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Small Ruminant Research 145 (2016) 4452

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Small Ruminant Research


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/smallrumres

Physical characteristics and proximate and mineral composition of


Saanen goat male kids meat from Vojvodina (Northern Serbia) as
inuenced by muscle

Vladimir M. Tomovic a, , Marija R. Jokanovic a , Jaroslava V. Svarc-Gaji


c a ,
a
c a , Snezana B. Skaljac

Ivana M. Vasiljevic b , Branislav V. Soji


, Ivan I. Pihler c ,
c
c

Vladislav B. Simin , Milan M. Krajinovic , Miroslav M. Zujovic d


a

University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
A Bio Tech Lab D.O.O., Vojvode Putnika 87, 21208 Sremska Kamenica, Serbia
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 8, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
d
Institute for Animal Husbandry, Autoput 16, 11080 Zemun, Serbia
b
c

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 25 September 2013
Received in revised form 13 May 2016
Accepted 15 October 2016
Available online 21 October 2016
Keywords:
Saanen goat male kids
Muscles
Physical characteristics
Proximate composition
Mineral composition

a b s t r a c t
The aim of this study was to investigate the inuence of the anatomical location of muscles on their physical characteristics and proximate and mineral composition. Physical (pH value, water-holding capacity
WHC, and instrumental colour CIEL*a*b* values) characteristics and proximate (moisture, protein,
total fat and total ash) and mineral (K, P, Na, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Cu, Ni and Mn) composition were determined in four (M. psoas major PM, M. longissimus dorsi LD, M. semimembranosus SM, and M. triceps
brachii TB) muscles of Saanen goat male kids. Many signicant or numerical differences were found
in the mean values of quality characteristics among the particular muscle types. Muscles had no signicant inuence (P > 0.05) on Mg, Ca, Ni and Mn content. The PM muscles were the highest in pH24 h
(5.83), CIEa* (22.47, reddest muscle), CIEb* (5.90) values, moisture (77.61 g/100 g), Na (78.2 mg/100 g),
Fe (1.57 mg/100 g), Cu (0.131 mg/100 g) and Mn (0.013 mg/100 g) content and had the highest WHC,
darkest colour (CIEL* = 38.03), and lowest content of total fat (1.40 g/100 g), K (330 mg/100 g) and
Ni (0,019 mg/100 g). The LD muscles were the highest in K (392 mg/100 g), Mg (26.1 mg/100 g), Ca
(11.8 mg/100 g) and Ni (0.030 mg/100 g) content, and the lowest in CIEa* (14.71) and CIEb* (3.84) values, total ash (1.15 g/100 g), Zn (2.24 mg/100 g), Cu (0.092 mg/100 g) and Mn (0.011 mg/100 g) content.
The highest content of protein (20.69 g/100 g), total ash (1.20 g/100 g) and P (255 mg/100 g), and the
lowest pH24 h (5.68) value, WHC and moisture (76.42 g/100 g), Na (64.2 mg/100 g), Fe (1.07 mg/100 g)
and Mn (0.011 mg/100 g) content were found in SM muscles. The lightest colour (CIEL* = 44.02), the
highest content of total fat (2.15 g/100 g), Zn (3.21 mg/100 g) and Mn (0.013 mg/100 g), and the lowest content of protein (19.29 g/100 g), total ash (1.15 g/100 g), P (223 mg/100 g), Mg (24.3 mg/100 g) and
Ca (10.6 mg/100 g) were found in TB muscles. Signicant relationships between quality characteristics
of meat in number of cases were determined. This study was undertaken to increase the available information on the physicochemical traits of goat meat. This is important to provide, update and improve
regularly nutrient composition data of goat meat.
2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
Goats, the earliest ruminant to be domesticated, are traditional
sources of meat, milk, bre, leather, related products of animal origin and as draught and pack animals (Casey and Webb, 2010). Meat

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: tomovic@uns.ac.rs (V.M. Tomovic).


http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2016.10.019
0921-4488/ 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

is the major product of the goat. However, goat meat is less well
known to consumers compared with other meats around the world
(Mahgoub et al., 2012b).
In general, meat is dened as all animal tissues suitable as food
for human consumption. Commonly meat refers only to meat esh
(skeletal muscle plus any attached connective tissue and/or fat)
(Sebsibe, 2008; Lawrie and Ledward, 2006).

