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AS 1418.1-2002 Cranes, hoists and winches - General requirements

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AS 1418.12002

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(Incorporating Amendment No. 1)

AS 1418.12002

Australian Standard

Cranes, hoists and winches

Part 1: General requirements

This Australian Standard was prepared by Committee ME-005, Cranes, General. It was
approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 15 February 2002.

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This Standard was published on 20 June 2002.

The following are represented on Committee ME-005:


Association of Consulting Engineers Australia
Australian Elevator Association
Australian Industry Group
Australian Institute for Non-destructive Testing
Bureau of Steel Manufacturers of Australia
Crane Industry Council of Australia
Department of Administrative and Information Services (SA)
Department of Industrial Relations (Qld)
Department of Infrastructure, Energy and Resources (Tas)
Department of Labour New Zealand
Institution of Engineers Australia
State Chamber of Commerce
University of New South Wales
Victorian WorkCover Authority
WorkCover New South Wales
WorkSafe Western Australia

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2001.

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 00321.

AS 1418.12002

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(Incorporating Amendment No. 1)

Australian Standard
Cranes, hoists and winches
Part 1: General requirements

Originated as part of AS CB21938.


Previous edition 1994.
Fourth edition 2002.
Reissued incorporating Amendment No.1 (November 2004)

COPYRIGHT
Standards Australia International
All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written
permission of the publisher.
Published by Standards Australia International Ltd GPO Box 5420, Sydney, NSW 2001,
Australia
ISBN 0 7337 4372 2

AS 1418.12002

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PREFACE
This Standard was prepared by the Standards Australia Committee ME-005, Cranes, to
supersede AS 1418.11994, SAA Crane Code, Part 1: General requirements.
This Standard incorporates Amendment No. 1 ( November 2004 ). The changes required by the
Amendment are indicated in the text by a marginal bar and amendment number against the
clause, note, table, figure or part thereof affected.
The objective of this Standard is to provide uniform requirements within Australia for the
design and construction of cranes and similar lifting appliances.
Requirements that apply to more than one type of crane are included in Part 1: General
requirements. Any requirements that apply to only one type of crane should only appear in
the specific part for that crane and not in Part 1. Some requirements have been deleted from
this Standard and are being moved to their applicable Part.
The term shall is used to indicate those requirements that have to be met for compliance
with the objectives and intent of this Standard.
The Commonwealth, State and Territory governments may choose to incorporate this
Australian Standard into their laws and regulations. The exact manner of incorporation will
determine whether the whole document is incorporated or whether specific sections or
provisions of the Australian Standard are incorporated. The manner of incorporation will
determine which of the Standards requirements (shall statements) have been made a legal
requirement in a jurisdiction. As a general principle, where an Australian Standard is
incorporated by a regulation, the legal status of the Standards requirements and
recommendations is made clear by the incorporation of provisions of the regulation.
Thus, the requirements (shall statements) in an Australian Standard are not mandatory for
legal purposes unless incorporated specifically by an Act or regulation. Readers will need to
refer to their jurisdictions law to determine which parts of the Australian Standard (if any)
have been incorporated and the manner of incorporation.
This Standard deviates from ISO 11660.1 in regard to access requirements for safety
reasons.
This revision includes the following changes:
(a)

The maximum temperature of touchable surfaces is now 55C.

(b)

The term safe working load has been changed to rated capacity and other uses of
the word safe have been avoided due to the legal significance placed on the word.

(c)

Reference to approval by the relevant authority has been removed to reflect the
current regulatory environment.

(d)

Tear-out/tear-off forces for cranes equipped with magnets or grabs have to be taken
into consideration.

(e)

There is a new method of calculating the hoisting factor ( 2), which is taken from
DIN 15018.

(f)

Out-of-service wind loads are now considered additional loads instead of special
loads.

(g)

Transport loads have to be taken into consideration where the crane is transported
during its life.

(h)

The design of monorail beams has been moved to a new Part 18: Runways and
monorails.

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AS 1418.12002

(i)

The factor of safety against drifting during operation has changed to 1.5.

(j)

The design life of mechanisms may be less than 10 years provided this is
documented.

(k)

In determining the group classification of mechanisms, an adjustment to an equivalent


number of running hours is allowed after the load spectrum factor has been set.

(l)

Requirements for gearing have been expanded.

(m)

Requirements for hoisting, travel, and traverse motion brakes have been expanded.

(n)

A minimum worn wheel flange thickness has been defined.

(o)

Hookbolts used for rail fastening are required to be ductile.

(p)

Detachable parts are required to be designed for safe assembly and disassembly.

(q)

The attachment of hooks directly attached to structural members is required to be


designed such that no bending moment is experienced by the hook shank.

(r)

Some requirements for counterweights have been added.

(s)

Requirements for controllers have been revised.

(t)

Requirements for limit switches have been revised.

(u)

Motor protection requirements have been revised.

(v)

Mention is made of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and phase sequence


protection.

(w)

Extra requirements for cranes with lifting magnets have been added.

(x)

Emergency egress requirements have been revised.

(y)

Requirements for installation of cranes in hazardous areas have been revised to


interface with recently revised applicable Standards.

(z)

Requirements for operators and maintenance manuals have been added.

Questions concerning the meaning, the application, or effect of any part of this Standard,
may be referred to the Standards Australia Committee on Cranes. The authority of the
Committee is limited to matters of interpretations and it will not adjudicate in disputes.
Statements expressed in mandatory terms in notes to tables and figures are deemed to be
requirements of this Standard.
The terms normative and informative have been used in this Standard to define the
application of the appendix to which they apply. A normative appendix is an integral part
of a Standard, whereas an informative appendix is only for information and guidance.

AS 1418.12002

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CONTENTS
Page
FOREWORD.............................................................................................................................. 8
SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
1.1 NEW DESIGNS, INNOVATIONS AND DESIGN METHODS ................................. 9
1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS .................................................................................. 9
1.3 DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................................ 9
1.4 NOTATION .............................................................................................................. 10
1.5 CONTACT SURFACE TEMPERATURE................................................................. 10
SECTION 2 CLASSIFICATION OF CRANES
2.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 11
2.2 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 11
2.3 GROUP CLASSIFICATION ..................................................................................... 12
SECTION 3 MATERIALS FOR CRANES
3.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 15
3.2 MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS............................................................................... 15
SECTION 4 CRANE LOADS
4.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 16
4.2 REFERENCE TO OTHER PARTS OF THIS STANDARD...................................... 16
4.3 DETERMINATION OF CRANE LOADS ................................................................ 16
4.4 CATEGORIZATION OF CRANE LOADS............................................................... 16
4.5 PRINCIPAL LOADS................................................................................................. 17
4.6 ADDITIONAL LOADS ............................................................................................ 25
4.7 SPECIAL LOADS..................................................................................................... 28
4.8 PRINCIPLES FOR DETERMINATION OF CRANE LOAD COMBINATIONS..... 30
SECTION 5 DESIGN OF CRANE STRUCTURE
5.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 33
5.2 BASIS OF DESIGN .................................................................................................. 33
5.3 DESIGN OBJECTIVE............................................................................................... 35
5.4 METHOD OF DESIGN............................................................................................. 35
5.5 FATIGUE STRENGTH............................................................................................. 35
5.6 DESIGN FOR SERVICEABILITY DEFLECTION AND VIBRATION .................. 36
SECTION 6 STABILITY
6.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 37
6.2 OVERTURNING....................................................................................................... 37
6.3 STABILITY DURING ERECTION AND MAINTENANCE ................................... 37
6.4 SAFETY AGAINST DRIFTING............................................................................... 37
SECTION 7 CRANE MECHANISMS
7.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 39
7.2 MECHANISMS......................................................................................................... 39
7.3 BASIS OF DESIGN .................................................................................................. 39
7.4 MECHANISM LOADINGS ...................................................................................... 42
7.5 PRINCIPAL LOADS................................................................................................. 43
7.6 ADDITIONAL LOADS ............................................................................................ 45

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7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
7.16
7.17
7.18
7.19
7.20
7.21
7.22
7.23
7.24

AS 1418.12002

Page
SPECIAL LOADS..................................................................................................... 45
CATEGORIZATION OF FREQUENCY OF MECHANISM LOAD
COMBINATIONS..................................................................................................... 46
PRINCIPLES FOR DETERMINING MECHANISM LOAD COMBINATIONS ..... 46
MECHANICAL COMPONENTS ............................................................................. 51
DRIVING MEDIA .................................................................................................... 53
BRAKING................................................................................................................. 53
MOTION LIMITS, INDICATORS AND WARNING DEVICES ............................. 57
ROPES AND REEVED SYSTEMS .......................................................................... 58
GUYS, OTHER FIXED-ROPE SYSTEMS, AND STATIONARY ROPES ............... 58
REEVED SYSTEMS................................................................................................. 59
SHEAVES ................................................................................................................. 62
DRUM AND SHEAVE DIAMETERS ...................................................................... 62
DRUMS..................................................................................................................... 63
WHEEL AND RAIL SYSTEMS ............................................................................... 66
GUIDES FOR MOVING PARTS.............................................................................. 83
DETACHABLE PARTS............................................................................................ 83
DIRECTLY FITTED HOOKS................................................................................... 83
COUNTERWEIGHTS............................................................................................... 83

SECTION 8 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND CONTROLS


8.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 84
8.2 MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT............................................................................ 84
8.3 INFORMATION RELEVANT TO DESIGN OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEM.............. 84
8.4 MOTORS .................................................................................................................. 85
8.5 MOTOR CONTROL ................................................................................................. 85
8.6 CONTACTORS......................................................................................................... 86
8.7 CONTROLLERS (see also Section 11) ..................................................................... 87
8.8 LIMIT SWITCHES (see also Clause 7.13) ................................................................ 93
8.9 CONTROL CIRCUITS.............................................................................................. 95
8.10 ELECTRICAL ISOLATION ..................................................................................... 96
8.11 ELECTRICAL PROTECTION................................................................................ 101
8.12 HIGH-VOLTAGE SUPPLY TO CRANES ............................................................. 104
8.13 CRANES WITH MAGNET ATTACHMENTS....................................................... 104
8.14 WIRING AND CONDUCTORS ............................................................................. 108
8.15 ACCESSIBILITY.................................................................................................... 111
8.16 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT MARKING AND INSTALLATION DIAGRAMS.. 111
SECTION 9 HYDRAULIC EQUIPMENT AND CONTROLS
9.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................. 112
9.2 MATERIALS .......................................................................................................... 112
9.3 BASIS OF DESIGN ................................................................................................ 112
9.4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM ............................................................................................. 113
9.5 COMPONENTS ...................................................................................................... 113
9.6 INSTALLATION .................................................................................................... 115
9.7 TESTING ................................................................................................................ 115
9.8 MARKING .............................................................................................................. 115
9.9 INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE ................................................................... 115
SECTION 10 PNEUMATIC EQUIPMENT AND CONTROLS
10.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................. 116
10.2 MATERIALS .......................................................................................................... 116
10.3 BASIS OF DESIGN ................................................................................................ 116
10.4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM ............................................................................................. 117

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AS 1418.12002

10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9

Page
COMPONENTS ...................................................................................................... 117
INSTALLATION .................................................................................................... 118
TESTING ................................................................................................................ 118
MARKING .............................................................................................................. 118
INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE ................................................................... 118

SECTION 11 OPERATIONAL DESIGN


11.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................. 119
11.2 CONTROL CABIN ................................................................................................. 119
11.3 PENDENT CONTROL STATIONS AND PENDENT CORDS .............................. 121
11.4 OPERATOR CONTROLS AND INDICATORS..................................................... 122
11.5 WARNING DEVICES ............................................................................................ 122
SECTION 12 MANUFACTURE AND CONSTRUCTION
12.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................. 123
12.2 MATERIALS .......................................................................................................... 123
12.3 FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLY ....................................................................... 123
12.4 REWORK................................................................................................................ 123
12.5 FINISH .................................................................................................................... 123
12.6 DRAINING ............................................................................................................. 123
12.7 ACCESS AND CLEARANCES .............................................................................. 123
12.8 REPAIRS................................................................................................................. 124

A1

SECTION 13 INSPECTION AND TESTING


13.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................. 125
13.2 INSPECTION .......................................................................................................... 125
13.3 TESTING ................................................................................................................ 125
13.4 COMMISSIONING................................................................................................. 125
SECTION 14 MARKING
14.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................. 126
14.2 MARKING .............................................................................................................. 126
SECTION 15 OPERATING ENVIRONMENT
15.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................. 127
15.2 INDOOR INSTALLATION .................................................................................... 127
15.3 OUTDOOR INSTALLATION ................................................................................ 128
15.4 HAZARDOUS AREAS ........................................................................................... 128
SECTION 16 MANUALS
16.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................. 129
16.2 CRANE OPERATORS MANUAL......................................................................... 129
16.3 MAINTENANCE MANUAL .................................................................................. 129
16.4 SERVICE RECORD (LOGBOOK) ......................................................................... 130
16.5 PARTS BOOK ........................................................................................................ 130
APPENDICES
A
ORGANIZATION OF AUSTRALIAN STANDARD FOR CRANES .................... 131
B
LIST OF REFERENCED STANDARDS AND STANDARDS FOR REFERENCE136
C
FAILURE TO SAFETY (FAIL-SAFE SYSTEMS)................................................. 140
D
TYPICAL CRANE APPLICATION CLASSIFICATION ....................................... 142
E
OBLIQUE TRAVEL FORCESDETAILED ANALYSIS .................................... 144
F
FATIGUE DESIGN OF MECHANISMS ................................................................ 148
G
REEVED SYSTEMSALLOWANCE FOR FRICTIONAL EFFECTS ................. 150

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H
I
J
K
L
M

AS 1418.12002

Page
EXAMPLES OF WIRE ROPE SELECTION .......................................................... 152
ROPE ANCHORAGE POINT LOCATION............................................................. 153
GROOVE PROFILES FOR WIRE ROPE SHEAVES ............................................. 154
GROOVE PROFILES FOR ROPE DRUMS ........................................................... 157
THEORETICAL THICKNESS OF HOIST DRUM................................................. 158
RELATED STANDARDS ....................................................................................... 172

AS 1418.12002

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FOREWORD
This Standard is an authoritative source of fundamental principles for application by
responsible and competent persons and organizations. It has no legal authority in its own
right but it may acquire legal standing in one or more of the following ways:
(a)

Adoption by a regulatory authority.

(b)

Reference to compliance with the Standard as a contractual requirement.

(c)

Claim, by a manufacturer or manufacturers agent (or both), of compliance with the


Standard.

This Standard has been prepared bearing in mind that it will be used by a number of
different categories of users, with entirely different objectives.
Essentially, the users of this Standard are
(i)

crane and hoist manufacturers, importers and agents;

(ii)

crane and hoist owners;

(iii) crane and hoist users and operators; and


(iv)

regulatory and legal authorities.

Crane and hoist manufacturers, importers and agents require acceptable data that can be
used in the design, manufacture, testing and acceptance inspection of cranes and hoists for
both general and particular applications.
Crane and hoist owners require data for specification and selection of cranes and hoists. In
this situation, applications can be more specific.
Crane and hoist users and operators require statements of their responsibilities in the safe
use of equipment.
Regulatory and legal authorities look to Standards as a framework on which regulations,
directives and other legislation can be based. Further legal aspects of crane Standards must
be recognized because they may also be utilized as measures of legal responsibility.
This Standard references the alternative limit states design method in addition to the
working stress design method.
A general requirement for safety is that, upon the occurrence of a high risk condition, a
safety device or system (or both) should halt the condition or revert the crane to a
non-dangerous condition. Depending on the risk assessment of the application, it may be
necessary to exceed the minimum safety requirements described herein.
Where personnel are being conveyed, this principle is modified in one of the following
ways:
(A)

a fail-safe design, allowing for the simultaneous malfunction of two items, may be
required.

(B)

The operator in control is at personal risk.

(C)

An increased factor of safety is applied.

AS 1418.12002

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STANDARDS AUSTRALIA
Australian Standard
Cranes, hoists and winches
Part 1: General requirements

SECT ION

SCOPE

AND

GENERA L

1.1 SCOPE
This Standard specifies the general requirements for cranes, hoists, winches, and their
components, and appliances intended to carry out similar functions, as defined in AS 2549.
It does not include powered industrial trucks as defined in AS 2359.
The term crane used herein applies to a crane, hoist or winch as appropriate.
NOTES:
1

Specific requirements for particular types of cranes and associated equipment are specified in
other parts of AS 1418; these requirements take precedence over corresponding requirements
in this Standard where any difference exists. Appendix A outlines the structure of the
AS 1418 series of Standards.

Requirements for the selection, operation and maintenance of cranes are given in the
appropriate part of AS 2550.

1.2 NEW DESIGNS, INNOVATIONS AND DESIGN METHODS


This Standard does not preclude the use of materials, designs, methods of assembly,
procedures, and the like, that do not comply with a specific requirement of this Standard, or
are not mentioned in it, but which can be shown to give equivalent or superior results to
those specified.
A1

Where the limit states design method is used, cranes shall be designed to give a degree of
safety not less than that given in this Standard by the working stress design method for
strength, buckling, deflection, torsion, fatigue and the like.
NOTE: This Standard does not provide specific guidance on the limit state design methods, as the
necessary dynamic factors have not been formulated for the complex forces cranes are subjected
to. This is a worldwide situation and ISO has established a working group specifically to resolve
the issue. Design of structural members by limit state methods, including determination of the
partial load factors for individual loads, should comply with the appropriate Australian Standard,
e.g., AS 1664.1 for aluminium members and AS 4100 for steel members.

1.3 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS


A list of the documents referred to in this Standard is given in Appendix B.
1.4 DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of this Standard, the definitions given in AS 2549 and below apply.
1.4.1 Classification
The system used to provide a means of establishing a rational basis for the design of
structures and machinery. It also serves as a framework of reference between the purchasers
and the manufacturers, by the use of which a particular crane may be matched to the service
for which it is required.
www.standards.com.au

Standards Australia

AS 1418.12002

10

NOTE: Classification considers only the conditions of operation for the intended life of the crane.
These are independent of the type of crane and the way it is operated.

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1.4.2 Competent person


A person who has acquired through training, qualification, experience or a combination of
these, the knowledge and skill enabling that person to correctly perform the required task.
1.4.3 Controlled stop
The stopping of a machine motion in a controlled manner, which limits the deceleration to
significantly less than the deceleration experienced in a sudden uncontrolled stop.
NOTE: An example of one method is to reduce the electrical command signal to zero once the
stop signal has been recognized by the control and retain electrical power to the hoisting machine
actuators during the stopping process.

1.4.4 Fail-safe
A state or condition whereby if the fail-safe component fails, a system exists to prevent any
increase of the assessed risk associated with the device.
NOTE: Information regarding fail-safe systems is given in Appendix C.

1.4.5 May
Indicates the existence of an allowable option.
NOTE: Neither inclusion nor exclusion of the option results in non-compliance with the Standard.

1.4.6 Shall
Indicates that compliance with a statement is mandatory for compliance with the objectives
and intent of his Standard (see Preface).
1.4.7 Should
Indicates a recommendation. Neither following nor ignoring the recommendation results in
non-compliance with the Standard.
1.4.8 Rated capacity
The maximum gross load which may be applied to the crane or hoist or lifting attachment
while in a particular working configuration and under a particular condition of use.
1.4.9 Uncontrolled stop
The stopping of a motion by removing power to the machine actuators, all brakes and/or
other mechanical stopping devices being actuated.
1.5 NOTATION
Symbols used in equations in this Standard are defined in relation to the particular equation
in which they occur.
1.6 CONTACT SURFACE TEMPERATURE
Surfaces with temperatures exceeding 55C, which may cause pain by contact with human
skin, shall be protected over all areas that can be touched during normal operation, daily
maintenance and assembly/erection, such that the touchable surfaces are below 55C.
Except where surface temperatures can be increased by solar radiation, surfaces on which
the temperature exceeds 55C shall be located more than 300 mm from hand-related access
points.

Standards Australia

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SECT ION

C L ASS I F I C AT I ON

AS 1418.12002

O F

CRANES

2.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section specifies the classification of a crane (see Clause 1.1) based on the maximum
number of in-service cycles to be carried out during the intended life of the crane and a load
spectrum. Other parts of AS 1418 define which parts of the classification range are
applicable to the various types of cranes.
NOTES:
A1

See Clause 1.4.1 for a definition of classification.

The C classification relates to the duty (i.e. load spectrum and number of operating cycles) of
the crane as a whole and is intended for contractual and technical reference purposes (see
Clause 2.3).

The purpose of the S and M classification is to provide a basis for the load determination
and fatigue analysis of the individual structural and mechanical components (see Sections 5
and 7, respectively). The designer takes the estimated load spectrum and the number of load
applications to determine the group class of the crane.

Cranes for specific applications may require minimum classifications as specified elsewhere
in this Standard, or other parts of AS 1418.

2.2 GENERAL
The classification of the crane and its constituent parts shall be as follows:
(a)

Group classification Overall classification of the crane based on the number and
magnitude of operating cycles the crane will be expected to see during its design life
(see Clause 2.3.2).

(b)

Structural classification Classification of each part of the crane structure based on


the number and magnitude of the load cycles which that part of the structure will see
during the design life of the crane (see Clause 5.2.2).

(c)

Mechanical classification Classification of each of the mechanical components of


the crane based on the expected magnitude of the applied load and the number of
operating hours, at the load, for the design life of the crane (see Clause 7.3.4).

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable part of AS 1418, the required design life of any
crane and its constituent parts shall be as follows:
(i)

Structures .................................................................................................... 25 years.

(ii)

Mechanical components............................................................................... 10 years.

For cranes designed for special applications, the design life may be less than that specified
in Items (i) and (ii) above, provided that
(A)

the structural and mechanical components of the crane have been designed for a
specific task of short duration with no intention of redeployment;

(B)

the design life and design classification of the components are marked on the
components and crane;

(C)

the intended service conditions are well defined in writing by the designer; and

(D)

the crane is used in accordance with the designers instructions and actual service
conditions are monitored and recorded in accordance with AS 2550.1.

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2.3 GROUP CLASSIFICATION

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2.3.1 Bases of classification


The group classification of the crane shall be determined from the class of utilization (see
Clause 2.3.2) and the load spectrum (see Clause 2.3.3) where relevant data is available or
selected from typical crane applications in Appendix D.
2.3.2 Class of utilization
The maximum number of in-service cycles expected from the crane during its intended life
shall be the first basic parameter of classification. The range of classes of utilization are
divided into 10 categories, as shown in Table 2.3.2.
TABLE 2.3.2
CLASSES OF UTILIZATION OF CRANES
Maximum number of
operating cycles

Classes of
utilization

Description of use

104

U0

10

U1

10

U2

10

U3

10

U4

Fairly frequent use

10

U5

Frequent use

106

U6

Very frequent use

10

U7

Continuous or near-continuous use

10

U8

1.6
3.2
6.3
1.25
2.5

2
4

Greater than
4
106

Infrequent use

U9

2.3.3 Load spectrum


The second basic parameter of classification is the load spectrum, which is concerned with
the number of times a load of a particular magnitude, in relation to the capacity of the
crane, is hoisted. The four nominal values of load spectrum factor (Kp) shall be as shown in
Table 2.3.3 and illustrated in Figure 2.3.3, each numerically representative of a
corresponding nominal state of loading.
The load spectrum factor for the crane (Kp) is given by the following equation:
P
Ci
i
K p =
C T Pmax

. . . 2.3.3

where
Ci

= number of load cycles that occur at the individual load levels


= C 1 , C2 , C 3, ..., C n

CT

= total of all the individual load cycles at all load levels


= C i
= C 1 + C 2 + C 3 + ... + C n

Pi

Standards Australia

= individual load magnitudes (load levels) characteristic of the duty of the


crane
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AS 1418.12002

= P 1 , P2 , P3 , ... P n

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P max = rated capacity


NOTE: A load cycle accounts for all motions of the crane when operated between an unloaded
state through to loaded state and returns to its unloaded state.

The nominal load spectrum factor for the crane shall be established by matching the
calculated load spectrum factor to the closest (higher) nominal value of K p in Table 2.3.3.

NOTE: t1, t2, t3 and t are time increments expressed as a percentage of design life.

FIGURE 2.3.3 TYPICAL LOAD SPECTRA

TABLE 2.3.3
NOMINAL LOAD SPECTRUM FACTOR AND
STATE OF LOADING FOR CRANES
Nominal load
spectrum factor
(Kp )

State of loading

Description of use

0.125

Q1Light

Cranes that hoist the rated capacity very rarely and,


normally, very light loads

0.25

Q2Moderate

Cranes that hoist the rated capacity fairly frequently


and, normally, light loads

0.50

Q3Heavy

Cranes that hoist the rated capacity frequently and,


normally, medium loads

1.00

Q4Very heavy

Cranes that are frequently loaded close to the rated


capacity

2.3.4 Group classification


The group classification for the various combinations of classes of utilization and state of
loading shall be as given in Table 2.3.4.
NOTE: The application of group classification to specific types of cranes is covered in the appropriate parts
of AS 1418.

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TABLE 2.3.4

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GROUP CLASSIFICATION OF CRANES

State of loading

Nominal
load
spectrum
factor
(Kp )

Group classification of crane


Classes of utilization
U0

U1

U2

U3

U4

U5

U6

U7

U8

U9

Q1Light

0.125

C1

C1

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

C7

C8

Q2Moderate

0.25

C1

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

C7

C8

C8

Q3Heavy

0.50

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

C7

C8

C8

C9

Q4Very heavy

1.00

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

C7

C8

C8

C9

C9

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SEC T I O N

MA T E R I A L S

AS 1418.12002

F OR

CRA N E S

3.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section specifies requirements for materials used in the manufacture of cranes (see
Clause 1.1).
3.2 MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS
Where applicable, materials shall comply with the relevant Australian Standard
specifications.
Where the properties of any material are in doubt, the material shall be subjected to
sufficient testing in order to determine the properties concerned.
NOTE: Refer to specific parts of AS 1418 for material Standards applicable to a particular crane
type.

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S E C T I O N

CRA N E

L O A D S

4.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section specifies the requirements for the determination of loads and load
combinations to be used in the design of crane structures (see Clause 1.1).
4.2 REFERENCE TO OTHER PARTS OF THIS STANDARD
The determination of loads in this Section shall be supplemented by the requirements of the
other relevant parts of this Standard.
4.3 DETERMINATION OF CRANE LOADS
Determination of crane loads shall include all loads resulting from the intended crane
operation, and loads caused by the environment, erection, testing and fault conditions.
Steady-state loads, such as gravity-induced loads, shall be determined from the masses of
all component parts permanently attached to the crane.
Live loads induced on in-service cabin floor walkways and platforms shall be determined in
accordance with the provisions of this Standard and the referenced Standards including
AS 1170.1.
Dynamic loads due to acceleration or deceleration of masses shall be determined by
either
(a)

dynamic analysis capable of modelling the characteristics of the crane operations; or

(b)

methods of determination of loads specified in this Section.

4.4 CATEGORIZATION OF CRANE LOADS


For convenience of referencing, the crane loads are divided into three load groups as
follows:
(a)

Principal loads (see Clause 4.5).

(b)

Additional loads (see Clause 4.6).

(c)

Special loads (see Clause 4.7).

Each load group is divided into load types as shown in Table 4.4.

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AS 1418.12002

TABLE 4.4

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CATEGORIZATION OF CRANE LOADS


Load group

Load

Reference
Clause

Principal loads
(see Clause 4.5)

Dead loads
Hoisted loads
Inertia loads
Displacement-induced loads

4.5.2
4.5.3
4.5.4
4.5.5

Additional loads
(see Clause 4.6)

In-service and out-of-service wind loads


Snow and ice loads
Temperature-induced forces
Oblique travelling forces
Bulk material loads

4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4
4.6.5
4.6.6

Special loads
(See Clause 4.7)

Off-vertical hoisting loads


Test loads
Buffer impact forces
Tilting forces
Live loads on walkways and in chutes, etc
Loads due to emergency condition
Seismic loads
Loads during erection
Loads during transport

4.7.2
4.7.3
4.7.4
4.7.5
4.7.6
4.7.7
4.7.8
4.7.9
4.7.10

4.5 PRINCIPAL LOADS


4.5.1 General
Principal loads comprise the mass of the crane and highly repetitive loads arising from the
intended service of the crane.
4.5.2 Dead loads
4.5.2.1 Dead load dynamic factor
The loads due to the mass of the crane in operation shall be given by the following
equation:
P = W 1
w

. . . 4.5.2.1

where
P w = factored deadweight load
W

= gravitational force induced by the mass of the crane.

= dynamic factor for the mass of the crane subject to inertial forces and
vibrations

The upper bound value of 1 shall be as given in Table 4.5.2.1 unless a more accurate
determination is made by using an appropriate dynamic analysis.
The lower bound value of 1 shall be taken as 1.0, except where the vibration of the
stabilizing part of the crane structure reduces the resistance to overturning. In such case, the
lower bound value of 1 shall be taken as 0.9.

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TABLE 4.5.2.1

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APPLICATION OF DYNAMIC Factor ( 1)


1

Dynamic factor ( 1)
Type of
runway

Steel
rails
or
beams

Concrete

Roadway
or flexible
pavement

Condition
of runway

Wheel
type

Suspension
type

Travel velocity, m/s


1.0

>1.0
1.5

>1.5

Smooth
Steel
welded
continuously

Unsprung

1.1

1.1

1.2

Sprung

1.1

1.1

1.1

Joints
4 mm wide

Unsprung

1.1

1.2

1.2

Sprung

1.1

1.1

1.1

Steel

Smooth
no joints

Rubber

Sprung

1.1

1.1

1.1

Jointed

Rubber

Sprung

1.2

1.2

1.25

Rubber

Sprung

1.1

1.1

1.15

Crawler
tracks

Sprung

1.1

1.2

1.25

NOTES:
1

Do not interpolate, use nearest higher value for 1 .

