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11/18/2016

EngineFailureDuringTakeoffMultiEngineTransportCategoryJetAircraftSKYbraryAviationSafety

EngineFailureDuringTakeoffMultiEngine
TransportCategoryJetAircraft
Category: LossofControl
FromSKYbraryWiki
ArticleInformation

Contents
1Description
2RegulatoryRequirements
3AircraftTypeCertification
3.1MinimumRunwayRequirements
3.1.1TakeoffDistance(TOD)
3.1.2TakeoffRun(TOR)
3.1.3AccelerateStopDistance(ASD)
3.1.4LossofRunwayLengthDuring
Lineup
3.2EngineOutObstacleClearanceProfile
4EffectsofEngineFailure
4.1OntheRunway
4.2Airborne
5FlightCrewActions
6Defences
7RelatedArticles
8FurtherReading

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Description
Intheearlydaysofjetenginepoweredtransportaircraft,enginefailures,inallphasesofflight,wereafairly
frequentoccurrence.Statisticsfromthe1960'sindicatethatfailuresresultingininflightshutdownsoccurredatan
approximaterateof40per100,000flighthours(or1per2,500flighthours).Thisrateistheequivalentofevery
enginefailingonceeveryyear.Bycontrast,thefailurerateoftheenginesinstalledoncurrentgenerationaircraft
haveafailurerateoflessthan1per100,000flighthours.
Infrequentasthismightseem,enginesdofailandafailureduringtakeoffhasveryserioussafetyofflight
implications.Theaerodynamiceffectsofthefailureandtheimmediateactionsbytheflightcrew,whichare
necessarytoensureanacceptableoutcome,aresimilartothoseinalight,twinengineaircraft.However,unlike
theirsmallercousins,thecertificationcriteriaformultienginetransportcategoryjetaircraftrequirethatthe
aircraftbecapableofachievingaspecifiedminimumclimbrate,thatwillensureobstacleclearance,shouldan
enginefailureoccurontakeoff.

RegulatoryRequirements

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TheNationalAviationAuthority(NAA)foreachsovereignstateisresponsibleforissuinganaircrafttype
certificate,inaccordancewiththeguidanceprovidedintheICAOStandardsandRecommendedPractices
(SARPS),foraircraftthatareregisteredwithinitsjurisdiction.WhiletheSARPSprovidetheagreedminimum
requirementsfortypecertification,eachNAAhastherighttoinsistthatadditionalcriteriabesatisfiedbeforean
aircrafttypecertificatewillbeissued.
WithintheEuropeanUnion,typecertificatesareissuedbytheEuropeanAviationSafetyAgency(EASA)whose
websitemaybefoundhere(http://easa.europa.eu/)

AircraftTypeCertification
Therearemanysafetyandperformancerequirementsthatmustbemetbeforeanaircraftwillbeissuedatype
certificate.Formultiengine,transportcategoryjetaircraft,minimumrunwayrequirementsthatallowthesafe
rejectionorcontinuationofatakeoffintheeventofafailureandtheabilitytocomplywithminimumspecified
engineoutclimbgradientsandobstacleclearancecriteriaarebothcriticallyimportant.

MinimumRunwayRequirements
RegulatorycriteriaforminimumrunwayrequirementsencompassmultiplecalculationsinclusiveofTakeoff
Distance(TOD),TakeoffRun(TOR)andAccelerateStopDistance(ASD).Themostlimitingofthesecriteria,
basedonaircraftweightandprevailingatmosphericconditions,definestheminimumrunwayrequiredfortakeoff.
Notethat,dependingupontheregulationsunderwhichtheaircraftcertificationisgranted,thesedistancesmay
havetotakeintoconsiderationtherunwaydistancelostduringlineup.