V.M. Tomovic et al. / Small Ruminant Research 145 (2016) 4452

Red meat including pork, beef, mutton, and goat meat, is the
largest category in terms of volume of consumption (Williamson
et al., 2005; Sebsibe, 2008; Mahgoub et al., 2012a).
Meat quality can be dened strictly in terms of its physical
and chemical properties, or in terms of consumers perceptions. A
general denition of meat quality is that of eating quality that comprises palatability, wholesomeness and being free of pathogens and
toxins (Casey and Webb, 2010). Meat quality is the sum of all sensoric, nutritive, technological and hygienic-toxicological factors of
meat. The technological factors of meat quality include pH value,
water-holding capacity, colour, tenderness, protein content and its
status, fat content and its status and connective tissue content. The
nutritive factors of meat quality include proteins and their composition, fats and their composition, minerals, vitamins, utilisation,
digestibility and biological value (Hofmann, 1990; Honikel, 1999;
Casey and Webb, 2010; Kadim and Mahgoub, 2012; Osman and
Mahgoub, 2012). Red meats (pork, beef, mutton, goat, horse. . .) are
an excellent source of high biological value protein (essential amino
acids), minerals (especially iron, zinc and phosphorus) and essential vitamins (B12 , niacin and vitamin B6 ) all of which are essential
for good health throughout life (Webb et al., 2005; Williamson
et al., 2005; Lawrie and Ledward, 2006; Sebsibe, 2008; Kadim and
Mahgoub, 2012; Osman and Mahgoub, 2012).
Goat meat quality is known to be inuenced by a number of
pre- and post-mortem factors (Dhanda et al., 2003b; Kadim and
Mahgoub, 2012). Goat meat is a product of many different production systems from widely varying environments, nutritional
regimes and genotypes (Casey and Webb, 2010). Factor such as
breed, age, sex, nutrition, and muscles have been the subject of
numerous reviews (McMillin and Brock, 2005; Dhanda et al., 2003b;
Webb et al., 2005; Casey and Webb, 2010; Argello et al., 2012;
Kadim and Mahgoub, 2012; Osman and Mahgoub, 2012). Inuence
of anatomical location of muscles on a quality of a goat kid meat
was investigated by several authors (Park, 1990; Mioc et al., 2000;
Marinova et al., 2001; Marichal et al., 2003; Argello et al., 2005;
Zurita-Herrera et al., 2013; Stanisz et al., 2015).
In general, the number of goats, as well as the goat meat production, has increased worldwide over past year (FAOSTAT, 2012).
In Serbia, no statistical records were kept concerning the number
of goats and their breeding because the goat keeping was banned
by the low after the World War II, for a long period (Memisi et al.,
2009; Z ujovic et al., 2009). This law was, fortunately, never fully
implemented, but resulted in a lack of knowledge of population
size in the past. In 2012, Statistical Ofce of the Republic of Serbia
reported the Serbian goat population to be 236,000 head.
The most important category of goat meat in Serbia, as in developed countries, is the kid meat (Z ujovic et al., 2009). The greatest
demands for young goats in Serbia is seasonally during the spring
time. Production is mainly based on various breeds, more or less
locally determined. In some regions production systems of goats
are quite extensive. The number of kids (and goats) that are yearly
slaughtered in Serbia is not negligible. These, however, are not
available on the market, since most kids and even grown up goats
are slaughtered and consumed on the rms where they were raised
(Memisi et al., 2009; Z ujovic et al., 2009).
Traditionally, kids are slaughtered at 37 months old and
et al., 2009). According to Serbian
1215 kg carcass weight (Pena
legislation (1974) kids are normally slaughtered between 3 weeks
and 6 months of age. Carcass weight with head, liver, hearth, lungs,
kidney and internal fat and without skin and distal parts of the legs
should be between 4 and 12 kg.
Over the last decade farmers in Vojvodina have become interested in goat breeding, especially raising noble, highly yielding
breeds. As there was a lack of such goats they have been imported
on several occasions; these were Alpine, Saanen and German fawn
dairy goats (Krajinovic et al., 2011). In farms keeping dairy goats

45

Table 1
Feeding schedule for goat kids.
Age

Feed

Quantity

Frequency

Birth-3 days
410 days

Colostrum
Colostrum and
goat milk
Milk replacer
Milk replacer
Alfalfa hay
Water
Milk replacer
Alfalfa hay
16% starter
grain
Water

600800 mL/day
11.5 L/day

4 times/day
4 times/day

Free choice
Free choice
Free choice
Free choice
Free choice
Free choice
About 150 g/day

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
3 times/day

Free choice

N/A

1117 days
1831 days

31 days-slaughter

N/A = not applicable.

male kids are considered as a by-product. Therefore, to save the


milk for the dairy industry goat keepers remove the kids from their
dams very early postnatally and these kids are then raised under
intensive system. Goat kids in intensive dairy goat farms are usually reared on milk replacers (Marichal et al., 2003; Argello et al.,
2005, 2012). It is well known that young animals fed high concentrate diets generally have higher daily gains, dressing percentage
and carcass quality of those produced in a forage system (Kosum
et al., 2003).
Saanen dairy goats, originated in the Saanen valley of
Switzerland, are very famous for their heavy milk production, as
well as for being the largest of the dairy breeds (Encyclopedia
Britannica, 2013).
Having in mind that anatomical location of a muscle, i.e. its function in the body, affects meat quality, the aim of this study was to
determine the physical characteristics and proximate and mineral
composition of four major muscles from intensive reared Saanen
goat male kids, and to compare their characteristics with meat
from goat male kids reported in the literature. Moreover, this study
should provide nutrient data that may be important for promotional purposes and ongoing food composition databases for public
health nutrition, dietetic and food regulation purposes.
2. Materials and methods
2.1. Animals, diet, sampling and preparing
This study included 20 Saanen male kids. All kids were raised
under identical husbandry, management and feeding conditions.
At birth, all kids were removed from their dams and housed individually till 10th day. From the tenth day till slaughter, kids were
housed in pens. Each pen contained 30 animals. Feeding schedule for kids is presented in Table 1 (Belanger, 2001), and chemical
composition of the diet is presented in Table 2. Age and body
weight at slaughter ranged from 67 to 83 days and from 19.5 to
23.9 kg.
At the end of the fattening period, all kids were transported to a
commercial abattoir. Kids were held overnight without feed before
slaughter. Kids were slaughtered and dressed using standard commercial procedures. Carcasses were conventionally chilled for 24 h
in chiller at 04 C. The cold carcasses were split down the dorsal
midline and right sides were used for the present study. The following 4 muscles were excised from the right side of each carcass:
M. psoas major (PM), M. longissimus dorsi (LD), M. semimembranosus
(SM), and M. triceps brachii (TB). The meat samples were trimmed
of visible adipose and connective tissue. Physical characteristics
were measured on the center cross section of the PM, SM and
TB muscles and on the 12th/13th rib site cross section of the LD
muscles. After determination of physical characteristics remaining
part of each muscle was homogenized (Waring 8010ES Blender,

46

V.M. Tomovic et al. / Small Ruminant Research 145 (2016) 4452

Table 2
Chemical composition of the diet.
Commercial milk replacer

Quantity

Alfalfa hay (Belanger, 2001)