It is assumed that the rail joints are in good condition. The detrimental effect on
hoisting appliances of rail tracks in poor condition is so great, both for the
structure and the machinery, that it is necessary to stipulate that the rail joints
must be maintained in good condition: no shock loading coefficient can allow for
the damage caused by faulty joints. In so far as high speed appliances are
concerned, the best solution is to butt-weld the rails, in order to eliminate entirely
the shock loadings that occur when an appliance runs over joints.

4.5.3 Hoisted load


4.5.3.1 Description
The hoisted load shall include the rated capacity together with the weight of the hook and
hook block, full length of hoist cable, and any devices attached to the hook block for the
purpose of grappling the hoisted load.
Where hoists are equipped with magnets or grabs, allowances shall be made in selecting the
hoists capacity to account for tear-off or tear-out forces respectively. A tear-out force is
equal to the weight of the load plus additional forces applied as a result of removing the
load from the heap.
4.5.3.2 Hoisting operations to be considered
The basic hoisting operations covered in this Section are the following:
(a)

Hoisting a load from rest The effects of the hoisted load shall be determined by the
following equation:
Phd = Ph 2

. . . 4.5.3.2(1)

where
P hd = factored hoisted load
P h = hoisted load as specified in Clause 4.5.3.1
2
Standards Australia

= hoisted load dynamic factor for hoisting as given in Clause 4.5.3.3.


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(b)

AS 1418.12002

Rapid releasing of a part of the hoisted load Where the intended operation requires
rapid releasing of the hoisted load, the effect of rapid release shall be determined by
the following equation:
Prd = (Ph Pr ) 3

. . . 4.5.3.2(2)

where
P rd = the peak intensity of the loads acting on the hoist as a result of the rapid
releasing
Ph

= hoisted load as specified in Clause 4.5.3.1

Pr

= the upper estimate of the part of the load being released

= rapid load release dynamic factor for rapid load release as given in
Clause 4.5.3.4.

4.5.3.3 Hoisted load dynamic factor ( 2 )


The value of the dynamic factor for hoisting (2) depends on the hoisting velocity ( h), and
the hoisting application group as determined by Table 4.5.3.3(A). The dynamic factor ( 2)
shall be taken from Table 4.5.3.3(B), except where a more appropriate or more accurate
determination has been carried out using a dynamic analysis or by certified tests.
Where the hoist drive control system automatically selects the steady creep speed at the
start of hoisting, such speed shall be used for the determination of the dynamic factor ( 2).
Where the hoist drive is equipped with a stepless variable speed control, the value of the
dynamic factor ( 2) shall be determined for a hoisting velocity of not less than 0.5 times the
nominal speed for the unloaded hoist drive.
TABLE 4.5.3.3(A)
HOISTING APPLICATION GROUP FOR CRANES
1

Fundamental
natural
frequency of
structure
(vertical plane)
Hz

Hoisting application group

0.2

>0.2 to 0.4

>0.4 to 0.6

>0.6

3.2

H1

H1

H2

H3

>3.2 5.0

H1

H2

H2

H3 to H4

>5.0

H2

H2

H3

H4

Hoisting acceleration
m/s 2

NOTE: For hoisting accelerations/decelerations greater than 0.6 m/s2 analysis of inertial effects in accordance
with Clause 4.5.4 should be considered.

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TABLE 4.5.3.3(B)

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HOISTING FACTORS 2
Hoisting application
group
H1
H2
H3
H4

h 1.5
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

+
+
+
+

0.13 h
0.27 h
0.40 h
0.53 h

h >1.5
1.3
1.6
1.9
2.2

LEGEND:
h = the nominal speed related to the lifting attachment, derived
from the steady rotational speed of the unloaded drive, in
metres per second

Where two or more hoists are installed, the dynamic factor ( 2) shall be applied as follows:
(a)

Where the two hoists are designed not to operate simultaneously, the appropriate
factor shall be applied to one drive at a time taking into account that drives hoisting
speed. The other hoist drive shall be considered to be stationary.

(b)

Where the hoists are designed to operate simultaneously, the appropriate factor shall
be applied to each hoist in accordance with its hoisting speed.

4.5.3.4 Rapid load release dynamic factor ( 3 ) (see Figure 4.5.3.4.)


The value of 3 is given by the following equation:
3 = 1 1.5

W
W

for hoisting appliances in the form of grabs; or

3 = 1 2. 0

W
W

for hoisting appliances using magnetic holding devices

where
W = released mass
W

= mass of the hoisted load including the load to be released

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AS 1418.12002

FIGURE 4.5.3.4 DYNAMIC FACTOR ( 3)

4.5.4 Inertia loads


4.5.4.1 General
The designer shall determine the inertia forces induced by acceleration, braking and the
travel, slewing and luffing drives.
4.5.4.2 Methods of determination of inertia loads
The loads due to acceleration of drives shall be determined by one of the following
methods:
(a)

Simple method of determination based on upper bounds of parameters for drives


relying on frictional transfer of the reactive forces. The procedure shall be as given in
Clause 4.5.4.3.

(b)

An appropriate method of dynamic analysis for any type of load transfer.

4.5.4.3 Simplified method of determination of traction forces


Where the maximum traction forces are limited by friction, the traction forces shall be
determined from the friction between the driven wheels and the runway. To eliminate wheel
slip, drives shall be selected so that the maximum traction force does not exceed the
minimum frictional force between the driven wheel and the rail.
For travel and traverse motions, the maximum traction forces may be determined by the
following equations:
(a)

For independent drives:


TR = N S 4 Pwij

. . . 4.5.4.3(1)

NOTE: This equation assumes matched power and rating of motors on each driven wheel.

(b)

For synchronized drive:


TR =4

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Nt

Pw i j

j =1 i =1

Ns

. . . 4.5.4.3(2)

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where
TR

= resultant of the traction forces

Ns

= number of drivesfor independent drives


= number of driven pairs of wheelsfor synchronized drive(s)

= dynamic factor

= coefficient of friction

P wij

= minimum driven wheel load (see below)

= runway number, e.g., 1 = left runway, 2 = right runway (see below)

= number of the wheel pair


Ns

(P
j=1

w1 j

+ P w 2 j ) = minimum sum of the driven wheel loads

The value of 4 shall be determined as follows:


(i)

4 = 1

for centrifugal forces;

(ii)

1 4 1.5

for drives with no backlash or in cases where existing backlash does


not affect the dynamic forces and with smooth change of forces;

(iii)

1.5 4 2

for drives with no backlash or in cases where existing backlash does


not affect the dynamic forces and with sudden change of forces;

(iv)

4 = 3

for drives with considerable backlash, if not estimated accurately by


using a spring-mass model.

Where a force that can be transmitted is limited by friction or by the nature of the drives
mechanism, the limited force and a factor 4 appropriate to that system shall be used.
For steel wheels on steel rails, the nominal coefficient of friction () shall be taken as 0.20,
unless a more accurate determination has been made.
The minimum driven wheel loads of the unladen crane shall be used to calculate the
maximum traction forces.
4.5.4.4 Application of traction forces
The traction forces shall be applied to the loaded crane and shall be in accordance with the
drive type and the driving system of the crane as illustrated in Figures 4.5.4.4(A) and
4.5.4.4(B). The effect of eccentricity of the resultant traction forces to the centre of mass of
the driven system shall be considered.
(a)

Acceleration due to cross-travel drives The reactive loads (P HC) from


Table 4.5.4.4(A) due to the traction force of the crab (Pc) shall be transmitted to the
runway through all travel wheels equally (see Figure 4.5.4.4(A)).
Horizontal forces due to inertial forces for cranes with more than two wheels per
runway side shall be equally shared by all wheels.

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AS 1418.12002

FIGURE 4.5.4.4(A) ACCELERATION LOADS DUE TO CROSS-TRAVEL DRIVES

TABLE 4.5.4.4(A)
LATERAL LOADS DUE TO ACCELERATION FROM CROSS-TRAVEL DRIVES
Lateral fixity
of crane wheels

Lateral loads
P HC11

P HC12

P HC21

P HC22

All wheels laterally


fixed

Pc
4

Pc
4

Pc
4

Pc
4

Wheels on only
one side laterally fixed

Pc
2

Pc
2

NOTES:
1

This Table is for four-wheel cranes only; however, similar principles apply for other travel systems.

A laterally fixed wheel is a flanged wheel with laterally fixed bearings or side-guide rollers.

(b)

Acceleration due to long-travel drives For the travel drive system illustrated in
Figure 4.5.4.4(B), the drive forces (P HT ) are assumed to be distributed equally to the
driven wheels. The resulting lateral force (P HB ) due to the eccentricity (ls) of the
centre of the drive force with respect to the centre of mass is assumed to be
distributed equally to the applicable travel wheels. The moment shall be calculated
from the following equation and the forces from Table 4.5.4.4(B):
M E = l s TR

. . . 4.5.4.4

where
M E = moment due to eccentricity of drive forces
ls

= maximum eccentricity of the point of application of the drive force with


respect to the centre of mass of the crane including the rated capacity

T R = resultant of the traction forces P HT1 and P HT2 in Figure 4.5.4.4(B)


The effect of acceleration of long travel drives shall be taken into account in designing the
crane.

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AS 1418.12002

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FIGURE 4.5.4.4(B) ACCELERATION LOADS DUE TO LONG-TRAVEL DRIVES

TABLE 4.5.4.4(B)
LATERAL LOADS DUE TO ACCELERATION
FROM LONG-TRAVEL DRIVES
Long travel drive
system

Lateral loads
P HB11

P HB21

P HB12

All wheels laterally fixed

ME
2S G

ME
2SG

ME
2SG

Wheels on only one side


laterally fixed

ME
SG

ME
SG

P HB22
ME
2SG

NOTES:
1

For a four-wheel crane, SG equals the distance between the means of lateral guidance.

For cranes with more than four wheels, S G equals the bogie pivot centre distance
(see Figure 4.5.4.4(C)).

A laterally fixed wheel is a flanged wheel with laterally fixed bearings or side-guide rollers.

FIGURE 4.5.4.4(C) DISTRIBUTION OF HORIZONTAL FORCES

4.5.4.5 Determination of loads due to slewing and luffing motions


The determination of loads due to slewing and luffing motions shall be as follows:
(a)

Loads due to the acceleration of slewing drives shall be determined by an appropriate


method of dynamic analysis.

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The centrifugal forces acting on slewing cranes shall be from the dead load of the
boom components, the counterweight, where used, and the hoisted load without
applying the dynamic factor and assuming the hoisted load to be positioned at the tip
of the jib or boom.
(b)

Loads due to the acceleration of luffing drives shall be calculated by an appropriate


dynamic analysis.

4.5.5 Loads induced by displacements


Account shall be taken of loads arising from displacements caused by movement of the
supporting structure, for example, from prestressing or differential movement due to
settlement or temperature.
4.6 ADDITIONAL LOADS
4.6.1 General
Additional loads and effects include loads induced by wind, snow, ice, temperature and
oblique travel.
4.6.2 Wind forces
4.6.2.1 Principles
The determination of wind forces on a crane exposed to wind (e.g., outdoors operation or
partially enclosed building) shall be as specified in AS 1170.2.
NOTES:
1

This applies to in-service and out-of-service wind forces.

Cranes are considered to be high-risk installations. Allowances given in AS 1170.2 to reduce


loads on temporary structures should only be applied after the appropriate risk analysis has
been carried out by the designer.

4.6.2.2 Wind forces on the hoisted load


Wind forces (P D) acting on the hoisted load shall be calculated for the largest dimensions
and the least favourable configuration of the load using the drag coefficients (CD ) taken
from AS 1170.2.
4.6.3 Snow and ice loads
Snow and ice loads, where applicable, shall be taken into consideration including
(a)

increased dead load

(b)

increased wind exposure surfaces due to encrustation.

4.6.4 Forces due to temperature variation


Forces caused by the restraint of expansion or contraction of a component due to local
temperature variation shall be taken into account.
4.6.5 Lateral forces due to oblique travel
4.6.5.1 General
The following Clauses outline a simplified method of analysis of lateral forces due to
oblique travel. A detailed analysis is provided in Appendix E.
Where a crane or crab is subjected to oblique travel in the moment of contact between rail
and front guiding element (wheel flange or guide roller), a steering force (POT) develops
and straightens the crane in its tracks.
The magnitude of the steering force (P OT) depends on the type of crane drives, the crane
geometry, and on the coefficient of frictional contact (K O) which is determined by the
maximum oblique travel gradient ().
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4.6.5.2 Coefficient of frictional contact (KO )


The coefficient of frictional contact (KO ) shall be obtained from Table 4.6.5.2.
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NOTE: Interpolation of K O values is permissible under this Standard.

TABLE 4.6.5.2
COEFFICIENT OF FRICTIONAL CONTACT

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

7.0

9.0

12.5

15

>15

KO

0.118

0.158

0.196

0.214

0.248

0.268

0.287

0.293

0.3

LEGEND:
= oblique travel gradient, in millimetres per metre
= CL
SG
where
C L = maximum clearance between wheel flange or guide roller and side of rail, in millimetres

S G = centre distance of track wheels, track wheel groups or guide rollers, in metres

4.6.5.3 Calculation of steering contact force (POTE )


The calculation of the steering contact force (POTE ) and Y 11 and Y21 reactions for a crane
supported by four wheels with two independent drives is determined in accordance with
Figure 4.6.5.3.
Equilibrium condition gives:
Yij = POTE = 0

where
Y ij are the frictional forces between the wheels and the rail
Y21 = P OTE Y11
= K O P W21 K F

NOTE: Y21 is the force that is to be used for design of crane structure and runway beams; POTE is only important for
design of guiding elements and the like. The most adverse condition for analysis is with the crab on the opposite side of
the crane girder to the contact force.

FIGURE 4.6.5.3 WHEELS WITH TWO INDEPENDENT DRIVES (EFF)


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AS 1418.12002

4.6.5.4 Calculation of steering contact force (POTW )

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The calculation of the steering contact force (P OTW) and Y11 , Y12, Y21 and Y22 reactions for a
crane supported by four wheels with two or more mechanically or electrically coupled drive
wheels is determined in accordance with Figure 4.6.5.4.
NOTE: This method is simplified and the results are slightly conservative, being not more than
15% greater than the exact calculation in Appendix E. Forces parallel with runway beams are
very small and can be disregarded.

NOTES:
1

P OTW , Y 11 and Y21 are calculated in accordance with Clause 4.6.5.3.

Y 21 and Y 22 are forces to be used for design of crane structure and the runway beams; P OTW is only
important for the design of guiding elements and the like.

Equilibrium condition gives approximately:


Yij + POTW = 0
where
Y ij are frictional forces between the wheels and the rail.

FIGURE 4.6.5.4 MECHANICALLY OR ELECTRICALLY COUPLED DRIVE WHEELS (WFF)

4.6.5.5 Oblique travel force (POTE ) and reduction factor (K F )


Because of flexibility of the crane and runway, reactions Y in Clauses 4.6.5.3 and 4.6.5.4
shall be reduced by multiplying with factor (K F ) from Table 4.6.5.5. The natural frequency
of the crane beams shall be determined for vibrations in the vertical plane.
TABLE 4.6.5.5
REDUCTION FACTORS
Natural frequency of
crane beams, Hz
(vertical plane)

Reduction factor
(K F )

> 5.0

1.0

Single girder and


Double girder cranes

> 3.2 5.0

0.83

Single girder and


Double girder cranes

3.2

0.66

Type of crane
Double girder
Cranes only

4.6.6 Bulk material loads


Where applicable, effects due to the dropping of bulk material shall be taken into
consideration. Effects include impact and recoil.

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4.7 SPECIAL LOADS

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4.7.1 General
Special loads include loads caused by testing, buffer forces and tilting, as well as from
emergency cut-out, failure of drive components, and external excitation of the crane
foundation.
4.7.2 Loads due to off-vertical hoisting
A lateral load of not less than 4% of the rated capacity shall be applied to account for
inadvertent off-vertical lifting.
Where off-vertical hoisting is required by the crane operation, lateral loads induced by this
effect shall be determined by a competent person.
4.7.3 Dynamic effects of test loads
The values of test loads and their locations shall be determined as appropriate for the type
of crane or hoist tested.
The dynamic test load shall be multiplied by a factor ( 5) from the following equation:
5 = 0.5 (1 + 2 )

. . . 4.7.3

where
2 is calculated in accordance with Clause 4.5.3.3.
4.7.4 Buffer forces
The impact force (P B) due to cranes or parts of a crane running against other cranes or stops
shall be absorbed by appropriately designed buffers or similar energy-absorbing means.
The total buffer capacities required and the maximum buffer force (P B) shall be determined
for longitudinal travel at 85% of full travel velocity and for traverse at 100%. Where
automatic retarding means are provided, the maximum buffer force (P B ) shall be determined
for cranes and crabs at not less than 70% of full travel velocity.
For two-speed cranes fitted with fail-safe duplicated automatic retard switching to slow
speed and sufficient distance from end stop to slow before impacting buffer, the maximum
buffer force (P B ) may be determined for 100% of the slow speed.
Where two cranes of masses m 1 and m2 and having velocities V F1 and V F2 collide, the kinetic
energy released on the collision shall be calculated by the following equation:
E=

m1 m 2 (V F 1 + V F 2 ) 2
2(m1 + m 2 )

. . . 4.7.4(1)

The total energy (E) shall be absorbed by all buffers engaged in the collision, with each
taking its share of energy in proportion to its rigidity.
Where a crane of mass m and having a velocity V collides with an end stop, the kinetic
energy released on collision shall be calculated by the following equation:
E=

1
2
mV
2

. . . 4.7.4(2)

NOTE: In some circumstances, the effects of the kinetic energy of the rotating long travel
components, e.g., motors, brake drums, gearboxes, should be considered.

For calculation of the buffer capacities and the strength of the structure, the forces resulting
from the masses in motion (dead loads plus any rigidly guided hoisted loads in the worst
position) shall be used, but not the factors mentioned in Clause 4.5.3. Loads suspended
from hoisting equipment and freely swinging loads need not be taken into consideration.
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For cranes and crabs with or without attached hoisted loads, no negative wheel loads shall
result from 1.1 times the buffer force and the abovementioned dead loads and hoisted loads.
For tower cranes and portal slewing cranes, an analysis of the buffer capacity and of the
effect that the buffer forces have on the structure need not be made, provided that the rated
travelling velocity is lower than 0.67 m/s and reliable limit switches are provided in
addition to the buffer stops.
The resulting forces as well as the horizontal inertia forces in balance with the buffer forces
shall be multiplied by a factor ( 6) to account for elastic effects that cannot be evaluated
using a rigid body analysis. Factor 6 shall be taken as 1.25 in the case of buffers with
linear characteristics (e.g., springs) and as 1.60 in the case of buffers with rectangular
characteristics (e.g., hydraulic constant force buffers). For buffers with other
characteristics, other values justified by calculation or by test shall be used (see
Figure 4.7.4).
Intermediate values of 6 shall be calculated as follows:
(a)

6 = 1.25 for 0.0 0.5

(b)

6 = 1.25 + 0.7 ( 0.5) for 0.5 < 1.0

where is defined in Figure 4.7.4.

FIGURE 4.7.4 DYNAMIC Factor ( 6) FOR BUFFERS

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4.7.5 Tilting forces


If an appliance with a horizontally restrained load (rigidly guided load) can tilt when its
load or lifting attachment is in collision with an obstacle, the resulting static forces shall be
determined. For the determination of this force, the crab shall be assumed to be in the worst
position. The possibility of lifting the crab wheels off one of the crane bridge girders shall
be considered.
If a tilted appliance can fall back into its normal position uncontrolled, the resulting impact
on the supporting structure shall be evaluated and taken into account.
4.7.6 Miscellaneous loads
The effects of other loads that may be applied to the crane, for example lights, advertising
boards, chutes, maintenance activities and the like shall be considered.
Live loads on walkways during maintenance shall be determined in accordance with
AS 1657 unless higher loads can be generated, for example, placement of equipment on
walkways during maintenance.
4.7.7 Loads caused by emergency conditions
4.7.7.1 Mechanical failure
Where protection is provided by emergency brakes in addition to service brakes, failure and
emergency brake activation shall be assumed to occur under the least favourable condition.
Where mechanisms are duplicated for safety reasons, failure shall be assumed to occur in
any part of either system.
The value of the dynamic factor ( 4) shall be taken between 1.5 and 2.0.
4.7.7.2 Emergency cut-out
Loads caused by emergency cut-out shall be evaluated in accordance with Clause 4.5.4
taking into account the most unfavourable combination of acceleration and loading at the
time of cut-out. The coefficient of friction shall be taken at its upper bound value. The
value of the dynamic factor ( 4) shall be taken between 1.5 and 2.0.
4.7.7.3 Application of loads
The resulting loads shall be distributed in accordance with the principles set out in
Clause 4.5.4 for traction forces.
In both these cases, resulting loads shall be evaluated in accordance with Clause 4.5.4,
taking into account any impacts resulting from the transfer of forces.
4.7.8 Seismic loads
Loads induced by seismic or other vibratory excitations of crane foundations shall be
considered.
4.7.9 Loads during erection
The loads acting at each stage of the erection and dismantling process shall be taken into
account.
4.7.10 Forces during transport
The effects of loads occurring during transport shall be considered, where appropriate.
4.8 PRINCIPLES FOR DETERMINATION OF CRANE LOAD COMBINATIONS
4.8.1 Basic considerations
Loads shall be combined to determine the maximum stresses an appliance will experience
during operation. To achieve this, the appliance shall be taken in its most unfavourable
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attitude and configuration while the loads are assumed to act in magnitude, position and
direction causing the maximum stresses at the critical points selected for evaluation on the
basis of engineering considerations.
The load combinations appropriate to individual types of appliances shall be in accordance
with Table 4.8, as applicable. The designer shall also consider other load combinations not
shown in Table 4.8, as appropriate to the type of appliance and its operation.
4.8.2 Application of load combinations
4.8.2.1 Use of Table 4.8
For each type of load and each load combination, the Table gives
(a)

a dynamic factor () for the particular load;

(b)

numeral 1, which signifies that no dynamic factor is required for that load type unless
special conditions of intended operation require that a dynamic factor (different from
1.0) be included; or

(c)

a dash (), which signifies that the load of that type need not be included in the load
combination unless special conditions of operation require its inclusion.

4.8.2.2 Working stress design method


Where the working stress design method is used for the verification of the strength and
serviceability of the crane structure, the load effects (moments, shear and normal forces)
derived from each load combination shall be multiplied by the load combination factor ( c).
NOTE: As an example for load combination 5, the total load (Ptot ) in a girder will be derived
from:
c = 0.9
P tot = 0.9 [The effect of (1 P 1 + 2 P 2 + 4 P 3 + 1.0 P4 + 1.0 P5 + 1.0 P6 + 1.0 P 7)]

4.8.2.3 Limit states design method


The limit states design method uses partial load factors P , which differ for each type of
load and range generally between 1.2 and 1.5 depending on the statistical variability of the
load type in that particular type of crane.
Where the limit states design method is used, cranes shall be designed to give a degree of
safety not less than that given in this Standard for the working stress design method for
strength, buckling, deflection, torsion, fatigue, and the like.
NOTE: At this stage, Standards Australia is unable to give specific guidance on the range of
values of the partial load factors.

4.8.2.4 Proof of fatigue strength


The effects of fatigue shall be considered. Where proof of fatigue strength is found to be
necessary, it shall be carried out in accordance with the principles set down in Clause 4.8.1.
In some applications it may be necessary to also consider occasional loads such as
in-service wind, skewing and exceptional loads such as test loads and excitation of the
lifting appliance foundation (for example, wave effects).
4.8.2.5 High risk applications
In special cases where the human or economic consequences of failure are exceptionally
severe (e.g., ladle cranes or cranes for nuclear applications) increased reliability shall be
obtained by the use of a risk coefficient n > 1, the value of which shall be selected
according to the requirements of the particular application.

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TABLE 4.8

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CRANE LOAD COMBINATIONS


Load combination number*
Load
group

Principal
loads

Additional
loads

Special
loads

Line
No.

Description

Infrequently
Frequently occurring
occurring load
load combinations
combinations
1

Rarely occurring load combinations

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Dead loads

0.9

0.9

1.2

Hoisted loads

Inertia loads

Displacementinduced loads

In-service wind
forces

Snow or ice loads

Temperatureinduced forces

Oblique travelling
forces

Off-vertical
hoisting loads

10

Out-of-service
wind forces

11

Test loads

12

Buffer impact
forces

13

Tilting forces

14

Live loads on
walkways and in
chutes

15

Loads due to
emergency
conditions

16

Seismic loads

17

Loads during
erection

1.2

18

Loads during
transit*

Load combination
factor, c

1.0

0.9

Applicable only to cranes that are frequently moved e.g., mobile cranes, elevating work platforms.

is the mass of that part of the hoist load remaining suspended from the appliance.

0.8

NOTE: 1 to 6 are dynamic factors as described earlier in this Section.

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SE C T I ON

DE S IG N

O F

AS 1418.12002

CRA N E

ST RU CT U RE

5.1 GENERAL
This Section specifies requirements for both the crane structure and its supporting structure
(see Clause 1.1). The design life shall be 25 years unless the requirements of
Clause 2.2(A) to (D) are followed.
5.2 BASIS OF DESIGN
5.2.1 Design of structure
The crane and its supporting structure shall be designed in accordance with this Section and
Clause 2.2, except where other parts of AS 1418 take precedence, and with the following:
(a)

AS 1163.

(b)

AS 1594.

(c)

AS 1664.1 or AS 1664.2.

(d)

AS 1720.1.

(e)

AS 1726.

(f)

AS 3600.

(g)

AS 3990; or AS 4100.

5.2.2 Classification of crane structures


5.2.2.1 Bases of classification
The classification of the structure of a crane or crane components, e.g., the boom, shall be
determined from the class of utilization (see Clause 5.2.2.2) and the state of loading (see
Clause 5.2.2.3).
5.2.2.2 Class of utilization
The number of in-service cycles expected from the structure of a crane or crane component
during its useful life shall be one basic parameter of classification and shall comply with
Table 5.2.2.2.

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TABLE 5.2.2.2

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CLASS OF UTILIZATION OF STRUCTURES


Maximum number
of operating
cycles

Class of
utilization

Description of use)

104

U0

10

U1

10

U2

1.25

10

U3

2.5

105

U4

Fairly frequent use

10

U5

Frequent use

10

U6

Very frequent use

10

U7

Continuous or near
continuous use

106

U8

U9

1.6
3.2
6.3

5
1

Greater than 10
4

Infrequent use

NOTE: The number of loading cycles is often significantly higher than


the number of in-service cycles in Table 2.3.2.

5.2.2.3 State of loading


The second basic parameter of classification is the state of loading, which is concerned with
the number of times a load of a particular magnitude, in relation to the capacity of the
structure of the crane or crane component, is hoisted. The nominal values of the load
spectrum factor (K p) shall comply with Clause 2.3.3.
5.2.2.4 Structure classification
The structure classification for the various combinations of class utilization and state of
loading shall be as given in Table 5.2.2.4.
TABLE 5.2.2.4
CLASSIFICATION OF CRANE STRUCTURES
1

State of loading

Nominal
load
spectrum
factor
(Kp )

10

11

12

Classification of crane structure


Class of utilization
U0

U1

U2

U3

U4

U5

U6

U7

U8

U9

Q1Light

0.125

S1

S1

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

Q2Moderate

0.25

S1

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

S8

Q3Heavy

0.50

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

S8

S9

Q4Very heavy

1.00

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

S8

S9

S9

Load condition

0*

* Fatigue analysis not required.


Corresponds to same loading condition in AS 3990.
NOTE: The solid lines in the Table group together the state of loading (Q) and the class of utilization (U),
which belong to the same loading condition (see Clause 5.5).

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5.3 DESIGN OBJECTIVE


Design objectives are to achieve adequate strength and serviceability during the design life
of the crane. Design calculation shall be carried out to determine that the crane structure
will have adequate strength in service when operated in compliance with the manufacturers
written instructions.
The proof of adequacy shall include proof of safety against yielding, elastic instability or
fatigue.
Proof of adequacy shall also include stability against overturning.
The elastic displacements shall be checked to prove that the appliance shall not become
unfit to perform its intended duties, affect stability, or interfere with the proper functioning
of mechanisms.
5.4 METHOD OF DESIGN
5.4.1 General
The design of the lifting appliance shall be carried out by one of the following methods:
(a)

The working stress design method.

(b)

The limit states method.

5.4.2 Working stress design method


Design by working stress design method shall be determined in accordance with the
provisions of AS 3990, except where otherwise specified in this Standard.
5.4.3 Limit states method
Individual specified or characteristic loads (Fj) are determined and amplified where
specified in Table 7.9 using the dynamic factors () and multiplied by the appropriate
partial load factors ( p). They are then combined according to the load combination under
consideration to give the combined load (M). Partial load factors (p ) for individual loads
shall be determined in accordance with the principles laid down in AS 4100.
If a probabilistic proof of adequacy is used, the relevant assumption, particularly the
acceptable probability of failure, shall be stated.
5.5 FATIGUE STRENGTH
5.5.1 General
The crane structure shall be checked for fatigue strength under load combinations involving
frequently applied loads (i.e. 1, 2, 3 and 4), and for the service life specified in Clause 5.1.
5.5.2 Working stress design
Load conditions for fatigue design by AS 3990 are given in Table 5.5.2. The stress ranges
shall be determined in accordance with the appropriate load combinations of Section 4.
Fatigue assessment shall be carried out in accordance with AS 3990.
NOTE: AS 4100 should be referenced for details of connections where such details are not
addressed by AS 3990.

