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All SLL publications are available in PDF free to


members via the:
CIBSE Knowledge Portal.

www.sll.org.uk

Lighting Research & Technology


(LR&T) is SLLs world renowned
international lighting journal
containing refereed papers on all
aspects of lighting research and
technology.
8 editions/year from 2015
Free online access to SLL
members find out more at
www.sll.org.uk

www.sll.org.uk

Ready Steady Light


Ready Steady Light teams to compete to design an exterior lighting scheme in
just 180 minutes given a range of equipment. The teams compete for three
different prizes: Most Creative Effect, Best Technical Solution and the Peer Prize.

www.sll.org.uk

Ready Steady Light


Ready Steady Light teams to compete to design an exterior lighting scheme in
just 180 minutes given a range of equipment. The teams compete for three
different prizes: Most Creative Effect, Best Technical Solution and the Peer Prize.

www.sll.org.uk

Ready Steady Light


Ready Steady Light teams to compete to design an exterior lighting scheme in
just 180 minutes given a range of equipment. The teams compete for three
different prizes: Most Creative Effect, Best Technical Solution and the Peer Prize.

www.sll.org.uk

Ready Steady Light


Ready Steady Light teams to compete to design an exterior lighting scheme in
just 180 minutes given a range of equipment. The teams compete for three
different prizes: Most Creative Effect, Best Technical Solution and the Peer Prize.

www.sll.org.uk

SLL Masterclasses are Supported by:

www.sll.org.uk

Sustaining Members

For information about SLL and joining please visit www.sll.org.uk,


alternatively please contact sll@cibse.org.

Lighting for Communal


Residential Buildings (LG9)
Richard Caple MSc MSLL
Lighting Applications Manager
Vice President - Society of Light & Lighting

Introduction
Specific areas in detail
Equipment
Case studies
Emergency lighting

Introduction

Introduction

2013

Introduction

What LG9 covers:

University halls of residence


Hostels
Children's homes
Residential homes
Social housing
Elderly/nursing homes
Hospices
Staff accommodation

What LG9 does not cover: Barracks


Secure accommodation
Hotels/bed and breakfast
establishments

Introduction

Daylight
Best practice for good illumination and pleasant
ambience
Automatic lighting controls
Colour and decoration
Emergency lighting
Energy management and efficiency
Maintenance and life costs
Luminaire types and lamps

Introduction

Co-ordination of lighting and colours


essential
Contrasting colours help identify areas
in large blocks and on multiple floors
Use of colour can help visually impaired
people
LG11 gives guidance on surface
reflectance and colours

Specific areas in detail

Entrances
Corridors
Stairwells
Bathrooms and toilets
Bedrooms
Kitchens
External lighting

Specific areas in detail - entrances


Tech Table

200 Lux

First impression of the building


Transition from outdoors to building
Vertical illumination important for facial
recognition
Consider less institutional products with
good ceiling and wall illumination
Consideration of indirect luminaires
Consider automatic controls

Specific areas in detail - corridors


Tech Table

Many corridors have little natural light


Day
Night

100 Lux
20 Lux

Care to be taken to avoid glare


Spacing and location of luminaires
Vertical illumination important for facial recognition
Downlighters can offer a poor solution
Consider less institutional products with good ceiling and
wall illumination

Specific areas in detail - corridors


Tech Table
Day
Night

100 Lux
20 Lux

Diffused lighting preferred to minimise glare


Automated controls require good detection to cover all
doorways
Dimmed level for periods of vacancy down to 20%
recommended

Specific areas in detail - stairwells


Tech Table

100 Lux

Lighting on stairs is critical for safety


Glare from lighting and windows should be
kept to a minimum
Opal or diffused luminaires preferable
Light to shine downwards and illuminate
treads
Consider controls but areas should not be left
in complete darkness push button type
systems not recommended

Specific areas in detail - stairwells


Tech Table

100 Lux

Beware of dark
spots and shadows

Specific areas in detail - stairwells


Tech Table

Alternative lighting positions can reduce luminaire


points

100 Lux

Half balconies easier to maintain than directly over


stairs
Standard

Emergency

Specific areas in detail - bathrooms and toilets


Tech Table
Toilets 100 Lux
Bathrooms 150 Lux

Correct selection of luminaires within


bathroom and toilet areas IP ratings
Controls provide significant savings,
particularly for communal toilets
LED luminaires with instant light
advantageous
Rooms over 8m require emergency
lighting