Commercial 16% starter grain

Quantity

Crude fat
Crude protein
Lysine
Methionine
Calcium
Phosphor
Magnesium
Moisture
Crude ber
Crude ash
Vitamin A
Vitamin D3
Vitamin E
Biotin
Iron
Vitamin B1
Vitamin B2
Vitamin B6
Vitamin B12
Ca-D- pantothenate
Nicotinic acid
Folic acid
Vitamin C
Choline chloride
Selenium
Enterococcus faecium M74 NICMB 11181

24.0%
24.0%
1.8%
0.3%
1.0%
0.7%
0.2%
to 8.0%
1.0%
8.3%
50.000 IU
5.000 IU
100 mg
0.200 mg
140 mg
10 mg
10 mg
5 mg
0.025 mg
20 mg
30 mg
1 mg
100 mg
900 mg
0.3 mg
0.8 109 CFU

Crude protein
Digestible protein
Fat
Fiber
Nitrogen-free
Mineral matter
Calcium
Phosphorus extract

15.3
10.9
1.9
28.6
36.7
8.0
1.47
0.24

Protein
Fiber
Ash
Moisture
Calcium
Phosphor
Sodium
Oats units/kg (calculated value)
Vitamin A
Vitamin D3
Vitamin E
Vitamin B1
Vitamin B2
Vitamin B12
Pantothenic acid
Nicotinic acid
Iron
Copper
Manganese
Zinc
Iodine
Cobalt
Selenium
Magnesium
Antioxidant

Min. 16%
Max. 8%
Max. 8%
Max. 13.5%
0.801.00%
Min. 0.50.7%
0.200.30%
0.90%
7 500 IJ
1 200 IJ
15 mg
1.5 mg
2.0 mg
0.010 mg
10 mg
10 mg
50 mg
5 mg
30 mg
50 mg
0.6 mg
0,10 mg
0,10 mg
50 mg
100 mg

USA; capacity 1 L, speed 18,000 rpm, duration of homogenization


10 s, temperature after homogenization <10 C), vacuum packaged
in polyethylene bags and stored at 40 C until determination of
proximate and mineral composition.

2.2. Meat quality measurements


2.2.1. Physical measurements
The pH value was measured at 30 min (pH30 min ) post-mortem,
only in the SM muscles, and 24 h (pH24 h ) post-mortem, in all four
muscles, using the portable pH meter (Consort T651, Turnhout,
Belgium) equipped with an insertion glass combination electrode
(Mettler Toledo Greifensee, Switzerland). The pH meter was calibrated before and during the readings using standard phosphate
buffers (pH value of calibration buffers was 7.00 and 4.01 at 25 C)
and adjusted to the expected temperature of measured muscles
(ISO 2917, 1999). Measurements were performed in triplicate.
Determination of the water-holding capacity (WHC) was based
on measuring water released when pressure was applied to the
muscle tissue. Exudative juice was assessed using a lter paper
press method (Grau and Hamm, 1953; Van Oeckel et al., 1999). A
cube of 300 25 mg of meat from the inside of the muscle sample
was placed on a lter paper (Schleicher & Schull No. 2040 B, Dassel,
Germany) between two plexiglas plates, then plates were screwed
together tightly for exactly 5 min. The analysis was performed in
duplicate. The difference between the areas (RZ), as determined
by mechanical polar planimeter (REISS Precision 3005, Bad Liebenwerda, Germany), of the pressed meat lm (M) and the wet area
on the lter paper (T) is a measure of the exudative juice or WHC.
Alternatively, the WHC was expressed as the ratio of M over RZ
(M/RZ) or the ratio of M over T (M/T).
Six replicate surface colour measurements were performed after
60 min of blooming at 3 C (Honikel, 1998). The CIEL* (lightness),
CIEa* (redness) and CIEb* (yellowness) colour coordinates (CIE,
1976) were determined using MINOLTA Chroma Meter CR-400
(Minolta Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) using D65 illuminant, a 2 standard observer angle and a 8-mm aperture in the measuring head.
The instrument was standardized with a white plate (Y = 92.9,

Table 3
Results of the analytical quality control programme (n = 8) used in the determination
of the proximate composition of muscle.

Certied concentration
(g/100 g)
Recovery (%)

Moisture

Nitrogen

Total fat

Total ash

68.8 0.26

1.63 0.06

14.3 0.50

2.65 0.10

99.6

100.4

99.7

100.0

x = 0.3159 and y = 0.3322), and warmed according to the manufacturers instructions.


2.2.2. Proximate composition
Moisture (ISO 1442, 1997), protein (nitrogen 6.25; ISO 937,
1978), total fat (ISO 1443, 1973) and total ash (ISO 936, 1998)
contents of muscle were determined according to methods recommended by International Organization for Standardization. All
analyses were performed in duplicate. The results of the analytical
quality control programme for proximate composition are presented in Table 3.
2.2.3. Mineral composition
The content of all elements [potassium (K), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), nickel
(Ni), manganese (Mn)], except phosphorus (P), of the muscle tissues
were determined using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) (iCP 6000 Series, Thermo Scientic,
Cambridge, United Kingdom), after dry ashing mineralization as
described in detail in Tomovic et al. (2013, 2011a,b,c) and Jokanovic
et al. (2013). The analytical lines used for each metal, as well as
the instrumental parametars of analyses are given in Table 4. The
emission lines selected for each metal are also present in Table 4
and were based on tables of known interferences, baseline shifts
and experience in work with different samples. Detection (LOD)
and quantication (LOQ) limits and correlation coefcients of the
calibration curve for each metal are shown in Table 5. The total
phosphorous (P) content of the muscle tissues was determined
according to ISO method (ISO 13730, 1996). All analyses were performed in duplicate. The results of the analytical quality control

V.M. Tomovic et al. / Small Ruminant Research 145 (2016) 4452


Table 4
Operational ICP-OES parametars.
Flush pump rate
Analysis pump rate
Pump stabilizaion time
Pump tubing tipe
RF power
Nebuliser gas ow
Coolant gas ow
Auxiliary gas ow

