You are on page 1of 12

International Journal of Civil, Structural,

Environmental and Infrastructure Engineering


Research and Development (IJCSEIERD)
ISSN(P): 2249-6866; ISSN(E): 2249-7978
Vol. 6, Issue 5, Oct 2016, 1-12
TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE USING


WOLLASTONITE-FLYASH AND WOLLASTONITE-SILICA FUME
KANDULA MOHANKRISHNA REDDY1 & K. V. S. GOPALA KRISHNA SASTRY2
1
2

Research Scholar, G Pulla Reddy College of Engineering, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India

Associate Professor, G Pulla Reddy College of Engineering, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT
Wollastonite, a naturally occurring mineral can be utilized in concrete as partial replacement of cement.
The strength properties of M35 grade concrete are studied with different percentages of replacement of cement by
wollastonite (WOL) for 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The optimum percentage of wollastonite in concrete corresponding
to maximum strength will be identified. Keeping this optimum percentage of wollastonite replacement as constant,
cement is further replaced with mineral admixtures such as silica fume (5%, 7.5%, 10% and 15%) and fly ash
(5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%). The maximum increase in strength properties compared to conventional concrete was
achieved at 10% replacement of wollastonite. Test results indicated that replacement of 10% wollastonite with silica fume

of 10% wollastonite with 10% silica fume.


KEYWORDS: Wollastonite, Super Plasticizer, Fly Ash, Silica Fume

Received: Aug 16, 2016; Accepted: Aug 31, 2016; Published: Sep 07, 2016; Paper Id.: IJCSEIERDOCT20161

INTRODUCTION

Original Article

showed better performance than with fly ash. The maximum increase in strengths was observed in a mix which consists

Investment in the field of infrastructure development has increased manifold due to growing economy.
Huge amount of concrete is being used for building infrastructure including dams, bridges, under water structures,
roads and buildings. Concrete is an essential construction material used worldwide. Cement is one of the major
constituent of concrete. The cement industry is one of the primary producers of carbon dioxide, a
major greenhouse gas. There is a necessity to combat the increasing cost and scarcity of cement with alternative
materials. Therefore, there is a need for partial or complete replacement of cement with supplementary
cementitious materials which can potentially increase strength and prolong durability of concrete.
Due to the rapid growth of industrialisation, a huge quantity of waste is generated which is being
disposed. One of the major challenges with the environmental awareness and scarcity of space for land-filling is
the wastes/by products utilization as an alternative to disposal. Fly ash and silica fume are the industrial
by-products which can be used as a partial replacement of cement in concrete, otherwise they would end up in
landfills.
Wollastonite is a naturally occurring calcium meta-silicate (CaSiO3) mineral, formed due to interaction of
limestone with silica in hot magmas. Wollastonite primarily consists of Calcium Oxide (CaO) and Silica Oxide
(SiO2) with a specific gravity ranging from 2.87 to 3.09. Effective utilisation of natural minerals and industrial by
products are to be used to produce economical concrete.