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TABLE 5.5.2

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LOAD CONDITION AND EQUIVALENT LOAD CYCLES


Number of equivalent cycles
Classification of crane
structure

Load condition
from AS 3990

S1, S2, S3

Fatigue analysis not


required

S4

>20 000

100 000

100 000

S6, S7

>100 000

500 000

500 000

S8

>500 000

2 000 000

2 000 000

S9

>2 000 000

From design by allowable


stress method (AS 3990)

For design by limit


state method
(AS 4100)

5 000 000

NOTE: The number of equivalent cycles is obtained after conversion of actual loading cycles and load
spectrum, as defined in Table 5.2.2.2, to equivalent loading cycles for load spectrum factor Kp = 1.

5.5.3 Limit states design


The verification of fatigue strength shall be carried out in accordance with AS 4100. In the
absence of a load cycle analysis based on time and motion analysis, an equivalent number
of load cycles to be used in the design shall be as given in Table 5.5.2.
5.6 DESIGN FOR SERVICEABILITY DEFLECTION AND VIBRATION
5.6.1 General
Deflections of the crane structure shall be kept within the limits imposed by the mechanical
and operational requirements as specified in the relevant part of the AS 1418 series of
Standards.
The actual deflection shall not affect the function of the crane.
5.6.2 Deflection limits of crane structural members
The calculated maximum deflection of any crane structural member shall be not greater
than the following:
(a)

Vertical static deflection due to all dead loads and live loads without dynamic factors
applied
(i)

between supports: 1/500 span or 60 mm, whichever is the lesser; or

(ii)

cantilever: 1/300 span.


NOTE: The effects of adjacent spans on cantilever deflection have to be taken into
account in calculating cantilever deflection.

(b)

Lateral deflection induced by inertial forces or off-vertical lift


(i)

bridge beam or truss under the inertial forces acting on dead loads and live
loads: 1/600 span; and

(ii)

bridge beam or truss under the inertial forces acting on dead loads only: 20 mm.
Load combination factor ( c) may be applied (see Table 4.8).

5.6.3 Driver exposure to vibration


Vibration amplitudes and frequencies experienced by the operators of cabin-controlled
cranes shall be in accordance with the applicable parts of AS 2670.
Consideration shall be given to the frequency and amplitude of vibration in the design of
cranes, ensuring that vibrations do not affect the correct function of the crane.
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SECT ION

AS 1418.12002

STAB I L I T Y

6.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section specifies the requirements for safety against overturning of cranes (see
Clause 1.1).
6.2 OVERTURNING
Cranes shall have an adequate stability margin against overturning when in service and out
of service. In particular, the stability margin against overturning shall be checked under the
following loading conditions:
(a)

Crane in service.

(b)

For cranes used externally, or cranes out of service, subject to the design wind
loading.
The loads applied for this check shall be the same as those specified in Section 4
except that a sudden release of full load shall also be included.
The loads shall be combined as specified in Section 4 using the most adverse
combinations excluding dynamic multipliers.
The stability against overturning shall be checked by:

FS =

M S
M O

. . . 6.2

where
FS

= stability margin against overturning

M S = minimum stabilizing moment


MO = maximum overturning moment due to loads and wind force
The stability margin (F S) shall be not less than the following values:
(i)

Crane in service................................................................................................... 1.4.

(ii)

Crane out of service subject to the design wind loading ........................................ 1.2.

The stability calculations shall be carried out for overturning points that can realistically be
regarded as giving support to the crane and for the most adverse disposition of crane
elements and loads.
Where it is intended that the crane be parked and secured with special stabilizing devices,
the crane and the stabilizing devices shall be checked for their structural adequacy under
design wind load as specified in Section 4.
6.3 STABILITY DURING ERECTION AND MAINTENANCE
The crane shall be checked under these conditions of loading and its overturning stability
margin shall not be less than 1.2.
6.4 SAFETY AGAINST DRIFTING
The minimum design factors against drifting (F d1, F d2) shall be as follows:

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AS 1418.12002

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Fd1 =

sum of friction loads


total wind drag + gradient gravitational force

Fd2 =

sum of brake capacities


total wind drag + gradient gravitational force

The smallest calculated design factor shall be not less than the following:
(a)

Using the automatic brakes of the travel drives, against in service wind forces, 1.5.

(b)

Not in service, under design wind forces, 1.10.

The lower-bound value of the coefficient of friction between the driven wheels and the rail
shall be determined on the basis of tests or, in the absence of tests, the following values
shall be used:
(i)

For driven wheels ................................................................................................ 0.2.

(ii)

For rail clamps .................................................................................................. 0.33.

Where rail clamps are provided, a risk assessment shall be conducted to assess the
requirements for automatic actuation. The risk assessment shall consider as a minimum
stability, time to apply the clamp, exposure to personnel, consequential damage.

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SECT ION

CRANE

AS 1418.12002

MECHAN ISMS

7.1 GENERAL
This Section specifies requirements for crane mechanisms and related components (see
Clause 1.1). The design life of crane mechanisms shall be 10 years unless the requirements
of Clause 2.2(A) to (D) are followed.
7.2 MECHANISMS
The term mechanism incorporates all mechanical components and plant provided for
powering, coupling and speed changing and all other components required for the operation
of the crane. Mechanisms shall be designed to perform their intended function without loss
of serviceability during their design life.
Serviceability shall be deemed to include the attributes of shock-free acceleration and
braking, positive control of the load or motions during operation and upon the cessation of
operation, and for the out of service conditions.
7.3 BASIS OF DESIGN
7.3.1 Design of mechanism
Both complete crane mechanism assemblies and each mechanism component shall be
designed for all forces due to the mass of the crane and crane mechanism, forces imposed
on the crane mechanism during its operation, forces arising from erection, testing and
maintenance, and forces due to the effects of the environment to which the crane and crane
mechanisms are exposed. Forces due to acceleration and retardation of the moving masses
for all crane motions shall be determined by rational dynamic analysis or simplified
conservative methods of calculation as specified in this Section.
The design of the crane mechanism shall be on the following basis:
(a)

Manually operatedstrength basis only.

(b)

Power-operated
(i)

strength basis; and

(ii)

life basis
(A)

wear; and

(B)

fatigue (finite or infinite).

7.3.2 Design for strength


The design for strength of both complete crane mechanism assemblies and each mechanism
component shall comply with the following requirements:
(a)

Loadings are specified in Clause 7.4, except that for manually operated mechanisms
the design shall be based on static loading with a duty factor of 1.1 applied.

(b)

Testing shall be conducted prior to being placed in service as specified in the


appropriate part of AS 1418.

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7.3.3 Design for life

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7.3.3.1 Wear
It is intended that mechanisms of components be designed for a minimum life of 10 years,
determined by the in service duration and the load condition applied during the in service
period. The service life of specific mechanisms may vary from this period and this shall be
documented.
NOTE: Devices are available to record the rated life of a crane based on its working conditions
and working hours, which enables an assessment of its remaining design life. Guidance on
assessing a crane based on its actual rated life is given in ISO 12842-1.

For design purposes, Km and the value for running hours shall be that specified in
Tables 7.3.4.2 and 7.3.4.3 for the respective classification.
Wear plates or rollers should be provided to guide parts relative to each other. Where
required, take-up adjustment should be provided.
7.3.3.2 Fatigue strength
One of two methods may be employed to design for fatigue strength as follows:
(a)

Finite life Design for finite life allows stress to frequently go higher than the
endurance limit of the material of the component under consideration. As a
consequence, calculations are much more extensive, since not only the maximum load
in the component has to be known, but also the load frequency, the state of loading
and the limiting stress ratios.

(b)

Infinite life In the design for infinite life, the magnitude of the stresses in
components rarely exceeds the endurance limit of the material used. It is not
necessary to assess the load cycle frequencies in the component during its life, that is,
the frequency of high loading is negligible.

NOTE: Guidance on the fatigue design of mechanisms is provided in Appendix F.

7.3.4 Classification of crane mechanisms


7.3.4.1 Basis of classification
The group classification of the crane mechanism shall be determined from the class of
utilization (see Clause 7.3.4.2) and the state of loading (see Clause 7.3.4.3).
NOTE: A sample calculation for the classification of crane mechanisms is provided in
Appendix D.

7.3.4.2 Class of utilization


The class of utilization of a mechanism shall be determined by the assumed total duration of
use in hours, and shall be one of the 10 nominal classes shown in Table 7.3.4.2.
The maximum total duration of use may be derived from the assumed average daily
utilization time in hours, the number of working days per year, and the number of years of
expected service.
NOTE: For this purpose, a mechanism is considered to be in use only when it is in motion.

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AS 1418.12002

TABLE 7.3.4.2

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CLASS OF UTILIZATION OF MECHANISMS


Class of utilization

Total duration of use


H

T0

H 200

T1

200 < H 400

T2

400 < H 800

T3

800 < H 1600

T4

1600 < H 3200

Fairly frequent use

T5

3200 < H 6300

Frequent use

T6

6300 < H 12 500

Very frequent use

T7

12 500 < H 25 000

T8

25 000 < H 50 000

Continuous or near
continuous use

T9

50 000 < H 100 000

T 10

100 000 < H

Description of use
Infrequent use

7.3.4.3 State of loading


The state of loading of a mechanism specifies to what extent the mechanism is subjected to
its maximum loading or only to reduced loading. There are four different nominal states of
loading as shown in Table 7.3.4.3.
The load spectrum factor (K m ) for the mechanism is given by the following equation:
t
Km = i
tT

Pi

Pmax

MM

. . . 7.3.4.3

where
ti

= duration of use of the mechanism at the individual load levels


= t 1, t 2 , t 3, . . . t n

tT

= total of all the individual durations at all load levels


= t I
= t 1 + t2 + t 3 + . . . + t n

Pi

= individual loading magnitudes (loading levels) characteristic of the duty of


the mechanism
= P 1 , P2 , P3 , . . . P n

P max = greatest loading magnitude applied to the mechanism (due to rated capacity)
MM

= index for the mechanism


= 3 unless otherwise determined

The nominal load spectrum factor for the mechanism shall be established by matching the
calculated load spectrum factor to the closest (higher) nominal value of K m given in
Table 7.3.4.3 and an adjustment for equivalent running hours may be made.

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42

TABLE 7.3.4.3

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NOMINAL LOAD SPECTRUM FACTOR AND STATE OF LOADING


FOR CRANE MECHANISMS
Nominal load spectrum
factor
(K m )

State of loading

Description of use

0.125

L1Very light

Mechanisms subjected very rarely to the maximum


load and, normally, to very light loads

0.25

L2Light

Mechanisms subjected fairly frequently to the


maximum load but, normally, to rather light loads

0.50

L3Medium

Mechanisms subjected frequently to the maximum load


and, normally, to loads of moderate magnitude

1.00

L4Heavy

Mechanisms subjected with high frequency to the


maximum load

7.3.4.4 Group classification


The group classification for the various combinations of class of utilization and state of
loading shall be as given in Table 7.3.4.4.
NOTE: The application of group classification to specific types of crane mechanisms is covered
in the appropriate parts of AS 1418.

TABLE 7.3.4.4
GROUP CLASSIFICATION OF CRANE MECHANISMS
1

State of loading

Nominal load
spectrum
factor
(K m )

10

11

12

Group classification of crane mechanism


Class of utilization
T0

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

T7

T8

T9

L1Light

0.125

M1

M1

M1

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6

M7

M8

L2Moderate

0.25

M1

M1

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6

M7

M8

L3Heavy

0.50

M1

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6

M7

M8

L4Very heavy

1.00

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6

M7

M8

NOTE: Where class utilization calculations give a crane mechanisms group classification of greater than M8, as
indicated by an asterisk (*), the mechanism shall be designed for the required rated life.

7.4 MECHANISM LOADINGS


7.4.1 Determination of loads
Determination of loads shall include all loads resulting from the intended crane operation,
and loads caused by the environment, in and out of service wind, erection, testing and fault
conditions.
Steady-state loads, such as gravity-induced loads, shall be determined from the masses of
all component parts permanently attached to the crane.
Live loads on in service cabin floor, walkways and platforms shall comply with the
provisions of this Standard, AS 1657, AS 3990 and AS 1170.1.
Dynamic loads due to acceleration or deceleration of masses shall be determined by
either
(a)

dynamic analysis capable of modelling the characteristics of the crane operations; or

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(b)

AS 1418.12002

methods of determination of loads specified in this Section.

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7.4.2 Categorization of mechanism loads


For convenience of referencing, the mechanism loads are divided into three load groups as
follows:
(a)

Principal loads (see Clause 7.5).

(b)

Additional loads (see Clause 7.6).

(c)

Special loads (see Clause 7.7).

Each load group is divided into load categories as shown in Table 7.4.3.
7.4.3 Categorization of mechanism loading
The types of loading to be considered in the design of a crane mechanism, or mechanism
component, shall be as shown in Table 7.4.3.
TABLE 7.4.3
CATEGORIZATION OF MECHANISM LOADS
Load group

Principal loads

Loads

Reference
Clause

R 1Loads due to the dead load of the mechanism (or component)

7.5(a)

R 2Loads due to the dead load of those parts of the crane acting on
the mechanism or component (including the empty mass of the crane
hook) for those mechanisms (or components) that it acts upon directly
or indirectly

7.5(b)

R 3Loads due to the mass of live load acting on the crane hook

7.5(c)

R 4Loads due only to the dynamic effects caused by the maximum


acceleration (or retardation) of the mass loaded onto the crane hook

7.5(d)

R 5Loads due to the maximum acceleration (or retardation) of the


crane mechanism (or component), including those due to the inertia of
the mechanism itself, its prime mover, brakes, associated crane parts
and the concurrent operation of other crane motions, as applicable

7.5(e)

R 6Loads arising from frictional forces

7.5(f)

V 1Load due to the in service wind acting horizontally in any


direction where applicable (see AS 1170.2)

7.5(g)

V 2Load due to the out of service wind acting horizontally in any


direction where applicable (see AS 1170.2)

7.5(h)

Additional loads

Wind, snow, ice, temperature extremes, oblique travel

7.6

Special loads
(see Clause 7.7)

B 1Load due to collision with buffers

7.7(a)

B 2Emergency conditions

7.7(b)

7.5 PRINCIPAL LOADS


Principal loads comprise the mass of the mechanism and highly repetitive loads arising
from the intended service of the mechanisms. The typical principal loads are as follows:
(a)

R 1loads due to the dead load of the mechanism (or component).

(b)

R 2loads due to the dead load of those parts of the crane acting on the mechanism or
component (including the empty mass of the crane hook) for those mechanisms (or
components) that it acts upon, directly or indirectly.

(c)

R 3loads due to the mass of live load acting on the crane hook.

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(d)

44

R 4loads due only to the dynamic effects caused by the maximum acceleration (or
retardation) of the mass loaded onto the crane hook.
Where acceleration (or retardation) data is not available, the load increment due to the
dynamic effects shall be calculated using the maximum suspended design deadload
(payload) mass multiplied by ( 1.0) where is typically 2 or 3 (see Clause 4.5.3.2
for a definition of 2 and Clause 4.5.3.4 for a definition of 3).
Care shall be taken in the determination of the dynamic multiplier for hoisting, that it
is not underestimated, especially where high-speed hoisting is an available option.

(e)

R 5loads due to the maximum acceleration (or retardation) of the crane mechanism
(or component), including those due to the inertia of the mechanism itself, its prime
mover, brakes, associated crane parts and the concurrent operation of other crane
motions, as applicable.

(f)

R 6loads arising from frictional forces.

(g)

V 1load due to the in service wind acting horizontally in any direction, where
applicable (see AS 1170.2).
The loads on the mechanism shall be determined from the most adverse wind
conditions on the crane structure and securing devices, e.g., rail clamps.
In general, the torque (MAu ) forced onto the driving mechanism by the wind load is
limited by sliding of the track wheels or by braking. The maximum value of M Au from
one of the following equations shall apply:
rL
(W Au PL )
ia

. . . 7.5(1)

rL
RAu
ia

. . . 7.5(2)

(i)

M Au =

(ii)

M Au =

(iii)

M Au = i m M br

. . . 7.5(3)

where
M Au

= maximum torque on the driving mechanism due to wind load

rL

= radius of track wheel, with driving mechanisms, or distance of the


thrust point of the wind from the rotary axle, with slewing, luffing or
pull-in mechanisms

ia

= gear ratio of the driving mechanism shaft to be calculated to the


track wheel or rotary crane part

W Au

= the wind load acting on the in service driving mechanism in


accordance with AS 1170.2

PL

= proportion of the resistance to travelling, traversing, luffing, pullingin or revolving as acting on the driving mechanism

= coefficient of friction between the track wheel and rail to be taken as


0.25

R Au = total of the maximum wheel forces of the track wheels connected to


the driving mechanism in the in service condition

Standards Australia

im

= gear ratio from motor to part under consideration

M br

= maximum torque in the motor shaft from the mechanical brake or the
motor or the eddy current brake

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(h)

AS 1418.12002

V 2load due to the out of service wind acting horizontally in any direction, where
applicable (see AS 1170.2).
For the out of service condition, the driving mechanisms are generally idle, but
frequently they have to perform a static function, e.g., holding in place against the
wind. On occasions, they are influenced more unfavourably by a different distribution
of the dead load than when operating. For cranes with booms, wind loads shall be
considered in fatigue calculations.

7.6 ADDITIONAL LOADS


Additional loads and their effects occur relatively infrequently and are usually neglected in
fatigue evaluations. Typical additional loads are due to snow, ice, temperature extremes and
oblique travel.
7.7 SPECIAL LOADS
The combinations of loads to be considered for special loading conditions depend upon the
type of crane, the application and the crane motion. It shall include any loading conditions
that are known to apply but which are not covered under the loading conditions given in
Table 7.9.
NOTE: During erection or dismantling operations unless the operation is completed during a
period when the wind does not exceed V 1 conditions, the parts being erected or dismantled should
be secured so that they are capable of withstanding a wind of V2 conditions.

Special loads occur during operations on such rare occasions that there is no need to take
them into consideration with regard to the service life of the respective driving mechanism
parts. Three types of special loads that should be taken into consideration are out of service
wind, buffer forces and emergency shutdown or power failure. These may be considered as
follows:
(a)

B 1driving mechanism loads due to collision with buffers The driving mechanism
parts shall be assessed for maximum load sustained during impact of the crane or
parts of the crane onto travel buffers or end stops.
Where driving mechanisms rely on friction, accurate loads may be calculated by
taking the sliding force between the track wheel and the rail as a basis for the
calculation of the torque (M SO) in accordance with the following equation:
M SO =

rL
Rmax
ia

. . . 7.7

where
, r L and i a are as defined in Clause 7.5
R max = total of the maximum wheel forces of the track wheels driven by the
driving mechanism under consideration during operation
(b)

B 2Emergency conditions Emergency shutdown or power failure


Where driving mechanisms, apart from the in service brake, have an additional safety
or holding brake that becomes effective without delay in the event of power failure,
the torque occurring with application of this brake shall be determined.
The maximum braking torque of the in service, safety and holding brakes shall be
applied.
For driving mechanisms relying on friction, use Equation 7.7.

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7.8 CATEGORIZATION
COMBINATIONS

OF

FREQUENCY

OF

MECHANISM

LOAD

For convenience of referencing, the frequency of the occurrence of load combinations are
divided into three categories as follows:
(a)

Frequently occurring load combinations, i.e. principal loads, without additional or


special loads, occurring frequently.

(b)

Infrequently occurring load combinations, i.e. additional loads, including in service


with and without wind, in combination with principal loads occurring infrequently.

(c)

Rarely occurring load combinations, i.e. special loads, appropriate to the type of
crane and its application that may occur rarely, in combination with both principal
and additional loads, during its life, e.g.,
(i)

collision with buffers; and

(ii)

during crane erection.

These categories are set out in Table 7.9.


7.9 PRINCIPLES FOR DETERMINING MECHANISM LOAD COMBINATIONS
7.9.1 General
Loads shall be combined so as to determine the maximum stresses that the mechanisms will
experience, both during the in service and the out of service conditions, and shall be
assumed to act with a magnitude and direction that will cause the maximum stress
combinations at critical points.
7.9.2 Application of load combinations
7.9.2.1 Use of Table 7.9
For each type of load combination, Table 7.9 gives the loadings that shall be considered to
act simultaneously, that is, where a symbol (e.g., R 1) is used to represent a calculation for
the loads due to the deadload acting on a component and where a dash () is used it is to
signify that a load of that type need not be included in the load combination, unless special
conditions of operation require its inclusion.
The individual loads shall be combined to produce the most adverse effect on the crane
mechanisms during operations. This is typified by the application of Table 7.9. Other
applicable load combinations shall be considered for other specific applications.
NOTES:
1

Such combination of loads need not necessarily correspond to the combination of the
maximum values of each of the individual loads.

Where appliances are carrying persons or dangerous substances, variations to the load factors
may be required.

7.9.2.2 Working stress design method


Where the working stress design method is used for the verification of the strength and
serviceability of the crane mechanism, the load effects (moments, shears, normal forces)
derived from each load combination may be multiplied by the load combination factor ( c).
NOTE: As an example for load combination 7 of Table 9, the total load (P tot) in an assumed
mechanism would be derived from:
c = 0.9
P tot = 0.9 [The effect of (R1 + R2 + R3 + R5 + R6 + V 1)]

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7.9.2.3 Proof of fatigue strength


The effects of fatigue shall be considered. Where proof of fatigue strength is found to be
necessary, it shall be carried out in accordance with the principles set down in Clauses 7.9.1
and 7.9.2. In general, load combinations 1, 2, 3 and 4 (regular loads) shall be taken into
account.
In some applications it may be necessary to consider also occasional loads such as in
service or out of service wind, skewing and exceptional loads such as test loads and
excitation of the lifting appliance foundation (e.g., wave effects).
7.9.2.4 High-risk applications
In special cases where the human or economic consequences of failure are exceptionally
severe (e.g., ladle cranes or cranes for nuclear applications) increased reliability shall be
obtained by the use of a risk coefficient ( n > 1), the value of which shall be selected
according to the requirements of the particular application.
7.9.2.5 Calculation of loads
The applicable loads specified in Table 7.9 shall be utilized.
The calculation of the load applied to a power-operated crane mechanism or a component
thereof commences from the torque occurring at a drive shaft. The efficiency of the
mechanism may be disregarded in the calculation of the torque when the total mechanical
efficiency is 0.95 or higher.
7.9.2.6 Static strength
In general, the yield point or the 0.2 percent limit of the material of which the respective
driving mechanism part is made may be regarded as the strength under static stress.
In order to eliminate unintentionally exceeding the yield point for materials with a yield
point/strength ratio greater than 0.7, the following equation for allowable yield stress
(fictitious yield point) shall be used:
EF =

E + 0.7 B
2

. . . 7.9.2.6

where
EF = allowable yield stress (fictitious yield point)
E

= yield strength of material

= ultimate strength of material

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TABLE 7.9
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LOAD COMBINATIONS FOR CRANE MECHANISMS


Loading condition
Load
group

Additional
load

Special
loads

Vertical
motion

Load type

Line
number

Description

Principal
loads

Frequently occurring load combinations

Symbol

Raise or
lower

Traverse

Travel

Slewing

Horizontal
and vertical
motion
(see Note)

Horizontal motion

Dead load of
mechanism

R1

R1

R1

Rs

R1

R1

Dead load of parts of


crane acting on
mechanism or
component

R2

Rs

R2

Rs

R2

Hook load mass


(payload)

R3

R3

R3

R3

R3

R3

Dynamic effects of
payload

R4

R4

Dynamic effects due


to inertia of
mechanism

R5

R5

R5

R5

R5

Rs

Frictional forces

R6

R6

R6

R6

R6

R6

Service wind
(acting horizontal)

V1

Out of service-wind
(acting horizontal)

V2

Wind, snow, ice,


temperature
extremes, oblique
travel

10

Collision forces with


buffers

B1

11

Emergency
conditions

B2

1.0

NOTE: Combined horizontal/vertical motion occurs during the following in service conditions:
(a)

Luffing or telescoping with a non-level luffing crane.

(b)

Travel or traverse on an inclined plane.

(c)

Slew on an inclined plane.

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AS 1418.12002

Infrequently occurring load combinations


Vertical
motion

Horizontal
and
vertical
Travel Slewing motion
(see Note)

Horizontal motion

Raise or
Traverse
lower

Not applicable

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TABLE 7.9 (continued)


Rarely occurring load combinations
Vertical
motion
Raise or
lower

Horizontal motion
Traverse

Travel

Slewing

Horizontal
and vertical
motion
(see Note)

10

11

12 13 14 15 16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

R1

R1

R1

R1

R1

R1 R1 R1 R1 R1

R1

R1

R1

R1

R1

R1

R1

R2

R2

R2

R2

R2 R2 R2 R2 R2

R2

R2

R2

R2

RS

R2

R2

R3

R3

RS

RS

R3

R3 R3 R3

R3

R3

R3

R3

R3

R4

R5

R5

R5

R5

R5

R6

R6

R6

R6

R6

V1

VN

V1

V1

V2 V2

V2

V2

B1 B1

B1

B1

BS

B2

B2

B2

B2

0.9

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7.9.2.7 Determination of stresses


A uniform basis is required so that the stresses resulting from the loads determined
according to Clause 7.4 may be compared. For that reason, stresses are determined as
reference quantities for the stress analysis. They are to be calculated according to the
following equations from the maximum stresses (see Clauses 7.5, 7.6 and 7.7) of the load
combinations:
(a)

Tension:

t =

Pt
At

. . . 7.9.2.7(1)

(b)

Compression:

c =

Pc
Ac

. . . 7.9.2.7(2)

(c)

Bending:

b =

Mb
Zb

. . . 7.9.2.7(3)

(d)

Longitudinal shear (due to bending moment):

l =

QS
It

. . . 7.9.2.7(4)

(e)

Torsional shear (for solid member only):

e =

MT
Z ps

. . . 7.9.2.7(5)

(f)

Rolling pressure (according to Hertz):


H

(g)

2E E2
1
=
1
2
2 (1 ) E1 + E 2

P
wr
b

1
1

+
RCl RC2

1/ 2

. . . 7.9.2.7(6)

For multi-axial stresses and normal and shear stresses acting simultaneously, the most
unfavourable reference stress shall be calculated from the following equation:

V = x2 + y2 x y + 3 2

1/ 2

. . . 7.9.2.7(7)

where

Standards Australia

= tensile stress

Pt

= tensile force acting directly on the part

At

= sectional area under tensile stress

= compressive stress

Pc

= compressive force acting directly on the part

Ac

= sectional area under compressive stress

= bending stress

Mb

= bending moment directly on the part

Zb

= axial section modulus

= longitudinal shear stress

= shear force sustained by the part

= static moment of the connected cross-sectional part

= moment of inertia of the part (about the axis under


consideration)

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AS 1418.12002

= thickness of the part of the cross-sectional fibre under


consideration

= torsional shear stress

MS

= torsional moment directly on the part

Z ps

= polar section modulus

= rolling stress

E 1 and E 2

= modulus of elasticity of the two rolling elements

P wr

= stress (load) applied to the rolling elements

= Poisson ratio for the material of the part

= (rolling) contact width

R C1 and RC2 = radius of curvature of the two rolling elements


v

= combined stress

= normal stress in x direction

= normal stress in y direction

= combined shear stress

7.9.2.8 Permissible stresses for strength


Compressive and tensile stresses, for design on a strength basis shall be not greater than Fc
and F t, where Fc and Ft are the permissible compressive and tensile stresses, respectively
(in megapascals) and:
F c and F t = 0.67 times the yield stress of a material, with yield stress not greater
than 0.7 times the tensile strength
F t = 0.67 times the value from Equation 7.9.2.6
Shear stress for design on a strength basis shall be not greater than Fs, where Fs is the
permissible shear stress (in megapascals) and:
Fs =

Ft
3

. . . 7.9.2.8

7.10 MECHANICAL COMPONENTS


7.10.1 General
Mechanical components, including machine elements (e.g., chains, chain wheels and
sprockets, couplings, drive belts, gearing, journal and rolling-element bearings, splines and
threaded fasteners) shall comply with the relevant Australian Standards where such exist or
with the published recommendations of the manufacturer of the component.
The load capacity of each component shall be such as to ensure compliance with
Clause 7.3.2 (for strength) and Clause 7.3.3 (for life).
Mechanical drive shafts shall comply with AS 1403. The loading factors specified in
Table 4.8 shall be considered.
7.10.2 Bearings
Bearings shall be designed for the load spectrum factor K m and corresponding total duration
in hours (h). These may be either obtained by calculation or selected from Tables 7.3.4.2
and 7.3.4.4. The load applied to ball bearings shall be K m 1/3 times full load and the load
applied to roller bearings shall be K m 3/10 times the full load.
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7.10.3 Gearing

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7.10.3.1 General
Gearing shall be designed for the load spectrum factor K m and corresponding total duration
in hours (h). These may either be obtained by calculation or selected from Tables 7.3.4.2
and 7.3.4.4.
7.10.3.2 Strength requirements
Stresses occurring in any operating condition shall not exceed the permissible values. The
following applies:
(a)

Non-permissible stresses from elastic and/or thermal deformations shall be avoided.