50 rpm
50 rpm
5s
Tygon/Orange White
1150 W
0.7 L/min
12 L/min
0.5 L/min

Plasma view
Detection wavelenght
Cu
Fe
Mn
Ni
Zn

Axial
nm
324.754
259.940
257.610
341.476
213.856

Plasma view
Detection wavelenght
Ca
K
Mg
Na

Radial
nm
393.366
766.490
280.270
588.995

Table 5
Detection (LOD) and quantication (LOQ) limits and correlation coefcients of the
calibration curve for each metal.
Element

LOD (mg/100 g)

LOQ (mg/100 g)

Correlation coefcient

Cu
Fe
Mn
Ni
Zn
Ca
K
Mg
Na

0.012
0.012
0.00075
0.00075
0.012
0.3
0.06
0.06
0.3

0.04
0.04
0.0025
0.0025
0.04
1.0
0.2
0.2
1.0

0.9976
0.9958
0.9993
0.9986
0.9985
0.9997
0.9994
0.9999
0.9999

programme for P content are presented in detail by Tomovic et al.


(2011a).
2.3. Statistical analysis
All data are presented as mean, standard deviation (SD) and
range. Analysis of variance (Duncans multiple range test) was used
to test the hypothesis about differences among mean values. Coefcient of determination between quality characteristics of meat
were also calculated. The software package STATISTICA 10 (StatSoft,
2011) was used for analysis.
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Physical characteristics
Results for physical characteristics (pH value, WHC and instrumental colour CIEL*a*b* values) of all four muscles (PM, SM, LD
and TB) of Saanen goat male kids are presented in Table 6. In this
study, all physical characteristics were signicantly affected by
muscles.
The initial mean pH30min value in the SM muscles was 6.40.
The rate and extent of post-mortem glycolysis and ultimate pH of
the muscle are critical factors that determine meat quality (Webb
et al., 2005; Sebsibe, 2008; Casey and Webb, 2010), i.e. the rate of
post-mortem pH fall is an important determinant of other physical meat quality parameters (water-holding capacity and colour)
(Webb et al., 2005; Lawrie and Ledward, 2006; Sebsibe, 2008;

47

Casey and Webb, 2010; Kadim and Mahgoub, 2012). At 24 h postmortem, pH were signicantly the lowest (P < 0.05) in the SM (5.68)
and LD (5.72) muscles and signicantly the highest (P < 0.05) in
the PM muscles (5.83). Almost all individual ultimate pH values,
in all four muscles, were within the characteristic range for red
(goat) meat (Honikel, 1999; Madruga et al., 2008; Sebsibe, 2008),
i.e. all individual values were lower than 6.0 what indicated high
meat quality. Results for pHu obtained in the present study are in
agreement with investigations performed on goat kid meat by the
number of authors (Dhanda et al., 1999, 2003a; Marinova et al.,
2001; Marichal et al., 2003; Werdi Pratiwi et al., 2007; Brzostowski
et al., 2009; Zurita-Herrera
et al., 2008; Madruga et al., 2008; Pena
et al., 2013; Stanisz et al., 2015). High ultimate pH (pHu ) values
for goat muscles are prevalent in literature (Madruga et al., 1999;
Argello et al., 2005; Ozcan et al., 2014) suggesting that goats generally may be highly prone to stress (Webb et al., 2005; Casey and
Webb, 2010). However, it is not clear why goats are so susceptible
to pre-slaughter stress (Webb et al., 2005; Casey and Webb, 2010).
Water-holding capacity is one of the most important quality
characteristic of fresh meat (Lawrie and Ledward, 2006; Kadim
and Mahgoub, 2012). M value for PM (4.82 cm2 ) muscles was signicantly higher than for SM (4.21 cm2 ; P < 0.01), TB (4.34 cm2 ;
P < 0.01) and LD (4.44 cm2 ; P < 0.05) muscles. On the other hand,
RZ values were signicantly lower (P < 0.01) for the PM (5.55 cm2 )
and LD (5.70 cm2 ) muscles than for the SM (6.66 cm2 ) and TB
(6.56 cm2 ) muscles. Also, M/RZ and M/T ratios were signicantly
higher (P < 0.01), indicated better WHC, for the PM and LD muscles than for the SM and TB muscles. It is difcult to compare the
results for WHC of goat kid meat from different investigations since
applied methods vary widely (Marinova et al., 2001; Marichal et al.,
2003; Argello et al., 2005; Brzostowski et al., 2008; Madruga et al.,
et al., 2009; Stanisz et al., 2015). Generally, a decrease
2008; Pena
in water-holding capacity with an increase in slaughter weight of
kids has been noted (Marichal et al., 2003).
Beside WHC, the colour is one of the most important quality
characteristic of fresh meat (Webb et al., 2005; Lawrie and Ledward,
2006; Sebsibe, 2008; Casey and Webb, 2010; Kadim and Mahgoub,
2012). The TB muscles had signicantly higher lightness (CIEL*
value = 44.02; higher CIEL* value indicates lighter color) than SM
(39.25; P < 0.01), LD (38.50; P < 0.001) and PM (38.03; P < 0.001)
muscles. The obtained lightness (CIEL*) values, ranged from 32.18
to 46.60, indicated good meat quality (Lee et al., 2008; Madruga
et al., 2009). In the present study, the lightness
et al., 2008; Pena
(CIEL*) values of the meat were lower or similar to those observed
by other authors using kids slaughtered with similar age or live
weights (Dhanda et al., 1999, 2003a; Todaro et al., 2002; Kosum
et al., 2003; Marichal et al., 2003; Argello et al., 2005; Werdi
et al.,
Pratiwi et al., 2007; Lee et al., 2008; Madruga et al., 2008; Pena
2009; Zurita-Herrera et al., 2013; Ozcan et al., 2014; De Palo et al.,
2015; Stanisz et al., 2015). Further, CIEa* value (redness) was significantly the highest for the PM (22.47; P < 0.001) muscles, while LD
muscles had signicantly the lowest CIEa* (14.71; P < 0.001). Also,
LD muscles had signicantly (P < 0.05) the lowest CIEb* value (yellowness, 3.84) than other three muscles. In the present study, the
CIEa* values were higher or similar, while the CIEb* values were
similar or lower, compared to values reported in literature for meat
from young animals (Dhanda et al., 1999, 2003a; Todaro et al., 2002;
Kosum et al., 2003; Werdi Pratiwi et al., 2007; Lee et al., 2008;
et al., 2009).
Madruga et al., 2008; Pena
Higher pH is associated with better WHC and darker color. The
high ultimate pH alters the light absorption characteristics of the
myoglobin, the meat surfaces becoming a darker red (Lawrie and
Ledward, 2006). Such meat will also appear dark because its surface will not scatter light to the same extent as will the more open
surface of meat of lower ultimate pH (Webb et al., 2005; Lawrie and
Ledward, 2006; Sebsibe, 2008; Casey and Webb, 2010). As expected