www.tjprc.org

editor@tjprc.org

Kandula Mohankrishna Reddy & K. V. S. Gopala Krishna Sastry

LITERATURE REVIEW
Several authors have reported the use of wollastonite in various civil engineering applications.
Renu Mathur et al. [1]: studied the cement concrete and cement-fly ash concrete mixes incorporating
wollastonite as partial substitute of cementitious material and sand respectively. Improvements in compressive strength
(28-35%) and flexural strength (36-42%) at 28 and 56 days respectively were observed by incorporation of wollastonite
(10%) in concrete mixes. By incorporation of wollastonite, reduction in water absorption, drying-shrinkage and abrasion
loss of concrete, and enhancement in durability against alternate freezing-thawing and sulphate attack were observed.
Renu Mathur et al. [2]: Studied the partial replacement of fine aggregate with marble slurry dust. To these
concrete mixes, when silica fume is incorporated as partial substitute of cement and wollastonite as a substitute for sand,
there is a sharp increase in the flexural strength of concrete. Improvements in compressive and split tensile strength were
also observed. Water absorption, drying shrinkage and abrasion were found to decrease with the addition of these fine
mineral admixtures and concrete so prepared remains unaffected by sulphate water and alternate freezing and thawing.
G.D Ransinchung and P Naveen Kumar [3]: Studied the concrete specimens of water-cement ratio of 0.4 made
using ordinary Portland cement (OPC), and OPC admixed with wollastonite micro-fibers. A total of five concrete mixes
were considered with varying proportions of wollastonite micro-fibers. Admixing of wollastonite micro-fibers improves
the flexural strength significantly irrespective of days of moist curing, but decreases the compressive strength beyond 20
percent replacement level. Marked improvement in resistance to abrasion was observed for wollastonite micro-fiber
admixed concrete up to 30 percent of its admixing with OPC. The abrasion resistance is more pronounced for admixed
concretes with prolong curing duration.
A.M Soliman et al. [4]: Studied the effect of incorporating wollastonite microfibers in ultrahigh performance
concrete (UHPC). Wollastonite microfibers were added at 0, 4, 8, and 12% as partial volume replacement for cement.
Increasing the wollastonite microfiber content resulted in a compressive strength comparable to or higher than that of the
control mixture without microfibers. Wollastonite microfibers reduced shrinkage strains and increased cracking resistance
compared to that of the control mixture. The addition of wollastonite microfibers with a high aspect ratio improved the
hydration process of the UHPC matrix by providing more space for hydration products to form.
Aditya Rana et al. [5]: Studied eighteen concrete mixes at three w/b ratios (0.45, 0.50 and 0.55) were prepared
by substituting portland cement with wollastonite at varying replacement levels (0 to 25%). Substitution of 10-15% cement
by wollastonite resulted in improved strength and durability of concrete. SEM and MIP results indicated that substitution of
cement by wollastonite up to 15% reduced porosity and densified the concrete microstructure.
G.D.Ransinchung et al. [6]: Studied the properties of concrete with wollastonite-micro silica combination. Five
concrete mix proportions including the control mix were investigated for saturated water absorption, rate of water
absorption, coefficient of water absorption and chloride ion penetration. Test results indicate that up to 15% of wollastonite
and 7.5% micro silica can be advantageously admixed with cement to significantly improve the water tightness of concrete
due to reduction in pore space and refinement of microstructure.
G.D Ransinchung et al. [7]: Studied several cementitious mix proportions of ordinary portland cement,
wollastonite and micro silica were investigated for normal consistency, initial and final setting time of paste, and
compressive strength of mortar. Test results indicate that the mortar, which contains 82.5% cement, 10% wollastonite, and
Impact Factor (JCC): 6.3724

NAAS Rating: 3.01

Strength Properties of Concrete Using Wollastonite-Flyash and Wollastonite-Silica Fume

7.5% micro silica, as cementitious material attains the highest compressive strength. The mortar, which contains 77.5%
cement, 15% wollastonite, and 7.5% micro silica, as cementitious material achieves compressive strength higher than the
conventional OPC mortar along with rendering maximum cement replacement for better economy of concrete work.
Pawan kalla et al. [8]: Studied the flexural strength, mechanical properties along with micro-structure of cement
binders using wollastonite as cement replacement. The investigation determined the influence of wollastonite and fly ash
on the properties of concrete over a range of water-binder (w/b) ratio. Strength, absorption and permeability parameters,
including compressive, flexural, pull off strength at 7, 28 and 90 days of concrete containing wollastonite and fly ash were
studied.
Pawan Kalla et al. [9]: Determined the influence of wollastonitefly ash (WFA) combination on properties of
concrete such as strength, permeability, and durability over a range of waterbinder (w/b) ratios and cement replacement.
The microstructure and mercury intrusion porosity results of concrete mixes indicated that increased replacement levels of
cement by WFA combination (4555%) causes some densification resulting into their enhanced mechanical and durability
properties.
Research Significance
With addition of supplementary cementitious materials in concrete it is possible to have a favourable influence on
many properties through either purely physical effect associated with the presence of very fine particles or through
physical-chemical effects associated with mineral admixture reactions, which results in modification of the pore structure.
Utilisation of supplementary cementitious materials in concrete not only improves its strength and durability but also
makes it cost effective. Wollastonite is one of such naturally occurring pazzolanic mineral which can be utilised in
concrete. With ever increasing quantities of industrial by products and waste materials, solid waste management has
become the principal environmental concerns in the world. Scarcity of land filling space and due to its ever increasing cost,
utilization/recycling of byproducts/waste has become an attractive alternative to disposal. Several types of byproducts and
waste materials are generated. Each of these waste products has specific effects on the properties of cement-based
materials. The utilization of such materials in concrete not only makes it economical, but also do help in reducing disposal
problems. Silica Fume and Fly Ash are the industrial byproducts which can be utilised as a partial cement replacement in
concrete. In this work, effects of utilization of wollastonite and mineral admixtures on concrete were investigated. The data
obtained in this investigation will be used to establish mix proportions for concrete and construction applications.