(b)

Statically determined configurations and components shall be preferred so that the


stresses occurring are known and their effects on other components can be
determined.

7.10.3.3 Gears
Gears shall be in accordance with ISO 6336 (all parts) for spur and helical gears, taking into
account ISO 1328-1 for accuracy.
Gear wheels shall be made from material that has proven properties for the intended
application and life of the gear.
The dimensions of the gears shall be derived from the rated torque, material strength, and
the driving gear groups.
The type of connection shall not produce any non-permissible stresses on the gears.
Irreversibility shall be avoided where the moment of inertia of the moved parts is greater
than the moment of inertia of the moving parts.
7.10.3.4 Gear enclosures
Gearing shall be guarded when it constitutes a hazard during normal operation or
maintenance.
Where gears are fully enclosed in a gear case, the gear case shall be oil-tight and sealed
with a gasket or an appropriate sealing compound.
The gear case supporting structure shall firmly secure the case in position and prevent it
from coming loose during operation.
The gear case construction shall be rigid to ensure that the gear shaft alignments and centre
distances are maintained under all working conditions.
Drain plugs, breathers and oil-level indicators should be readily accessible.
Gear cases should be provided with lifting lugs.
For all gear cases, particular attention shall be paid to ensure proper lubrication of all gears
and bearings.
7.10.3.5 Bearings and supports
A component supported on a bearing, the bearing itself and its support structure shall be so
designed that failure of a bearing shall not lead to the dropping of any major part of the
crane or the load.

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7.10.4 Couplings

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7.10.4.1 General
Selection of the type of coupling shall be made on the basis of the general design of the
mechanism, its use and performance required in order to avoid vibrations and unwanted
reactions. Alignment shall comply with the suppliers instructions.
When necessary, rotating parts shall be statically or dynamically balanced.
7.10.4.2 Clutches
When sprag-type clutches are used in hoist and derricking systems, they shall incorporate a
positive mechanical lock against failure or be designed to transmit twice the maximum
torque imposed by the maximum line pull.
Dry friction clutches shall be protected against rain and other liquids such as oil and
lubricants.
Toothed or dog clutches shall have at least four teeth or dogs and their mating recesses shall
be undercut sufficiently to prevent inadvertent disengagement of the clutch.
Clutches shall be arranged to permit adjustments where necessary to compensate for wear.
The maximum permissible torque of the clutch shall be at least as high at any operating
temperature as the torque impulses occurring during operations, taking into account the
impulse frequency and the permissible wear.
7.11 DRIVING MEDIA
The Power mechanism may be an electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic motor or an internal
combustion engine. Manual driving mechanisms are also covered.
The crane mechanism shall have sufficient power and torque to control the motions under
the specified design conditions. Gravitational, inertial, in service wind, friction forces and
mechanism efficiency shall be taken into account.
Where engine exhaust gases are generated, they shall be discharged in a direction away
from the operator and airconditioning system as applicable.
7.12 BRAKING
7.12.1 Braking media
All methods of braking a crane shall be designed in accordance with the performance
requirements Sections of this Standard where they exist, or other recognized national or
international Standards.
7.12.2 Size and characteristics
Brakes shall be capable of bringing the fully loaded crane to rest, without shock, in the
shortest time, consistent with safe working, and shall arrest the crane safely under all in
service conditions.
Each brake shall be of torque rating, braking characteristics and heat-dissipation
characteristics appropriate to its application on the crane.
Each brake shall have an effective range of automatic torque adjustment to compensate for
wear to maintain braking efficiency during periods of time between normal servicing. At
the end of such adjustment range, the brake shall comply with this Clause.
Drives which can be operated in an overspeed condition (e.g., frequency drives) shall be
checked for the ability of the mechanical braking medium to dissipate the heat energy
generated from kinetic energy during an emergency stop or power failure condition.
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NOTE: Specific test requirements for the various types of cranes are covered in the respective
parts of AS 1418.

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7.12.3 Environmental protection


Where the crane is exposed to any adverse environmental conditions (e.g., moisture ingress)
which may affect the operation of a brake, the brake shall be protected from such adverse
environmental conditions so that the effectiveness of the brake shall not be impaired and the
brake still complies with the requirements of Clause 7.12.2.
7.12.4 Accessibility
Provision shall be made so that all parts of the brake that need regular inspection, service or
maintenance are readily accessible.
7.12.5 Materials
7.12.5.1 General
Materials shall comply with the relevant Australian Standards.
7.12.5.2 Friction lining
Brake linings shall effectively resist wear at speeds, unit pressures and temperatures
consistent with the application of the brake on which they are used.
7.12.5.3 Brake cone, disc, drum or equivalent friction-surface component
Brake cones, discs, drums and equivalent components shall be manufactured from materials
consistent with the mating friction lining. The grade, surface finish, heat treatment,
hardness and similar properties of the material shall be such as to limit wear of the friction
surface.
Grey cast iron of grade less than 200 of AS 1830 and blackheart malleable iron shall not be
used for brake components.
7.12.5.4 Springs
Springs shall be of the compression type and shall be manufactured from an appropriate
grade of spring steel. Helical compression springs shall comply with BS 1726.1 so that
(a)

the pitch of the spring coils shall not allow a broken spring to intercoil when the
spring is in the minimum working load condition;

(b)

when the spring is closed solid, the stress is not greater than the permissible design
stress specified in BS 1726.1; and

(c)

where the spring is used on cranes of Classes C6, C7 and C8 or only one spring is
used to apply the brake, the stress at maximum in service deflection does not exceed
75 percent of the permissible design stress specified in BS 1726.1.

7.12.6 Design
The foot effort or hand effort and the movement required to operate a brake shall comply
with Clause 11.4.1.
Except for automatic brakes, each brake shall have means for maintaining the applied
condition other than by continued application of the in service force. Hydraulic or
pneumatic means shall not be used for retention of hydraulically and pneumatically applied
brakes.
7.12.7 Operation
Brake operation shall be fail-safe. Automatic brakes shall apply braking effort immediately
power is interrupted to the motion in the mechanism of which the brake is a component.

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Brake adjustment should be such that the operation time is appropriate to the type of
motion.
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7.12.8 Hoisting motion


7.12.8.1 General
The hoisting motion brake shall comply with the appropriate part of AS 1418 and shall be
designed to provide braking capable of automatically arresting and sustaining the load at
any position within the hoisting range, upon:
(a)

cessation of the application of the manual or powered hoisting effort; or

(b)

activation of the hoist-limiting device

Brake systems shall comply with the following requirements:


(i)

In the static condition, they shall hold a minimum of 1.6 times the rated capacity

(ii)

From the dynamic condition, they shall arrest a minimum of 1.2 times the hoist rated
capacity from the maximum lowering speed without a damaging snatch effect and
without unacceptable overheating within an acceptable braking distance for the crane
operation.

Torque shall be transmitted between the brake and the rope drum or equivalent via rigid
mechanical means.
7.12.8.2 Emergency load lowering
When emergency load-lowering is required, the hoist brake shall be capable of being
released manually. The mechanism shall be arranged to ensure
(a)

the load is under control during lowering;

(b)

the lowering rate is limited to be compatible with the brake heat dissipation
characteristics;

(c)

the brake(s) is(are) able to be released and reset without the requirement for tools;
and

(d)

the brake will reset automatically upon release of the manual override mechanism.

Instructions for the operation of the manual release mechanism shall be provided on the
hoist and in the operating manual.
7.12.8.3 Multiple brake hoists
For hoist systems fitted with two or more separate brake assemblies, the brakes shall be
(a)

mechanically independent of each other; and

(b)

arranged to avoid simultaneous application.

For service brakes, failure of any one brake shall not reduce the overall brake static torque
below 1.1 times the rated capacity of the hoist.
Where the additional brake(s) is used as an emergency or parking brake, each brake in the
drive train shall comply with the torque requirements of Clause 7.12.8.1.
Means shall be provided to monitor each brake, to verify its condition and operating status.
7.12.8.4 Dangerous goods lifting
When lifting dangerous substances, as defined in the Australian Dangerous Goods Code,
the hoist rated capacity shall not be less than 1.25 times the maximum lifted load.

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7.12.8.5 Special lifting applications


For special lifting applications where a risk assessment has shown that the loss of one
component in the hoist drive train would result in damage to the environment, property or
personnel, an additional brake shall be fitted to the hoist drum.
The following applies to the brake:
(a)

The brake shall be controlled so that it is applied automatically the instant a speed no
greater than 1.5 times the nominal lowering speed is reached.

(b)

The control equipment shall include an emergency stop function that will activate the
brake

(c)

For single wire rope hoist, the coefficient of utilisation (Zp) shall not be less than 8.

For hoists, equipped with two independent wire ropes, failure of one rope shall not reduce
the rope system coefficient of utilisation (Zp) below 3.
7.12.8.6 Lifting personnel
When personnel are suspended in a work box designed in accordance with AS 1418.17, the
requirements of AS 2550.1 shall apply.
Otherwise hoists used in the suspension of personnel shall comply with Clauses 7.12.8.2
and 7.12.8.5 or as specified in the applicable part of AS 1418.
NOTE: The use of a workbox shall be limited to those situations where it is necessary to elevate
personnel to perform special tasks of short duration or where it is not possible to use a scaffold or
a device designed specifically to lift personnel.

7.12.8.7 Molten metal handling


For hoists lifting molten metal

A1

(a)

where the hoist is equipped with a single rope and brake, the mechanical rating for
the hoist shall not be less than M5 and the mass of the hoisted load shall not exceed
80% of the hoist rated capacity; or

(b)

where the hoist has multiple drives, the brakes shall comply with Clause 7.12.8.3,
Items (a) and (b) and the combined braking effort shall be not less than 1.75 times the
rated capacity

Failure of any one brake shall not reduce the overall brake static torque below 1.25 times
the rated capacity of the hoist.
The dynamic braking provisions given in Clause 7.12.8.1(ii), shall apply.
7.12.9 Travel and traverse motions
The travel and transverse motions, where power driven, shall be provided with an in service
brake, and where limiting devices are provided to control the travel motion, the brake shall
be automatically applied by such limits. Where the crane is not cabin-controlled, the brake
shall be applied automatically. Where the crane is cabin-controlled, the brake shall be
capable of being locked on.
For outdoor cranes, where automatically applied in service brake or the wheel-to-rail
frictional forces, assuming a coefficient of friction between wheel and rail of 0.15, are
insufficient to restrain the crane or part of the crane when subjected to out of service forces,
e.g., wind forces, then an out of service brake shall be provided. Such brakes shall be
automatic for cranes with the dead weight of the structure exceeding 20 t and shall not be
applied until the crane is at rest. Where the driving power is transmitted through a hydraulic
coupling or other non-positive medium, the brake shall be located on the driven side of such
medium. The out of service brake shall be capable of restraining movement assuming a

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coefficient of friction between wheel and rail of 0.15, or between hardened serrated pads
and rail of 0.25.
Outdoor cranes shall be provided with an out of service brake/anchorage system where the
in service brake(s) is insufficient to restrain the crane or part of the crane when subjected to
out of service forces, e.g., wind forces. Appropriate Parts of the AS 1418 series may
provide detailed requirements for out of service brakes.
7.12.10 Luffing motion
Luffing motions shall be provided with an automatically applied in service brake. Where
luffing motion is achieved by use of a hoist, the requirements of Clause 7.12.8.5 shall
apply.
The brakes shall be designed to exert a restraining effort equivalent to 1.6 times the effect
due to the rated load and the dead weight of the jib and 1.0 times the effect arising from in
service wind, with the jib in the most unfavourable position.
For the crane in the out of service condition, the brakes shall be designed to exert a
restraining effort of at least 1.1 times the effect due to the dead weight of the jib and that
due to out of service wind, in the most unfavourable jib position or in the specified out of
service position.
7.12.11 Slewing motion
Power-driven cranes and hoists shall be provided with brakes designed to bring to a halt, in
a suitable time, the slewing motion taking into account the most unfavourable inertia and in
service wind conditions, if applicable, and shall operate in the event of a power failure.
For purposes of travel without a load, an effective slew-restraining device additional to the
slew mechanism shall be provided, e.g., boom restraint.
7.13 MOTION LIMITS, INDICATORS AND WARNING DEVICES
7.13.1 Provision of limits
Motion-limiting devices, including physical stops and buffers, shall be provided in
accordance with the requirements specified herein and in the appropriate part of AS 1418 to
obviate physical damage to the crane, part of the crane, due to movement of the crane, or
part of the crane past its designed range of motion.
Motion limiters, indicators and warning devices shall be selected only after consideration of
failure mode and subsequent consequences. These devices shall be selected in accordance
with methodology defined in AS 4024.1.
7.13.2 Range of limitation of motion
The range of movement between operation of a motion-limiting device and cessation of
movement shall be of sufficient magnitude to fulfil the object specified in Clause 7.13.1.
7.13.3 Operation of motion limit
Motion-limiting devices shall be automatic.
The operation of a motion-limiting device shall not create a hazard, e.g., due to gravity or
inertia effects.
7.13.4 Indicators and warning devices
Indicators and their associated equipment are applied to cranes to indicate load, working
radius and other pertinent operational factors, and determine and display the operational
conditions of the crane relative to its rated capacity limitations.
The indicators may alert the crane operator when an overload condition is approached,
reached or exceeded.
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Cranes may be provided with a combination of indicators or warning devices, such as the
following:
(a)

Load moment system.

(b)

Load indicator.

(c)

Working radius indicator.

(d)

Boom length indicator.

(e)

Boom angle indicator.

(f)

Level indicator (inclinometer).

(g)

Wind velocity indicator (anemometer).

(h)

Working zone indicator.

(i)

Proximity indicator.

(j)

Crane motion indicator.

The types of indicators or warning devices or combination thereof applicable to various


types of cranes are specified in the appropriate part of AS 1418.
7.14 ROPES AND REEVED SYSTEMS
7.14.1 Ropes
Each rope shall be of construction suitable for its particular application as defined in the
appropriate part of AS 1418.
7.14.2 Components
Components of fixed-rope systems and reeved systems shall comply with the following
Australian Standards, where applicable:
AS 1138, AS 2076, AS 2318, AS 2319, AS 2740, AS 2741 and AS 3777.
7.14.3 Tensiometers
A tensiometer using deflection sheaves with D/d more than the values given in Table 7.18
shall be fitted only to the running section of the rope and the deflection shall have an
included angle not less than 160.
7.15 GUYS, OTHER FIXED-ROPE SYSTEMS, AND STATIONARY ROPES
Guys, other fixed-rope systems, and stationary ropes are fixed in their relative positions at
both rope ends and are not subject to winding on a drum. Selection of such ropes shall be
made in accordance with Clause 7.14.2 with Zp values modified in accordance with
Table 7.15.
The maximum rope tensions shall be established for the rope of the mechanism after
consideration of the static forces and those forces resulting from maximum wind and impact
conditions.

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AS 1418.12002

TABLE 7.15

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MINIMUM COEFFICIENT OF UTILIZATION (Z p)


FOR OTHER THAN REEVED SYSTEMS
Classification of
mechanism

Minimum coefficient of
utilization
(Z P)

M1
M2
M3

2.5
2.5
3.0

M4
M5
M6

3.5
4.0
4.5

M7
M8

5.0
5.0

7.16 REEVED SYSTEMS


7.16.1 Wire rope
A1

A1

Except where there is insufficient data, the maximum design load applied to the rope shall
be determined by rational dynamic analysis multiplied by Z p from Table 7.16.2.1, or as
specified in the applicable part of AS 1418 to determine the minimum wire rope size.
Where dynamic analysis cannot be carried out due to unavailable data, then the loadings
specified in Clause 7.4 may be applied to determine the design load.
Where the reeved system has more than 10 parts, allowance shall be made for frictional
effects and the maximum rope tension shall be determined by the method given in
Appendix G.
7.16.2 Wire rope selection procedure
7.16.2.1 General
The procedure for selection of wire rope shall be in accordance with Clauses 7.16.2.2
to 7.16.2.7.
NOTES:
1

A worked example of this procedure is given in Appendix H.

The lay of the rope is related to the rope anchorage point on the drum. Correct combinations
of rope lay and anchorage configuration are given in Appendix I.

7.16.2.2 Selection of Z p values


For reeved systems, Table 7.16.2.1 sets out the values of Z p , which shall be used for a
particular classification of mechanism.

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TABLE 7.16.2.1

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MINIMUM COEFFICIENT OF UTILIZATION


(Zp) FOR REEVED SYSTEMS
Classification of
mechanism

Minimum coefficient of
utilization
(Z P)

M1
M2
M3

3.15
3.35
3.55

M4
M5
M6

4.0
4.5
5.6

M7
M8

7.1
9.0

7.16.2.3 Rope coefficient (C)


The minimum value for C is a function of Z p and shall be calculated by the following
equation:
Zp

C=

f R0

or

Zp
K R0

. . . 7.16.2.2

where
K

= the empirical factor of minimum breaking load of a given rope construction as


provided by the rope supplier

R 0 = the minimum tensile strength of the wire used in the rope, in megapascals
Zp

= the minimum practical coefficient of utilization

= filling factor (factor dependent on rope construction)


= total cross-sectional area of wires divided by the circular area defined by
actual rope radius

= loss factor
= R1 min / R1
where
R1 min

= minimum breaking strength of rope wires (MPa)

R1

= calculated breaking strength of the rope


= metallic cross-sectional area ultimate tensile strength of the
rope wires

7.16.2.4 Calculation of minimum rope diameter


The minimum diameter of the rope, d min , (mm) shall be calculated by the following
equation:
d min = C S R

. . . 7.16.2.3

where
S R = the maximum wire rope tension, in newtons, which is obtained by considering
the following factors:

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AS 1418.12002

(a) Rated capacity of the appliance.

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(b) Mass of the pulley block or other lifting attachments that increase rope
tension.
(c) Mechanical advantage of rope reeving.
(d) Efficiency of the rope reeving.
(e) The mass of the suspended length of the hoist rope, which shall be
included when the load handled is more than 5 m below the slewing
mechanism of the lifting appliance.
(f) Load due to acceleration (and retardation) of the load on the hook, if in
excess of 10% of the vertical load.
(g) Included angle of the rope at the upper hoisted position, if the rope angle
is greater than 22.5.
7.16.2.5 Minimum wire rope breaking load
The minimum breaking load (F o) of the particular rope intended for use is given by the
following equation:
Fo = S R Z p

. . . 7.16.2.4

where
Zp

= the minimum practical coefficient of utilization

7.16.2.6 Dangerous goods applications of wire rope


For lifting of dangerous goods and the handling of molten metal
(a)

no classification group lower than M5 shall be used; and

(b)

for M5 and higher classifications, the Z p value shall be increased by 25% except for
M8.

7.16.2.7 Personnel applications for wire rope


For applications involving lifting of personnel, a rope design factor not less than 8 shall be
applied to the load comprising the personnel and the lifting cage, where used.
7.16.3 Fleet angle from drum or sheave
The fleet angle of the rope shall not exceed 5 (1 in 12 slope) from the direction of the
groove for grooved drums and sheaves, or 3 (1 in 19 slope) for ungrooved drums.
7.16.4 Rope anchorages
Rope anchorages to rope-winding drums shall comply with Clause 7.19.2.3. Other rope
anchorages shall be arranged to freely align with the direction of the pull of the rope, and
shall be readily accessible.
7.16.5 Rope equalizers
The rope equalizer shall ensure that the force on the rope is automatically equalized and
rope equalizers shall be readily accessible.
Where a sheave or sheave segment is used, the diameter shall comply with Clause 7.18.
7.16.6 Overhauling weight
Where an overhauling weight is applied to a hoisting rope, the overhauling weight shall be
attached to the rope by means of a swivel. The overhauling weight shall not be attached
directly to the rope.
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7.16.7 Fibre rope

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Fibre rope, when designed for use in an application, should have a design factor in
accordance with the recommendations of AS 4142.
7.17 SHEAVES
7.17.1 Materials
Sheaves shall be made of a material complying with one of the following Australian
Standards, of a grade specified below, or of an equally suitable grade of material:
(a)

AluminiumAS 1874.

(b)

Grey cast ironAS 1830, grade not less than Grade 200.

(c)

Nodular graphite cast ironAS 1831.

(d)

Steel castingsAS 2074; grades C1, C2 and C3.

(e)

Steel plateAS 3678.

(f)

Malleable iron castingsAS 1832.

7.17.2 Design
The rope groove of a sheave shall be an arc of minimum radius 0.535 times the nominal
diameter of the rope and shall be tangential with sides flared with an included angle of 45
symmetrical about the centre-line of the groove. The groove shall be smoothly finished and
free from surface defects liable to damage the rope. The edge between grooves shall be
rounded.
NOTE: For guidance on groove profiles for wire rope sheaves, see Appendix J.

7.17.3 Diameter of sheave


The diameter of each sheave shall comply with Clause 7.18.
7.17.4 Sheave guard
Where there is a possibility of the rope being dislodged from the sheave, for example, when
the rope is not continually under load, the sheave shall be provided with means to retain the
rope in the groove.
Where required, sheave enclosures shall protect personnel from injury and protect the
sheaves from falling debris and similar. Such sheave enclosures shall not prevent the wound
condition of the wire rope on the sheave from being viewed.
7.18 DRUM AND SHEAVE DIAMETERS
The diameter of each drum and sheave shall be measured at the pitch diameter of the groove
and, except where specified otherwise in the appropriate part of AS 1418, shall be not less
than the value specified in Table 7.18, as appropriate, to the following equation:
NOTES:
1

For guidance on groove profiles for wire rope sheaves, see Appendix J.

For guidance on groove profiles for rope drums, see Appendix K.

D d h dd min ; or

. . . 7.18(1)

D s hsd min ; or

. . . 7.18(2)

D e he d min

. . . 7.18(3)

where
D d = pitch diameter of drum
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63

hd

= minimum ratio for drum

= nominal diameter of rope

AS 1418.12002

d min = minimum design diameter of rope


D s = pitch diameter of sheave
hs

= minimum ratio for sheave

D e = pitch diameter of rope equalizer sheave


he

= minimum ratio for rope equalizer sheave

Where a deflection sheave tensiometer is fitted, it shall be fitted only to the running section
of the rope. Where the included angle of the deflected rope is not less than 160, the ratio of
deflection the sheave diameter to the rope diameter shall be not less than 3.
TABLE 7.18
RATIOS OF DRUM AND SHEAVE PITCH
DIAMETERS TO ROPE DIAMETER
Minimum ratio of drum and sheave pitch
diameter to steel wire rope diameter (D/d)
Classification of
mechanism

Drums

Sheaves

Rope equalizer
sheaves

(hd)

(h s)

(he )

M1
M2
M3

11.2
12.5
14.0

12.5
14.0
16.0

11.2
12.5
12.5

M4
M5
M6

16.0
18.0
20.0

18.0
20.0
22.4

14.0
14.0
16.0

M7
M8

22.4
25.0

25.0
28.0

16.0
18.0

7.19 DRUMS
7.19.1 Materials
Drums shall be made of a material complying with one of the following Australian
Standards, of a grade specified below, or of an equally suitable material and grade:
(a)

Grey cast ironAS 1830, grade not less than Grade 200.

(b)

Nodular graphite cast ironAS 1831.

(c)

Steel castingsAS 2074.

(d)

Steel plateAS 3678.

7.19.2 Design
7.19.2.1 Grooved drum
Grooved drums shall be designed to have not less than two occupied grooves when the rope
for each connected rope end is fully paid out.
The drum should be of adequate size to accommodate all the rope in a single layer with not
less than one groove unoccupied for each part of rope leaving the drum.

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Where it is not possible to accommodate the rope in a single layer, the drum shall be
flanged at the ends where the rope is multi-layered, for a radial distance of not less than 1.5
rope diameters beyond the rope in the outer layer when the rope is fully wound on the drum.
Where the rope is accommodated in less than two complete layers, the drum shall be
flanged at the end, remote from where the rope is anchored. Where the rope is
accommodated in two complete layers or more, the drum shall be flanged at each end.
Provision shall be made for the rope to be guided from each layer to the next.
NOTE: The face of a brake, gear, or other component mounted at the end of the drum may be
considered as being a flange provided that it is a flat face and is of the correct outside diameter.

The groove shall be an arc of minimum radius 0.535 times the nominal diameter of the rope
and subtending an included angle not less than 130. Groove profiles for rope drums shall
be in accordance with Appendix K.
Where the drum is intended to hold only one or two layers of rope, the groove pitch shall be
not less than 1.06 times the nominal rope diameter and shall be of dimension such that the
rope in leaving the drum does not contact the adjacent turn of rope under any condition of
operation.
Where the drum is intended to hold more than two layers of rope, the groove pitch shall
provide minimal rope clearance, and special provision shall be made to ensure correct
coiling of the outer layer of rope under all conditions of operation.
The groove shall be smoothly finished and free from surface defects liable to damage the
rope. The edge between grooves shall be rounded.
7.19.2.2 Ungrooved drum
Ungrooved drums shall be flanged at both ends for a radial distance of not less than two
rope diameters beyond the rope in the outer layer when the rope is fully wound on the drum.
NOTE: The face of a brake, gear, or other component mounted at the end of the drum may be
considered as being a flange, provided that it is a flat face and is of the correct outside diameter.

7.19.2.3 Rope anchorage


All drum ropes shall be mechanically anchored and where the anchorage relies on a
clamping action it shall comprise two or more clamps.
Where the rope may wind back on the drum, the rope anchorage without any turns on the
drum shall be capable of withstanding not less than twice the load due to the nominal force
on the rope. In such circumstances, the rope shall not be damaged.
Where the rope is not capable of winding back on the drum and where at least two or more
turns of rope remain on the drum when the hook is at the bottom limit of the range of
hoisting, the frictional effect of such turns may be considered as fully contributing to the
capacity of the anchorage, which shall be capable of withstanding not less than twice the
rope load due to the nominal force on the rope at the load-off point on the drum.
The rope anchorage shall be located taking into consideration the rope lay and drum
rotation.
NOTE: For guidance on the method for locating the anchorage point on a drum, see Appendix I.

7.19.3 Diameter of drum


The diameter of the drum shall comply with Clause 7.18.
7.19.4 Actual thickness of drum shell
The thickness of the drum shall, with due allowance for manufacturing allowance and
inaccuracies, e.g., machining, core shift in casting and out-of-roundness in rolling, be not
less than the value calculated in accordance with Clause 7.19.5.
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AS 1418.12002

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A detailed method of stress analysis of a crane drum in accordance with Appendix L may be
used in lieu of Clause 7.19.5.
The thickness of the drum shell shall be not less than 5 mm for grey iron drums or not less
than 3 mm for drums of material other than grey cast iron.
7.19.5 Theoretical thickness of drum shell (abbreviated method)
The minimum theoretical thickness of the drum shell shall be calculated by the following
equation:

TD = TDB + TDB TDC + TDC

2 1/ 2

. . . 7.19.5

where
TD

= minimum theoretical thickness of the drum shell measured, for a grooved


drum, to the root of the rope groove, in millimetres
5 mm for grey cast iron drums (see Clause 7.19.4)
3 mm for drums of material other than grey cast iron (see Clause 7.19.4)

T DB

= minimum theoretical thickness of drum shell allowing only for beambending stresses, in millimetres
= 1250

T DC

M
2

DDM Fb

= minimum theoretical thickness of drum shell allowing only for compressive


stresses, in millimetres
= 1000 K RL PRS
0.15 d (for grooved drums)
p Fc
= 1000 K RL PRS
(for ungrooved drums)
p Fc

= bending moment due to beam action of unfactored, i.e. static, rope load
(PRS), in newton metres

Fb

= permissible bending stress, in megapascals


= 0.185 times the tensile strength for grey cast iron
= 0.20 times the tensile strength for nodular graphite cast iron with elongation
less than 12 percent
= 0.67 times the yield stress for materials with elongation not less than
12 percent

D DM = mean diameter of drum shell, in millimetres


= DDN TD
D DN = nominal diameter of drum shell
= for grooved drums, the diameter measured between the roots of the rope
groove, in millimetres
= for ungrooved drums, the outside diameter of the drum shell, in millimetres
K RL

= rope layer factor and rigidity constant of drum shell


= 1.0 for single layer

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AS 1418.12002

66

= 1.3 for two layers of rope with wire-rope core (WRC) or wire-strand core
(WSC)
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= 1.4 for two layers of rope with fibre core (FC)


= 1.5 for three layers of rope with WRC or WSC
= 1.6 for three layers of rope with FC
= 1.6 for more than three layers of rope with WRC or WSC
= 1.8 for more than three layers of rope with FC
P RS

= maximum unfactored, i.e. static, rope load, in kilonewtons

= pitch of rope coils, in millimetres

Fc

= permissible compressive stress (see Table 7.19.5), in megapascals

= nominal diameter of rope, in millimetres


TABLE 7.19.5
PERMISSIBLE COMPRESSIVE STRESS

Material

Standard
number

Permissible compressive stress, MPa

Grey cast iron

Nodular
graphite cast
iron

Cast steel

Steel plate

AS 1830

AS 1831

AS 2074

AS/NZS 3678

Grade

Drum diameter, mm
250

>250, 500

>500, 750

>750

T220

77

88

99

110

T260

80

90

101

111

T300

85

85

105

115

T350

95

95

120

130

T400

105

105

135

145

370-17

100

130

130

140

400-12

110

140

140

150

500-7

120

150

150

165

600-3

120

150

150

165

700-2

140

165

165

165

C4-1

125

150

165

170

C5

150

180

180

180

250

125

150

165

170

300

150

180

190

190

350

175

210

210

210

400

200

240

240

240

7.20 WHEEL AND RAIL SYSTEMS


7.20.1 Selection of wheels and rails
Crane wheels and rails form a mutually interactive system. Wheels and rails shall comply
with Clauses 7.20.3 and 7.20.6 respectively, and their selection shall take into account the
following:
(a)

Wheel loading (known or assumed).

