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Title of Project:

Investigation and a reconnaissance survey of molybdenum (Mo)

concentrations in groundwater used for drinking water in Wadi El Arab area, Northern Jordan.

General Purpose:

provides an assessment of the occurrence and distribution of

molybdenum in Wadi El-Arab groundwater which used for drinking purposes waters in order
to assess the sources and causes of high concentration of molybdenum concentrations in
drinking water.

Main Purpose: to study the geochemical interaction between water and the matrix of the
target aquifer in order to identify the causes of high concentrations of molybdenum in drinking
water. For this purpose a geochemical modeling is necessary to identify the different species
of molybdenum existing in the aquifer

Duration of Project: 6 month

Total Funding Requested:
7840 JD
Main Researcher:
Name:malik naeem abu alrous
Department: water management and environment
Faculty: natural resource and environment

Details of the Research Proposal:-

1- Main Objective and Secondary Objectives needed to reach Main

A) - Main Objective

1- identify all relevant studies, in the published literature, that establish

concentrations of molybdenum in drinking water and relevant source waters in
Jordan in general and wadi El Arab area.
2- Study the concentrations of molybdenum (Mo) in groundwater in wadi El Arab
3- Investigation of the hydrogeochemical processes responsible for the release of
molybdenum in ground water.
4- Risk assessment of molybdenum concentration in ground water used for drinking
purposes in Wadi El Arab area.
5- Use of geochemical modeling to identify the common species of molybdenum in
groundwater in order to select the best methods for protection of ground water
6- Apply the cost effective and sustainability principle in the treatment of
molybdenum in groundwater aquifers.

B- Secondary Objectives
1- Effect of molybdenum on the human health, and plant growth.
2- Effect of molybdenum on the water quality.
3- Find relation between the molybdenum and other elements in the ground
4- Determined the concentration of molybdenum in the ground water that
found in area contain rich amount of agricultural waste.

5- Raising awareness for decision makers in Jordan about the level of

molybdenum concentrations in drinking water in northern Jordan.

2- Results expected from the Research

A- This research will explain the main reasons that led to increase the
concentration of molybdenum in ground water.
B- Illustrate some management strategies for reducing risk from molybdenum
on the environment and human health.
C- Will detect the major element that cause the increase of molybdenum
concentration in ground water in the study area and propose some mitigation
measures for the problem.
2- Activities needed to arrive at above results
A-Identify sampling sites for collection of representative water samples from
Wadi El Arab area.
B- Conducting complete physical and chemical analyses of water samples in
addition to determine the concentration of Molybdenum in groundwater.
C- Construction of geochemical modeling for the target aquifer
D-Hydrogeological investigation of the target area.
E- Clarify the main reasons that led to increase the concentration of
molybdenum in ground water and proposing mitigation measures to solve
the high concentration of molybdenum in the Wadi El Arab wells.

4- Indicators that will show that the research was achieved, and the
results obtained.
*-Many of published scientific study talked about this subject as.
A-. Factors affecting molybdenum adsorption by soils and minerals.( Goldberg S
et al.,1998)
B-adsorption of molybdate ion by natrolite and clinoptilolite-rich tuffs (Faghihian
et al.,2002).
C- molybdenum and tungsten in volcanic rocks and in surface and <100 c ground
water in Iceland (Stefan et al.,2006).
D- geochemistry of molybdenum in the chao phraya river estuary, Thailand : role
of suboxic diagenesis and porewater transport (Tarun K et al.,2005).
E-. molybdenum adsorption by soils using soil chemical parameters in the
Constant Capacitance Model (Goldberg, S et al .,2002)
*- published world health organization (WHO) a integrated report about the
molybdenum in drinking water in (1996)
As a main principle in all scientific research it must take into account
(no result its a result)