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM
Materials
Ordinary Portland (53 grade) UltraTech cement was used, and its properties are tested as per IS 12269-1987 [10]
and are as shown in table 1. Super plasticizer used in this project is FOSROC CONPLAST SP430 which is sulphonated
naphthalene polymers. Its specific gravity is 1.21. Wollastonite, Fly Ash and Silica Fume are used as cement replacement
in the present study. Wollastonite is obtained from Royalty Minerals, Mumbai. Fly Ash is obtained from Raichur Thermal
Power Plant which is a class F fly ash. Silica Fume is obtained from Astra Chemicals, Chennai.

www.tjprc.org

editor@tjprc.org

Kandula Mohankrishna Reddy & K. V. S. Gopala Krishna Sastry

Table 1: Properties of Cement


Characteristics

Values Obtained

Initial setting time


Final setting time
Fineness (%)
Specific Gravity
Compressive Strength

48 min
315 min
3.8
3.10
56 N/mm2

Standard Values as Per


IS Code 12269-1987
Not be less than 30 min
Not be greater than 600 min
<10
Not be less than 53 N/mm2

The physical and chemical properties of Wollastonite, Fly Ash and Silica Fume given by the suppliers are as
shown in Table 2. Locally available river sand was used as a fine aggregate and was tested as per Indian Standard
Specifications IS: 3831970[11] and their physical properties are given in Table 3. Coarse aggregate used in this study
were less than 20 mm nominal size, and tested as per Indian Standard Specifications IS: 3831970 and its physical
properties are given in Table 3.
Table 2: Properties of Wollastonite, Fly Ash and Silica Fume
Characteristics
Colour
Specific Gravity
Size (m)
Bulk Density ( Kg/m3)
Surface Area ( m2/kg)
Chemical Composition
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
MgO

Physical Properties
Wollastonite
Fly Ash
White
Grey
2.97
2.3
<1 to 20
<1 to 100
350-1230
998
1500
700
Chemical Properties
Wollastonite
Fly Ash
45-48
4-6
47-52
52-54
3-5
23-25
1-3
10-13
3-4
-

Silica Fume
White
2.2
<1
130-430
20000
Silica Fume
1-2
91-95
0.3-0.6
1.2-1.6
0.4-0.8

Table 3: Properties of Aggregate


Characteristics
Fine aggregate
Coarse aggregate

Specific Gravity
2.66
2.85

Fineness Modulus
3.22
6.23

Bulk Density ( Kg/m3)


1690
1610

Preparation and Casting of Specimens


The different concrete specimens such as cubes (150mmX150mmX150mm) to determine compressive strength,
cylinders (150mm diameter and 300mm length) to determine split tensile strength and beams (100mmX100mmX500mm)
to determine flexural strength were cast. All the specimens were prepared in accordance with Indian Standard
Specifications IS: 516-1959[12]. All the moulds were cleaned and oiled properly. These were securely tightened to correct
dimensions before casting. Care was taken that there is no gaps left from where there is any possibility of leakage of slurry.
A careful procedure was adopted in the batching, mixing and casting operations. Vibrations were stopped as soon as the
cement slurry appeared on the top surface of the mould. The specimens were removed from moulds after 24 hours and
cured in water till testing or as per requirement of the test.

Impact Factor (JCC): 6.3724

NAAS Rating: 3.01

Strength Properties of Concrete Using Wollastonite-Flyash and Wollastonite-Silica Fume

Experimental Procedure
Experimental investigation has been carried out with reference to mix M35 grade concrete. Reference mix (M0)
was prepared for M35 grade of concrete as per IS: 10262-2009[13]. Four concrete mixes (M1, M2, M3 and M4) were
prepared where cement was replaced with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% wollastonite respectively. It has been observed that
concrete with 10% replacement of wollastonite attains maximum strength properties. Hence 10% replacement of cement
with wollastonite was kept constant and cement is further replaced with minerals admixtures such as fly ash at 5%, 10%,
15% and 20% (M5, M6,M7, M8) and silica fume at 5%, 7.5%, 10% and 15% (M9, M10, M11 and M12) were carried out
separately. A constant water-cement ratio of 0.40 was adopted for all mixes throughout this study. The mix proportion of
reference mix M0 is as shown in table 4.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