DeclaredDistances

TakeoffDistance(TOD)
TheTakeoffDistanceonadryrunwayisthegreaterofthefollowingvalues:
Distancecoveredfromthebrakereleasetoapointatwhichtheaircraftis35feetabovethetakeoffsurface,
assumingthefailureofthecriticalengineatVEF(EngineFailureSpeed)andrecognizedatV1
115%ofthedistancecoveredfrombrakereleasetoapointatwhichtheaircraftis35feetabovethetakeoff
surface,assumingallenginesoperating
TheTakeoffDistanceonawetrunwayisthegreaterof:
TakeoffDistanceonadryrunway(seeabove)
Distancecoveredfrombrakereleasetoapointatwhichtheaircraftis15feetabovethetakeoffsurface,
ensuringthattheV2speedcanbeachievedbeforetheairplaneis35feetabovethetakeoffsurface,assuming
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failureofthecriticalengineatVEFandrecognizedatV1
TakeoffDistancemustnotexceedtheTakeoffDistanceAvailable(TODA),withaclearwaydistancenotto
exceedhalfoftheTODA
TakeoffRun(TOR)
TakeoffRun(TOR)calculationsincorporatetheoperationaladvantageofadesignatedclearwaywhenoneis
presentonthedeparturerunway.Ifnoclearwayexists,TOR=TOD.
Whenaclearwayexists,theTakeoffRunonadryrunwayisthegreaterofthefollowingvalues:
DistancecoveredfrombrakereleasetoapointequidistantbetweenthepointatwhichVLOF(LiftoffSpeed)
isreachedandthepointatwhichtheaircraftis35feetabovethetakeoffsurface,assumingfailureofthe
criticalengineatVEFandrecognizedatV1
115%ofthedistancecoveredfrombrakereleasetoapointequidistantbetweenthepointatwhichVLOFis
reachedandthepointatwhichtheaircraftis35feetabovethetakeoffsurface,assumingallengines
operating
Whenaclearwayexists,theTakeoffRunonawetrunwayisthegreaterof:
TakeoffDistance(TOD)wetrunway
115%ofthedistancecoveredfrombrakereleasetoapointequidistantbetweenthepointatwhichVLOFis
reachedandthepointatwhichtheaircraftis35feetabovethetakeoffsurface,assumingallengines
operating.
TakeoffRunmustnotexceedTakeoffRunAvailable(TORA)
AccelerateStopDistance(ASD)
AccelerateStopDistancecalculationsassumethefollowing:
DelaybetweenVEFandV1=1second
ASDisdeterminedwiththewheelbrakesatthefullywornlimitoftheirallowablewearrange
reversethrustisnotconsideredforadryrunwaydistancedetermination,itcanbeusedforwetrunway
calculations
TheAccelerateStopDistanceonadryrunwayisthegreaterofthefollowingvalues:
Sumofthedistancesnecessaryto:
1.AcceleratetheairplanewithallenginesoperatingtoVEF
2.AcceleratefromVEFtoV1(assumesthatenginefailsatVEFandfirstactiontorejectistakenatV1)
3.Cometoafullstop
4.Plusanadditionaldistanceequivalentto2secondsatconstantV1speed
Sumofthedistancesnecessaryto:
1.AcceleratetheairplanewithallenginesoperatingtoV1(assumesthatfirststoppingactionsaretakenatV1)
2.Withallenginesstilloperatingcometoafullstop
3.Plusanadditionaldistanceequivalentto2secondsatconstantV1speed
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TheAccelerateStopDistanceonawetrunwayisthegreatestof:
ASDonadryrunway(seeabove)
Sumofthedistancesonawetrunwaynecessaryto:
1.AcceleratetheairplanewithallenginesoperatingtoVEF
2.AcceleratefromVEFtoV1(assumesthatenginefailsatVEFandfirstactiontorejectistakenatV1)
3.Cometoafullstop
4.Plusanadditionaldistanceequivalentto2secondsatconstantV1speed
Sumofthedistancesonawetrunwaynecessaryto:
1.AcceleratetheairplanewithallenginesoperatingtoV1(assumesthatfirststoppingactionsaretakenatV1)
2.Withallenginesstilloperatingcometoafullstop
3.Plusanadditionaldistanceequivalentto2secondsatconstantV1speed
Note:Dependinguponthecriteriaunderwhichtheaircraftwascertified,theadditional2secondsdistance
equivalentmightnotberequired
AccelerateStopDistancemustnotexceedtheAccelerateStopDistanceAvailable(ASDA)
LossofRunwayLengthDuringLineup
DeclareddistancessuchasTORAandASDAarebasedonmeasurementsfromtherunwaythreshold.However,
unlesstheaircraftenterstherunwayfromapointpriortothethreshold,itisnotpossibletousethefulllengthof
therunway.Aircrafttypicallyenterthetakeoffrunwayfromanintersectingtaxiway.Theaeroplanemustthenbe
turnedtoalignitontherunwayinthedirectionoftakeoff.Insomecases,itmaybenecessarytobacktrackonthe
runwayandturnthrough180beforethetakeoffruncanbeinitiated.FAAregulationsdonotexplicitlyrequire
airplaneoperatorstotakeintoaccounttherunwaydistanceusedtoaligntheaeroplaneontherunwayfortakeoff.
However,EASAregulationsrequirethattheapplicabledistancebetakenintoconsideration.Whenrequired,the
TODAandTORAmustbereducedbythedistancefromtherunwaythresholdtothemainlandinggearandASDA
reducedbythedistancefromthethresholdtothenosegear.Manufacturerswillprovideminimumlineupdistances
requiredforboth90and180turns.
SomeOperatorsprovidedatawhichtakeslossofrunwaylengthduringlineupintoaccount.Allcrewsmustbe
familiarwiththeassumptionsmadeintheproductionoftheirowncompanysdata.