48

V.M. Tomovic et al. / Small Ruminant Research 145 (2016) 4452

Table 6
Physical characteristics of four muscles from Saanen goat male kids.
Muscle

pH value
pH30min

5.83 0.10a
5.665.93
LD
NM
5.72 0.07b
5.635.84
6.40 0.16 5.68 0.08b
SM
6.156.60 5.555.78
NM
5.77 0.13ab
TB
5.605.90
P value
0.015
All muscles Mean SD
5.75 0.11
5.555.93
Range
PM

Mean SD
Range
Mean SD
Range
Mean SD
Range
Mean SD
Range

WHC
pH24 h

NM

Colour

M (cm2 )

RZ (cm2 )

M/RZ

M/T

CIEL*
(lightness)

CIEa*
(redness)

CIEb* (yellowness)

4.82 0.25a,j
4.405.25
4.44 0.33b,jk
3.804.90
4.21 0.36b,k
3.855.00
4.34 0.38b,k
3.855.20
0.002
4.45 0.39
3.805.25

5.55 0.42b,k
4.956.40
5.70 0.79b,k
4.556.90
6.66 0.75a,j
5.457.90
6.56 0.63a,j
5.157.30
0.001
6.11 0.81
4.557.90

0.87 0.08a,j,s
0.751.02
0.81 0.13a,j,st
0.620.98
0.64 0.12b,k,t
0.490.83
0.66 0.07b,k,t
0.550.78
<0.001
0.75 0.14
0.491.02

0.47 0.02a,j,s
0.430.51
0.45 0.04a,j,st
0.380.49
0.39 0.04b,k,u
0.330.45
0.40 0.03b,k,tu
0.350.44
<0.001
0.42 0.05
0.330.51

38.03 2.09b,k,t
34.7641.07
38.50 3.80b,k,t
32.1843.87
39.25 3.43b,k,st
34.2444.95
44.02 2.31a,j,s
40.1046.60
<0.001
39.95 3.76
32.1846.60

22.47 1.97a,j,s
19.6825.72
14.71 1.65c,l,u
12.3617.52
17.54 0.96b,k,t
15.9719.43
17.30 1.40b,k,t
15.6219.22
<0.001
18.00 3.20
12.3625.72

5.90 1.14a,j,s
3.938.13
3.84 1.23b,k,t
1.925.73
4.99 0.72a,jk,st
3.966.40
5.26 0.69a,j,st
3.796.02
<0.001
5.00 1.20
1.928.13

PM M. psoas major; LD M. longissimus dorsi; SM M. semimembranosus; TB M. triceps brachii.


WHC water-holding capacity; M = surface of the pressed meat lm; T = surface of the wet area on the lter paper; RZ = T M.
NM not measured.
abc
Indicates signicant difference within column at P < 0.05.
jkl
Indicates signicant difference within column at P < 0.01.
stu
Indicates signicant difference within column at P < 0.001.

Table 7
Proximate composition (g/100 g) of four muscles from Saanen goat male kids.
Muscle
PM
LD
SM
TB
P value
All muscles

Moisture
Mean SD
Range
Mean SD
Range
Mean SD
Range
Mean SD
Range
Mean SD
Range

Protein

77.61 0.60
76.5978.42
76.75 0.49bc,kl,st
75.6977.47
76.42 0.48c,l,t
75.3276.97
77.17 0.61ab,jk,st
76.0877.91
<0.001
76.99 0.69
75.3278.42
a,j,s

Total fat

19.69 0.59
19.1220.65
20.55 0.49a,j,st
19.8821.55
20.69 0.47a,j,s
20.1121.84
19.29 0.73b,k,u
18.3720.67
<0.001
20.05 0.81
18.3721.84

b,k,tu

Total ash

1.40 0.25
1.031.81
1.43 0.30b,k,t
1.061.95
1.57 0.23b,k,t
1.362.07
2.15 0.36a,j,s
1.742.91
<0.001
1.64 0.42
1.032.91
b,k,t

1.17 0.03b,jk
1.121.21
1.15 0.05b,k
1.041.21
1.20 0.03a,j
1.161.26
1.15 0.04b,k
1.081.22
0.009
1.17 0.04
1.041.26

PM M. psoas major; LD M. longissimus dorsi; SM M. semimembranosus; TB M. triceps brachii.


abc
Indicates signicant difference within column at P < 0.05.
jkl
Indicates signicant difference within column at P < 0.01.
stu
Indicates signicant difference within column at P < 0.001.