(b)

The service to which the crane shall be subjected.

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(c)

AS 1418.12002

Grade of material of wheels and of rails.

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7.20.2 Wheel loading


For design purposes, the mean wheel loading (PW mean ) shall be calculated, without
application of the dynamic factors specified in Section 4, by the following equation:
PW mean =

PW min + 2PW max


3

. . . 7.20.2

where
P W mean = the maximum unfactored wheel loading, in kilonewtons
P W min

= loading applied by the wheel to the rail with the crane arranged within its
normal range of in service conditions (including loading) to produce
minimum loading between the wheel and rail, in kilonewtons

P W max

= loading applied by the wheel to the rail with the crane arranged within its
normal range of in service conditions (including loading) to produce
maximum loading between the wheel and rail, in kilonewtons

For the purpose of design of the wheel, P W max shall be not less than the maximum load due
to exceptional circumstances such as where a tall gantry crane in an exposed location is
subjected to very high wind loading and where a crane is subjected to frequent buffer
collisions.
The value of P W min shall be taken for load combinations 1 to 5 (frequently occurring loads)
and in no case shall wind load be included.
7.20.3 Wheels
7.20.3.1 Material
The material for track wheels shall comply with the relevant Australian Standard (refer
Table 7.20.3.3).
7.20.3.2 Load capacity of wheels (P W )
The wheel load (P W mean ) calculated in accordance with Clause 7.20.2 shall be not greater
than the permissible wheel load (P W) calculated by the following equation:
PW = 0.001 C C C W D W B WE FpW

. . . 7.20.3.2

where
P W = permissible wheel loading, in kilonewtons
C C = group classification coefficient (see Clause 7.20.3.4)
C W = wheel-speed coefficient (see Clause 7.20.3.5)
D W = wheel-tread diameter, in millimetres
B WE = effective wheel-tread width is equal to B TE in Clause 7.20.6.5(a) and (b) or
where not applicable, from Clause 7.20.3.6(c)
F pW = permissible unfactored bearing stress between wheel and rail (see
Clause 7.20.3.3), in megapascals.
7.20.3.3 Permissible unfactored bearing stress (F pW )
The unfactored bearing stress between wheel and rail (F pW) shall be calculated by the
following equation or selected from Table 7.20.3.3:
FpW = 1.5 + 0.007 FuW

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. . . 7.20.3.3

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AS 1418.12002

68

where

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F pW = permissible unfactored bearing stress between wheel and rail, in megapascals


F uW = tensile strength of wheel material or, where the wheel is tyred, the tyre
material, in megapascals.
Where the wheel tread is surface-hardened, FpW shall apply to the tensile strength of the
material prior to surface hardening.
For wheels other than ferrous-metal wheels, the value used for F pW shall be as
recommended by the manufacturer.
TABLE 7.20.3.3
PERMISSIBLE UNFACTORED BEARING STRESS
1

Material

Grey cast iron

Nodular
graphite cast
iron

Steel
fabrication

Steel forging

Tensile
strength
of
material

Permissible
unfactored
bearing
stress
(FpW)

MPa

MPa

AS 1830

T220
T260
T300
T350
T400

200
250
300
350
400

2.9
3.25
3.60
3.95
4.30

AS 1831

370-17
400-12
500-7
600-3
700-2
800-2

370
400
500
600
700
800

4.09
4.30
5.00
5.70
6.40
7.10

AS/NZS 3678
AS/NZS 3679

250
300
350
400

410
430
450
480

4.37
4.51
4.65
4.86

AS 1448

K3
K4
K5
K6
K8
K9
K10

410
500
540
600
480
540
580

4.37
5.00
5.28
5.70
4.86
5.28
5.56

Standard
number

Grade

Remarks

Crane-motion speed shall


not exceed 0.65 m/s;
runway rails shall be
continuous

7.20.3.4 Group classification coefficient (CC )


The value of the group classification coefficient (CC) shall be the appropriate value
specified in Table 7.20.3.4 corresponding to the classification applicable for the
crane-motion in which the wheel is used.

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AS 1418.12002

TABLE 7.20.3.4

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GROUP CLASSIFICATION
COEFFICIENT (C C)
Group classification
of mechanism
M1 and M2
M3 and M4
M5
M6
M7
M8

Coefficient
(C C)
1.25
1.12
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.71

7.20.3.5 Wheel-speed coefficient (CW )


The value of the wheel-speed coefficient (CW) shall be the appropriate value specified in
Table 7.20.3.5.
TABLE 7.20.3.5
WHEEL-SPEED COEFFICIENT (CW )
Rotational
frequency of wheel
rev/sec

Wheel-speed
coefficient
(C W)

Rotational
frequency of wheel
rev/sec

Wheel-speed
coefficient
(C W)

3.33
2.66
2.00

0.66
0.72
0.77

0.46
0.41
0.37

1.02
1.03
1.04

1.86
1.66
1.50

0.79
0.82
0.84

0.33
0.30
0.27

1.06
1.07
1.09

1.33
1.18
1.05

0.87
0.89
0.91

0.23
0.21
0.19

1.10
1.11
1.12

0.93
0.83
0.75

0.92
0.94
0.96

0.17
0.13
0.10

1.13
1.14
1.15

0.67
0.59
0.52

0.97
0.99
1.00

0.09
0.08
0

1.16
1.17
1.3

7.20.3.6 Tread and flange profile


The following applies:
(a)

Profile Typical tread and flange profiles are shown in Figure 7.20.3.6. Other
(special) profiles are used for particular specialized applications.
The wheel type shall correspond to the wheel track with which it is used in
accordance with Table 7.20.3.6(A).

(b)

Tread and flange dimensions The thickness (T F ) of each flange (see Figure 7.20.3.6)
shall be not less than the following when new:
(i)

if D W 400 mm;
TF =

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DW
+8
50

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(ii)

70

if D W > 400 mm;

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TF =

DW
+6
50

(iii) if the wheel is of grey cast iron;


TW =

DW
+ 10
50

where
TF

= flange thickness (see Figure 7.20.3.6), in millimetres

D W = wheel tread diameter, in millimetres


The minimum flange thickness (T F ) shall be calculated as follows, and this
information shall be provided with the crane in accordance with Clause 16.3:
NOTE: The minimum flange thickness (T F) is to be provided with the crane to allow users to
institute a replacement regime to ensure flange thicknesses below T F are not used.
A1

TF N = minimum worn flange thickness

6M F
Ft X

where
Ft

= permissible bending strength, MPa (see Clause 7.9.2.8)

= length of rail to wheel flange engagement (mm)


2

(D )

(D )
= 2 w + HF w
2

where
D W = wheel tread diameter (mm)
M F = flange bending moment

A1

= H F POT
where
POT = oblique travel force (see Clause 4.6.5)
H F = flange depth (mm)

q=

DW
+ 10
50

The height of the flange (see Figure 7.20.3.6) shall be not less than

DW
+ 10 .
50

For a double-flanged wheel, the tread width (see Figure 7.20.3.6) shall be not less
than the width of the railhead, plus twice the rail span tolerance (Table 7.20.9), plus
the manufacturers tolerance of span of the crane, plus 4 mm, except where wheels on
the opposite rail are laterally free in position.
Where the clearance between wheel flanges and railheads permits lateral float greater
than one-fourth of the width of the railhead, care shall be taken to ensure that lateral
movement does not affect clearances (see Clause 12.7.4) and correct operation of
electrical collectors (see Clause 8.14).
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Effective wheel-tread width (BWE ) The effective wheel-tread width (BWE) shall be as
specified in Table 7.20.3.6(B).

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(c)

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AS 1418.12002

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FIGURE 7.20.3.6 TYPICAL WHEEL-TREAD PROFILES

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AS 1418.12002

TABLE 7.20.3.6(A)

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TREAD AND FLANGE PROFILE


Wheel track

Standard rail section (i.e.


conforming to AS 1085.1)

Wheel type
(see Figure
7.20.3.6)
A

Unflanged
Square or rectangular billet or
similar section

Flanges of each type may be tapered or parallel


sided
For Types A, D and G, the fillet radius between
tread and flange shall be not less than the railhead
radius
With cylindrical tread

Unflanged

Remarks

Flanges of each type may be tapered or parallelsided


With cylindrical tread
Flanges of each type may be tapered or parallelsided

Flange, having a horizontal wheeltrack surface, of a beam, girder or


similar structural element

G
J
K
L
N

Type M may be used where the wheel axle is


canted to compensate for the wheel-tread angle
In applications of intermittent and light-duty
loadings, type M may be used without the
provision specified above, although this is not
good practice
With cylindrical, symmetrical or asymmetricalspherical tread

Unflanged

With tapered tread may be used where the wheel


axle is canted to compensate for the wheel-tread
angle
Flanges for each type may be tapered or parallelsided

Beam flange, having an inclined


wheel-track surface (e.g., taperedtread beam)

K
L
M
N

Type G, H or J may be used where the wheel axle


is canted to compensate for the beam-flange taper
angle
In applications of intermittent and light-duty
loadings, Type G, H or J may be used without the
provision specified above, although this is not
good practice
With tapered, symmetrical-spherical or
asymmetrical-spherical tread

Unflanged

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With cylindrical tread may be used where the


wheel axle is canted to compensate for the beamflange taper angle

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TABLE 7.20.3.6(B)

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EFFECTIVE WHEEL-TREAD WIDTH (B WE)


Wheel track

Rail

Flange of beam,
girder or similar

Horizontal
flange of beam,
girder or similar
Tapered flange of
beam, girder or
similar
*

Wheel type

Effective wheel-tread width (B WE)

Double-flanged
(see Figure 7.20.3.6)

BTE (see Clause 7.20.6.5)

Single-flanged
(see Figure 7.20.3.6)

BT 2RT or B W
(see Figure 7.20.3.6),
whichever is applicable

Unflanged

BT 2RT or B W 0.75 RT
(see Clause 7.20.3.7),
whichever is applicable

Or BTE
(see Clause 7.20.6.5)
if on convex surface
rail

Cylindrical or tapered tread


(see Figure 7.20.3.6)

B W (see Figure 7.20.3.6 or Clause 7.20.3.7)

Symmetrical spherical
tread (see Note)
(see Figure 7.20.3.6)

B W or 0.2 R WT *, whichever is the lesser


(see Figure 7.20.3.6)
B W (see Figure 7.20.3.6) or 0.1 R WT * (see
Figure 7.20.3.6), whichever is the lesser

Asymmetrical spherical
tread (see Figure 7.20.3.6)

B W (see Figure 7.20.3.6) or 0.2 R WT * (see


Figure 7.20.3.6), whichever is the lesser

The values of 0.2R WT and 0.1RWT assume contact between wheel


tread and wheel-track surface to extend 0.09 radius of wheel-tread
arc from the central point of contact.

NOTE: Where a wheel with symmetrical spherical tread runs on a tapered


flange, the central point of contact is displaced towards the unflanged side
by an amount equal to R WT times the sine of the flange-taper angle. Where
the remaining distance is less than 0.1R WT, the effective wheel-tread
width shall be reduced accordingly (see Figure opposite).

LEGEND:
B WE = effective wheel-tread width, in millimetres
BT = railhead width, in millimetres
RT = railhead radius, in millimetres
B W = wheel-tread width, in millimetres
R WT = wheel-tread radius (spherical wheel-tread), in millimetres

7.20.3.7 Unflanged wheels


Unflanged wheels shall be used only where provision is made for lateral guidance of the
crane or part of the crane supported by the wheels, e.g., by guide rollers.
The tread width (B WE) of a cylindrical or tapered-tread unflanged wheel shall be the width
of the tread, excluding corner radii for flat rails or excluding 4/3 of corner radii for convex
rail heads.
7.20.3.8 Matched wheels
Where driving wheels are connected together mechanically, the difference in the tread
diameter shall not exceed 0.1 percent of the larger diameter or 0.25 mm, whichever is the
lesser.

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AS 1418.12002

7.20.3.9 Overhung wheels

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Where a track wheel or guide roller is overhung, i.e. cantilevered, positive means shall be
provided to retain the wheel on its axle in service.
7.20.3.10 Anti-drop and anti-derailment pads
For safe operation, anti-drop and anti-derailment pads, where applicable, shall be provided
as specified by the appropriate part of AS 1418.
For a crane or part of a crane running on rails, means shall be incorporated in the structure
of the crane, or part of the crane, to prevent it from falling more than 25 mm and from
excessive lateral movement in the event of wheel or axle failure.
7.20.4 Tyres
Where a crane wheel is fitted with a steel tyre, the nominal inside diameter of the tyre
should conform to Table 7.20.4.
TABLE 7.20.4
TYRE INSIDE DIAMETER
Nominal tread diameter

Nominal inside diameter

400
500
630

310
400
500

710
800
900

580
670
750

1 000
1 120
1 250

850
970
1 100

7.20.5 Side guide rollers


Side guide rollers shall comply with the requirements for unflanged wheels specified in
Clause 7.20.3.7.
7.20.6 Rails
7.20.6.1 Material
Rails shall comply with AS 1085.1 or DIN 536-1, or shall be of other suitable rolled-steel
section and shall be designed for a 25 year life if permanently attached (e.g., welded) or
may be designed for a 10 year life if easily removable (e.g., held by hook-bolts or clips).
7.20.6.2 Load capacity of rail (PT )
The wheel loading (PW mean ) applied to a rail and calculated in accordance with
Clause 7.20.2 shall be not greater than the permissible mean wheel load on rail (P T )
calculated by the following equation:
PT = C R PTS

. . . 7.20.6.2

where
P T = permissible mean wheel loading on rail, in kilonewtons

CR =

20 000
(NXW )2 / 3

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P TS = permissible unfactored wheel loading on rail (see Clause 7.20.6.4), in


kilonewtons
N XW = number of stress cycles applied by the wheels to the rail at the most
frequently used portion of the rail (see Clause 7.20.6.3)
NOTE: A stress cycle occurs at any position along a rail when the bearing stress in the railhead
fluctuates through a cycle due either to movement of a wheel along the rail or to variation of
loading through a stationary wheel when the crane load is handled through a load cycle with the
crane, or part of the crane, stationary.

Where cranes of different classes operate on the same section of crane track, P T shall be
calculated directly from the equation specified in this Clause, NXW being the sum of the
number of stress cycles due to the wheels of each crane.
7.20.6.3 Number of stress cycles applied by wheels to rail (N XW )
The number of stress cycles applied by wheels to a rail (N XW) (see Clause 7.20.6.2) shall be
determined by the following equation except where specified otherwise in the appropriate
part of AS 1418:
N XW = 2U n N w

. . . 7.20.6.3

where
N XW = number of stress cycles applied by the wheels to the rail, minimum 8 10 5
and maximum 38 10 5
Un

= number of load applications of crane over design life of crane where U n


varies from U0 to U 9 as defined in Table 2.3.2
NOTE: The values for the number of operating cycles given in Table 2.3.2 may be
adjusted proportionally to allow for the lesser design life of components with a
minimum being 40% to allow for a minimum design life of 10 years for readily
removable rails (e.g., attached by hook-bolts or clips).

NW

= number of wheels which travel along a crane rail

7.20.6.4 Permissible unfactored wheel load (P TS )


For the rails listed in Table 7.20.6.4, the permissible unfactored wheel load on a rail (P TS)
shall be calculated from the following equation:
PTS = D W p TS

. . . 7.20.6.4(1)

where
P TS = permissible unfactored wheel loading, in kilonewtons
D W = wheel tread diameter, in millimetres
p TS = permissible load (see Table 7.20.6.4), in kilonewtons per millimetre (of wheel
diameter)

A1

For rails other than those listed in Table 7.20.6.4, the permissible unfactored wheel load
(P TS) shall be calculated from the following equation:
PTS = 0.0049 D W BTE C p

. . . 7.20.6.4.(2)

where
B TE = effective railhead width (see Clause 7.20.6.5), in millimetres
F
C p = YT
400
Standards Australia

. . . 7.20.6.4.(3)

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77

AS 1418.12002

F YT = yield stress of rail material, in megapascals

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TABLE 7.20.6.4
PERMISSIBLE LOAD (p TS)
Rail profile
Designation

Standard
(if applicable)

Rail mass
kg/m

Ultimate tensile
strength (min)
(MPa)

Permissible load
(p TS) kN/mm of
wheel diameter

10

JIS E1103

10.1

580

0.071

15

JIS E1103

15.2

580

0.089

22

JIS E1103

22.3

650

0.169

30

JIS E1101

30.1

700

0.246

AS 41

AS 1085.1

40.7

820

0.264

AS 50

AS 1085.1

50.8

940

0.358

53

AS 1085.1

53.0

940

0.424

AS 60

61

940

0.383

RE 68

67.6

960

0.442

A 45

DIN 536.1

22.1

690

0.153

A 55

DIN 536.1

31.8

690

0.187

A 65

DIN 536.1

43.1

690

0.220

A 75

DIN 536.1

56.2

690

0.248

A 100

DIN 536.1

74.3

690

0.334

A 120

DIN 536.1

100.0

690

0.412

A 150

DIN 536.1

150.3

690

0.527

73

73.6

980

0.570

86

85.5

980

0.934

192

192.0

1080

1.518

7.20.6.5 Effective railhead width (BTE )


The effective railhead width (B TE) shall be calculated by the following equations:
A1

(a)

Where the top surface of the railhead is flat


BTE = BT 2RCR

(b)

For standard rail sections with convex top railhead surface with one corner radius
BTE = BT

(c)

4
RCR
3

For American Railway Engineering Association (AREA) type rail with railhead
surface determined by three radii with two corner radii
BTE =

2
BT
3

where
B TE = effective railhead width, in millimetres
B T = railhead width, in millimetres
R CR = radius between head and side of rail, in millimetres
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7.20.7 Rail fastening and joining

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7.20.7.1 Methods
Rails shall be secured to the runway beams or crane girder by a method that takes into
account
(a)

horizontal wheel forces induced in the rail;

(b)

rail alignment requirements;

(c)

duty of the runway system;

(d)

rail profile; and

(e)

rail material specification.

7.20.7.2 Welding
7.20.7.2.1 Rail section profiles
Securing rail to runway girders by welding shall be limited to sections less than or equal to
40 kg/m rail profiles.
The welding procedure applied to securing the rail to the runway beam shall take into
account the following:
(a)

Matching section thicknesses.

(b)

Differences in rail and girder material specification.

(c)

Magnitude of induced stresses, including longitudinal bending shear stress, fatigue


and weld shrinkage residual stress.

(d)

Pre-heat-treatment and post-heat-treatment.

7.20.7.2.2 Billet sections


The design of the weld, securing the billet to the top flange of the runway or crane girder,
shall be sized to take into account the longitudinal shear stresses due to bending.
The welding procedure applied to securing the billet to the runway beam shall take into
account the factors outlined in Clause 7.20.7.2.1.
7.20.7.3 Direct bolted
Where the rail is bolted directly to supporting steelwork, the rail and steelwork shall be
match-drilled.
7.20.7.4 Hook bolts
Hook bolts are suitable for use on standard rail sections less than or equal to 30 kg/m
profiles and where the top flange of the runway beam is too narrow for the application of a
rail clip or clamp.
The hook bolts shall be placed on alternate sides of the rail at 75 mm to 100 mm centres,
spaced at centres no greater than 600 mm.
Each hook bolt shall be secured by a lock nut after final positioning.
Finished hook bolts shall be able to be straightened by at least 50% of the deformation
during manufacture under the test without brittle fracture. Verification shall be carried out
by testing at least one sample from each batch.
NOTES:
1

Ductile hook bolts are necessary to prevent fracture and falling of the bolts and the resulting
hazard to personnel under the runway.

Hook bolts do not allow longitudinal movement of the rail. Hence, it is recommended that
hook bolts, as a rail securing method, should not be used on runways longer than 200 m.

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AS 1418.12002

7.20.7.5 Rail clips

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Rail clips are either forged, cast or fabricated devices that have been shaped to suit the
flange shape of a particular rail profile.
Rail clips secure the rail in position by a clamping action on the flange with a single bolt.
This bolt can be either a through bolt on the top flange of the runway girder or integral with
the clip base plate which, in turn, has been welded to the girder top flange adjacent to the
rail.
Clips shall be designed to
(a)

prevent rotation of the clip due to longitudinal movement of the rail; and
NOTE: Where rotation of the clip cannot be prevented, a system of snug block located
midway between the clips can be used to prevent lateral drift of the rail. The snug blocks
should be welded to the girder top flange adjacent to the rail in its correct position.

(b)

develop the full strength of the securing bolt.

The clip shall be secured by a locking nut to prevent loosening in service.


The clips shall be arranged in pairs located on opposite sides of each side of the crane rail
and spaced at centres not greater than 600 mm, or as recommended by the competent person
or manufacturer.
NOTE: Rail clips are best suited for duty on runways with a duty classification of less than or
equal to C4.

7.20.7.6 Rail clamps


Rail clamps are either forged, cast or fabricated devices that have been shaped to suit the
flange shape of a particular rail profile.
The clamps secure the rail in position by a clamping action on the flange with two bolts.
These bolts can be either a through bolt on the top flange of the runway girder, or integral
with the clamp base plate which, in turn, has been welded to the girder top flange adjacent
to the rail.
The clamps shall be designed to
(a)

prevent rotation of the clip due to longitudinal movement of the rail; and
NOTE: Where the clamp design does not prevent lateral drift of the rail, a system of snug
blocks located midway between the clamps can be used. The snug block should be welded to
the girder top flange adjacent to the rail in its correct position.

(b)

develop the full strength of the securing bolts.

The clamp bolts shall be secured by a locking nut to prevent loosening during service.
The clamps shall be arranged in pairs located on opposite sides of each side of the crane rail
and spaced at centres not greater than 900 mm, or as recommended by the clamp designer
or manufacturer.
NOTE: Rail clamps are best suited for duty on runways with a duty classification of greater than
or equal to C5.

7.20.7.7 Laid-on sleepers


Where rails are laid on timber, concrete, steel or other types of sleepers, the rail shall be
attached by means of dog-spikes or other attachment of strength appropriate to the rail with
which they are used. Spacing shall be at sufficiently close centres to retain the rail in
alignment as specified in Clause 7.20.9.

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7.20.8 Rail joints


The number of gaps in the length of a rail system should be minimized. Where a gap in the
rail is needed for expansion or other purposes, the top face of the rail shall be flush, and the
gap distance shall be not greater than 3 mm. Rail joints should not coincide with a joint in
the rail-supporting structure or a joint on the opposite runway.
Fishplates or equivalent means of maintaining joint alignment shall be provided at all
non-welded joints of standard rail sections.
The shock loading effects of joints on crane runway systems classified greater than C5
cannot be underestimated. It is recommended that fully welded continuous rail is used in
these applications.
The welding process used for joining rails shall take into account
(a)

the rail material specification;

(b)

appropriate pre-weld heating and post weld cooling;

(c)

the effects of weld shrinkage on the rail system; and

(d)

surface hardness of the welded joint, to minimize dips developing in the joint during
service.

7.20.9 Rail alignment


Each pair of rails shall be aligned within the limitations set out in Table 7.20.9.
7.20.10 Runway flangesLateral support
The top flange on all runway beams at the point of support should be braced directly to the
column or other supporting structure to prevent lateral movement.
NOTE: AS 1418.18 gives further guidance on the design of crane runways and monorails.

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TABLE 7.20.9
RAIL ALIGNMENT
Description
Span, centre-to-centre of rails

Tolerances for
crane classes
C1 to C4

Tolerances for
crane classes
C5 to C9

ST 15 m: A = 3 mm
ST > 15 m: A = [3 + 0.25 (ST 15)] mm

Where ST is in metres

Tolerance on the plan view


centre-line of each rail

B = 5 mm

However, the following dimension shall not be exceeded over


a measuring length of 2 m:
b = 1.0 mm

b = 1.0 mm

C = 10.0 mm

C = 10.0 mm

81

Height tolerance of each rail


(along centre-line)

B = 10 mm

However, the following dimension shall not be exceeded over


a measuring length of 2 m:
c = 2.0 mm

c = 2.0 mm
(continued)

AS 1418.12002

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Description
Height tolerance relative to
both rails

Tolerances for
crane classes
C1 to C4
D = 1 of ST
max. 10 mm

Slope tolerance of both rails in


relation to each other

Horizontal tolerance of flat rail


head

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NOTE: equals parts per 1 000 (pro mille).

D = 0.2 of ST
max. 10 mm

E = 0.5

F = 1 of ST
max. 20 mm

F = 0.7 of ST
max. 20 mm

G = 5 of railhead
breadth (on flat surface) only

82

Position tolerance of end stops


in relation to one another

Tolerances for
crane classes
C5 to C9

AS 1418.12002

Standards Australia

TABLE 7.20.9 (continued)

83

AS 1418.12002

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7.21 GUIDES FOR MOVING PARTS


Wear plates or rollers should be provided to guide parts that move relative to each other and
can come in contact with each other. Where required, take-up adjustment shall be provided.
7.22 DETACHABLE PARTS
Parts of cranes which are designed to be removable shall be designed to minimize risk to
personnel who will be engaged in assembly and disassembly the crane e.g., pin-up booms,
detachable jibs, C-hooks, spreader beams and similar.
7.23 DIRECTLY FITTED HOOKS
Hooks directly attached to structural members e.g., booms, jibs, lifting equipment, shall be
suspended so that they can be freely displaced so that bending moments in the hook shank
are avoided. An allowance shall be made for any increased hook load due to the most
unfavourable angle of pull.
7.24 COUNTERWEIGHTS
Where used, means shall be provided to adequately secure all counterweights to the crane.
Where counterweights are designed to be attached or removed as an operational feature,
each counterweight shall be marked with its identification and mass and shall be provided
with means by which it may be lifted and secured.
Cranes with extendible counterweights shall be provided with means for them to be
correctly positioned.

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SECT ION

E L ECTR I C A L E QU I PME NT
CO N T RO L S

AND

8.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section specifies the requirements for the electrical equipment and controls used on
cranes (see Clause 1.1).
8.2 MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT
Materials and equipment used in electrical and electronic systems for cranes shall comply
with Section 3 and Section 15.
The electrical installation, including materials, equipment, wiring and their installation shall
comply with AS/NZS 3000 except as varied by this Section, and shall be of sufficient
capacity to meet all demands for the work it is designed to do, and be used and maintained
so that electrical danger to personnel and the possibility of equipment failure is minimized.
NOTE: AS/NZS 3000 requires that electrical installations comply with requirements for
hazardous areas as specified therein. Clause 15.4 lists Standards that give guidance on
classification of hazardous areas.

8.3 INFORMATION RELEVANT TO DESIGN OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEM


The following information shall be considered in the design of the crane electrical system:
(a)

Details of physical dimensions and performance of the crane.

(b)

Details of expected operation of the crane and method of motor control, related to
severity of duty of the electrical system, e.g., operating time, nominal energizing
frequency, significant aspects of crane operation (e.g., jogging operation of
controller, plugging of crane motion, and similar).

(c)

Environmental operating conditions as specified in Section 15.

(d)

Type and tolerance levels of electric power supply. For a.c. supplies the following
details should also be provided at the point of supply:
(i)

Prospective fault level.

(ii)

Voltage drop during starting.

(iii) Details of earthing including fault-loop impedance.


(iv)

Harmonic distortion.

(v)

Prospective voltage impulse withstand levels.

(e)

Details of any special safety provisions required, for example, emergency alternative
power supply in the event of power failure to obviate a potential hazard.

(f)

Special factors affecting servicing.

(g)

Required enclosure rating of electrical equipment according to AS 1939.


NOTE: The required IP rating of equipment may be greater than minimum necessary arising
from environmental conditions alone. Extra considerations for IP rating specification include
the nature of the process, goods handled, operating procedures and safety of personnel.

(h)

Hazardous area classification where applicable.

Where a collector system is used, it shall comply with AS 1418.12.

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AS 1418.12002

8.4 MOTORS

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8.4.1 Enclosure and duty type


Each electric motor shall comply with AS 1359, and shall have an enclosure type
appropriate to the conditions under which the motor is required to operate as determined by
the crane application, location of motor on the crane and similar factors, and shall be a duty
type not less than Type S3 when not fitted with electrical braking or not less than Type S5
when fitted with electrical braking (see Clause 8.5.2).
8.4.2 Rated output and performance characteristics
The characteristics of motors and associated equipment shall be selected in accordance with
the anticipated service and physical environmental conditions. In this respect the points that
shall be considered include the following:
(a)

Type of motor.

(b)

Type of duty cycle.

(c)

Fixed speed or variable speed operation, and the consequent variable influence of the
ventilation.

(d)

Mechanical vibration.

(e)

Type of motor speed control.

(f)

Influence of power supply harmonics.

(g)

Influence of peak currents on the power supply.

(h)

Effectiveness of motor counter torque with time and speed.

(i)

Influence of large inertial loads.

(j)

Influence of constant torque or constant power operation.