EngineOutObstacleClearanceProfile
TheNetTakeoffFlightPathfortheenginefailurecaseisdividedintofoursegments.Threeoftheseareclimbing
segmentswithspecifiedminimumgradientswhicharedependentuponthenumberofenginesinstalledonthe
aircraftandoneisalevelaccelerationsegment.Abriefdescriptionofthefoursegmentsisasfollows:
1.FirstSegmentdependingupontheregulationsunderwhichtheaircraftiscertified,thefirstsegmentbegins
eitheratliftofforattheendofthetakeoffdistanceatascreenheightof35'andaspeedofV2.Onawet
runway,thescreenheightisreducedto15'.Operatingenginesareattakeoffthrust,theflaps/slatsarein
takeoffconfigurationandlandinggearretractionisinitiatedoncesafelyairbornewithpositiveclimb.The
firstsegmentendswhenthelandinggearisfullyretracted.
2.SecondSegmentbeginswhenthelandinggearisfullyretracted.Enginesareattakeoffthrustandthe
flaps/slatsareinthetakeoffconfiguration.Thissegmentendsatthehigherof400'orspecifiedacceleration
altitude.Inmostcases,thesecondsegmentistheperformancelimitingsegmentoftheclimb.
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3.ThirdorAccelerationSegmentbeginsatthehigherof400'orspecifiedaccelerationaltitude.Enginesareat
takeoffthrustandtheaircraftisacceleratedinlevelflight.Slats/flapsareretractedonspeed.Thesegment
endswhenaircraftisincleanconfigurationandaspeedofVFShasbeenachieved.Notethatthethird
segmentmustbecompletedpriortoexceedingthemaximumtimeallowedforenginesattakeoffthrust.
4.FourthorFinalSegmentbeginswhentheaircraftisincleanconfigurationandataspeedofVFS.Climbis
reestablishedandthrustisreducedtomaximumcontinuous(MCT).Thesegmentendsataminimumof
1500'aboveairportelevationorwhenthecriteriaforenrouteobstacleclearancehavebeenmet.
Eachsegmentoftheoneengineinoperativetakeoffflightpathhasamandatedclimbgradientrequirement.For
example,agrosssecondsegmentclimbgradientcapabilityof2.4%,2.7%or3.0%isrequiredfortwo,threeand
fourengineaircraftrespectively.Similarly,therequiredgrossgradientsforthefourthsegmentare1.2%,1.5%and
1.7%respectively.
Toensureobstacleclearancewhileallowingforaircraftperformancedegradationandlessthanoptimumpilot
technique,thegrossgradientsarereducedby0.8%,0.9%and1.0%respectivelytocalculateanetgradient.The
obstacleidentificationsurface(OIS),orobstructionenvelope,startsatrunwayelevationatapointdirectlybeneath
theendofthetakeoffdistance(TOD)andparallelsthenetgradientprofileoftheclimbsegments.Ifanobstaclein
thedeparturepathpenetratestheOIS,theslopeoftheOISmustbeincreasedandboththenetandthegross
gradientslopesofthecorrespondingsegmentmustalsobeincreasedtoensurethattheminimumobstacle
clearancecriteriaismet.
Theaircraftnetgradientcapability,correctablefortemperature,altitudeandpressure,ispublishedintheAFM
performancedataand,inactualoperations,mustensurethatthelimitingobstacleinthedeparturepathcanbe
clearedbyaminimumof35'.Ifthereisanobstaclewithinthedeparturepaththatcannotbeavoidedandwouldnot
beclearedby35',theplannedtakeoffweightmustbereduceduntilminimumobstacleclearancecanbeachieved.
Notethat,byregulation,turnsimmediatelyaftertakeoffcannotbeinitiatedbelowthegreaterof50'AGLorone
halfoftheaircraftwingspanand,thatduringtheinitialclimb,turnsarelimitedto15ofbank.Turningwillresult
inareductioninaircraftclimbcapability.