Fresh Concrete Properties
The workability of fresh concrete is a composite property which includes the diverse requirements of stability,
mobility, compactibility, placeability, and finishability. Compaction factor test is based on the definition, that workability is
that property of the concrete which determines the amount of work required to produce full compaction. Compaction factor
tests were performed as per BIS: 1199-1959[14]. The test consists essentially of applying a standard amount of work to
standard quantity of concrete and measuring the resulting compaction as shown in table 5. As percentage replacement of
wollastonite is increased in concrete its workability decreases.
Table 4: Mix Proportions of Reference Mix (Kg/m3)
Mix
M0

Cement Kg

Fine Aggregate Kg

Coarse Aggregate Kg

394.3

682

1299

Water
Lit
157.7

Super Plasticiser by
% wt of Cement
0.8

Compressive Strength
The compressive strength of reference mix (M0) and all other mixes cast using wollastonite, fly ash, silica fume
are shown in Table 6.
It was observed that the increase in compressive strength was observed gradually up to 10% replacement of
cement by wollastonite and then decreased. The maximum compressive strength 52.44 N/mm2 was obtained with mix (M2)
10% wollastonite which was 16.06% more compared to reference mix. Variation of compressive strength of M35 grade
with different percentage replacement of cement by wollastonite is as shown in figure 1.
Table 5: Compaction Factor Values
MI
X
CF

M0

M1

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6

M7

M8

M9

M10

M11

M12

0.918

0.906

0.901

0.896

0.886

0.914

0.917

0.923

0.929

0.898

0.884

0.868

0.857

Compressive strength of M35 grade were studied with combination of 10% wollastonite and 5%,10%,15% and
20% fly ash replaced with cement. Mix with M35 grade with 10% wollastonite and 15% fly ash obtained maximum
strength among all fly ash replacements. It was observed that as fly ash percentage in concrete increased, its compressive
strength increased up to 15% and then decreased. The maximum compressive strength was obtained at 10% wollastonite
and 15% fly ash (M7) obtained a compressive strength 55.25N/mm2 which was 22.3% more than the reference mix (M0).

www.tjprc.org

editor@tjprc.org

Kandula Mohankrishna Reddy & K. V. S. Gopala Krishna Sastry

Variation of compressive strength of concrete with 10% wollastonite and different percentages of fly ash is as shown in
figure 2.
Table 6: Strength Properties of Concrete and % Change with Reference to Reference Mix
MIX

Compressive
Strength in MPa

% change

M0
M1
M2
M3
M4
M5
M6
M7
M8
M9
M10
M11
M12

45.18
48.15
52.44
49.62
40.29
53.33
54.07
55.25
52.58
53.92
54.81
57.77
53.77

6.57
16.06
9.83
-6.8
18.04
19.6
22.3
16.4
19.35
21.3
27.86
19.02

Split Tensile
Strength in
MPa
3.83
4.19
4.42
4.00
3.46
4.48
4.62
4.62
4.38
4.55
4.59
4.73
4.45

% change

Flexural Strength
in MPa

%
Change

9.48
15.57
4.6
-9.6
17.19
20.8
20.8
14.14
18.92
19.84
23.74
16.26

4.01
4.22
4.57
4.11
3.62
4.64
4.7
4.8
4.67
4.67
4.72
4.87
4.69

5.15
14.04
2.6
-9.7
15.83
17.2
19.7
16.58
16.58
17.83
21.44
17.08

Compressive strength of M35 grade were also studied with combination of 10% wollastonite and 5%, 7.5%, 10%
and 15% silica fume replaced with cement. Mix with M35 grade with 10% wollastonite and 10% silica fume obtained
maximum strength of all silica fume replacements. It was observed that as silica fume percentage in concrete increased, its
compressive strength also increased up to 10% silica fume replacement and then decreased. Mix with 10% wollastonite
and 10% silica fume (M11) replacement obtained compressive strength 57.77 N/mm2 which was 23.74% more than the
reference mix. Variation of compressive strength of concrete with 10% wollastonite and different percentage of silica fume
is as shown in figure 3. Percentage of compressive strength variation of different mixes with reference mix is shown in
table 6.

