature. Now energy

density of phonons per unit concentration of electron in superconductors is

u

n0

u

at temperature T, then

n0

du

dT

4

u

T

0

u

T4

n0

u n0 T 4

(5)

From equation (4) and (5) we have

T

n n n0

TC

(6)

n0= nn+ ns (7)

135

ISSN: 2320-5407

(8)

n s n0 n n

T4

n s n0 n0 4

TC

T4

n S n0 1 4

TC

(9)

This is the required expression for the variation of density of super electrons with temperature and this is equivalent

with empirical relation.

Consider that an electric field occurs within a superconductor. The superconducting electrons will be freely

accelerated without dissipation. Therefore, the average velocity of the electrons is vs . The equation of motion of

electrons in electric field (E) is given by

=

(10)

Since the electron density current carried by these electrons is

=

(11)

From Eq. (10) and (11) we obtained

(12)

From Faradays law

=

(13)

Let us take curl of Eq. (12) and then substituting the value of curl E from equation (13) we obtained

+ = 0 (14)

2

For superconductors we integrate Eq. (14) w.r.t. time and equate the constant of integration equal to zero, we have

=

(15)

= 0

(16)

Taking the curl of Eq. (16)

= 0

... (17)

2

2 = 0

... (18)

Since = 0, for superconductors

Therefore,

2 = 0

m

2

0 nS e

(19)

1

(20)

Where, we define eq. (20) is called the London penetration depth. Therefore, the concentration of superconducting

electrons varies with the penetration depth as

136

ISSN: 2320-5407

nS

(21)

2S

Therefore, the concentration of total electrons varies with the penetration depth as

n0

(22)

20

1 T4

1

2S 20 TC4

1

2S

20

T4

1 4

TC

T4

S 0 1 4

TC

(23)

This is the London penetration depth in superconductors which is equivalent to empirical relation.

Results and Discussion:We compare the experimental results with the result of eq. (9) and eq. (23). These relations represent the dependence

of critical temperature. The nature of this variation is inverted parabolic shape in concentration of superconducting

electrons versus temperature and penetration depth versus temperature. Therefore both the physical quantities are

function of temperature. These equations representthe phase boundary between the superconducting state and

normal state. In general, for investigation of high temperature superconductor materials, three important

approaches can be preferred to the total penetration depth calculation, phonon contribution, electron contribution

and both electron-phonon contributions.

Conclusion:The eq. (9) is derived on the basis of thermal Physics and eq. (23) on the basis of thermal physics and electro

dynamics. The concentration of superconducting electron depends on the temperature and its nature parabolic. The

penetration depth depends on the temperature and becomes quite large as temperature approaches the transition

temperature.

References:1.

2.

3.

J. Bardeen, L.N. Cooper and J.R. Schrieffer, Phys. Rev. 106, 162(1957); 108, 1175 (1957).

C. Kittle, Introduction to solid state Physics, vol. 7 (wiley, new York 1996). [4 ] N.W. Ashcroft, N.D. Mermin, solid state

Physics, Brooks/ Cole, Cengage learning (1976).

4. L. C. J. R. Schrieffer and J. Bardeen, Phys Today pp. 23-41, (1973).

5. Anderson P.W. et al. J, Phys Condense Matter, 16(24): R755; (2004).

6. Lee PA et al. Rev Modern Phys, 78:17, (2006).

7. Ogata M, Fukuyama H. Rep Prog Phys,71;036501, (2008).

8. F. London and H. London, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), A149, 71 (1935).

9. F. London and H. London, Physica 2, 341 (1935).

10. H.S.Singh and Rohitash Kumar, The equation of state in Layered Structure of High temperature uperconductor with 2223

System, J.pure appl. and Ind. Phy vol. 4(1), 35-38 (2014).

11. H.S. Singh and Rohitash Kumar, Synthesis and Characterization of Bi- 2212 superconductor with iron oxides, IJSER, Vol7, Issue - I, Jan, (2016).

137

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