(k)

Grades of insulation for both temperature rise and voltage grade when supplied from
an inverter or converter.

8.4.3 Resistors for motor power circuits


The characteristics of resistors shall be selected in accordance with the anticipated service
and physical environmental conditions. In this respect the points that shall be considered
include the following:
(a)

Its capacity to absorb and dissipate the required energy including ventilation
requirements without adverse effects on other equipment.

(b)

Mechanical vibration during normal crane operations and emergency braking.

(c)

Enclosure requirements to facilitate ventilation while maintaining protection of


personnel from inadvertent contact.

8.5 MOTOR CONTROL


8.5.1 Control systems
Control systems appropriate to the types of motors and duty cycles should be used.
8.5.2 Electrical braking
(Clause 7.12 uses the maximum braking torque arising from requirements in this Clause.)
Electrical braking systems appropriate to the type of motor driving system and duty shall be
used. Where motors can be operated at speeds in excess of their nameplate rating, an
assessment of the mechanical braking system shall be carried out to ensure that this system
will satisfactorily operate in the event of a power failure (or emergency stop).

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The system of braking for any motion shall be designed so as to minimize the adverse
effects of any equipment malfunction, e.g., braking contactor, relay or other device.
Provision shall be made to prevent the motor operating after the brake has been applied.
8.5.3 Motor control circuit
Each motor control circuit shall comply with the following requirements, as applicable:
(a)

Where a motion can be controlled from more than one control point or mode, the
controls shall be interlocked to enable operation from only one point or mode at any
time.

(b)

Where the circuit incorporates removable plug connectors, plug-in printed circuit
boards or similar equipment, interlocks shall be provided in the circuit to obviate any
unsafe condition being caused by removal of any connector, card or similar
removable item. All plugs and similar components used for this purpose shall be
keyed or clearly identified to prevent connection in any other than the intended
manner.

(c)

In the event of interruption of power supply or operation of an electrical protection


device in the motor-control circuit, that circuit shall not be capable of being
re-energized until the controller has returned to its off position.
Unless specified, this requirement need not apply to pendent pushbutton stations
complying with this Standard.

(d)

All reversing contactors shall be electrically interlocked.

(e)

An automatic or semi-automatic control system, including its monitoring device, shall


be fail-safe in operation.

(f)

Where the circuit incorporates solid-state components, the design and installation
shall be such as to obviate malfunction due to overheating, moisture condensation,
dust, vibration and similar.

(g)

All control circuits shall be designed so that their de-energization, for whatever
reason, shall cause the devices controlled to shut down in a controlled manner.
Failure of any relay or contactor or any other control device shall not result in the
unsafe operation of any part of the system.

(h)

Where a motor and a brake of a motion are controlled by separate electric circuits or
other devices, a positive and fail-safe interlocking system shall be incorporated in the
controls in order to de-energize the motor and brake together so as to prevent
malfunctioning of the braking system.
The operation of such interlocking shall not cause loss of any other motion where loss
of such motion could create a potential hazard.

(i)

Electric hoists may be controlled by a whole-current control station. Where the motor
is three-phase, the control station shall control either two or three phases.

(j)

Where the power circuit incorporates solid state components and switching, the
design and wiring shall comply with the various EMC and RFI requirements.

8.6 CONTACTORS
Contactor ratings shall comply with and shall be applied in accordance with AS 1029.1 and
AS 3947.1 and AS 3947.4, as appropriate.

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AS 1418.12002

8.7 CONTROLLERS (see also Section 11)

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8.7.1 Means of control


Crane motions may be controlled by one or a combination of the following, or other,
appropriate methods:
(a)

Manual controls, i.e. human operator:


(i)

Cabin controls (see Clause 8.7.3.1).

(ii)

Pendent control station (see Clause 8.7.3.2).

(iii) Whole-current controller (see Clause 8.7.3.3).


(iv)

Master controller or combination controller.

(v)

Cordless controls including radio control, microwave control and infra-red


control (see Clause 8.7.3.4).

(b)

Automatic control, i.e. no human operator (see Clause 8.7.5).

(c)

Semi-automatic, i.e. combination of Items (a) and (b).

8.7.2 Requirements common to all controllers


All controllers and the equipment associated with them shall comply with the following
requirements:
(a)

The control system and equipment shall provide fail-safe operation at all times
including during times when there has been a failure of the power supply, the system
or any component thereof.

(b)

All types of manual controls such as pushbuttons, switches, joysticks, levers and
pedals which control motion shall be of the hold-to-run type and shall be positive in
operation, returning to the neutral position upon release.

(c)

Wiring and equipment shall be of appropriate types and located and enclosed with
materials and in a manner appropriate to the most severe environment in which the
crane is to operate.

(d)

Wiring shall not carry loads of a physical nature under any of the conditions under
which the crane is to operate. Pendent wire and flexible cables shall be supported to
ensure compliance with this Clause (see also Clause 8.14.6).

(e)

Where a crane can be controlled by more than one controller or control system,
provision shall be made to ensure that only one system can control the crane at any
one time.

(f)

Controllers including pushbuttons, switches, and the like, shall be of such shape and
arrangement as will enable ready and convenient operation of each such item and
obviate inadvertent operation of, or damage to, the item.
Where a controller or pushbutton provides stepped speed control, physical movement
of the controller shall be in easily distinguishable positive steps.

(g)

An emergency stop control shall be provided at each control station. Operation of the
emergency stop control shall immediately cause all crane motions to cease.
Emergency stops shall be of the positive break type and require manual reset.

(h)

Cranes fitted with multiple hoists, which can be operated in combination, shall
indicate to the operator which hoist is selected. Where indicating lights are provided,
a test facility at the operator controls shall be provided to test the condition of the
indicators.

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8.7.3 Manual control

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8.7.3.1 Cabin control stations


The requirements for the cabin are detailed in Clause 11.2. The requirements for the
controllers installed within the cabin or adjacent to it or both as applicable are set out in the
relevant parts of this Clause.
8.7.3.2 Pendent control station
8.7.3.2.1 Electrical power supply
The nominal working voltage shall not exceed 50 V a.c. or 120 V d.c. except where both of
the following conditions apply, in which case a low voltage up to 440 V a.c. may be used:
(a)

A controller not subject to conditions of external weather, wet or damp situations,


condensation or any other adverse conditions;

(b)

Pendent control stations that are double-insulated in accordance with AS/NZS 3100.

Transformers that supply pendent control stations shall comply with Clause 8.9.
The electric cable to each pendent control station shall be double-insulated and flexible and
shall be securely attached at both ends so that the cable only carries its own mass. Where
appropriate the cable shall comply with Clause 8.14.6.
8.7.3.2.2 Design and construction
Each pendent control station shall have a rating appropriate to the voltage of the electrical
power supply to the control station and shall comply with AS/NZS 3100 and with
AS/NZS 3947.5.1. The requirements for the materials of the station are covered in
Clause 8.7.2. The type of enclosure for each pendent control station shall be appropriate for
the conditions to which the control station is subjected and shall be rated not less than IP55
as defined in AS 1939.
8.7.3.2.3 Pendent support cable
The pendent cable supporting a pendent control station (or stations) shall comprise one or
more flexible steel wire cores or other suitable material, with the electric cable attached to
the support wire. The support cables shall be able to withstand a tensile force of not less
than 1 kN.
Where the pendent control station is double-insulated, the support cable shall be effectively
insulated from the crane structure.
Where the pendent control station may be used to pull a monorail hoist or crane along its
runway, the hoist or crane shall be designed to be pulled by a tensile force of not greater
than 1 kN.
8.7.3.2.4 Pendent support cable (see also Clause 11.3)
Where controllers are operated by means of pendent cords, means shall be provided to
ensure that the controller returns to the off position immediately the pendent is released or
in the event of the pendent being detached or broken. Where counterweights are used for
this purpose, they shall be supported independently of the pendent cord.
The pendent cord arrangement shall be designed to obviate inadvertent operation of a
pendent cord, particularly when the crane is in motion. Each pendent cord shall be marked
in accordance with Section 11 to indicate the motion and direction of movement it controls.

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AS 1418.12002

8.7.3.3 Whole-current controller


8.7.3.3.1 Method of operation
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Each whole current controller shall be capable of


(a)

interrupting all active conductors, except where otherwise allowed in the appropriate
part of AS 1418 or when in the off position;

(b)

interlocking in the off position;

(c)

where required, effecting motor reversal after operation of a limit switch (see
Clauses 8.8.2 and 8.8.3); and

(d)

positive step operation corresponding to the speed steps where the controller provides
stepped-speed control.

Whole current controllers shall comply with AS/NZS 3947.5.1.


8.7.3.4 Cordless controllers
8.7.3.4.1 General
Cordless controllers may be used to transmit control signals where the use of hard wiring is
not considered suitable or appropriate. Examples of cordless controllers are the following:
(a)

Radio-wave signals.

(b)

Microwave signals.

(c)

Infra-red signals.

NOTES:
1

Under some circumstances, use of these systems requires licensing of the controller.

The Australian Communications Authority (ACA) administers a labelling regime for, amongst
other things, radiocommunications equipment. Equipment used for remote control purposes
will need to comply with any ACA requirements that exist at the time of supply. In addition,
the ACA has various licence requirements for radiofrequency devices.

IEC 61603-1 provides guidance for the use of infra-red control systems.

8.7.3.4.2 System design requirements


The design and operation of a cordless control system for a crane shall be fail-safe and shall
ensure that when the crane is within the range of the control system, power to the motion
controllers is possible only when the controller is activated. If the crane is outside the range
of the cordless controller, the motions of the crane or monorail shall shut down.
The system shall comply with the following requirements:
(a)

With any single fault occurring in the receiver or transmitter, it shall still be possible
to render the crane safe by operating the emergency stop or keystop.

(b)

Any of the following conditions shall de-energize the main crane contactor:
(i)

No valid signal being received for a period exceeding 550 ms.

(ii)

Interference from other sources.

(iii) Keystop to off position.

(c)

(iv)

Emergency stop.

(v)

No motion being operated for 5 min. This time restraint need not apply if the
normal or safe operation of the crane is hindered.

The carrier and address system of each cordless controller shall be positive, fail-safe
and tamper-proof and protected as far as possible from spurious signals. When a
number of transmitters for different installations are in one building or area, provision

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shall be made to prevent mutual interference. Each cordless control system shall have
a unique address code. This shall not preclude the use of specifically designed
systems for tandem handover, and multiple transmitter handover.
(d)

Interlocking between cordless and electrical controls of the crane shall be arranged so
that only one controller method is operative at any one time and the overall fail-safe
characteristic of the whole installation is not adversely affected in any manner.

(e)

Where a battery is the power source for a transmitter or receiver handpiece or


console, the transmitter console or handpiece shall include a low battery warning
signal, which may be visual or audible, or both. This signal shall indicate to the
operator, at least 5 min prior to the battery output voltage falling below its effective
working level, that the radio system is about to shut down, giving the operator
sufficient time to take the load to a safe area and set it down and take such other
action as is necessary to make the situation safe. Low battery shall not cause any
unsafe condition to occur.

(f)

The cordless control system shall incorporate sufficient logic such that unless all
crane motion actuators are in the off position on start up, there shall be no command
output.

(g)

The design shall ensure that no function of the system can be activated by any source
of interference from sources such as arc welding and direct sunlight.

(h)

The emergency stop signal shall be an active monitoring type such that the system
response time does not exceed 550 ms.

(i)

Where several hoisting machines can be operated by one cordless controller, visual
indication shall be provided on each selected hoisting machine indicating it has been
selected. A testing facility shall be provided at the cordless controller to test the
operation of this indicator.

The console/handpiece shall have a keyswitch capable of being locked in the off position
to disable the cordless controller.
8.7.4 Electronic control
Each electronic control circuit shall be designed and installed so that it complies with the
following requirements:
(a)

The system shall be fail-safe.

(b)

All mandatory devices and interlocks, safety protection, overload protection, start and
stop buttons and final limit switches shall be hard wired, i.e. directly connected,
external to the electronic control circuits and shall be positive and fail-safe in
operation.

(c)

A positive and fail-safe means shall be incorporated in the system of controls to


prevent malfunctioning caused by
(i)

the power supply becoming unsuitable for proper operation; and

(ii)

incorrect insertion of any plug, or similar component, or absence of any printed


circuit board, or the like.

(d)

The crane shall not be subject to any movement not dictated by the crane operator due
to any fault in the system of controls or any interference. A failure of a discrete or
integrated circuit component shall not cause an unsafe condition.

(e)

Where provision is made for the equipment to be controlled from a programmable


logic controller, computer, or similar device, a positive and fail-safe means shall be
provided in the system to ensure that no fault in this type of equipment is capable of

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interfering with the positive isolation of the equipment or result in inadvertent


motions when the equipment is in the manual, test, or off mode of control.
(f)

Where the crane operation has an automatic or a semi-automatic mode, or both, a


function switch shall be provided on the crane operators console. The switch shall be
positive in operation, and shall be capable of being key-locked in the off position
only. Provisions shall be made to prevent occurrence of any fault that may cause
injury to persons either directly or indirectly, or cause damage within or outside the
crane by inadvertent crane motion with the switch in any position.

(g)

Where monitoring devices are not duplicated or of a fail-safe type regardless of


whether it is a programmable logic controller or any other type, such system shall be
monitored with any operation of the controller. Where monitors are duplicated, they
shall be checked automatically one against the other, and shall be interlocked with the
system of controls in a positive and fail-safe manner.
The system of controls need not be shut down during the automatic checking of the
monitoring system, except when the monitor is faulty. On starting of the equipment,
overall checking of the safety system of controls shall be done automatically so as to
prove its capability of shutting down the equipment.
The operation of the main contactor, directional contactors, and all other contactors,
relays, and devices, which are required for the safe operation of the equipment, e.g.,
brake relays or contactors, emergency stop circuits, safety interlocking, limit switch,
and similar devices, shall be monitored in a positive and fail-safe manner, so that
malfunctioning of these items of the equipment will not result in an unsafe condition.

8.7.5 Automatic control


8.7.5.1 System design requirements
The system shall comply with the following requirements:
(a)

Provision shall be made that no two modes of control are operative at the same time.

(b)

Each mode of control to be selected via a keyswitch with the key removable in the
off position only.

(c)

At each control station, on/off and emergency stop controls shall be provided.

8.7.5.2 Safety enclosure


A crane designed to operate under automatic control (i.e. operatorless) shall have its
operating area including safety clearances fully enclosed in accordance with the following
requirements:
(a)

The enclosure shall be not less than 1800 mm high while the distance between the
enclosure and any moving part of the crane or its load including recognition of any
rope swing or buffer compression distances shall be not less than 450 mm.

(b)

The enclosure shall be one of the following constructions:


(i)

Sheet metal with all gaps less than 50 mm.

(ii)

50 mm wire mesh of thickness not less than 3 mm.

(iii) 9 mm wire mesh of thickness not less than 1.5 mm.

(c)

(iv)

Vertical bars not less than 6 mm diameter or tubes not less than 10 mm with
clear spacings not greater than 50 mm.

(v)

An equivalent enclosure.

The entry gate(s) to the enclosure shall be fitted with an electrical interlocking system
that removes electrical power from all crane motions whenever entry to the enclosure
is attempted. The restoration of power to the motions shall be by operation of a reset

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key switch situated outside the enclosure, preferably with a view over the area of the
enclosure.
The interlocking system should include the considerations outlined in AS 4024.1 and
in particular should include the following features:
(i)

The direct interruption of the power medium (power interlocking).

(ii)

The indirect interruption of the power medium by means of a control system


(control interlocking).
The interlocking system shall be selected from the following:

(d)

(A)

Tongue-operated switch or similar device that is designed to be difficult


to defeat.

(B)

Trapped-key control system (key exchange).

(C)

Other interlocking systems given in AS 4024.1, which achieve the


equivalent safety features of (A) or (B) above.

The enclosure shall have safety signs in conformance with AS 1319


(i)

mounted externally on every side of the enclosure at a spacing not greater than
25 m cautioning that the automatic crane may move without warning; and

(ii)

mounted on every access gate forbidding entry without opening a crane isolator
external to the enclosure.

When an automatic crane is operating wholly over an elevated platform, tank or


structure that is not less than 1800 mm above the surrounds then a separate enclosure
need not be constructed but the access ways to the top of the elevated structure shall
comply with Items (c) and (d)(ii) above.
8.7.5.3 System requirements
The electronic equipment used in an automatic control shall comply with Clause 8.7.4
except that movements or actions dictated by the crane operator in Clause 8.7.4 are replaced
by the automation programmed outputs.
Any cordless control system used within the automatic control system to communicate to
the crane or to communicate between sections within the crane shall comply with
Clause 8.7.3.4.
An automatic crane shall have a visual and audible warning system that operates 5 seconds
prior to each travel motion and at least the visual warning system shall operate continuously
during the operation of each travel motion.
8.7.5.4 Access for power-on faults diagnosis
Where it is necessary for personnel to have access to an automatically controlled crane for
the purpose of fault diagnosis or equipment adjustment and this can only be undertaken by
operating the crane with personnel within the enclosure, then the following shall apply:
(a)

Safe areas shall be provided in which personnel can stand.

(b)

Each of these safe areas shall be equipped with an emergency stop that will stop each
motion by means of control interlocking.

(c)

The automatic control cycle shall be reset from its isolated state by a hold-to-run type
switch from a prime safe area within the enclosure.

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8.7.6 Stop functions


8.7.6.1 General
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There are three categories of stopping functions:


(a)

Category 0: stopping by immediate removal of power to the hoisting machine


actuators (i.e. an uncontrolled stop);

(b)

Category 1: a controlled stop with power available to the hoisting machine actuators
to achieve the stop and then the removal of power when the stop is achieved; and

(c)

Category 2: a controlled stop with power left available to the hoisting machine
actuators.

NOTE: With the exception of emergency stop and/or emergency switching off, and depending
upon the risk assessment, removal of power may be accomplished by the use of either
electromechanical or solid-state components.

Category 0, Category 1 or Category 2 stops or combinations shall be provided where


indicated by the risk assessment and the functional requirements of the hoisting machine.
Category 0 and Category 1 stops shall be operational regardless of the operating modes and
Category 0 shall take priority. Stop functions shall override related start functions.
8.7.6.2 Emergency stop
Except where exempted by Clause 8.10.8, hoisting machines shall have an emergency stop
function, which shall at least stop the motion drives. This emergency stop shall function as
a category 0 stop and be initiated by a single human action.
The emergency stop function shall comply with the following minimum requirements:
(a)

It shall be fail-safe.

(b)

The energy source to all motion drives shall be removed as quickly as possible
without creating other hazards (e.g., by the provision of mechanical brakes requiring
no external energy source for stopping).

(c)

It shall override all other functions and operations in all modes.

(d)

Reset shall not initiate a restart.

8.8 LIMIT SWITCHES (see also Clause 7.13)


8.8.1 Purpose
A limit switch is required to effectively interrupt an electrical circuit to fulfil one of the
following purposes:
(a)

To limit range, that is, distance of motion


(i)

as a working limit, that is, the location of the limit switch is within the normal
range of the crane motion; or

(ii)

as a final (non-working) limit, that is, the location of the limit switch is outside
the normal range of the crane motion, and this limit switch operates only,
except when being tested, under emergency or abnormal conditions of operation
of the motion, for example, failure of a working limit preceding it or operation
of the motion beyond its normal operating range.

(b)

To limit speed of motion.

(c)

To perform an interlocking function.

(d)

To sense mechanical or operational malfunction of the crane by rope slackness, rope


out of position, e.g., bunched on winding drum, overspeed operation, or by other
means.

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8.8.2 Motion limiting devices

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Requirements for the provision of motion limiting devices are given in Clause 7.13.1.
The construction of each limit switch to be used as a motion limiting device shall comply
with the requirements in Clauses 8.8.3 to 8.8.7 inclusive.
8.8.3 Optional limit switches
Optional limit switches are those that are provided in addition to the motion limiting
devices to change the crane operation, for example, limiting the speed of crane travel when
approaching the end stops.
8.8.4 End of travel limit switch
When operated, each end of travel limit switch shall cause the power supply to the motor it
controls to be interrupted and the brake to be applied, but it shall not prevent reversal of the
motion. The limit switch shall be self-resetting when the motion returns to the non-limited
section of its range.
The end of travel limit switch may operate in a directional control circuit, i.e. it need not be
a whole-current switch.
8.8.5 Working-limit switch
When operated, each working-limit switch shall cause the power supply to the motion it
controls to be interrupted and the corresponding brake to be applied.
8.8.6 Final-limit switch
The final-limit switch operation shall be independent of the working-limit switch operation.
The following methods are examples of acceptable designs:
(a)

Whole current limit switches.

(b)

Shunt limit that operates an independent motion power supply contact e.g., crane main
contactor.

Where the final-limit switch is preceded by a working-limit switch, the final-limit switch
shall prevent reversal of the motion until it has been manually reset. The means to manually
reset the final-limit switch shall not be readily accessible to the crane operator, that is, the
final-limit switch is to be manually reset only by service or maintenance personnel.
8.8.7 Design and construction
There are mechanically operated limit switches, and there are proximity-type limit
switches; however, all working- and final-limit switches shall be of the mechanically
operated and positive break type.
Proximity-type limit switches, that is, where no physical contact between the switch and the
operating medium is needed to operate the switch, shall be mounted so that, for all
conditions of physical side shift or float, the limit switch will operate within the
manufacturers recommendations.
Each whole-current limit switch and contactor operated by a shunt-type limit switch shall
be capable of interrupting the locked rotor current. The limit switch circuit shall be
effectively designed to prevent contact welding.
Anti-collision devices shall be used where they are essential to the safe operation of the
equipment in order to prevent damage from collision between two cranes, or a crane and
other equipment, or structures.
When operated, mechanically operated limit switches that control three-phase motors shall
cause interruption of two or three active-supply conductors of the motor circuit.

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8.8.8 Application

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8.8.8.1 Hoisting motion


Each electric-powered hoisting motion shall be provided with an upper final-limit switch
that complies with Clause 8.8.6 except where other effective means, e.g., a slipping clutch,
is provided to limit the hoisting motion in the raise direction.
All hoists not fitted with a torque limiting device shall be fitted with a weight overload
protective device.
8.8.8.2 Motions other than hoisting
End-of-travel limit switches for motions other than hoisting shall be provided for all
automatic and cordless controlled systems.
Where cordless controlled cranes operate on a common runway, anti-collision protection
shall be provided. Where cordless controllers operate multiple crab cranes, anti-collision
protection shall be provided between crabs.
8.8.8.3 Spreader (for container and similar handling)
A positive and fail-safe interlocking system shall be provided to prevent
(a)

the hoisting of containers unless the spreader is properly seated and any latching-on
device is fully engaged and locked; and

(b)

the disengagement of the container while suspended.

A ready light indicator shall be provided to indicate to the operator when the spreader is
properly seated upon a container and ready for twistlock operation.
8.8.8.4 Twistlock details (for container similar handling)
Twistlocks shall comply with the following requirements:
(a)

Each twistlock shall have its own separate interlock actuated by a cam fixed directly
to the twistlock.

(b)

Latched and unlatched indicator lights shall be provided to indicate to the operator
when twistlocks are fully open or fully closed.

(c)

Mechanical interlocks shall be provided to prevent operation of any twistlock while


any load is suspended therefrom.

(d)

Interlocks shall be provided to prevent operation of hoist motion unless all twistlocks
are fully open or fully closed.

8.9 CONTROL CIRCUITS


8.9.1 Control circuit supply
Double-wound transformers complying with AS 3100 and AS 3108 shall be used for
supplying the control circuits. Where several transformers are used, it is recommended that
the windings of those transformers be connected in such a manner that the secondary
voltages are in phase.
8.9.2 Control circuit voltages
The value of the control voltage should be consistent with the correct operation of the
control circuit. The nominal voltage shall not exceed 277 V when supplied from a
transformer.
8.9.3 Protection
Control circuits shall be provided with overcurrent protection.

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8.9.4 Connection of Control Devices


In control circuits with one side connected to the protective earth, one terminal of each
operating coil of each electromagnetically operated device or one terminal of any other
electrical control device shall be directly connected to that side of the control circuit. All
switching elements of control devices that operate the coil of the device shall be inserted
between the other terminal of the coil or device and the other side of the control circuit.
8.10 ELECTRICAL ISOLATION
8.10.1 Purpose
Electrical isolation in accordance with AS/NZS 3000 and this Clause shall be incorporated
in the electrical system of each crane to electrically isolate the crane or a section thereof
primarily to enable servicing, maintenance or repair of the crane to be effected without
hazard to personnel due to
(a)

the presence of live electrical machinery, components or conductors;

(b)

unexpected movement of the crane or parts thereof; and

(c)

unexpected direction of movement due to phase failure or reversal.

8.10.2 Arrangement of isolation


Typical arrangements of electrical isolation are depicted by Figure 8.10.2.

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FIGURE 8.10.2 TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF ELECTRICAL ISOLATION

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8.10.3 Main isolator

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8.10.3.1 General
Each crane installation, including the crane supply conductors, connected to an external
power supply shall be provided with a main isolator that complies with Clause 8.10.3.4, to
enable isolation of the crane installation from the power supply. The isolator shall be
located in a readily accessible place, adjacent to the usual parking or servicing position of
one of the cranes, or at some other readily accessible place. In such instances, the location
of the isolator shall be indicated by a suitable notice at the usual parking or servicing
location of the cranes.
Where an installation has maintenance bays, the main isolator may be located remote from
the parking or servicing position, but shall be within the crane runway area.
Special equipment, such as lifting magnets, may be isolated separately from the crane
provided that all main isolators are located together and clearly marked.
Where a contactor or circuit-breaker is used in lieu of manual main isolator, the following
shall apply:
(a)

Unless the contactor or circuit-breaker is withdrawable to a safe isolating position, a


manual switch complying with Clause 8.10.3.4 shall be provided on the line side of
the device. The switch, unless capable of making and breaking the stall current of the
largest motor, shall be at least electrically interlocked with the contactor or
circuit-breaker so that the latter opens first.

(b)

Manual means of locking the main isolator in the off position shall be provided.

(c)

Where a local/remote selector switch is provided at the main isolator and the
remote-control selector switch is capable of being locked in the remote position
during normal operation of the crane, the main isolator shall not be capable of being
switched on while the selector switch is in the local or remote position without
manually resetting all the remote-control switches at each access point to the crane.

(d)

The contactor or circuit-breaker shall not be used as an isolating switch in lieu of a


manual isolating switch except as provided for in Item (a). A notice to this effect
shall be displayed at all points from which the contactor or circuit-breaker may be
operated.
The notice shall read:
EMERGENCY STOP SWITCH. MAIN ISOLATOR AT . . .

(e)

Positive and fail-safe interlocking shall ensure that all control isolators whether of the
on/off switch or pushbutton type shall be reset before the remote isolator may be
re-energized.

8.10.3.2 Alternative power supplies


Where power from alternative sources is supplied to a crane installation, positive means
shall be provided to ensure that not more than one source of supply at a time is connected to
the crane electrical system or part thereof, and that the same phase relationships to the crane
are maintained for each power supply.
8.10.3.3 Sectionalized collector system
Where a section of a crane collector system is capable of being isolated from the power
supply to the crane by a section-isolator, for example, to provide a safe maintenance bay, the
section-isolator shall be located at the access point to the isolated section, arranged and
identified so that it can not be confused with the main isolator. Unless the section isolator is
adjacent to the main isolator, the location of the main isolator shall be clearly indicated near
the section isolator. This isolator shall be lockable in the off position only. The section so
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isolated shall be provided with identification to enable the crane operator to correctly place
the crane in the isolated area.

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Lockable means shall be provided to prevent the conductors of the isolated section from
becoming energized while the section is isolated.
Earthing switches shall be positively interlocked with the other switches so as to prevent
earthing of the system in its live condition.
8.10.3.4 Design and construction
The isolator, except for a withdrawable contactor or circuit-breaker covered by
Clause 8.10.3.1(a), shall be manually operated and shall comply with AS/NZS 3947.3
where applicable and other applicable Standards.
NOTE: The terms isolation and isolator used in this Clause refer to switches, disconnectors,
switch-disconnectors, fuse-combination units and contactors as the context requires.

Isolators shall have the following:


(a)

A capability of interrupting all active conductors of the power supply.

(b)

A rating of not less than the maximum demand of the circuits they control, which
could include all the motions if applicable. Isolators shall in no case be rated at less
than the combined full load currents of the two motions of the crane having the
largest current.

(c)

An enclosure shall not be rated less than IP45 of AS 1939 except where mounted in
an enclosed switchboard, control cabinet or other inherently protected location.

(d)

A capability of being locked in the off position only.

(e)

Where mounted in an enclosed switchboard, control cabinet or other inherently


protected location (see Item (c)), a capability of being operated and locked from
outside the switchboard, control cabinet or location.

(f)

All switches required to be lockable shall have permanent locking facilities.

8.10.3.5 Remote operation of main isolator


Where means are provided for remote operation of the main isolator, they shall be capable
of being locked in the main-isolator off position. A distinct and readily visible indicator,
e.g., a flag or pair of lights (white for normal voltage supply on and green for no voltage
supply, i.e. off shall be provided at each remote control station. Each indicator shall be
provided with an adjacent clearly stamped or engraved electrical supply status label.
NOTE: For outdoor installations particularly, exposure to the sun in all seasons should be taken
into account.

8.10.4 Crane isolator


8.10.4.1 General
A whole-current isolator shall be provided for the crane electrical installation except that it
need not control the items listed in Clause 8.10.7.
8.10.4.2 Location
The crane isolator may be located at one of the following positions:
(a)

Operators cabin.