Specific areas in detail - bathrooms and toilets


Tech Table
Toilets 100 Lux
Bathrooms 150 Lux

Minimum two luminaires in bathroom areas


Night lighting advisable in particular for
elderly residents
Higher lighting levels for specialised
applications
Good colour rendering

Specific areas in detail - bedrooms


Tech Table
Room
Bedhead
Desk

100 Lux
100 Lux
150 Lux

Careful consideration of domestic


style luminaires
Consider indirect light as well as
direct
Dcor can strongly effect illuminance
levels
Good colour rendering
Anti ligature luminaires required in
specialist applications

Specific areas in detail - bedrooms


Tech Table
Room
Bedhead
Desk

100 Lux
100 Lux
150 Lux

Desks are best illuminated by a desk


lamp
Additional lighting should be
provided at the bedhead separate
switching
Consider lighting within the wardrobe
push button time delays

Specific areas in detail - kitchens


Tech Table
Kitchen
Dinning

200 Lux
150 Lux

Low glare uniform lighting


Good colour rendering
Easy clean luminaires
Consider positioning, avoid shadowing through
multiple luminaires and where possible undercupboard lighting
Automatic lighting recommended, absence
detection

Specific areas in detail - external


Tech Table
Pathways 10 Lux
Car parks 10 Lux

Basic safety and security for


residents, staff and visitors
Care homes 20-30lux with
transition zones between interior
and exterior areas
Lighting of keyholes, bell push,
keypads and lists of residents
required
Consideration of automatic lighting
controls

Specific areas in detail - external


Tech Table
Covered walkways
20 - 50 Lux

Care to be taken to avoid glare


Spacing and location of
luminaires
Vertical illumination important
for facial recognition
Consider automatic controls

Equipment

Equipment

Equipment
Some Lamps are better than others:

T12

Typical Life 15,000hrs


Up to 69lm/W

T8

Typical Life 20,000hrs


Up to 90lm/W

T5 High Output
T5 High Efficiency
T5 ECO

Compact Fluorescent

2D Lamps

Mercury

Typical Life 20,000hrs


Up to 50lm/W

SON-T

Typical Life 28,000hrs


Up to 123lm/W

MBI-T

Typical Life 18,000hrs


Up to 110lm/W

GLS

Typical Life 400-2,000hrs


Up to 10lm/W

Typical Life 25,000hrs


Up to 114lm/W

Typical Life 13,000hrs


Up to 74lm/W

Typical Life 12,000hrs


Up to 80lm/W
* All lamp life figures based on High Frequency control gear and to 50% failures

Equipment
LEDs

Medium power LEDs - approx. 180 lm/W

High power LEDs - approx. 140 lm/W

Equipment
LEDs

Medium power LEDs - 150 LL/cW

High power LEDs - 110 LL/cW

Equipment
LEDs

1990s

2000s

2012

2015

Wattage

2x58W

2x35W T5

58W LED

58W LED

Luminaire Lumens

6344lm

5742lm

6100lm

8067lm

Circuit Wattage

110W

76W

67W

67W

Efficacy (LL/cW)

57.7

75.5

91

120

110% Increase in
performance!

Equipment
LEDs

CRI

100
80Ra 90Ra

80

60

40

Equipment

Equipment
Downlighting corridor
Lighting requirements:100lx ave, 0.40 Uo

42W PL-T
Downlight
Eav = 106lx (0.62MF*)

Uo = 0.76

Eav = 103lx (0.68MF*)

Uo = 0.62

32W LED
Downlight

*Based on 1 year luminaire clean, 3 year room clean and 3 year lamp change

Equipment

Luminaire

Qty

Circuit
Wattage

Total
Circuit
Watts (kW)

Annual
Power
Consumption (kW)

Running
Cost per
annum

Total
Luminaire
Cost

Maintenance
Costs

10 Year Life
Cycle Cost

42W PL-T

47

0.235

0.705

70.50

560.00

535.00

1,800.00

32W LED

37

0.148

0.444

44.40

640.00

1,084.00

Saving
Payback

*Based on 3000 burning hours per annum and 10 pence per kW/hr Electricity tariff

716.00
1.00 Yrs

Equipment
Exterior Lighting Car Park
Lighting requirements:Medium traffic - 10lx ave, 0.25 Uo

70W MBI Lantern

Eav = 11lx (0.46MF*) Uo = 0.39


*Based on 2 year cleaning and bulk lamp change

31W LED Lantern

Eav = 13lx (0.63MF*) Uo = 0.52

Equipment
Exterior Lighting Car Park

Luminaire

Qty

Circuit
Wattage

Total
Circuit
Watts (kW)