Full description of the project

Molybdenum is an essential trace element for human health. WHO estimates that adults have a
daily requirement for molybdenum of 100300 g. Nonetheless, high doses can be detrimental
and in 1993, WHO introduced a health-based guideline value for molybdenum in drinking
water of 70 g L1.
The well field in Wadi Al Arab in the northwestern part of Jordan, about 3 - 5 km east of North
Shouneh in the Jordan Valley, is very important for the domestic water supply of Irbid and
many villages in the northern highland. In order to safeguard the water quality in this well
field must take action plan to mitigate ground water resource from any contamination, but in
this research we will focus on the contamination of ground water by heavy metal because
noted increase the concentration of molybdenum in ground water wadi Al Arab area , so will
focus on the studying all reason that lead to increase the concentration of molybdenum in
ground water to inform the decision-maker in all of reason to work with us to solve this
problem .

Add A map showing the study area???????

General description for the molybdenum

Molybdenum is a transition metal that occurs in a range of oxidation states, from -II to VI,
though in nature the predominant states are Mo(IV) and Mo(VI). Its occurrence in variable
oxidation states means that molybdenum participates in a number of redox reactions.
Molybdenum has a number of naturally-occurring isotopes: 92Mo, 94Mo, 95Mo, 96Mo, 97Mo,
Mo and 100Mo. The most abundant of these is 98Mo (24%). Molybdenum is strongly
chalcophile and its behaviour is closely linked to that of sulphur. It also has properties similar
to tungsten and vanadium.
Molybdenum is an important nutrient for a range of biological functions in animals, plants
and microorganisms. It is an essential constituent of enzymes that catalyse redox reactions
(Stiefel, 1996). Molybdenum interacts with copper and sulphate in organisms and the
complex interactions between these compounds can lead to problems in biological systems
which relate to both molybdenum deficiency and excess.

Molybdenum is important in plant growth and is added to some fertilisers in trace amounts to
enhance crop production. It also has a role in nitrogen fixation (Bostick et al., 2003). However,
excessive molybdenum concentrations have been linked to abnormal plant growth
(Das et al., 2007). Molybdenum availability to plants from soils is known to be pH-dependent,
being greatest in alkaline soils (National Research Council, 1980).

B-Organoleptic properties
Ammonium molybdate imparts a slightly astringent taste to water at concentrations
About 10 mg of molybdenum per liter.

C-Major uses
Molybdenum is used in the manufacture of special steels, in electrical contacts, spark
plugs, X-ray tubes, filaments, screens, and grids for radio valves, and in the production
of tungsten, Glass-to-metal seals, nonferrous alloys, and pigments. Molybdenum
disulfide has unique Properties as a lubricant additive. Molybdenum compounds are
used in agriculture either for the direct treatment of seeds or in the formulation of
fertilizers to prevent molybdenum Deficiency

D-Environmental facte:
Molybdenum disulfide is sparingly soluble in water but is readily oxidized to give more
Soluble molybdates, which are stable in water in the absence of a reducing agent .

Molybdenum can be determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption
spectroscopy with a Detection limit of 0.25 g/litre. Inductively coupled plasma
atomic emission spectroscopy has a detection limit of 2 g/litre .

Human intake of airborne molybdenum is not likely to be a major exposure pathway

Water ( as useful case study)

Molybdenum was present in 32.7% of surface water samples from 15 major river basins
in the USA at concentrations ranging from 2 to 1500 g/litre (mean 60 g/litre) (7,8).
Levels in groundwater ranged from undetectable to 270 g/litre in another survey in the
USA (9). In a survey of finished water supplies in the USA, concentrations ranged from
undetectable to 68 g/litre (median 1.4 g/litre) (10). In another survey of 380 finished

water samples from across the USA, 29.9% contained measurable concentrations of
molybdenum, with a mean of 85.9 g/litre and a range of 31024 g/litre.
Levels of molybdenum in drinking-water do not usually exceed 10 g/litre . However,
in areas near molybdenum mining operations, the molybdenum concentration in
finished water can be as high as 200 g/litre. Tap water concentrations as high as 580
g/litre have been reported in Colora.

Project Phases and Time expected to finish project

Include 5 phases:
Phase 1:
A- Perpetration for the research as Employment of assistants (main and miner)
and technician.
*-Duration of this phase = 1 month.