TakeoffFlightPath

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Tomaximisethepayloadcapabilityfromanygivenrunway,mostoperatorsdevelopandutilizeemergencyturn
procedures.Theseproceduresfollowaspecifiedgroundtrackwhichminimisestheaffectsoflocalobstaclesanda
specifiedverticalprofilewhichcomplieswiththemorerestrictiveofcertificationoractualobstacleclimb
requirements.

EffectsofEngineFailure
OntheRunway
Ifamultiengineaircraftsuffersanenginefailureduringthetakeoffroll,theaircraftwillyawtowardsthefailed
engine.IftheairspeedatthetimeofthefailureisatoraboveVminimumcontrolground(Vmcg),directionalcontrolon
therunwaycanbemaintainedutilizingonlyaerodynamiccontrols.AtaspeedbelowVmcg,directionalcontrolwill
notbepossibleunlessthrustontheoperatingengine(s)is(are)alsoreduced.Inanyevent,iftheairspeedatthe
timethatthefailureisrecognisedislessthanV1,thetakeoffmustberejected.

Airborne
Ifamultiengineaircraftsuffersanenginefailurewhenairborne,therearetwoimmediateaerodynamiceffects.
Theinitialeffectistheyawingthatoccursduetotheasymmetryofthethrustline.Thesizeofthisinitialyawing
momentdependsupontheenginethrustandthedistancebetweenthethrustlineandtheaircraftcentreofgravity.
Theyawingmomentisalsoaffectedinitiallybytherateofthrustdecayofthedeadengineandultimatelybyits
drag.
Thesecondeffectisroll.Thisoccurswhentheaircraftcontinuestoyawtowardsthefailedengineresultingina
decreaseinliftfromtheretreatingwingandayawinducedrolltowardsthefailedengine.
Aswellastheaerodynamicconsequencesofthefailure,theperformancepenaltyisverysignificant.Whilethe
failureofanengineinatwinengineaircraftrepresentsa50%lossofavailablepower,itwillresultinamorethan
50%lossofperformance.

FlightCrewActions
Duringpreflightpreparation:
UsingtheElectronicFlightBagortheappropriateperformancecharts,determinethemaximumtakeoff
weight(MTOW)fortherunwayinuse,anticipatedatmosphericconditionsandintendedaircraft
configuration
Confirmthatactualaircraftweightdoesnotexceedthecalculatedmaximumallowableweight
Completeperformancecalculationstodeterminespeedsandthrustsettings(inclusiveofreducedthrust
criteriawhereappropriateorapplicable)
ReviewandbrieftheEmergencyTurnprocedureinclusiveofrouting,turnsandturnaltitudes,acceleration
altitudeandsafealtitudes
Duringthetakeoffroll:
Useappropriatelineuptechniquetoensurechartedrunwaylengthisavailable
Applythrustusingmanufacturer'srecommendedprocedures
Confirmactualthrustmeetsorexceedscalculatedthrust
IntheeventofanenginefailurepriortoV1,rejectthetakeoff
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ADVISEAirTrafficControl(ATC)thatthetakeoffhasbeenrejectedusingappropriateemergency
communicationprotocols
IntheeventofanenginefailureafterV1:
Establishandmaintaindirectionalcontrolwithappropriaterudderinput
RotateatVrandestablishaclimbspeedofV2
Ifthefailureoccursaftertheaircraftisairborne,aclimbspeedofbetweenV2andV2+10is
acceptable
Utiliseappropriateaileroninputtomaintainwingslevel.At,ornear,VMinimumControlAir(Vmca),asmuch
asa5bankawayfromthedeadenginemayberequired
Whensafelyairborneandestablishedinapositiveclimb,retractthelandinggear
EstablishormaintaintheEmergencyTurnrouting
InitiateECAM/EICAS/EmergencyChecklistproceduresaspermanufacturerandCompanypolicy
EstablishormaintaintheEmergencyTurnrouting
MaintainV2andtakeoffthrustuntilreachingaccelerationaltitude.Accelerationaltitudewillbethehighest
of400'AGL,EmergencyTurnprocedurepublishedaccelerationaltitudeorCompanystandardacceleration
altitude
EstablishormaintaintheEmergencyTurnrouting
Ataccelerationaltitude,maintaintakeoffthrust,leveltheaircraft(seenotebelow)andacceleratetoVFS
retractingflapsonschedule.
EstablishormaintaintheEmergencyTurnrouting
Onceincleanconfiguration,maintainVFS,resumeclimbandreducethrusttomaximumcontinuous
EstablishormaintaintheEmergencyTurnrouting
ADVISEATCusingappropriateemergencycommunicationprotocols
notethatiftheEmergencyTurnprofilehasorwillresultinadeparturefromtheclearedrouting,ATC
shouldbenotifiedassoonasitispracticaltodoso
Reachingasafealtitude,complywithanyenrouteclimbrequirements,completeanyappropriateemergency
orQRHchecklists,determineplanofaction(diversionorrecovery)andadviseATC
Note:TheaccelerationprofilesutilisedbyVNAVandFLCHmodesdonotnecessarilycommandtheaircrafttofly
levelatAccelerationaltitudeintheeventofanenginefailure.Withallenginesoperating,VNAV&FLCHwilluse
thealgorithm60%climb,40%acceleration.Intheeventofanenginefailure,thealgorithmisreversedwith40%
climb,60%acceleration.Asaconsequence,atlightweightstheAPFDSmaycommandaclimbduringthe
accelerationphase.