(Table 9a), in the present study pH24 h was signicantly negatively


correlated with CIEL* value (r2 = 0.194, P < 0.01). Further, M value
was signicantly negatively correlated with CIEL* value (r2 = 0.114,
P < 0.05), in agreement with Argello et al. (2005). Additionally,
CIEb* value was signicantly positively correlated with CIEL* value
(r2 = 0.212, P < 0.01) and CIEa* value (r2 = 0.518, P < 0.001).
3.2. Proximate composition
Moisture, protein, total fat and total ash contents of all four muscles (PM, SM, LD and TB) of Saanen goat male kids are presented
in Table 7. In this study, proximate composition was signicantly
affected by muscles.
Individual moisture content in all four muscles (PM, SM, LD and
TB) varied between 75.32 (SM) and 78.42 g/100 g (PM). The PM
muscles had signicantly higher moisture content (77.61 g/100 g)
than LD (76.75 g/100 g, P < 0.01) and SM (76.42 g/100 g, P < 0.001)
muscles, whereas SM muscles had signicantly lower moisture
content than TB (77.17 g/100 g, P < 0.01) muscles. Protein contents were signicantly higher (P < 0.01) in the SM (20.69 g/100 g)
and LD (20.55 g/100 g) muscles of those in the PM (19.69 g/100 g)
and TB (19.29 g/100 g) muscles. Signicantly the highest total fat
(2.15 g/100 g, P < 0.001) and total ash (1.20 g/100 g, P < 0.05) content
were determined in the TB and SM muscles, respectively, comparing to other three muscles. Proximate composition of muscles

analyzed in the present study is similar to values reported in the


literature for meat from young goats (Park et al., 1991; Popov-Raljic
et al., 1995; Madruga et al., 1999, 2008; Marinova et al., 2001;
Todaro et al., 2002; Marichal et al., 2003; Argello et al., 2005; Werdi
Pratiwi et al., 2007; Brzostowski et al., 2008; Lee et al., 2008; Kadim
and Mahgoub, 2012; Zurita-Herrera et al., 2013; De Palo et al., 2015;
Stanisz et al., 2015).
In the present study (Table 9a), moisture content was signicantly negatively correlated with protein content (r2 = 0.693,
P < 0.001), in agreement with Argello et al. (2005). Further, protein content was signicantly negatively correlated with total fat
content (r2 = 0.206, P < 0.01) and was signicantly positively correlated with total ash content (r2 = 0.140, P < 0.05), in agreement
with Argello et al. (2005), while total fat content was signicantly
negatively correlated with total ash content (r2 = 0.136, P < 0.05).
According to Keeton and Eddy, (2004) the contents of moisture,
protein and ash decrease by increasing content of fat in the tissues. Signicant inverse relationship between moisture and total
fat content in goat kid meat was not determined in this study, what
could be explained with low total fat content in meat from young
goats. The great increase in intramuscular fat, the lesser increase
in total nitrogen and the decrease in moisture with age are evident
(Marichal et al., 2003; Argello et al., 2005; Lawrie and Ledward,
2006; Werdi Pratiwi et al., 2007). Additionally, moisture content
was signicantly positively correlated with M and CIEa* value

V.M. Tomovic et al. / Small Ruminant Research 145 (2016) 4452

49

Table 8a
Mineral composition (mg/100 g) of four muscles from Saanen goat male kids.
Muscle
PM
LD
SM
TB
P value
All muscles

Mean SD
Range
Mean SD
Range
Mean SD
Range
Mean SD
Range
Mean SD
Range

Na

Mg

Ca

330 23c,l,u
301376
392 14a,j,s
362413
358 17b,k,tu
326383
367 20b,k,t
337405
< 0.001
362 29
301413

245 8b,jk,s
232258
239 11b,k,st
218255
255 14a,j,s
237275
223 7c,l,t
212235
< 0.001
240 15
212275

78.2 13.3a,j
60.698.5
66.7 6.0b,jk
58.377.6
64.2 5.4b,k
58.676.5
76.3 11.1a,jk
58.590.7
0.004
71.4 11.0
58.398.5

24.4 3.4
20.428.9
26.1 1.1
24.427.5
24.8 1.1
23.026.6
24.3 1.6
21.927.1
0.178
24.9 2.1
20.428.9

11.7 1.6
9.814.5
11.8 2.3
9.014.2
11.6 2.9
8.015.5
10.6 2.8
7.815.2
0.622
11.4 2.4
7.815.5

PM M. psoas major; LD M. longissimus dorsi; SM M. semimembranosus; TB M. triceps brachii.


Indicates signicant difference within column at P < 0.05.
Indicates signicant difference within column at P < 0.01.
stu
Indicates signicant difference within column at P < 0.001.
abc
jkl

Table 8b
Mineral composition (mg/100 g) of four muscles from Saanen goat male kids.
Muscle
PM
LD
SM
TB
P value
All muscles

Zn
Mean SD
Range
Mean SD
Range
Mean SD
Range
Mean SD
Range
Mean SD
Range

Fe

2.49 0.26
2.052.86
2.24 0.14c,k,t
2.002.51
2.40 0.27bc,k,t
2.092.96
3.21 0.27a,j,s
2.793.59
<0.001
2.58 0.44
2.003.59
b,k,t

Cu

1.57 0.28
1.122.00
1.22 0.40b,k,st
0.841.92
1.07 0.15b,k,t
0.911.31
1.14 0.10b,k,t
1.001.30
<0.001
1.25 0.32
0.842.00
a,j,s

0.131 0.048
0.0980.230
0.092 0.018b,k
0.0740.136
0.097 0.009b,jk
0.0850.111
0.111 0.019ab,jk
0.0830.144
0.017
0.108 0.031
0.0740.230
a,j

Ni

Mn

0.019 0.006
0.0130.031
0.030 0.017
0.0110.052
0.022 0.009
0.0100.037
0.022 0.009
0.0110.038
0.155
0.023 0.011
0.0100.052

0.013 0.002
0.0100.018
0.011 0.003
0.0090.018
0.011 0.001
0.0100.013
0.013 0.005
0.0070.021
0.441
0.012 0.003
0.0070.021

PM M. psoas major; LD M. longissimus dorsi; SM M. semimembranosus; TB M. triceps brachii.


