Fahd of Saudi Arabia

Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud
King of Saudi Arabia Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia

King of Saudi Arabia Reign Bayaa 13 June 1982 ± 1 August 2005 (23 years, 49 days) 13 June 1982

Predecessor Khalid Successor Abdullah

1st Minister of Education In Office Successor 1953 - 1962 Abdulaziz bin Mohammad Al al-Shaikh

6th Minister of Interior In Office 1962 - 1975

Predecessor Faisal ibn Turki I Al Saud Successor Issue Faisal bin Fahd, Sultan bin Fahd Muhammad bin Fahd, Saud bin Fahd Khaled bin Fahd, Abdul-Aziz bin Fahd Father Mother Born Abdulaziz Hessa Bint Ahmed AlSudairy 1921 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Naif bin Abdulaziz Al Saud

Died Burial

1 August 2005 (84) King Faisal Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 1 August 2005 (84) Al Oud, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, (16 March 1921 ± 1 August 2005) was the King of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Head of the House of Saud as well as Prime Minister. One of forty-five sons of Saudi founder Ibn Saud, and the fourth of his five sons who have ruled the Kingdom (Saud, Faisal, Khalid, Fahd, and Abdullah), Fahd ascended to the throne on the death of his half-brother, King Khalid, on 13 June 1982. Fahd was appointed Crown Prince when Khalid succeeded their half-brother King Faisal, who was assassinated in 1975. Fahd was viewed as the de facto prime minister during King Khalid's reign in part due to the latter's ill health. Fahd suffered a debilitating stroke 29 November 1995, after which he was unable to continue performing his full official duties. His half-brother, Abdullah, the country's Crown Prince, served as de facto regent of the kingdom and succeeded Fahd as monarch upon his death on 1 August 2005. King Fahd is credited for having introduced the Basic Law of Saudi Arabia in 1992.

Contents
1 Early life 2 Early political positions 3 Family and progeny 4 Reign 4.1 Foreign policy 4.2 Grand Mosque Seizure, Iran, and Islamic education 4.3 Recreational Activities 4.4 Persian Gulf War, 1991 4.5 Reform and industrialization 4.6 Rule after the 1995 stroke 5 Death 6 Funeral 7 Wives 8 See also 8.1 Soccer tournaments 9 References 10 External links

Early life
At the age of 11 in 1932, Fahd watched as his father officially founded the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by signing the Treaty of Jedda. Fahd's education took place at the Princes' School in Riyadh, a school established by Ibn Saud specifically for the education of members of the House of Saud. While at the Princes' School, Fahd studied under tutors including Sheikh Abdul-Ghani Khayat. In 1945 Fahd travelled on his first state visit to New York City to attend the opening session of the General Assembly of the United Nations. On this trip Fahd served under his brother, King Faisal, who was at the time Saudi Arabia's foreign minister.

Early political positions
In 1953, at the age of 32, Fahd was appointed Education Minister by his father. Also in 1953, Fahd led his first official state visit, attending the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II on behalf of the House of Saud. Later Fahd would lead the Saudi delegation to the League of Arab States in 1959, signifying his increasing prominence in the House of Saud ² and that he was being groomed for a more significant role. In 1962, Fahd was given the important post of Interior Minister and five years later he was appointed Second Deputy Prime Minister. After the death of King Faisal in 1975, Fahd was named first deputy Prime Minister and Crown Prince.

Family and progeny
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King Fahd was married at least four times, . He had six sons and three daughters. His sons were: Faisal bin Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud (1946±1999) Died of a heart attack. Director-general of Youth Welfare (1971±99), Director-general at Ministry of Planning and Minister of State (1977± 1999). Khalid bin Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud (born 1947) Nobody knows anything about him. Muhammad bin Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud (born 1950), governor of the Eastern province. Saud bin Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud (born 1950), former deputy president of the General Intelligence Directorate. Sultan bin Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud (born 1951), Army Officer. Elevated to minister rank in November 1997. Current head of Youth Welfare. Abdul-Aziz bin Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud, (born 1971), Fahd's favorite son and minister of state without portfolio. He is the son of Princess Jawhara al-Ibrahim, Fahd's fourth and, reportedly, favorite wife [1].

Reign

King Fahd gave money for building mosques throughout the world. The Ibrahim-Al-Ibrahim Mosque, at Europa Point, Gibraltar, which opened in 1997, is one such mosque. On 25 March 1975, King Faisal was assassinated by his nephew and King Khalid assumed power. Fahd, as next in the line of succession, became Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister. Especially in the later years of King Khalid's reign, Fahd was viewed as the de facto prime minister. When King Khalid died on 13 June 1982, Fahd succeeded to the throne. He adopted the title "Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques" in 1986, replacing "His Majesty", to signify an Islamic rather than secular authority.