Phase 2:
A-Collecting the sample of water.
*- Duration of this phase = 1 month.
Phase 3:
A-Chemical analysis for the water sample.
*- duration of this phase = 2 months.
Phase 4:
A Collection the result and make scientific analysis.
*- duration of this phase = 1month.
Phase 5:
A- Writing the final report for the research.
*-duration of this phase = 2 months .

Personnel & Materials:

1- Research Collaborators


Man days or
Man months
Malik name abu alrous Sampel collection and 6 month
chemical analyses for


Ahmad abed alhalem

500 JD

Collection and
preparation of data

4 month

500 JD

Name of Instrument
atomic absorption
digital integrator
graphite furnace
X-ray diffraction
Scanning electron
microscope (SEM)

To detect the concentration
of molybdenum
to quantitate peak areas
reaching a temperature
sufficient to atomize
characterize the atomic-scale
structure of an already
identified mineral
used to generate highresolution images of shapes
of objects

Estimated Cost
50 JD / Sampel
20JD / Sampel
50 JD / Sampel
50 JD / Sampel
80 JD / Sampel

3- Consumables (glassware chemicals, etc..)


Keeping the sample
For preparation
chemical solution


Estimated Cost
3 JD / unit
5 JD / unit

Graduated cylinder
Test Tubes

For preparation
5 JD / unit
chemical solution and
the sampel
For preparation
5 JD / unit
chemical solution
hold a fraction of
5 JD / unit
material or liquid


4- Heavy and light equipment

TDS meter
PH meter
Turbidity meter

Temperature test
Total dissolved solid
PH test
Turbidity test

Estimated Cost
30 JD / Unit
100 JD

Detect the study area

Estimated Cost
350 JD

Supply geographic

500 JD

100 JD
200 JD

5- Informatics.
Digital Geographic
GIS Program

30 JD / month

6- Other Costs
Molybdenum standard solution
acidified water to make all dilutions
Buffer for calibration

Estimated Cost
150 JD
100 JD
50 JD

Details of Travel Plans. Justification and Estimated Costs

Provide us with 4*4 wheel drive vehicle .
* Include Ticket, accommodation and details of other expenses


Item No.

Main Researches
Research assistants
Total Cost
Amount of outside grant if available
Total requested from University

Signatures of Researchers.

Date :


/ 2012

Department Remarks :


1-Leybourne,I.M and Cameron, E . (2007) Source, transport, and fate of rhenium,

selenium, molybdenum, arsenic, and copper in groundwater associated with
PorphyryCu deposits, Atacama Desert, Chile. Chemical Geology ,. No. 247 ,208228.
2-Morrison,S.J, Metzler,D . Dwyer, B. (2001) Removal of As, Mn, Mo, Se, U, V
and Zn from groundwater by zero-valent iron in a passive treatment cell: reaction
progress modeling. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology , No. 56 , 99-116 .

3- Arnorsson , S . and Oskarsson ,N . (2007) Molybdenum and tungsten in

volcanic rocks and in surface and <100 _C ground waters in Iceland . Geochimica
et Cosmochimica , No.71 , 248-304 .
4- Nishihama , S . and Yoshizuka , K . (2009) Ion exchange adsorption of
molybdenum with zeolitic adsorption . journal of Environmental . Eng.
Management , . vol . 19 , No .6 , 365-369.
5- Dalai , T . K., Nishimura , k . , Nozaki , Y . ((2005) Geochemistry of
molybdenum in the Chao Phraya River estuary,Thailand: Role of suboxic
diagenesis and porewater transport . Chemical Geology , NO . 218 . 189 202 .
6- Northcott , K . A . , Bacus , J . , Taya , N ., Komatsu , Y ,. Stevens , G ,. (2010)
Synthesis and characterization of hydrophobic zeolite for the treatment of
hydrocarbon contaminated ground water. Journal of Hazardous Materials , . No.
183 , 434-440


Deans Remarks :