You are on page 1of 3

Agriculture Notes

What are the types of farming?

Livestock & Poultry: Meat, Dairy, and Eggs; Utilizes Rangeland

Agriculture: growing one crop (monoculture) or many crops (polyculture)

Aquaculture: raising aquatic organisms for food

What happens when food isnt available?

Malnutrition: a condition caused by not consuming enough necessary


Famine: a food scarcity so widespread that it causes severe malnutrition

throughout large geographic areas

Why do people go hungry?

Crop Failure due to

Drought, Soil Deterioration, Disease

Population size > Crop yield

What happens when food is overabundant?

Overnutrition: Food energy intake exceeds energy use and causes

excess body fat

Similar health problems to those who are underfed

Lower life expectancy

Greater susceptibility to disease and illness

Lower productivity and life quality

How have we farmed in the past?

The first agricultural revolution began as early as 9000 BC

Nomads Settlements

Cross pollination first began

Grew enough to support

family & trade

How did the Green Revolution change farming?



INCREASE crop yield

Minimize Crop Losses/Failure


New, high-yield grain varieties



Better Management Practices

More technologically advanced machinery

Vision: Treat agriculture as a business (agribusiness). Plant a large amount of

a single species (monocropping)


Too expensive

Air, soil, and water pollution due to toxic chemicals

Uneven distributionpoorer countries still cant transport food

Pesticide Resistance

Practices of Conventional Farming (Since Green Revolution)

Maximize OutputHigh Efficiency

Minimize Space

Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOS)

Genetically Modified Crops (temperature and chemical resistance)

Heavy equipment (Fossil Fuels)

Chemicals (pesticides and fertilizers)


Sustainable Farming Practices

Sustainable Output

Takes more Space

Pasture/Rangeland Feeding

Incorporates more human and animal labor

Minimize Chemical Usage (Biochemicals)


Low Till or No Till


Lower food costs

Fast production times (more growing seasons in a given year)

Meets increased demand


Healthier for humans and organisms alike

Higher quality foods (in terms of energy)

Conserves energy and water resources

Lower biodiversity/environmental impact


Biodiversity/Habitat Degradation

Soil, Water, and Air Pollution


Energy and Water Loss

Contamination of Human Foods

Pesticide and Antibiotic Resistance


Higher food costs

Low yield

Decreased availability

More susceptible to storms, pests, changes in environment, etc.