(b)

Entrance point of the crane.

(c)

Crane main equipment panel. Where the crane isolator is not located at this panel, a
separate lockable switch shall be provided at the panel.

(d)

At the point where the crane supply is obtained or as close as practicable to it.

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The crane isolator shall be so located as to be readily accessible and provide a clear view of
all crane operations.
Where the crane isolator is not provided on the crane operators route of access to the crane
operator cabin or in the crane operators cabin, a control circuit isolating device, of other
than the momentarily off type, lockable in the off position only, shall be provided in the
crane operator cabin convenient to the crane operators operating position.
Where all switches called for in this Clause and in Clause 8.10.7 are not located together,
the location of the remaining switches shall be clearly marked at each switch or group of
switches.
8.10.4.3 Type of switch
All switches required by Clause 8.10.4 shall be lockable in the off position only.
The main isolator may serve as the crane isolator.
8.10.5 Access isolators
Where sections of a crane move relative to each other, a manually operated access isolator,
either whole-current or control circuit, shall be provided at the normal access points to the
adjacent sections in a location where it can be conveniently operated from either section to
enable safe access from one section to the adjacent section. The access isolator shall be of a
positive type, and shall be only capable of being reset manually.
8.10.6 Service isolator
Where each motion has its own service isolator, it shall be of a whole-current type lockable
in the off position only.
Each service isolator shall be such that it can only be reset manually.
Where more than one service isolator is provided to isolate a motion, the isolators shall be
interlocked with the motion control so that no motor operated by the control can be
energized until all service isolators for the motion are reset.
Whole-current isolation of the motor circuits of a lockable type shall also be provided at the
switchboards.
8.10.7 Accessory, ancillary and auxiliary isolators
Where circuits for accessory, ancillary and auxiliary equipment are used, they shall be
separated from the main crane isolation circuit. Manually operated isolators shall be
provided, in convenient locations, to enable isolation of
(a)

accessories, e.g., anti-condensation heaters;

(b)

ancillaries, e.g., lighting, ventilation, heating or cooling; and

(c)

auxiliaries, e.g., magnets.

Anti-condensation heaters and similar accessories shall be capable of being isolated before
associated electrical equipment is serviced.
A notice shall be provided at each motor containing anti-condensation heaters warning that
the heater circuits shall be isolated before working on the motor and indicating where the
appropriate switch is located.
8.10.8 Emergency isolation
Fail-safe means shall be provided, at the normal operating position, for emergency
interruption of power supply to the crane drive motors as follows:
(a)

For fixed hoists and monorail, post and wall cranes and the like:

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(i)

Where the crane does not have powered travel motion, no emergency-stop
button need be provided.

(ii)

Where the crane has powered travel motion but cannot move further than 4 m
from the main isolator and the whole of this distance is unobstructed in the line
of sight from the main isolator, no emergency-stop button need be provided. If
the distance of 4 m is exceeded, or the operators path on the floor is
obstructed, a manual-reset emergency-stop button, which, when operated,
causes the main contactor to interrupt the power supply to the crane, shall be
incorporated in the crane-control station.

(iii) Where two or more hoists are located on one monorail, each hoist shall have its
own isolator lockable in the off position.
(b)

For pendent controlled cranes (other than those in Item (a)) A manual-reset
emergency-stop button or pendent cord which, when operated, causes the main
contactor to interrupt the power supply to the crane shall be incorporated in the
pendent control system.

(c)

For cabin-controlled cranes A manual-reset emergency-stop button which, when


operated, causes the main contactor to interrupt power supply to the crane, shall,
except where the crane isolator is located in a readily accessible position in the cabin,
be incorporated in the operators controls.

8.11 ELECTRICAL PROTECTION


8.11.1 Purpose
Electrical protection of the crane installation shall ensure that under electrical fault or
overload conditions the electrical fault will be automatically isolated from the supply
without causing hazard to personnel or damage to any other part of the crane installation.
Where two or more motors concurrently drive the same motion of a crane, the electric
protection circuits for such motors shall be interlocked with one another and the system of
controls in a fail-safe manner. The operation of protection of the electrical system of a
crane motion shall not cause loss of any other motion where loss of such motion could
create a potential hazard.
As a minimum requirement, hazards arising from the following shall be considered:
(a)

Overcurrent arising from a short circuit.

(b)

Overload current.

(c)

Abnormal temperature.

(d)

Loss of or reduction in the supply voltage.

(e)

Overspeed of motors.

(f)

Earthing.

(g)

Incorrect phase sequence.

(h)

Overvoltage due to lightning and switching surges.

(i)

Electromagnetic and radiofrequency interference.


NOTE: Many aspects of electrical protection for cranes depend upon the size, duty and type of a
crane and its electrical equipment and other factors. It is desirable that, during the designing of
the electrical system of a large, complex or unusual type of crane, close liaison be maintained
between the parties concerned, namely the crane user, manufacturer, electrical contractor,
electricity supply authority, regulatory authority, and other appropriate authorities.

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102

8.11.2 Overcurrent protection

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8.11.2.1 General
Overcurrent protection shall be provided in all active conductors of the crane installation in
accordance with AS/NZS 3000.
The rated short-circuit breaking capacity shall be at least equal to the prospective fault
current at the point of connection. Where the short-circuit current to an overcurrent
protective device can include additional currents other than from the supply (e.g., motors,
power factor correction capacitors), those current shall be taken into consideration.
8.11.2.2 Motor circuits
Each individual motion shall be provided with individual overcurrent protection, e.g.,
circuit-breakers or fuses, in accordance with AS/NZS 3000 (see Clause 8.11.2.1).
Where electrical control and protective panels are provided on the crane, such protection
shall be located in these panels.
Motors fitted with separately excited brakes shall ensure that if any one phase of the motor
supply is interrupted, the brake shall be automatically applied.
8.11.2.3 Control, accessory, ancillary and auxiliary circuits
Control, accessory, ancillary and auxiliary circuits shall be protected in accordance with
AS/NZS 3000.
Control circuits in an earthed supply system shall be arranged so that, if an earth fault
occurs in a control circuit, the controlled motion will stop.
Where power is supplied by a centre-tap-earthed transformer, the secondary winding shall
have ganged double-pole protection.
Where a control circuit is supplied from two phases of a three-phase power supply, both
phases shall have ganged double-pole protection.
No unearthed (floating) control supply system shall be used unless an effective and fail-safe
earth-monitoring system is incorporated in the system of controls. Such a system is to
prevent the use of the equipment while the system is in a faulty condition. A visible and
audible alarm shall be installed to indicate a fault in the system.
8.11.3 Motor protection
8.11.3.1 Motor overload protection
Overload protection of motors shall be provided for each motor rated at more than 2 kW,
and is recommended for each motor rated at less than 2 kW. Overload protection of motors
can be achieved by the use of devices such as fuses, circuit-breakers, temperature-sensing
devices, or current limiting devices, Electronic devices designed to reduce or limit the
current in protected devices may also be used. Where motors with special duty ratings are
called upon to brake frequently (e.g., motors used for rapid traverse, locking, rapid
reversal), it can be difficult to provide overload protection with a time constant comparable
with that of the winding to be protected. The use of appropriate protective devices designed
to accommodate special duty motors is recommended.
The use of motors with built-in thermal protection is recommended in situations where the
cooling can be impaired (e.g., dusty environments). Depending upon the kind of motor,
protection under stalled rotor or loss of phase conditions is not always ensured by built-in
thermal protection, and additional protection should then be provided.
8.11.3.2 Motor temperature protection
Where motor overtemperature protection for any crane motion motors is provided, it may be
arranged to act in either the main control circuit or in the individual motor circuit.
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Resistance heating or other circuits that are capable of attaining or causing abnormal
temperatures should be provided with suitable detection to initiate an appropriate control
response. An example is anti-condensation heating of motors.
NOTE: In the selection of the means of overtemperature protection, it should be noted that a
thermal overload relay may not fully protect some classes of crane motors for the load cycles
usually encountered in the crane application and, therefore, other protective means may be
required. Some examples of such protective means are
(a)

an electromagnetic or solenoid overload relay with inverse current/time characteristics for


slip or ring induction motors; and

(b)

a positive temperature coefficient thermistor or microtherm overtemperature detector


embedded in the stator winding.

Any relay used for overload protection shall de-energize upon operation.
8.11.3.3 Motor overspeed protection
Overspeed protection shall be provided where overspeeding can occur and could possibly
cause a hazardous condition, taking into account motion-limiting devices in accordance
with Clause 8.8
NOTE: This protection can consist, for example, of a centrifugal switch or speed limit monitor.
The overspeed should operate in such a manner that the mechanical speed limit of the motor or its
load is not exceeded.

8.11.4 Earthing
Earthing of crane electrical components shall comply with AS/NZS 3000 consistently and
continuously in all locations of the crane and under all environmental conditions. The crane
structure, metal frame and enclosures of the electrical equipment, metal conduits and cable
guards, and the like, shall all be effectively connected to earth through an earth conductor
circuit. Where the electricity supply is generated within the crane, all exposed conductive
parts shall be equipotential bonded.
Where an unearthed system is employed, an earth-fault-detecting device, which indicates by
visible or audible means the occurrence of earth leakage, shall be provided, and the metallic
components specified in the above paragraph shall be interconnected electrically to prevent
electrical potential differences from developing between them.
Where the crane is connected to the supply by flexible cable, the crane shall be connected
to earth by means of an earthing conductor enclosed with the current-carrying conductors
within the same sheathing as the live conductors of the flexible cable, except where the
conductors are single-core cables larger than 16 mm 2 .
Installations that are supplied by sliding contact conductors shall include a separate earthing
conductor or other positive earthing means that does not require earthing through the crane
wheels.
At least one of the hoisting machine runway beam/rails shall be effectively earthed by
means of an earth conductor. However, they shall not replace the earth conductor (e.g.,
cable, collector wire or collector bar) from the supply source to the hoisting machine. If the
runway rails are fixed on timber, reinforced concrete or other insulating medium, the rails
shall be made electrically continuous by bonding.
In cranes provided with a slewing motion, the collector column shall be provided with an
earthing collector ring and more than one finger.
8.11.5 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
The equipment shall not generate electromagnetic disturbances above levels that are
appropriate for its intended places of use. In addition, the equipment shall have an adequate
level of immunity to electromagnetic disturbances so that it can operate correctly in its

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intended environment. Guidance


AS/NZS 61000, all parts.

104

on

electromagnetic

compatibility

is

given

in

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8.11.6 Phase sequence protection


A hoisting machine with provision for the connection of an auxiliary electric power supply
or an alternative supply shall have a phase sequence protection device to ensure the correct
motor rotation.
NOTE: Conditions of use that can lead to an incorrect phase sequence include
(a)

a hoisting machine transferred from one supply to another;

(b)

a mobile crane with a facility for connection to an external power supply;

(c)

emergency supply to a hoisting machine; or

(d)

auxiliary power supply when carrying out repairs or maintenance to a hoisting machine.

8.11.7 Lightning protection


Protection against lightning shall be provided where appropriate.
NOTE: AS 1768 provides guidance on this matter.

8.12 HIGH-VOLTAGE SUPPLY TO CRANES


High-voltage supply to cranes and installations thereon shall comply with AS/NZS 3000
and AS 3007.1 to AS 3007.3, as applicable.
In addition, the protection associated with the high-voltage supply to the crane shall include
an earth-leakage protective device which shall ensure that during an earth fault condition
the rise in potential on the crane structure or its parts with respect to earth and the time to
clear the fault potential shall not exceed the recommended values for touch voltage and
time contained in AS 3859 for prospective touch voltage (a.c.) and maximum operating
time for transportable and mobile equipment.
NOTE: This requirement can be complied with by the use of residual earth-leakage protection or,
where greater sensitivity is required, the use of residual current devices current-operated
(core-balance) earth-leakage devices.

8.13 CRANES WITH MAGNET ATTACHMENTS


8.13.1 General
An audible alarm shall be provided and used by the crane operator for the purpose of
warning persons to keep away from the restricted area of magnet crane operations.
The releasing of the load shall be actuated by a two channel control (momentary switches)
i.e. not just two switches in series.
The type of the magnet shall be fit to that of the intended load(s) with regards to magnetic
flux direction as well as penetration.
If more than one magnet is used in conjunction with a lifting beam, the layout and rated
capacity of the magnets shall be matched to that of the intended load(s). The share of the
load that can foreseeably be imposed on each magnet shall not exceed its rated capacity
taking account of the rigidity of both the load and the lifting beam.
8.13.2 Lifting capacity
The lifting capacities of the magnet combinations shall be displayed and be easily readable
by the crane operator from the operating positions, together with all necessary instructions
on their safe use.
Where a number of magnets are used in different combinations, a monitoring system shall
be provided to detect a drop in magnet current below normal for each combination and to
prevent reuse of the magnets until the fault is rectified.
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8.13.3 Magnet controllers

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The magnet controllers shall comply with the provisions of this Standard (see Clause 8.7).
The controller shall remain positively located in lift or off positions, but shall be fitted
with an automatic return from the drop to the off position.
In circumstances where accidental release of the load is to be prevented, the magnet
controller shall also incorporate a guard or protector, or a supplementary pushbutton switch,
which shall require additional operations to the main magnet control system to cause
release, e.g., a hold-to-run control.
8.13.4 Application of magnets
Where various physical shapes or sizes of load are to be handled, a multiple magnet
assembly on a spreader beam may be used, with each magnet wired to a bank of selector
switches enabling the crane operator to energize only the magnets needed to span the
particular size of the load.
Where control of the lifting power of a magnet by stages is required, e.g., the operation of
plate or slab stacking, a varying magnet power control shall be provided in the form of a
master switch, drum controller, or manually operated controller.
Where the loading operations call for more precise and accurate selection of a portion of a
composite load so that a predetermined amount of it may be lifted from the stock pile or
discharged in portions from the loaded magnet, such type of control shall be provided.
Where persons are not required to be present in the operational area and the area is safely
fenced off against entry, an emergency standby power supply is unnecessary, e.g., scrap
handling, or automatic processes. Appropriate warning notices shall be displayed.
In all other cases where persons are involved, or full fencing is not provided, or in handling
plate or shapes where these require positioning manually by safe remote means, a standby
supply shall be provided unless a fail-safe magnet is used.
8.13.5 Emergency batteries
Where installed, an emergency standby battery supply to a magnet shall be of such capacity
as will provide enough power to keep the magnet energized for the time needed to lower the
load mechanically, and in any event not less than 10 min.
The changeover from the normal supply to the battery shall be automatic and in a fail-safe
manner, and in such a way that a maximum load shall not be dropped owing to a power
failure of a normal supply.
Where changeover is performed by a contactor, the following shall be complied with:
(a)

Where contactor springs alone are used, they should be of the compression type and
at least two springs shall be provided.

(b)

Where gravity and springs are used, only one spring need be provided on condition
that the force of gravity is effective on its own. Where tension springs are used, two
such springs shall be provided and the stresses shall not exceed those for compression
springs.
All springs shall be designed in accordance with BS 1726.1 and assumed to be in
Category 1 provided that the maximum actual working stress shall not exceed 60% of
the maximum permissible stress in the fully compressed condition as specified in the
Standard.

(c)

Where gravity and springs, or springs alone, are used to secure full contact pressure,
the failure of one spring shall not reduce the contact pressure below that required to
carry the rated current for 3 h without damage to the contact or any adjacent parts.

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Springs, where used, shall exert a direct push or pull, that is, they shall not be used as
part of a toggle or over centre mechanism.
The condition of the battery and the battery-charging equipment shall be constantly
monitored and interlocked in a positive and fail-safe manner with the controls of the crane,
to prevent the use of a magnet and to give visible and audible alarms where a battery fails
during the operation of a crane.
A visible and audible indication shall also be provided in the cabin to warn the crane
operator that the standby battery supply has come into operation.
8.13.6 Magnet circuits
Magnet systems supplied by sliding contact type power supply shall be fitted with tandem
collector sets.
An isolating switch with overload protection in all lines shall be provided to isolate all
supply lines to the magnets. The current rating of the fuses protecting the magnet circuits
shall be at least 150% of the working current.
Where required, the magnet frame shall be solidly bonded to the crab by the earth
connection via the magnet lead, the magnet coupling, the magnet cable, and an extra
slip-ring contact on the magnet cable drum.
8.13.7 Rectifiers
Where rectifiers are used to supply magnet circuits, they shall be separate rectifiers used
solely for this purpose. These rectifiers shall be of adequate capacity to supply continuously
the full direct current loads required, and shall be of specially robust construction to
withstand severe conditions as specified.
Rectifier transformers shall be double-wound and shall comply with AS 3108.
Each magnet shall have an enclosure rated to IP55 of AS 1939 and shall be provided with a
terminal box having
(a)

an integral construction with the magnet casing;

(b)

a watertight gland through which the magnet lead is brought to the magnet terminals;
and

(c)

a cover, which shall be easily removable without interfering with the magnet lead
inlet, and which when replaced shall restore the enclosure so that it again complies
with a rating of IP55 of AS 1939.

8.13.8 Magnet leads


The magnet lead includes all cabling from the magnet control panel to the magnet terminal
box. The cabling shall be suitably selected to meet the current carrying requirements of
each magnet and have conductors with a cross-section of not less than 2.5 mm.
All cables and termination points shall be effectively protected against mechanical damage.
In case of heavy loads, i.e. large coils and/or dangerous operations (e.g., loading/unloading
of ships), the cabling shall be redundant and be monitored.
8.13.9 Magnet couplings
Where the particular type of magnet coupling is not specified, the coupling shall comply
with the following requirements:
(a)

The coupling shall be of rugged construction and arranged for protection against
abuse both when connected and disconnected.

(b)

At the moment of breaking, the contacts shall be enclosed by insulating material.

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AS 1418.12002

(c)

Provision shall be made to fasten the coupling in the closed position.

(d)

Where an earth connection is required, it shall break last on uncoupling.

(e)

The socket shall be connected to the supply and the plug to the magnet or magnet
lead.
The magnet cable shall be rigidly attached to the bottom block by a suitable cable
clamp at a point just above the magnet coupling.
The magnet cable drum shall be
(i)

arranged so that the cable does not foul the hoisting ropes;

(ii)

such that the cable shall become neither unduly taut, nor slack enough to touch
the hoisting ropes; and

(iii) capable of accommodating and paying out the length of cable necessary for the
magnet to reach its lowest position, including any fall below floor level when
specified.
Where power is fed to the magnet by a brush and slip-ring arrangement on the magnet cable
drum, two brushes per slip-ring shall be provided and the rings shall be of sufficient
spacing with an isolation voltage of not less than 2000 V d.c.
8.13.10 Magnet attachments
Similar requirements as stated in the preceding Clauses shall apply also to magnet
attachments and their use. However the following additional requirements shall be
incorporated:
(a)

Lifting capacity and conditions for each capacity shall be marked on the attachment.

(b)

Warnings and instructions to the crane operator, when placed on the beam or magnet,
shall be in letters of sufficient size and colour contrast to be legible from the
operators normal working position.

(c)

The instruction on the proper use of the magnet shall be clear, for example:
MAGNET LOADS TO BE CARRIED ONLY WITHIN THE MARKED AREAS

(d)

Where both local and remote controls of the magnet attachment are incorporated, a
local/remote selector switch shall be provided. Provision shall be made so that only
one control method is available at any one time.

(e)

Only switches that are positive in operation shall be used for magnet control.

8.13.11 Magnet types


8.13.11.1 Battery-fed lifting magnets
Battery-fed lifting magnets shall provide a tear-off force of at least 2 times the rated
capacity under conditions specified by the manufacturer.
An automatic warning device, which monitors the power supply and provides a warning at
least 10 min before the supply reaches the level where the load will release, shall be
provided. The warning device shall be optical and acoustic.
A safety device, which, after the low power warning device has activated and the magnet
has been switched off, prevents the magnet from being switched on again until the battery is
recharged to the minimum safe operating level, shall be provided.
An indicator shall be provided to show if the magnet is magnetizing, de-magnetizing,
magnetized or de-magnetized.
NOTES:
1

The indicator does not necessarily indicate that there is sufficient magnetic field.

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The recommended maximum load for various material shapes and types shall be clearly
indicated on the magnet system.

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8.13.11.2 Mains-fed lifting magnets


Mains fed lifting magnets shall provide a tear-off force of at least 2 times the rated capacity
limit under conditions specified by the manufacturer.
A safety device shall monitor the magnet currents in the power cabling to the magnets and
the magnets themselves and shall render the magnet system inoperative should the current
drop below the safe operating current level.
An automatic warning device shall be provided if the mains power supply fails. The
warning device shall be optical and acoustic.
Magnets for lifting loads, such as plates, sheets, or bars from the top of a stack, shall have
controls to reduce the power supply so as to facilitate the shedding of excess load. After the
excess load has been shed, the controls shall permit restoration of full power.
The controls should only allow reduced power to be applied when the load is initially lifted.
Full power shall be applied (within 3 s) after the load has been lifted with the reduced
power. This ensures there is a safety buffer to guarantee the magnet grips the load. This
procedure shall be automatic and not controlled by the operator.
NOTE: This means that if a load has been lifted and is holding at reduced power, then it can be
assumed to be safely and correctly attached. For transport, the additional power is to be applied.

For safety, the hoist(s) of the crane shall be prevented from lifting or lowering the load
during magnetizing or demagnetizing.
An indicator shall be provided to show if the magnet is magnetizing, de-magnetizing,
magnetized or de-magnetized.
For magnets with variable power control, the indicator(s) shall distinguish between full and
partial magnetization.
NOTE: The indicator does not necessarily indicate that there is sufficient magnetic field.

8.13.11.3 Permanent lifting magnets


Permanent lifting magnets shall comply with the following requirements:
(a)

They shall provide a tear-off force of at least 3 times the rated capacity under
conditions specified by the manufacturer.

(b)

The control shall clearly indicate whether the magnet is ON or OFF.

(c)

The control for operating the magnet shall be placed with regard to the safety of the
operator.

8.13.11.4 Electro-permanent lifting magnets


Electro-permanent lifting magnets shall provide a tear-off force of at least 3 times the rated
capacity under conditions specified by the manufacturer.
The magnets shall have an indicator to show when the magnet(s) are magnetized. For
magnets with variable power control, the indicator shall distinguish between full and partial
magnetization.
8.14 WIRING AND CONDUCTORS
8.14.1 Materials and installation
Electrical wiring shall comply with AS/NZS 3000 and with this Clause. Materials used in
the wiring installation shall comply with Section 3.

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Insulated conductors shall have not less than seven strands and a minimum cross-sectional
area of 1.5 mm 2 for power wiring and 1.0 mm 2 for control wiring. Conductors used for
connection to electronic devices, such as encoders and PLCs, can use a smaller wire gauge
conductor.
8.14.2 Multi-outlet electrical supply
Where the power supply to a crane is by means of flexible cable from plug-socket outlets,
all sockets serving the crane shall be identically and correctly phased.
Phase sequence relay protection shall be incorporated in the crane control preventing the
use of equipment in the case of an incorrectly phased power supply.
Residual current device (RCD) protection shall be fitted to the power supply for cranes.
Sensitivity of the protection shall not exceed 30 mA. Testing facilities for checking the
operation of the RCDs shall be fitted to the protective devices.
8.14.3 Crane collector systems
8.14.3.1 General
There are two types of sliding contact systems, as follows:
(a)

Bare wire.

(b)

Insulated conductor bar.

Where the power supply to a crane is by means of systems using sliding electrical contact,
insulated conductor bar systems shall comply with AS 1418.12 and bare wire systems shall
comply with the following clauses.
8.14.3.2 Material
Bare collector wires of hard-drawn copper and circular cross section shall be of diameter
not less than
(a)

for spans not greater than 10 m ........................................................................ 5 mm;

(b)

for spans greater than 10 m but not greater than 20 m .................................6 mm; and

(c)

for spans greater than 20 m .............................................................................. 7 mm.

Bare collector wires of other material or sections shall have not less than the equivalent
mechanical strength of the corresponding hard-drawn circular copper conductor.
Collectors shall be insulated as appropriate to their application, i.e. indoor or outdoor, and
be designed to maintain firm contact with the collector wires and to minimize the
accumulation of any conductive dust.
8.14.3.3 End support
Collector wires shall be securely anchored to their supports by attachments that shall align
themselves with the ends of the collector wires. Double insulators shall be provided at both
ends. Insulators shall comply with AS 3608.
8.14.3.4 Intermediate support
Intermediate support by means of suitable insulators spaced at intervals not greater than
12 m shall be provided for bare conductors of spans greater than 12 m, unless the wires are
in constant tension.
8.14.3.5 Arrangement
The spacing of collector wires shall be not less than 100 mm in the horizontal plane,
150 mm in a non-horizontal plane, nor less than the value calculated as follows, where S is
the span of the collector wires, in metres
(a)

in the horizontal plane ........................................................................... 16S mm; and

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(b)

110

in a non-horizontal plane ............................................................................. 24S mm.

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Support and adjacent structures shall be arranged to prevent a conductor from contacting
non-insulated metal in the event of displacement of the conductor.
The height of bare collector wires shall comply with the appropriate requirements of
AS/NZS 3000. Bare collector wires shall be guarded, where necessary, to prevent contact
with hoist ropes, pendent controls and similar moving parts of the crane, and shall be out of
reach of any person on the crane or a platform. Dangerlive conductor signs shall be
displayed as required by AS 1418.12.
8.14.4 Collector rings
Collector rings, where used to supply power to a rotating section of a crane or for similar
purposes, shall be arranged and guarded so as to prevent accidental contact with live parts
by persons or objects and shall be readily accessible for inspection and maintenance.
The design of the brush contacts shall minimize electrode breakage, which can defeat
fail-safe circuitry and render the system of controls unsafe.
Design of the rings and brushgear shall eliminate the possibility of bridging the rings in the
event of brush breakage and similar, which would render the control system unsafe.
8.14.5 Electrical supply cables
Electrical cables supplying power to cranes shall be selected to meet the requirements of
this Section. Where such cables are connected to crane collector systems, the requirements
of AS 1418.12 shall also be met.
8.14.6 Flexible cable
Each flexible cable that supplies power to a crane or hoist shall remain flexible over the full
operating temperature range of the crane and shall have a current-carrying capacity
complying with AS/NZS 3000.
The flexible cable shall be supported by one of the following (or not less effective)
methods:
(a)

A rigid-track from which the cable is supported by means of trolleys.

(b)

A catenary wire from which the cable is supported by means of trolleys.

(c)

A trough or duct in which the cable is laid, which is retrieved and relaid by the crane
as the crane moves.

(d)

Suspended without intermediate support between a fixed (in location) cable reeling or
gathering drum and the crane, crane part or attachment, e.g., magnet.

The terminal ends of the cable shall be anchored at a suitable insulator in a manner that
prevents any physical load from being placed on the electrical terminals or connections.
The cable shall be of adequate length to prevent all the stored cable being paid out over the
full range of movement of the crane and load attachment. A positive and fail-safe interlock
shall prevent over-tensioning of the cables.
Where the cable has no intermediate support (see Item (d) above), excessive sag shall be
prevented by the use of a cable feeder or other automatic means.
Cable support fittings shall prevent distortion or damage of the cable insulation. Cable
loops shall be evenly spaced, free from obstruction and the cable shall be adequately
protected from mechanical damage.

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8.15 ACCESSIBILITY

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8.15.1 General
All brush gear, terminal connections and any other parts of electrical equipment subject to
regular servicing shall be accessible to enable servicing to be effected without the need to
move the equipment from its normal location.
Rating plates shall be located so that details recorded on them can be conveniently read.
8.15.2 Servicing platforms
The design and location of servicing platforms shall be such that persons working on them
who suffer electric shock or any other injury causing loss of bodily control will not fall off
the platform.
8.16 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT MARKING AND INSTALLATION DIAGRAMS
8.16.1 Marking
Every electrical component, cable and terminal shall be identified in a permanent and
legible manner. For any device not located within a panel, e.g., a limit switch or solenoid
valve, the label shall be visible without removal of the device cover.
Sliding contact power supply systems shall be suitably marked in accordance with the
requirements of AS 1418.12.
8.16.2 Diagrams
The following details of the electrical equipment control system, or systems, shall be
provided in English with the crane:
(a)

Complete wiring diagrams of the system or systems (in the control panels), which
should include schematics, panel layouts, connection diagrams, cable schedules,
equipment layouts or any other information that may be necessary to allow safe and
efficient maintenance and fault rectification to be carried out.

(b)

Identification of each item of electrical equipment and cable terminals.

(c)

A legend of the notation of all symbols used to identify electrical equipment and
controls.

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SECT ION

112

HYDRAU L I C EQ U IPM E NT
CO N T RO L S

AND

9.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section specifies the requirements for hydraulic equipment and controls used on cranes
(see Clause 1.1).
9.2 MATERIALS
The materials and components used in the hydraulic equipment and controls for cranes shall
comply with Section 3. All hydraulic components and fluids shall be compatible with the
application and the operational environment (see also Section 15).
9.3 BASIS OF DESIGN
9.3.1 General
The overall hydraulic system incorporating the hydraulic components and controls shall be
capable of handling the design loads imposed by the crane loading (see Section 4) and shall
provide a safe condition of the crane under the following circumstances:
(a)

Crane out-of-service or in transit.

(b)

Crane in-service while handling the design loads.

(c)

Failure of power source of the hydraulic system.

(d)

Crane testing.

(e)

Hydraulic system testing.