Defences
Crewmembersmustmakethemselvesfamiliarwiththeexplanatorynotestotheirperformancedata.Onlyby
gaininganunderstandingoftheassumptionsmadeinthecalculationscanbestusebemadeofthedata.
Ifaircraftengineswere100%reliable,enginefailureduringtakeoffwouldneveroccur.Overtheyears,
manufacturershavemadegreatimprovementsinthereliabilityoftheirproductsandthefailurerateofturbine
engineshasdecreasedwitheachgeneration.Itisunlikely,however,thatthepotentialforenginefailurewilleverbe
completelyeliminated.
Maintenancepersonnelcanreducetheriskoffailurebyensuringthattheenginesaremaintainedtothe
manufacturersrecommendations.Groundcrewandflightcrewmustensureduringtheirpreflightandpostflight
inspectionsthatallfluidsareadequate,thattherearenoobviousleaksordamageandthatthefuelsupplyisfree
fromwaterorothercontamination.
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Flightcrew/dispatchperformancecalculationsmustensurethattheaircraftcanmeetregulatoryrequirementsin
theeventofanenginefailureduringthetakeoff.
Flightcrewshouldhaveathoroughunderstandingoftheaerodynamicsofafailureandclearlyunderstandthe
actionsthatmustbetakenshouldafailureoccur.
Finally,crewsmustbecompletelyfamiliarwiththeirCompanyprocedureswhichwillalwaystakepriority.

RelatedArticles
LossofControl
EngineFailureAfterTakeOffLightTwinEngineAircraft
EmergencyTurn
UncontainedEngineFailure
RejectedTakeOff
NetTakeoffFlightPath
EngineFailure:GuidanceforControllers

FurtherReading
EUROCONTROL
GuidelinesforControllerTrainingintheHandlingofUnusual/EmergencySituations
(http://www.skybrary.aero/bookshelf/books/15.pdf)
UKCAASafetyRegulationGroup
CAP745AircraftEmergenciesConsiderationsforairtrafficcontrollers
(http://www.skybrary.aero/bookshelf/books/200.pdf)
AirbusFlightOperationsBriefingNotes
HandlingEngineMalfunctions(http://www.skybrary.aero/bookshelf/books/193.pdf)
RevisitingtheStoporGoDecision(http://www.skybrary.aero/bookshelf/books/197.pdf)
UnderstandingTakeoffSpeeds(http://www.skybrary.aero/bookshelf/books/493.pdf)
GettingtoGripswithAircraftPerformance(http://www.skybrary.aero/bookshelf/books/2263.pdf)
USFederalAviationAdministration
PilotGuidetoTakeoffSafety(http://www.skybrary.aero/bookshelf/books/1150.pdf)
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