Annual
Power
Consumption (kW)

Running
Cost per
annum

Total
Luminaire
Cost

Maintenance
Costs

10 Year Life
Cycle Cost

70W MBI

12

86

1.03

3.921

392.16

1,200.00

5,460.00

10,581.60

31W LED

12

34

0.40

1.550

155.04

3,000.00

4,550.40

*Based on 3800 burning hours per annum and 10 pence per kW/hr Electricity tariff

Saving

6,031.20

Payback

2.3 Yrs

Equipment

Do ensure luminaire suitability!

Equipment

Equipment

Performance (optical)
Performance (energy)
Robustness
Aesthetics
Cost

IP rating
IK rating

Equipment

It is not the lamp wattage but the total circuit wattage that is important!

Equipment

Equipment

The most efficient luminaire is one that is


switched off!
Basic photocell control switches the luminaire
off during the day
PIRs switch when activity is detected through
Infra-red detection
Microwave detectors simple and cost
effective, can be issues with false triggering
and nuisance switching through vibration and
noise
Smart controls are the most complete lighting
control system, they combine PIR detection
with light a light sensor, and are fully
programmable

Equipment

Energy savings through switching


Systems should be simple and
intuitive
Ensure detection patterns cover all
eventualities and entry points
Absence / presence detection
options
Never leave critical areas in
darkness

Equipment

GOOD COVERAGE

INDIVIDUAL LUMINAIRE DETECTION

Plan view

Equipment

Equipment

Buildings should be designed to


maximise daylight contributions
Typical daylight sensor savings 4060%
Individual dimming offers the best
energy savings

EXPLOITING DAYLIGHT

Luminaires away from windows can


still make significant savings
through maintained illuminance and
internal reflections

Case Study
Data logging

In many cases clients do not realise


energy usage and wastage

Before and after data logging


provides excellent evidence of
power use

Case Study - University

Corridor & stairwells in halls of


residence

Mainly 28W 2D switch start & 26W TCT HF

Never switched off

Case Study - University

Trial Installation
19W LED + Intelligent controls
33% reduction in load of a typical
luminaire

Power Monitoring Exercise


1 week in January
Luminaires on for 6 hours/day, not 24
Whilst on, average output = 30%

Electricity cost reduced from 26.9K to


3K!

Case Study - Social Housing

Social Housing 24/7


operation
Intelligent controls
integral to LED
luminaires (Internal and
external versions)
Used on stairwells,
balconies, and lift
lobbies
External version used
by doorways, open
balconies

Case Study - Social Housing

Actual data downloaded from intelligent luminaires


7 luminaires installed within housing corridor

Luminaire 1

Luminaire 2

Luminaire 3

Luminaire 4

Luminaire 5

Luminaire 6

Luminaire 7

R-Hours Powered

321

321

321

322

321

322

321

R-Hours Lamp On

94

116

26

30

91

20

36

PIR Saving

71%

64%

92%

91%

72%

94%

89%

DSI Average

34

53

39

33

32

36

24

Average Power

42%

58%

46%

41%

40%

44%

33%

Dimming Saving

58%

42%

54%

59%

60%

56%

68%

Total saving

88%

79%

96%

96%

89%

97%

96%

Average Saving

92%

Emergency lighting

Open areas

0.5lux minimum

Escape routes

1.0lux minimum / centre line

Emergency lighting

Escape route signs


Stairs so that each flight receives direct light
Changes in level
Changes of escape route direction
Corridor intersections
Fire alarm call points or pieces of fire fighting
equipment
External areas in the immediate vicinity of final exits
Toilet facilities exceeding 8m or any multiple closet
facility without borrowed light
Toilet facilities for disabled use
Motor generator, control and plant rooms
All other areas as deemed by the Risk Assessment

Emergency lighting
Escape route lighting

Minimum 2 luminaires per compartment BSEN50172

Emergency lighting
Escape route lighting

Emergency duration must be 3 hours

Emergency lighting
Inspection & testing

Daily
Central battery cabinets only

Visual inspection to ensure the system is in a ready condition

Monthly
Short duration test

To ensure that all emergency luminaires illuminate correctly (lamps and batteries are working)

Annually
Full duration test

To ensure that all emergency luminaires illuminate correctly and fully achieve duration required (3 hours)

Emergency lighting
Inspection & testing