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Abdulrahman Bashiekh
UWRT 1102
Yvonne Goldbaugh
18 Nov 2016

Concrete: Development of Properties and their Significance in Building Structures

Concrete is an important material with an estimated consumption of between 25 and 40
billion tonnes. It is the second most used substance in the world after water, and it is said that the
world with no concrete is inconceivable. The product is established from crushed stones or
gravel, cement, fine sand, water, and admixtures. Sometimes the primary materials used to
produce concrete can be substituted by recycled concrete. The time which concrete was first
discovered in the world relies on how an individual construes the term "concrete." The ancient
materials that were used to make concrete were normally crude cement produced by burning and
crushing of limestone or gypsum.
While some individuals have the opinion that the old ways of building are the best,
developments that have taken place in building materials all over the world have made it safer
and easier to build structures of all kinds (Bertolini et al. 18). The research paper seeks to
investigate developments that have a place in the building and construction materials more
specifically concrete. The fact that concrete is the second most used substance after water all
over the world makes it a necessary requirement for engineers and architectures to select
concrete that is sustainable and lead to less pollution of the environment. This can only be
achieved by determining effective techniques of producing concrete such as limit analysis

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method that helps to identify the appropriate concrete that ensures environmental sustainability
while at the same time allows engineers and architects to establish durable and strong structures.
People have greatly participated in the construction of buildings and other structures for
many years. The buildings materials that are currently used by architectures and those that were
used in the prehistoric era are completely different in terms of durability, color, texture and many
other features that help to conserve the environment. Buildings in the prehistoric period were
perishable and were majorly constructed using leaves, animal hides, and branches. Concrete
refers to manmade building raw material that resembles a stone. It is made by combining cement
with sufficient water (Gambhi 23). The oldest surviving concrete is said to be in Yugoslavia and
was produced using red lime as cement. Throughout historical time, concrete has been used as a
building material which has tremendously contributed to building and construction industry.
Some examples of concrete that were used in prehistorical time can be traced as far back as the
time of Egyptian civilization.
Many architects are currently concerned with the construction of environmentally
friendly concrete material all over the world. Concrete is highly known for its dependable and
long-lasting nature. However, architects are concerned with economic growth, social progress,
and environmental protection and this is why they have established environmentally friendly
concrete such as steel reinforced concrete (Tarnai et al. 28).There are several building materials
that have been found to be exceptional, and one of them is steel reinforced concrete. It is a type
of concrete that creates a strong concrete capable of withstanding any environmental condition
when it dries and also it is environmental friendly such that it does not emit carbon gasses into
the atmosphere because it can be eroded easily by rain or running surface. Because the end result

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of using steel reinforced concrete for construction of the strong building is good, most of the
modern buildings are now constructed using this new technology.
Steel concrete provides unparalleled stability and durability to buildings and other
structures such as roads, dams, swimming pools among many other structures. The structure
established by this type of concrete lasts longer and has incomparable strength in withstanding
severe weather and fire. Steel reinforced concrete is naturally non-combustible, water resistant,
resistant to rot and insects and resistant to wear and tear. Most of the concrete buildings all over
the world have been constructed using "Ultimate Limit State of Collapse, which is normally
based on plasticity theory." There has been an overwhelming concern on how to solve
environmental issues due to degradation of concrete. This has led to the establishment of cement
that is resistant to water, fire and other weather conditions hence leading to sustainable
development and environmental management (Nielsen and Linh 24).
Concrete plasticity has greatly contributed to the establishment of this vital kind of
concrete. Generally, the entire construction process is not environmentally friendly, and this has
contributed to several challenges that are being addressed by architects all over the world with
the hope of establishing quality and cheap concrete without depleting environmental resources.
The effects of construction include resource depletion, land deterioration, waste generation and
several forms of pollution which are absent when the new and current method of producing
concrete is used. Technology of Plasticity has been very important (Bhutta et al. 67).
Architects and engineers have choices of building and construction materials to use in
designing their structures. The concrete choice depends on many factors such as the cost of
production, the performance of the concrete and lifecycle costs. Due to growing interest of many