Figure 1: Relation between % Wollastonite Replacement and Compressive Strength

Impact Factor (JCC): 6.3724

NAAS Rating: 3.01

Strength Properties of Concrete Using Wollastonite-Flyash and Wollastonite-Silica Fume

Figure 2: Relation Between Opt Wollastonite (10%) + % Fly Ash Replacement and Compressive Strength

Figure 3: Relation Between Opt Wol (10%) +% Silica Fume Replacement and Compressive Strength
Split Tensile Strength
The split tensile strength of reference mix (M0) and all other mixes cast using wollastonite, fly ash and silica fume
are shown in Table 6.
It was observed that the increase in split tensile strength was observed gradually up to 10% replacement of cement
by wollastonite and then decreased. The maximum split tensile strength was obtained with mix (M2) 10% wollastonite
replacement which was 15.57% more compared to reference mix. Variation of split tensile strength of M35 grade with
different percentage replacement of cement by wollastonite is as shown in figure 4.
Split tensile strength of M35 grade were studied with combination of 10% wollastonite and 5%, 10%, 15% and
20% fly ash replaced with cement. Mix with M35 grade with 10% wollastonite replacement and 15% fly ash obtained
maximum strength among all fly ash replacements. It was observed that as fly ash percentage in concrete increased, its split
tensile strength increased up to 15% and then decreased. The maximum split tensile strength was obtained at 10%
wollastonite and 15% fly ash (M7) obtained a split tensile strength 4.62N/mm2 which was 20.8% more than the reference
mix (M0). Variation of split tensile strength of concrete with 10% wollastonite and different percentages of fly ash is as
shown in figure 5.
Split tensile strength of M35 grade were studied with combination of 10% wollastonite replacement and 5%,
7.5%, 10% and 15% silica fume replaced with cement. Mix with M35 grade with 10% wollastonite and 10% silica fume
obtained maximum strength of all silica fume replacements. It was observed that as silica fume percentage in concrete
increased, its split
www.tjprc.org

editor@tjprc.org

Kandula Mohankrishna Reddy & K. V. S. Gopala Krishna Sastry

Figure 4: Relation between % Wollastonite Replacement and Split Tensile Strength

Figure 5: Relation Between Opt Wollastonite (10%) +% Fly Ash Replacement and Split Tensile Strength

Figure 6: Relation between Opt Wol (10%) +% Silica Fume Replacement and Split Tensile Strength
Tensile strength increased up to 10% and further decreased. Mix with 10% wollastonite and 10% silica fume
(M11) replacement obtained split tensile strength 4.73N/mm2 which was 23.74% more than the reference mix. Variation of
split tensile strength of concrete with 10% wollastonite and different percentages of silica fume is as shown in figure 6.
Percentage of split tensile strength of different mixes with reference mix shown is in table 6.
Flexural Strength
The flexural strength of reference mix (M0) and all other mixes cast using wollastonite, fly ash and silica fume are
shown in Table 6.

Impact Factor (JCC): 6.3724

NAAS Rating: 3.01

Strength Properties of Concrete Using Wollastonite-Flyash and Wollastonite-Silica Fume

It was observed that the increase in flexural strength was observed gradually up to 10% replacement of cement by
wollastonite and then decreased. The maximum flexural strength was obtained with mix (M2) 10% wollastonite
replacement which was 14.04% more compared to reference mix. Variation of flexural strength of M35 grade with
different percentage replacement of cement by wollastonite is as shown in figure 7.
Flexural strength of M35 grade were studied with combination of 10% wollastonite and 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%
fly ash replaced with cement. Mix with M35 grade with 10% wollastonite replacement and 15% fly ash obtained maximum
strength among all fly ash replacements. It was observed that as fly ash percentage in concrete increased, its flexural
strength increased up to 15% and then decreased. The maximum flexural strength was obtained at 10% wollastonite and
15% fly ash (M7) obtained a flexural strength 4.8N/mm2 which was 19.7% more than the reference mix (M0). Variation of
flexural strength of concrete with 10% wollastonite and different percentages of fly ash is as shown in figure 8.
Flexural strength of M35 grade were studied with combination of 10% wollastonite replacement and 5%, 7.5%,
10% and 15% silica fume replaced with cement. Mix with M35 grade with 10% wollastonite and 10% silica fume obtained
maximum strength of all silica fume replacements. It was observed that as silica fume percentage in concrete increased, its
flexural strength increased up to 10% and further decreased. Mix with 10% wollastonite and 10% silica fume (M11)
replacement obtained flexural strength 4.87N/mm2 which was 21.44% more than the reference mix. Variation of flexural
strength of concrete with 10% wollastonite and different percentages of silica fume is as shown in figure 9. Percentage of
flexural strength of different mixes with reference mix shown in table 6