Foreign policy
He was a supporter of the United Nations. He supported foreign aid and had given 5.5% of Saudi Arabia's national income through various funds especially the Saudi Fund for Development and the OPEC Fund for International Development. He had also given aid to the needy such as the

Bosnian Muslims in the recent Balkan Wars. King Fahd had also been a strong supporter of the Palestinian cause and an opponent of the State of Israel.[1] Fahd was staunch ally of the United States, based on the excellent relations shared by the US and Saudi Arabia in a statement "After Allah, we can count on the United States." [2]

Grand Mosque Seizure, Iran, and Islamic education
The 1979 Revolution in Iran radically transformed the political landscape in the Middle East, as the hereditary monarchy of the Shah of Iran was deposed in favor of a Shi'a theocracy. In the same year, anti-monarchist dissidents in Saudi Arabia seized the Grand Mosque in Mecca, and accused the Saudi royal family of being insufficiently Islamic and so unfit to rule the Kingdom. Fearing that the 1979 Revolution in Iran could lead to similar Islamic upheaval in Saudi Arabia, Fahd spent considerable sums after ascending the throne in 1982 to support Saddam Hussein's Iraq in its war with Iran.[2] He also changed his royal title to "custodian of the two holy mosques", and took steps to support the conservative Saudi religious establishment, including spending millions of dollars on religious education, further distancing himself from his inconvenient past.[3]

Recreational Activities
At the same time as King Fahd presided over a more strict Islamic policy at home he was known to enjoy luxurious living abroad, even in ways that would not be allowed in his own kingdom. He visited the ports of the French Riviera, in his 147-metre (482 ft) yacht, the $100 million Abdul Aziz. The ship featured two swimming pools, a ballroom, a gym, a theater, a portable garden, a hospital with an intensive-care unit and two operating rooms, and four American Stinger missiles.[4] The king also had a personal $150 million Boeing 747 jet, equipped with his own fountain. In his visits to London he reportedly lost millions of dollars in the casinos and even was known to circumvent the curfew imposed by British gaming laws by hiring his own blackjack and roulette dealers to continue gambling through the night in his hotel suite.[5] The King was also a usual at the Spanish city of Marbella, where he would bring an entourage of 3000 people, renting 300 hotel rooms and 500 cars.[citation needed] His yearly visit would inject from 50-100 million dollars into Marbella's economy. [citation needed] The King's death in 2005 was mourned in the city.[citation needed]

Persian Gulf War, 1991
After Iraqi forces under Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait, placing the Middle East's largest Army at the time, on the border of Saudi Arabia. King Fahd agreed to host coalition troops, led by the United States, in his Kingdom, and later to allow American troops to be based there. This decision brought him considerable criticism and opposition from his people who objected to the presence of foreign troops on Saudi land, and is a casus belli against the Saudi royal family prominently cited by Osama bin Laden and Al-Qaeda.

Reform and industrialization
In regards to reform, King Fahd showed little tolerance for reformists. In 1992, a group of reformists and prominent Saudi intellectuals petitioned King Fahd for wide ranging reforms, including widening political representation, and curbing the royal family's wasteful spending. King Fahd first responded by ignoring their requests and when they persisted, reformists were harshly persecuted, imprisoned and fired from their jobs. During King Fahd's rule, the royal family's lavish spending of the country's wealth reached its height. In addition, the biggest and most controversial military contracts of the century, the Al Yamamah was signed under his watch. The contract has cost the Saudi treasury more than $90 billion. These funds were originally allocated to building hospitals, schools, universities and

roads. As a result, Saudi Arabia has endured a stagnation in infrastructure development from 1986 till the 1999 when the new King, Abdullah, became fully in control. Like all the countries overlooking the Persian Gulf, Saudi Arabia under King Fahd has focused its industrial development on hydrocarbon installations. Up to this day, the country is reliant on imports for nearly all its light and heavy machinery.