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people in sustainable development, most architects and engineers are on selecting concrete and
other building materials that are more sustainable and those that cannot pollute the environment.
It is difficult to determine the measurement that engineers and architects use to determine
materials that are more sustainable or be in the position to determine materials that are
environmentally friendly among many materials that are presented to them (Nielsen and Linh
24). Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) appears to provide a suitable for a solution to architects and
engineers in determining sustainable and environmentally friendly concrete all over the world.
Green Concrete that was first invented in Denmark offers a solution to environmental pollution
caused by the emission of CO2 gasses due to degradation of concrete from the constructed
structures. It is produced with the objective of minimizing environmental impact from concrete
and structures established with the help of concrete materials.
The method has been explicitly and implicitly used by engineers and architectures to
offer a solution to engineering problems for a long period of time. Generally, truss models have
been adopted by engineers and architectures to produce reinforced concrete structures with the
help of either fiber or steel. Fibre reinforced concrete is the modern technology used in
producing strong and durable concrete after it was realized that steel reinforced concrete though
durable and strong leads to pollution of the environment when it comes into contact with water
and other conditions that are more likely to corrode them (Bhutta et al. 68). The limit analysis,
therefore, offers a solution in designing the best concrete that is environmental friendly and the
concrete that can last for a long period of time. The limit analysis is important in determining the
necessary amount of concrete, the needed detailing of reinforcement, the correct positioning and
safe designs of structures which are consistently by architectures and engineers all over the

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Pervious concrete for sustainable development is a special type of concrete used for flatwork
applications. The concrete allows water to pass through it hence reducing runoff from the
construction site and hence important in recharging ground water levels. It is normally used in
parking areas, greenhouses, areas with traffic lights among many other important areas. The
technology is important
The research indicates that most engineers and architectures all over the world are
concerned with sustainable development and how to protect the environment. This has led them
to select concrete and other building materials that are environmentally friendly such as pervious
concrete and fiber reinforced concrete. Some of the concrete materials that lead to pollution of
environment after it corrodes with water and other substances such as precipitation are replaced
with modern concrete that is vital in preserving the environment. Plasticity concrete has several
desirable traits which can be exploited in a wide range of construction applications. Most of the
concrete buildings all over the world have been constructed using "Ultimate Limit State of
Collapse," which is normally based on plasticity theory." There has been an overwhelming
concern on how to solve environmental issues due to degradation of concrete.
Durability and strength characteristics of concrete are important in determining the
ultimate quality of constructed structure. Other than ensuring the durability of the structure, it is
imperative that engineers and architecture ensure that they use methods and techniques that will
result in the long run guarantee sustainable development and help in protecting the environment.
This is the reason why most of the engineers are using pervious concrete and apply Ultimate
Limit State of Collapse theory to establish desirable features. The fact that concrete is the second
most used substance after water all over the world makes it a necessary requirement for

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engineers and architectures to select concrete that is sustainable and lead to less pollution of the

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Works Cited
Bertolini, Luca., Elsener, Bernhard., Pedeferri, Pietro., Redaelli, Elena. and Polder, Rob.B.
Corrosion of steel in concrete: prevention, diagnosis, repairs. John Wiley & Sons, 2013.
Bhutta, M. Aamer Rafique, K. Tsuruta, and J. Mirza. "Evaluation of high-performance porous
concrete properties." Construction and Building Materials 31 (2012): 67-73.
Gambhir, Murari Lal. Concrete technology: Theory and practice. Tata McGraw-Hill Education,
2013. Print.
Nielsen, Mogens Peter, and Linh Cao Hoang. Limit analysis and concrete plasticity. CRC press,
2016. Print.
Tarnai, M., Mizuguchi, H., Hatanaka, S., Katahira, H., Nakazawa, T., Yanagibashi, K., &
Kunieda, M. (2013, August). Design, construction and recent applications of porous
concrete in Japan. In 28th conference on our world in concrete & structures, Singapore
(Vol. 22, p. 28)