Figure 7: Relation between % Wollastonite Replacement and Flexural Strength

Figure 8: Relation Between Opt Wollastonite (10%) +% Fly Ash Replacement and Flexural Strength
www.tjprc.org

editor@tjprc.org

10

Kandula Mohankrishna Reddy & K. V. S. Gopala Krishna Sastry

Figure 9: Relation Between Opt Wol (10%) + % Silica Fume Replacement and Flexural Strength

CONCLUSIONS
Based on above study, the following observations are made regarding the strength properties of concrete on partial
replacement of cement by wollastonite and minerals admixture such as fly ash and silica fume.

As percentage of replacement of wollastonite increased in concrete, its workability decreased.

It was observed that among all percentages of replacement of cement by wollastonite maximum increase in
strength occurred at 10% of wollastonite.

The concrete mix with 10% wollastonite and 10% silica fume obtained highest strength properties of concrete
compared to all other mixes.

The concrete mix with 10% wollastonite with 15% fly ash obtained more strength properties of concrete among
all Wollastonite and Fly Ash combination mixes..

Based on experimental results, it is observed that there is significance improvement in the strength properties of
concrete with wollastonite and silica fume combination when compared to wollastonite and fly ash.

REFERENCES
1.

Renu Mathur, A K Mishra, Pankaj Goel, Influence of wollastonite on mechanical properties of concrete. Journal of
Scientific and Industrial Research 2007; 66:102934.

2.

Renu Mathur, A K Mishra, Pankaj Goel, Marble slurry dust and Wollastonite-inert mineral admixtures for cement IRC
Technical papers/20207/ 2007; Indian-Highway Journal.

3.

G.D.Ransinchung and P Naveen Kumar, Laboratory study on use of wollastonite micro fibers for abrasion resistance of
pavement quality concrete ICEIT2012, ISBN :978.

4.

A.M Soliman and M L Nehdi, Effect of natural wollastonite micro fibres on early age behaviour of UHPC. (ASCE)
MT.1943-5533.0000473. 2012.

5.

Aditya Rana, Pawan Kalla and Anurag Mishra Durability studies on concrete containing Wollastonite. Journal of Cleaner
Production 2014 Elsevier

6.

G.D. Ransinchung, Assessment of water absorption and chloride ion penetration of pavement quality concrete admixed with
wollastonite and micro silica. Construction and Building Materials 2009; 23(2):116877.

Impact Factor (JCC): 6.3724

NAAS Rating: 3.01

Strength Properties of Concrete Using Wollastonite-Flyash and Wollastonite-Silica Fume


7.

11

G.D Ransinchung and Brind Kumar, .Investigations on pastes and mortars of ordinary Portland cement admixed with
wollastonite and micro silica. Journal of Materials in Civil Enggineering ASCE 2010:30513.

8.

Pawan Kalla, Properties of wollastonite and fly ash added concrete. Indian Highway Journal, Indian Roads Congress
2011;39(12):2531.

9.

Pawan Kalla, Anurag Mishra Amarnath Arora, Mechanical and durability studies on concrete containing wollastoniteflyash combination Construction and Building Materials 40 (2013) 1142-1150@Elsevier

10. IS: 12269-1987 Specifications for 53-Grade Portland cement, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India
11. IS: 383-1970. Specification for coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for concrete, New Delhi, India: Bureau of
Indian Standards.
12. IS 516:1959. Methods of tests for strength of concrete, New Delhi, India: Bureau of Indian Standards.
13. IS: 10262-2009. Recommended guidelines for concrete mix design. New Delhi, India: Bureau of Indian Standards.
14. IS: 1199 -1959 Method of sampling and analysis of concrete New Delhi, India: Bureau of Indian Standards.

www.tjprc.org

editor@tjprc.org