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elevation

troponinl

pericardia

acute
acute

severe

or

's

heart

failure

myocardial

prevent

formation

aneurysm

presented

in

plasma
PE

acute

leads )

wave

ST

least

at

J2mm

or

ventricular

in

slmm

contiguous pre cordial


treatment
Prompt
damage

elevation

of

persists
should

be

left

sepsis

and

or

renal

failure

false

positive

shock

a.

Pacemakers
Produce

small

bypasses

blocked
of

activation

for

D
2

letter

First

letter

Cardiac

paced

( A

both

SA

node

or

intrinsic

right

the

sense

pace

may

the

atrium

ventricle

right

the

is

used

when

to

A ,V

sensed

rate

the

sensed

response

inhibition
R

chambers

the

or

D)
( A

event

is

modulation

pacing

for

,VorD

I
,

programmable

Arrest

Classified

Shock

is

able

Rhythms

ventricular

non

or

fibrillation

VF

CPR

able

shock

thump

both

In

( VT

synchronised

2
3

200J

unsuccessful

If

unsuccessful

Defribrillate

10

min

If

VF

For

Shock

CPR

or

pulse

1mg

pulse

iv.

360J

PT

less

persists
adrenaline

with
VF

give

amiodarone

give
1mg

Rhythms

Causes

activity

( PEA

iv.

of

bolus

iv.

2g

non

'

shock

able

rhythms

Hypoxia

electrical

300mg

iv

sulphate

magnesium

systole
less

not

360J

adrenaline

shocks

refractory
able

at

of

Further

veto

12

defribrillate
give

7.2

compressions

chest

If

( after

at

Resume

part

thump

shock

One

first

the

does

VF

ensure

Precordial

'

Actions
I

cases

synchronised

tachycardia

ventricular

less

pulse

cordial

pre

able

shock

either

as

treatment

Non

replaces

pacemakers
G

chamber

the

describes

pacemaker

Fourth

ventricles

describes

letter

For

Most

either

letter

Third

atria

describes

duel

Second

bundle

His

the

that

discharge

electrical

Hypovolqemia
Hyperkalaemia

Hypokalaemia
Hypocalcaemia

Hypoglycaemia
Tamponade

Tension

.Toxic
.

Thrombo

pneumothorax
substances
embolism

eg

PE

of

Three

Syndromes
in
relatively
Brugada Syndrome

Key

Easily

asymptomatic

detected

1.

RBBB

with

ST

Susceptible

to

Implantation
2

Wellen

3.

inversion

wave

Ant

in

deadly
with

Vi

,Vz,V3

arrhythmia

ICT

's

neccessavy

Syndrome

elevation

patients

in

Vz

stenosis
descending coronary a.
with
Angioplasty
stenting required
QT
Syndrome
long
QT
interval
longer than 42 of cardiac cycle
ventricular
Predisposed to
arrhythmia 's
.

COPD
Minimises

all

With

so

COPD
there

is

large
ST

right
usually RVHG
the

wave

depression

large

wave

particularly

ventricle

therefore

the

QRS

works

RAD

complexes

against

Embolism

Pulmonary

waves

wave

inversion

in

in

in

lead

11

111

Vi

V4

tendency

towards

RAD

considerable

resistance

For

look

To

What

Rhythm {

1
.

Wave
rhythm

sinus

Abnormalities
Conduction
-

peaked

QRS

predominantly

down

wide

tall

lead

in

deviation

axis

114111

leads

in

deviation

axis

in

ml

Vo

pericarditis

ischemia

in

BBB

WPW

RVH

in

waves

depressed

V,

in

waves

raised

LVH

digoxin

Waves

peaked

flat

hyperkalaemia

in

prolonged

inverted

tall

segment

ST

hypertrophy

origin

ventricular

height
-

hypertrophy

atrial

down

width

predominantly

broad

atrial

QRS

5.

Complex

QRS

Axis

Cardiac
-

tall

notched

BBB

(0.12-0.20)

block

heart

of

evidence

of

evidence

in

in

hypokalaemia

ischaemiq

infarction

LVH

RVH

PE

BBB

Waves
-

hypokalqemiq
Method

nick

Rhythm

1
.

sinus

no

1.

Rate

3.

Axis

PR

5.51

rhythm
waves

Interval

Segment

stable

present )

wave

interval

( AF )