Indicates signicant difference within column at P < 0.05.
jk
Indicates signicant difference within column at P < 0.01.
st
Indicates signicant difference within column at P < 0.001.
abc

(r2 = 0.0.83, P < 0.05). Further, protein content was signicantly negatively correlated with CIEL* value (r2 = 0.209, P < 0.01), while total
fat content was signicantly negatively correlated with M/RZ and
M/T (r2 = 0.125, r2 = 0.122, P < 0.05, respectively) values and signicantly positively correlated with CIEL* (r2 = 0.337, P < 0.001) value.
3.3. Mineral composition
Goat meat is a rich source of various minerals. The most common
macroelements in the body include calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and magnesium. The major trace elements are iron,
copper, zinc, selenium and manganese, plus several others (cobalt,
cadmium, lead, nickel and vanadium). Factors that affect the mineral concentration in animal tissues include species, type of tissue,
muscles, sex, age, breed, diet and cooking method. There are significant correlations between various minerals in goat meat (Osman
and Mahgoub, 2012).
Mineral (K, P, Na, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Cu, Ni and Mn) contents of all
four muscles (PM, SM, LD and TB) of Saanen goat male kids are
presented in Tables 8a and 8b.
The order of the mineral content (mg/100 g) in all four muscles
was K > P > Na > Mg > Ca > Zn > Fe > Cu > Ni > Mn. In this study, content of six minerals (K, P, Na, Zn, Fe and Cu) were signicantly
affected by muscles. Potassium content was signicantly the highest in the LD (392 mg/100 g, P < 0.001) muscles and signicantly the
lowest in the PM (330 mg/100 g, P < 0.01) muscles. The SM muscles
were signicantly the highest, and TB muscles were signicantly
the lowest in P content (255 mg/100 g, P < 0.05; 223 mg/100 g,
P < 0.01, respectively). Sodium contents were signicantly higher

(P < 0.05) in the PM (78.2 mg/100 g) and TB (76.3 mg/100 g) muscles than in LD (66.7 mg/100 g) and SM (64.2 mg/100 g) muscles.
Individual Mg content in all four muscles (PM, SM, LD and TB)
varied between 20.4 and 28.9 mg/100 g (PM). The mean Mg content in all four muscles was 24.9 mg/100 g. Content of Ca in all
PM, SM, LD and TB muscles was in the range from 7.8 (TB) to
15.5 (SM) mg/100 g, with mean of 11.4 mg/100 g. Furthermore,
Zn content was signicantly the highest in the TB (3.21 mg/100 g,
P < 0.001) muscles and the lowest in the LD (2.24 mg/100 g, P < 0.05)
muscles. The PM muscles had signicantly (P < 0.01) higher Fe
content (1.57 mg/100 g), comparing to LD (1.22 mg/100 g), TB
(1.14 mg/100 g) and SM (1.07 mg/100 g) muscles. Also, PM muscles had signicantly (P < 0.05) higher Cu content (0.131 mg/100 g),
comparing to SM (0.097 mg/100 g) and LD (0.092 mg/100 g) muscles. The minimal and maximal values in all PM, SM, LD and TB
muscles for Ni were 0.010 (SM) and 0.052 (LD) mg/100 g. The mean
Ni content in all four muscles was 0.023 mg/100 g. The lowest, the
mean and the highest Mn content in all PM, SM, LD and TB muscles was 0.007 (TB), 0.012 and 0.021 (TB) mg/100 g, respectively.
Mineral composition of goat meat was presented in several papers
(Park, 1990; Popov-Raljic et al., 1995; Madruga et al., 1999; Mioc
et al., 2000; Webb et al., 2005; Osman and Mahgoub, 2012; Umaraw
et al., 2005). However, some results are inconclusive. In the present
study, goat kid meat showed higher P content and lower Zn, Fe,
Cu and Mn contents compared with the results of Park (1990),
Madruga et al. (1999), Webb et al. (2005), Osman and Mahgoub
(2012), and Umaraw et al. (2005).
The major sources of variability in nutrient composition are the
wide diversity of soil and climatic conditions (geographical origin),

50

V.M. Tomovic et al. / Small Ruminant Research 145 (2016) 4452

Table 9a
Coefcient of determination (r2 ) among physical characteristics and proximate and mineral composition.
Traits

RZ

M/RZ

M/T

CIEL*

CIEa*

CIEb*

Moisture

Protein

Total fat

Total ash

pH24 h
M
RZ
M/RZ
M/T
CIEL*
CIEa*
CIEb*
Moisture
Protein
Total fat

0.087

0.068
0.174**

0.059
0.336***
0.844***

0.066
0.337***
0.851***
0.994***

0.194**
0.114*
0.043
0.070
0.067

0.096
0.083
0.044
0.087
0.082
0.004

0.011
0.001
0.000
0.008
0.007
0.212**
0.581***

0.040
0.115*
0.007
0.039
0.049
0.031
0.117*
0.046

0.051
0.018
0.010
0.002
0.001
0.209**
0.047
0.057
0.693***

0.002
0.064
0.066
0.125*
0.122*
0.337***
0.020
0.022
0.006
0.206**

0.003
0.025
0.004
0.001
0.001
0.066
0.050
0.016
0.060
0.140*
0.136*

*
**
***

Indicates signicant difference at P < 0.05.


Indicates signicant difference at P < 0.01.
Indicates signicant difference at P < 0.001.