Rule after the 1995 stroke
King Fahd suffered a debilitating stroke in 1995 and became noticeably frail, and decided to delegate the running of the Kingdom to Crown Prince Abdullah. After his stroke King Fahd was mostly inactive, though he still attended meetings and received selected visitors. In November 2003, according to government media, King Fahd was quoted as saying to "strike with an iron fist" at terrorists after deadly bombings, although he could hardly utter a word because of his debilitating stroke and deteriorating health. However, it is Crown Prince Abdullah who took official trips; when King Fahd traveled it was for vacations, and he was sometimes absent from Saudi Arabia for months at a time. When his oldest son and International Olympic Committee member Prince Faisal bin Fahd died in 1999, the King was in Spain and did not return for the funeral.[6]

Death
King Fahd was admitted to the King Faisal Specialist Hospital in the capital, Riyadh on 27 May 2005 for unspecified medical tests. An official (who insisted on anonymity) told the Associated Press unofficially that the king had died at 7:30 EDT on 1 August 2005. A member of the cabinet publicly announced his death on Saudi TV the same morning, and said that he died of pneumonia and a high fever.

Funeral
He was buried in the last thobe (traditional Arab robe) he wore. Fahd¶s body was carried to Imam Turki bin Abdullah Mosque, and funeral prayers were held at around 3:30 local time (12:30 GMT). The prayers for the late monarch were led by the Kingdom¶s grand mufti, Sheikh Abdul Aziz Al Sheikh. The "funeral prayer", during which mourners remain standing, was recited after afternoon prayers. The ceremony was replicated in other mosques across the vast kingdom, where the "prayers for the absentee" were held. The body was carried by King Fahd's son, Prince Abdul Aziz bin Fahd, to the mosque and to the Al-Oud cemetery some two kilometers away, a public cemetery where Fahd¶s four predecessors and other members of the Al Saud ruling family are buried. Arab and Muslim dignitaries who attended the funeral were not present at the burial. Only ruling family members and Saudi citizens were on hand as the body was lowered into the grave. Muslim leaders offered condolences at the mosque, while other foreign dignitaries and leaders who came after the funeral paid their respects at the royal court. According the regulations and social traditions of the Kingdom, Saudi Arabia did not declare a national mourning period. Also, all government offices and public buildings were open as usual and the state flag was not lowered (since the flag of Saudi Arabia bears the Shahada, the Islamic declaration of faith, the flag's protocol requires the flag to not be lowered) After his death, many countries declared mourning periods. India declared a national day of mourning. Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Syria, Yemen, the Arab League in Cairo, and the Palestinian Authority all declared three-day mourning periods. Pakistan and the United Arab Emirates declared a seven-day mourning period and ordered all

flags flown at half-staff. In Jordan, a national three-day mourning period was declared and a 40day mourning period was decreed at the Royal Court. Many foreign dignitaries attended the funeral, such as Vice President Dick Cheney, President Jacques Chirac. King Juan Carlos, Prince Charles, President Pervez Musharraf, King Abdullah II, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas and the Singapore Senior Minister, SM Goh Chok Tong, Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya.

Wives
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HH Princess AL Anood Bint Abdulaziz Bin Mousad AL Saud mother of Prince Faisal Bin Fahd HH Princess AL Joharah Bint Ibrahem AL Ibrahem mother of Prince Abdulaziz Bin Fahd Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Fahd of Saudi Arabia

See also
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King Fahd International Airport King Fahd Causeway King Fahd University for Petroleum and Minerals Malek Fahd Islamic School

Soccer tournaments
FIFA Confederations Cup (former King Fahd Cup) King Fahd Cup 1992 King Fahd Cup 1995

References
1. ^ "Palestine-Israel Issue King Fahd Bin Abdul Aziz". http://www.kingfahdbinabdulaziz.com/main/l500.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-01. 2. ^ Obituary: King Fahd, BBC News, 1 August 2005. Accessed 10 June 2008. 3. ^ Wood, Paul. Life and legacy of King Fahd, BBC News, 1 August 2005. Accessed 10 June 2008. 4. ^ Simons, Geoff, Saudi Arabia, St. Martins, (1998), p.28 5. ^ Marie Colvin, `The Squandering Sheikhs, Sunday Times, 29 August 1993 6. ^ Saudi Arabia's King Fahd Dies; Abdullah Named New Leader, New York Times, 1 August 2005. Accessed 11 June 2008.

External links
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King Fahd Tribute Page Twenty Years of King Fahd from ArabNews. Saudi King Fahd is laid to rest (BBC News, 2 August 2005) Obituaries [3] (BBC News, 1 August 2005) [4] (The Times, 2 August 2005) International editorial reaction to Fahd's death Late Saudi King Fahd Modernized Kingdom[dead link] [5](Saudi-American Forum, 16 January 2004) Fahd of Saudi Arabia House of Saud
Born: 1921 Died: 2005

Regnal titles Preceded by

King of Saudi Arabia Succeeded by

Khaled

1982±2005

Abdullah

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