Table 9b
Coefcient of determination (r2 ) among physical characteristics and proximate and mineral composition (continued).
Traits

Na

Mg

Ca

Zn

Fe

Cu

Ni

Mn

pH24 h
M
RZ
M/RZ
M/T
CIEL*
CIEa*
CIEb*
Moisture
Protein
Total fat
Total ash
K
P
Na
Mg
Ca
Zn
Fe
Cu
Ni

0.003
0.044
0.008
0.023
0.020
0.019
0.553***
0.293***
0.047
0.038
0.006
0.019

0.017
0.002
0.003
0.007
0.005
0.234**
0.029
0.003
0.036
0.266**
0.404***
0.340***
0.048

0.046
0.067
0.015
0.011
0.015
0.020
0.053
0.018
0.244**
0.265**
0.032
0.102*
0.020
0.100*

0.002
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.063
0.045
0.106*
0.023
0.053
0.016
0.021
0.146*
0.000
0.026

0.000
0.003
0.017
0.001
0.001
0.078
0.005
0.002
0.124*
0.130*
0.003
0.000
0.002
0.008
0.001
0.111*

0.018
0.006
0.059
0.078
0.072
0.247**
0.009
0.076
0.004
0.156*
0.267**
0.022
0.001
0.287***
0.086
0.042
0.000

0.102*
0.125*
0.135*
0.202**
0.194**
0.110*
0.173**
0.014
0.058
0.004
0.047
0.093
0.109*
0.002
0.126*
0.038
0.024
0.002

0.139*
0.050
0.052
0.085
0.074
0.002
0.233**
0.186**
0.000
0.009
0.017
0.001
0.237**
0.032
0.000
0.042
0.040
0.064
0.121*

0.011
0.015
0.014
0.024
0.021
0.003
0.050
0.000
0.084
0.067
0.003
0.010
0.076
0.024
0.140*
0.021
0.005
0.017
0.009
0.005

0.001
0.060
0.002
0.010
0.010
0.021
0.080
0.051
0.034
0.021
0.000
0.060
0.014
0.000
0.111*
0.030
0.041
0.069
0.219**
0.002
0.126*

*
**
***

Indicates signicant difference at P < 0.05.


Indicates signicant difference at P < 0.01.
Indicates signicant difference at P < 0.001.

seasonal variations, physiological state and maturity, as well as cultivar and breed. Meat, exhibits natural variations in the amounts of
nutrients contained, and the limits of the natural nutrient variations
are not dened. (Greeneld and Southgate, 2003).
In the present study (Table 9b), signicantly positive correlation
was found between the contents of K and Mg (r2 = 0.146, P < 0.05),
Na and Fe (r2 = 0.126, P < 0.05), Na and Mn (r2 = 0.111, P < 0.05),
Mg and Ca (r2 = 0.111, P < 0.05), Fe and Cu (r2 = 0.121, P < 0.05) and
Fe and Mn (r2 = 0.219, P < 0.01). Signicantly negative correlation
was found between the contents of K and Fe (r2 = 0.109, P < 0.05), K
and Cu (r2 = 0.237, P < 0.01), P and Na (r2 = 0.100, P < 0.05), P and
Zn (r2 = 0.287, P < 0.001), Na and Ni (r2 = 0.140, P < 0.05) and Mn
and Ni (r2 = 0.126, P < 0.05). Additionally, K content was signicantly negatively correlated with CIEa* and CIEb* value (r2 = 0.553,
r2 = 0.293, P < 0.001, respectively). Phosphorus content was significantly positively correlated with protein and total ash content
(r2 = 0.266, P < 0.01, r2 = 0.340, P < 0.001, respectively), and significantly negatively correlated with CIEL* value and total fat content
(r2 = 0.234, P < 0.01, r2 = 0.404, P < 0.001, respectively). Sodium content was signicantly positively correlated with moisture content
(r2 = 0.244, P < 0.01), and signicantly negatively correlated with
protein and total ash content (r2 = 0.265, P < 0.01, r2 = 0.102, P < 0.05,

respectively). Magnesium content had signicant and negative


correlation coefcient with CIEb* value (r2 = 0.106, P < 0.05). Furthermore, Ca content was signicantly positively correlated with
protein content (r2 = 0.130, P < 0.05), and signicantly negatively
correlated with moisture content (r2 = 0.124, P < 0.05). Zinc content was signicantly positively correlated with CIEL* value and
total fat content (r2 = 0.247, P < 0.01, r2 = 0.267, P < 0.01, respectively), and signicantly negatively correlated with protein content
(r2 = 0.156, P < 0.05). Iron content had signicant and positive correlation coefcient with pH24 h , M, M/RZ, M/T and CIEa* value
(r2 = 0.102, P < 0.05, r2 = 0.125, P < 0.05, r2 = 0.202, P < 0.01, r2 = 0.194,
P < 0.01, r2 = 0.173, P < 0.01, respectively), and signicant and negative correlation coefcient with RZ and CIEL* value (r2 = 0.135,
P < 0.05, r2 = 0.110, P < 0.05, respectively). Finaly, Cu content was
signicantly positively correlated with pH24 h , CIEa* and CIEb* value
(r2 = 0.139, P < 0.05, r2 = 0.233, P < 0.01, r2 = 0.186, P < 0.01, respectively).

4. Conclusion
The present study provides data on the fresh meat quality from
Saanen goat male kids raised under intensive system. This is impor-

V.M. Tomovic et al. / Small Ruminant Research 145 (2016) 4452

tant to provide, update and improve regularly nutrient composition


data of goat meat.
Many signicant differences were found in the mean values
of quality traits among four muscles. However, determined meat
quality parameters were in the characteristic ranges for young goat.
Nevertheless, more studies are necessary to provide a better
knowledge about meat characteristics from Saanen goat male kids
especially including the quality of cooked meat intended for human
consumption.
Acknowledgments
Research was nancially supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Republic of Serbia,
project TR31053 (Implementation of new biotechnological solution
of breeding cattle sheep and goats in order to obtain highly nutritious and healthy food). Also, these results are part of the project No
114-451-3498/2013 (New technologies to increase the reproductive efciency of ruminants), which is nancially supported by the
Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development,
Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia.
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