The designed operation of the hydraulic system or hydraulic components shall not adversely
affect, or impose excessive stress on any part of the structure or other components of the
crane.
To simplify fault finding, pressure test points shall be provided at appropriate places in the
system and be indicated on the circuit diagrams. Where required, means shall be provided
to purge entrained gas from the hydraulic system.
9.3.2 Braking
Braking requirements shall comply with Clause 7.12 except that the total restraining torque
applied to control, arrest and sustain the load shall be not less than 1.1 times the full-load
braking requirements for all operating conditions.
NOTE: Any assistance that consistently accrues from the hydraulic system may only be
considered to be part of the total braking effort.

9.3.3 Emergency stop


For any emergency stop action, the selection of suitably-sensitive hydraulic components,
tubing size, hoses and fittings, and the equipment locations and installation shall provide an
appropriately safe response.
9.3.4 Tubes, hoses, fittings and fluid passages
The cross-sectional area of the bore of the tubes, hoses, fittings and fluid passages in a
crane hydraulic system shall be sufficient to minimize
(a)

cavitation;

(b)

starvation; and

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undue temperature rise of the fluid and the system.

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9.3.5 Safety features


All hydraulic components shall be installed and used in accordance with the
recommendations of the component manufacturers.
In some hazardous environments, fire-resistant hydraulic fluids are required.
NOTE: In environmentally sensitive locations, biodegradable hydraulic fluids should be
considered.

Hydraulic circuits shall be designed and constructed, and the components adjusted, so that
surge pressures remain within the allowable pressure limits of all affected components of
the system. The circuits shall incorporate the following safety features:
(a)

Components accessible for easy and safe adjustment, maintenance and periodic
testing.

(b)

Safety devices to protect against the effects of the failure of a hose in any support
circuit on a crane.

(c)

Overpressure protection on the discharge side of all pumps, capable of handling the
maximum flow of the pumps.

(d)

Overpressure protection of all load-bearing hydraulic cylinders.

(e)

Loadbearing hydraulic cylinders shall be fitted with a device that will stop the
movement in the event of hose rupture or pipe fracture.

(f)

Where two cylinders operate in parallel, a suitable valve system shall be provided to
ensure that in the event of loss of pressure to one cylinder, the other cylinder shall be
protected against overloading.

(g)

Where a connection is installed between a cylinder port and a check valve in the form
of a welded or fitted pipe, the bursting pressure for the whole construction shall be at
least 2 times the maximum working pressure.

(h)

Where a fluid pressure can exceed 5 MPa or the temperature can exceed 50C and
where a hose or connection could break or burst and expose personnel to the fluid, a
shield shall be provided to divert the fluid.

9.4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM


Each crane hydraulic system design shall be recorded in the form of circuit diagrams and
shall be available on the crane. The circuit diagrams shall include component identification,
the crane manufacturer's operational settings using the standard graphic symbols of
AS 1101.1, and shall contain sufficient detail to make all functions clear.
9.5 COMPONENTS
9.5.1 Accumulators
Gas accumulators shall comply with AS 1210. Gas accumulators should be charged with
nitrogen or other inert gas.
Provision should be made to isolate accumulators, with a valve to prevent inadvertent
opening of the circuit while there is fluid under pressure in an accumulator.
9.5.2 Cylinders
The minimum criteria to be considered for the design and manufacture of cylinders used in
crane hydraulic systems shall be as follows:
(a)

Nature and magnitude of the load.

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(b)

Operational dimensions (see AS 2019).

(c)

Effective length and slenderness ratio of piston rods.

(d)

Available hydraulic pressure and flow characteristics.

(e)

Type of fluid to be used.

(f)

Mounting, e.g., ball joint ends.

(g)

Cylinder wall thicknesses.

(h)

Piston and rod end retention.

(i)

Types of seals and wipers.

(j)

Types and size of bearings.


NOTE: Where applicable, the advantages of hollow piston rods and the use of cushion-ended
cylinders or deceleration valves to prevent shock loadings should be considered.

9.5.3 Filters and strainers


A filter shall be provided for the continuous removal of contaminants from the hydraulic
fluid. Filters should be selected and installed so that the filter medium may be changed
without disturbing the hydraulic tubing or draining the fluid from the reservoir. Where
brakes are held off hydraulically, filters shall not be placed in the return circuit, as they may
block, causing sufficient back-pressure to hold a brake off.
9.5.4 Hydraulic controls
All hydraulic controls for pressure, volume and flow shall be selected so that they are not
normally adjustable beyond the safe working range of the designed operational parameters
for the applicable hydraulic system. All pressure controls shall be adjusted only in
accordance with the crane manufacturers recommendations. External adjustments shall be
locked or sealed to prevent unauthorized adjustment.
9.5.5 Hydraulic pumps and hydraulic motors
Hydraulic pumps and hydraulic motors shall be selected in accordance with the
manufacturers recommendation for the application, e.g., gear, vane, piston or similar.
9.5.6 Hydraulic tubing, hoses, fittings and fluid passages
Hydraulic hoses shall comply with AS 3791. Hydraulic tubing should not be used to support
hydraulic components or other equipment. Hoses shall not be used to support hydraulic
components or other equipment.
Suitable provisions should be made to control the flexing and twisting of hoses and tubing
during normal operation. Guarding should be provided to prevent injury to personnel in the
event of hose failure.
Provision should be made to minimize chafing of hoses.
Where practicable, ports on hydraulic components should be distinguished according to
function by the use of fittings different in type or size, for example, male thread on the
annular side port of a cylinder and a female thread on the full area port.
9.5.7 Reservoirs
The design and construction of hydraulic reservoirs shall
(a)

preclude entry of foreign matter;

(b)

minimize aeration of the hydraulic fluids;

(c)

incorporate a breather where the reservoir is not pressurized;

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(d)

incorporate a strainer and filler assembly from which the strainer shall not be
removable without the use of hand tools;

(e)

incorporate a fluid-level-indicating device showing maximum and minimum levels


under operational conditions, with such conditions being specified adjacent to the
filling position; and

(f)

have ample, protected, and accessible provisions to facilitate emptying the reservoir
without spillage and complete cleaning.

The reservoir shall maintain the fluid level within a safe margin of the working height
during operation. The reservoir should be capable of containing all the fluid that may flow
back from the system by gravity with all cylinders in the closed position and hold sufficient
reserve of fluid to assist in cooling the hydraulic oil to keep its temperature within the
limits specified by the supplier.
Reservoirs should be located to facilitate cooling.
NOTE: A magnetic plug may be fitted to the reservoir to aid removal of ferrous particles.

9.6 INSTALLATION
All care shall be taken to prevent the inclusion of contaminants during assembly and
installation of hydraulic equipment and controls, and the hydraulic system should be
thoroughly cleaned prior to testing.
All components of the hydraulic system shall be located or protected against falling objects
so as to minimize the risk of accidental damage, misuse and the effects of vibration. All
controls should be protected, where practicable, from any possibility of accidental
operation.
9.7 TESTING
After assembly and prior to delivery, the hydraulic system shall be given complete
performance tests to determine compliance with the design, safe operation and control of
the crane for the manufacturers specified operating conditions.
External leakage from components, tubing and similar shall be kept to a practical minimum.
9.8 MARKING
The specific type of hydraulic fluid used in the system shall be permanently and legibly
marked at the point for filling the reservoir.
Other hydraulic fluids shall not be used, either alone or mixed with the specified fluid.
On each accumulator, the precharge pressure and charging medium shall be permanently
and legibly marked.
9.9 INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE
The hydraulic systems of the crane shall be inspected and maintained generally in
accordance with AS 2550.1.

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1 0

P NEU M A T I C E Q U I PM E NT
CO N T RO L S

A N D

10.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section specifies the requirements for pneumatic equipment and controls used on
cranes (see Clause 1.1).
10.2 MATERIALS
The materials and components used in the pneumatic equipment and controls for cranes
shall comply with Section 3. All components and lubricants shall be compatible with the
application and the operational environment (see also Section 15).
10.3 BASIS OF DESIGN
10.3.1 General
The overall pneumatic system incorporating the pneumatic components and controls shall
be capable of handling the design loads imposed by the crane loading (see Section 4) and
shall provide a safe condition of the crane under the following circumstances:
(a)

Crane out-of-service or in transit.

(b)

Crane in-service while handling the design loads.

(c)

Failure of power source of the pneumatic system.

(d)

Crane testing.

(e)

Pneumatic system testing.

The designed operation of the pneumatic system or pneumatic components shall not
adversely affect or impose excessive stress on any part of the structure or other components
of the crane.
To simplify fault finding, pressure test points shall be provided at appropriate places in the
system and be indicated on the circuit diagrams.
10.3.2 Braking
Braking requirements shall comply with Clause 7.12 except that the total restraining torque
applied to control, arrest and sustain the load shall be not less than 1.1 times the full load
braking requirements for all operating conditions.
NOTE: Any assistance that consistently accrues from the pneumatic system may be considered to
be only part of the total braking effort.

10.3.3 Emergency stop


For any emergency stop action, the selection of suitably sensitive pneumatic components,
tubing size, hoses and fittings, and the equipment locations and installation shall provide an
appropriately safe response.
10.3.4 Tubes, hoses, fittings and air passages
The cross-sectional area of the bore of the tubes, hoses, fittings and passages in a crane
pneumatic system shall be sufficient to
(a)

provide an appropriately-sensitive control response;

(b)

minimize loss of power; and

(c)

minimize cooling by expansion.

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10.3.5 Safety features

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All pneumatic system components shall be installed and used in accordance with the
recommendations of the component manufacturers.
Pneumatic circuits shall be designed and constructed, and the components adjusted, so that
shock pressures remain within the allowable pressure limits of all affected components of
the system. The circuits shall incorporate the following safety features:
(a)

Components accessible for easy and safe adjustment, maintenance and periodic
testing.

(b)

Safety devices to protect against the effects of failure of a hose in any support circuit
on a crane.

10.4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM


Each crane pneumatic system design shall be recorded in the form of circuit diagrams and
shall be available on the crane. The circuit diagrams shall include component identification
and the crane manufacturers operational settings using the standard graphic symbols of
AS 1101.1 and shall contain sufficient detail to make all functions clear.
10.5 COMPONENTS
10.5.1 Cylinders
The minimum criteria to be considered for the design and manufacture of cylinders used in
crane pneumatic systems shall be as follows:
(a)

Nature and magnitude of the load.

(b)

Operational dimensions (see AS 2019).

(c)

Effective length and slenderness ratio of piston rods.

(d)

Available pneumatic pressure and flow characteristics.

(e)

Mounting, e.g., ball joint ends.

(f)

Cylinder wall thicknesses.

(g)

Piston and rod end retention.

(h)

Types of seals and wipers.

(i)

Types and size of bearings.


NOTE: Where applicable, the advantages of a hollow piston rod and the use of cushion-ended
cylinders or deceleration valves to prevent shock loadings should be considered.

10.5.2 Filters
A filter should be provided for the continuous removal of contaminants from the air supply.
Filters should be selected and installed so that the filter medium can be changed without
disturbing the pneumatic tubing.
Filters should be adequately sized to provide 1000 h of operation between services.
Preference should be given to filters offering a visible indication of their operational
condition.
10.5.3 Pneumatic controls
All pneumatic controls for pressure, volume and flow shall be selected so that they are not
normally adjustable beyond the safe working ranges of the designed operational parameters
for the applicable pneumatic system. All pressure controls shall be adjusted only in
accordance with the crane manufacturers recommendations.

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10.5.4 Pneumatic motors


Pneumatic motors should be selected for as wide a stable operating speed range as
practicable to utilize the flexibility offered by pneumatic control and to reduce abrupt starts
or directional changes.
10.5.5 Pneumatic tubing, hoses, fittings and air passages
Pneumatic tubing shall comply with the appropriate requirements of AS 4041, as
applicable. Pneumatic tubing should not be used to support pneumatic components or other
equipment. Hoses shall not be used to support pneumatic components or other equipment.
Suitable provision should be made to control the flexing and twisting of hoses and tubing
during normal operation. Guarding should be provided to prevent injury to personnel in the
event of hose failure.
Provision should be made to minimize chafing of hoses.
Where practicable, ports on pneumatic components should be distinguished according to
function by the use of fittings differentiating in type or size, for example, male thread on
the annular side port of a cylinder and a female thread on the full area port.
10.5.6 Receivers
Pneumatic receivers shall comply with AS 1210, and shall be removable from the system.
Each receiver shall be fitted with a readily accessible or automatic drain trap.
10.6 INSTALLATION
All practical care shall be taken to prevent the inclusion of contaminants during assembly
and installation of pneumatic equipment and controls. The pneumatic system should be
thoroughly cleaned prior to testing.
All components of the pneumatic system shall be located or protected against falling objects
so as to minimize the risk of accidental damage, misuse, and the effects of vibration. All
controls should be protected, where practicable, from any possibility of accidental
operation.
Pendent stations, hose runs, hose coils and the like shall be supported in a manner that
protects the items or any adjacent components against strain or damage by impact.
10.7 TESTING
After assembly and prior to delivery, the pneumatic system shall be given complete
performance tests to determine correct function.
External leakage from components, tubing, and similar, shall be kept to a practical
minimum.
10.8 MARKING
Receivers shall be permanently and legibly marked in accordance with AS 1210.
10.9 INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE
The pneumatic systems of the crane shall be inspected and maintained in accordance with
AS 2550.1.

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S E C T I O N

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O PE RA T I O NA L

AS 1418.12002

D E S I GN

11.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section specifies the requirements for operational design of cranes (see Clause 1.1).
11.2 CONTROL CABIN
11.2.1 Location of control cabin
The control cabin should be located remote from the crane-supply electric conductors.
11.2.2 Space for operator
The space, excluding that occupied by equipment, furniture, and the like, provided as the
operational position for the crane or hoist operator, shall be not less than 0.5 m2 in area.
Where provision is made for a passenger, e.g., trainee operator, the space to accommodate
the passenger or passengers shall be additional.
Cabin interiors shall be designed so that, when seated, operators are able to conveniently
reach all the controls required for normal operation of the crane without subjecting any
parts of their bodies to sustained postural stress and without being impeded by fixtures
within the cabin.
11.2.3 Seating of operator
The seating for the crane or hoist operator, where required, shall be designed and installed
so that the operators body is not subject to undue vibration during operation, which would
have adverse effect on the body or would otherwise affect the ability to safely and
efficiently control the crane.
The seat shall be capable of supporting the operator in comfort for a period of time
equivalent to a workshift and shall permit changes of posture while still providing support
particularly in the buttocks and lumbar region of the back.
The seat shall be adjustable for the height of the cushion above the floor or pedal controls,
and the squab (backrest) shall be adjustable for rake.
Where pedal controls are provided for single foot operation, a footrest shall be provided to
support the free foot.
11.2.4 Controls and indicators
Controls shall be located and arranged for
(a)

optimum consistency between the natural directional movement of the controller and
the resulting movement of the load, crane, or part of the crane; and

(b)

convenient operation of controls and groups of controls.

Indicators, gauges, meters and warning devices shall be of suitable design and adequate size
and shall be located so that the operators can correctly interpret the information they are
intended to convey without moving from their normal operating position.
Emergency stop controls shall be prominent from all other controls and shall be operable by
being hit by any part of the hand or arm.
11.2.5 Visibility from the cabin
Where the crane or hoist operator is intended to view the working area, the cabin of the
crane shall be designed to provide the operator, while in the normal operating position, with
an uninterrupted view of the working area which the crane is capable of serving and the
load handled by the crane.
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Windows shall be glazed in accordance with AS 1288 and AS/NZS 2080 and shall be
arranged to minimize glare and to enable convenient and safe access for cleaning. Special
vision panels, where provided, shall be suitably guarded, for example, where situated at
floor level.
Where the crane is exposed to inclement weather, windscreen wipers, demisters and similar
equipment, which adequately maintain compliance with this Clause under all weather
conditions, shall be provided.
Where the crane is exposed to sunlight, cabin windows may be of tinted glass. However, if
tinted glass is used, it shall be only lightly tinted so that the vision of the crane operator is
not impaired during night operation.
Where mirrors are provided to enable extended area of vision, the mirrors shall have a flat
surface.
11.2.6 Ventilation
Each control cabin shall be either naturally ventilated or mechanically ventilated. Where the
cabin is naturally ventilated, windows or vents in at least two sides of the cabin shall be
capable of being operated.
Where the crane operates in a toxic, irritant or obnoxious atmosphere, the control cabin
shall be mechanically ventilated. The control cabin should be kept at positive air pressure of
not less than 50 Pa above the outside air pressure. Where the atmosphere contains a high
concentration of dust or fibrous particles, the air supply shall be effectively filtered. Where
the atmosphere contains gas or vapour, the air supply shall be treated by an adsorption or
other appropriate device.
Where airconditioning is provided for the control cabin, the method of function and source
of supply shall not affect or detract from the correct operation of the crane.
11.2.7 Lighting
Control cabin lighting shall comply with AS 1680. The local illumination level at the crane
operator controls shall be not less than 300 lx.
Instrument illumination shall be controlled separately from the cabin lighting.
Glare from external, natural or artificial lighting sources shall be prevented by provision of
suitably placed visors on or in the cabin or by the use of tinted glass (see Clause 11.2.5).
The interior of the cabin shall be finished so as to minimise direct and reflected glare.
11.2.8 Thermal environment
Individual heaters, where provided, shall be permanently fixed, totally enclosed,
non-luminous and shall be protected from accidental mechanical damage or from causing
injury from accidental contact.
Where the control cabin is subjected to intense heat from a manufacturing process or other
source, the cabin shall be protected from the effects of such heat by means of guards,
baffles, thermal insulation or other appropriate means.
11.2.9 Noise exposure criteria
The maximum allowable exposure to noise in cranes shall not exceed the level specified in
the National Occupational Health and Safety Commissions National Standard and
National Code of Practice for Noise Management and Protection of Hearing at Work.
11.2.10 Communication
Consideration shall be given to the installation of a communications system.

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Where radio communication is used, the transmitting frequencies of the radio equipment
shall be selected to prevent interference to or from other radio equipment being used in the
vicinity of the crane.
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11.2.11 Fire extinguisher


Where the crane operator does not have a ready means of exit from the control cabin at all
positions of operation of the crane, a portable fire extinguisher of not less than 2 kg of the
dry chemical powder type or carbon dioxide type or vaporizing-type complying with
AS/NZS 1841.5 or AS/NZS 1841.6 or AS/NZS 1841.7, respectively, shall be provided in a
prominent position.
11.2.12 Emergency entry to control cabin
Where the size of the control cabin is such that the crane operator, if incapacitated when
operating the crane, could fall and prevent the cabin door from being opened from outside,
alternative means of entry, e.g., push-in windows or removable panels, shall be provided.
11.2.13 Emergency egress from control cabin
In cases where there is no permanent access to the cabin in all positions of the crane, a
means of alternative egress shall be provided to allow for escape from the cabin in the event
of the breakdown of the crane or other urgent demands for escape.
The systems listed in Table 11.2.13 may be suitable when the floor area swept by the crane
has at least 25% free of machines or goods, and when the goods being handled do not
involve dangerous materials or processes, e.g., hot >100C, toxic or corrosive materials.
Where emergency egress is provided by either a fall arrest system or a control descent
device, an anchorage point commensurate with the type of system specified in
AS/NZS 1891.4 shall be fitted to an appropriate place in the cabin. Where the emergency
egress incorporates a fall arrest system, it shall comply with the appropriate part of
AS/NZS 1891.
NOTE: Guidance on the selection, use and maintenance of fall arrest systems is given in
AS/NZS 1891.4.

TABLE 11.2.13
EMERGENCY EGRESS
Height above workstation

Device

1 to 10 m

Telescopic/folding ladder

3 to 15 m

Emergency lowering device

Any height

Fixed means of access that may require a


fall arrest system to protect the operator
from fall over unprotected edges

11.3 PENDENT CONTROL STATIONS AND PENDENT CORDS


11.3.1 Pathway for crane operator
Where a crane is operated by a pendent control station or a pendent cord, an unobstructed
pathway extending the complete length of the crane travel shall be provided for the crane
operator.
11.3.2 Operating level of controls
The controlling element shall be capable of being suspended at a height between 1.0 m and
1.2 m above ground or floor level when in use. Where the controlling element can be moved
off from its operating position, it shall be capable of being reached in a retracted position
from ground or floor level.
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Where dual controls, for example, cabin and pendent controls are provided, a positive and
fail-safe interlock shall be incorporated so that the alternative control can be operated only
when the controlling element is fully retracted.
11.4 OPERATOR CONTROLS AND INDICATORS
11.4.1 Operation of controls
The maximum actuating force required to operate controls shall be not greater than the
following:
(a)

Finger-operated lever.............................................................. 10 N (either direction).

(b)

Pushbutton ....................................................................................................... 25 N.

(c)

Hand-operated lever (console mounted) .................................. 50 N (either direction).

(d)

Hand-operated lever (floor mounted)............................................................... 400 N.

(e)

Pedal .............................................................................................................. 600 N.

(f)

Steering wheel
(i)

manually powered ................................................................................. 250 N.

(ii)

power-assisted
(A)

power assistance operating ........................................................... 250 N.

(B)

power assistance not operating...................................................... 600 N.

11.4.2 Interlocking of controls


Controls shall be interlocked in a positive and fail-safe manner to prevent inadvertent or
deliberate simultaneous engagement or disengagement of controls in any sequence or
combination that could result in loss of control of the crane motion.
Where a motion can be either manually operated or power operated, interlocking shall be
provided to prevent simultaneous engagement of both manual and power operation.
11.4.3 Controls and indicators for ancillaries
Control switches and indicators for lighting, ventilation, heating and similar ancillaries
shall be positive in operation, and shall be mounted on a control panel located within
convenient access of the operator from the normal operating position.
11.4.4 Marking of operator controls
All operator controls shall be suitably marked to indicate their function or operation or
both. Such marking shall be either in English based alphanumerics or graphically as
specified in ISO 7296, except pendent controls may not use graphical symbols.
11.5 WARNING DEVICES
A visual or audible warning system shall be provided where the crane operator does not
have full view of all crane wheels where the wheels operate in an area that is normally
accessible to personnel. The warning device shall be able to be controlled by the crane
operator and shall also activate automatically when the crane is in motion.

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SECT ION

12
MANUFAC TURE
C ON ST RU CT I O N

AS 1418.12002

AND

12.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section specifies the requirements for the manufacture and construction of, and access
to and clearances on, cranes (see Clause 1.1).
12.2 MATERIALS
All materials shall be new and shall comply with the relevant Standards specified herein,
and the requirements of this Standard.
12.3 FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLY
Mechanisms shall be manufactured using the applicable engineering drawings and adhering
to the noted tolerances.
Welding shall comply with the applicable parts of AS 1554.
High-strength fasteners shall be correctly torqued.
Appropriate jigs and fixtures shall be utilized during the manufacturing process, as
applicable, to assure satisfactory alignment of components as specified by engineering
drawings.
12.4 REWORK
Where any part or component needs to be reworked or modified, such rework or
modification shall be made in such a way that the essential properties of the part or
component are not adversely affected.
12.5 FINISH
Each part and component shall be protected, where necessary, from corrosion or other
surface deterioration which would cause strength deterioration of the part or component, or
other adverse effect, by the application of an appropriate external finishing material or
process.
12.6 DRAINING
Where a crane is subjected to weather or other conditions where water or other fluid could
collect in cavities or similar places, such cavities and places shall have effective means of
drainage.
12.7 ACCESS AND CLEARANCES
12.7.1 General
Requirements for access and clearances specified in this Standard ensure that effective
facilities are provided as part of a crane installation to enable safe and convenient access
(a)

of the crane operator to the normal operating position;

(b)

of service personnel to those parts of the crane that need regular inspection,
adjustment or service; and

(c)

of service personnel to those parts of the crane that need periodical inspection,
maintenance or repair.

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12.7.2 Access to crane operating position


Access shall be provided in accordance with the relevant part of AS 1418 for the crane
operator to the normal operating position with the crane situated in its normal out-of-service
position.
12.7.3 Access and egress facilities
12.7.3.1 General
Access and egress facilities shall be in conformance with the applicable part of AS 1418 or
AS 1657 or ISO 11660-1, as applicable. Where requirements differ, the applicable part of
AS 1418 shall take precedence over AS 1657, which shall in turn take precedence over
ISO 11660-1.
12.7.3.2 Access for inspection and servicing
Facilities shall be provided as part of a crane installation to minimize risks and provide
convenient access for inspection and servicing. Particular attention shall be given to those
components and subassemblies that are exposed to corrosion, fatigue and wear. Provision
shall be made for lubrication of gears, as appropriate, and of all bearings and journals. Any
point of insertion of lubricants or points where adjustments are to be made by maintenance
personnel shall be accessible.
12.7.4 Clearances
The clearance between moving parts of a crane or between a moving crane and fixed
structures in working areas shall comply with the relevant part of AS 1418, or not less
than
(a)

where the crane, parts of the crane or objects approach each other, i.e. as a crushing
movement ............................................................................................. 350 mm; and

(b)

where the crane, parts of the crane or objects pass each other, i.e. as a shearing
movement ................................................................................................... 450 mm.

For non-working areas, a minimum clearance of 50 mm shall apply.


12.8 REPAIRS
Repairs shall only be permitted where the structural integrity of the crane can positively be
maintained.
Repairs shall be carried out in conformance with AS 2550.1.

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SECT ION

13

I NSPECT I ON

AS 1418.12002

AND

TES T I NG

13.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section specifies the requirements for inspection and testing of cranes.
13.2 INSPECTION
Prior to its commissioning tests, the crane shall be inspected to ensure that it has been
correctly assembled and erected. Each movement of the crane shall be checked throughout
its complete range in both directions under no-load conditions.
13.3 TESTING
Prior to being placed in service, the crane shall comply with the commissioning test
requirements specified in the appropriate part of AS 1418.
A1

13.4 COMMISSIONING
Cranes shall be erected, or installed, and commissioned in accordance with the
specifications of the designer and manufacturer.

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S E C T I O N

1 4

M A RK I NG

14.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section specifies the requirements for marking of the crane and associated equipment.
14.2 MARKING
14.2.1 General
The crane shall be marked in accordance with the marking requirements specified in the
appropriate part of AS 1418. The crane and crane subassemblies shall be marked legibly
and permanently with the manufacturers traceable marking.
Independent hoisting mechanisms shall include marking for the rated capacity.
14.2.2 Marking on lifting devices
Each lifting attachment, e.g., lifting beam, magnet or grab, shall be marked in a permanent
manner with the following information:
(a)

The mass of the lifting attachment expressed in the same unit as the rated capacity of
the lifting attachment.

(b)

The rated capacity of the lifting attachment in either kilograms or tonnes.

(c)

Name or mark of the manufacturer or distributor of the attachment, where applicable.

(d)

An identification number.

(e)

Details of wire rope used on the lifting attachment, i.e.


(i)

nominal size;

(ii)

grade (quality);

(iii) construction; and


(iv)
(f)

length.

Details of chain used on the lifting attachment, i.e.


(i)

nominal size; and

(ii)

grade (quality).

Marking shall be in the English language, and values shall be in SI units (see ISO 1000).
Items (a) and (b) shall be of sufficient size to be legible from the working area below the
crane to which it is attached, and the other items being marked legibly on a plate or plates
permanently fixed to the attachment.

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SECT I ON

1 5

OP E RA T I N G

AS 1418.12002

E N V I RO N ME N T

15.1 GENERAL
This Section specifies the information that shall be considered when selecting materials and
equipment to be used in the design of the crane (see Clause 1.1) so that the crane is capable
of rated performance
(a)

under the normal indoor service conditions specified in Clause 15.2.1; or

(b)

under the normal outdoor service conditions as specified in Clause 15.3.1;

(c)

under special service conditions, examples of which are given in Clauses 15.2.2
and 15.3.2 for indoor and outdoor services respectively, subject to the purchaser
advising the manufacturer of the specified service condition applicable.

(d)

in hazardous environments specified in Clause 15.4, subject to the purchaser advising


the manufacturer of the hazardous service condition applicable.

15.2 INDOOR INSTALLATION


15.2.1 Normal indoor service conditions
Normal indoor service conditions are as follows:
(a)

Ambient temperature
(i)

maximum of 40C;

(ii)

maximum average of 35C over a 24 h period; and

(iii) minimum of 5C.


(b)

Atmospheric conditions
(i)

pollution degree 3 by agents such as smoke, fumes, dust or chemicals; and

(ii)

relative humidity not exceeding a maximum wet bulb temperature of 30C.

Allowance shall be made for condensation that may occur owing to temperature
variations.
(c)

Altitude A maximum of 1000 m above sea level.

15.2.2 Special service conditions


Examples of special service conditions are as follows:
(a)

Value of temperatures, relative humidity or altitude differing from those specified in


Clause 15.2.1.

(b)

Applications where variations in temperature or air pressure (or both) take place at
such a rate that exceptional condensation is liable to occur within electrical
enclosures.

(c)

Pollution degree 4 of the air by dust, smoke, corrosive particles, chemicals or


vapours.

(d)

Exposure to strong electric or magnetic fields.

(e)

Rate of exposure to extreme temperatures.

(f)

Attack by fungi, insects and vermin.

(g)

Exposure to heavy vibration and shock.

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15.3 OUTDOOR INSTALLATION


15.3.1 Normal outdoor service conditions
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Normal outdoor service conditions are as follows:


(a)

Ambient air temperature


(i)

maximum of 40C;

(ii)

maximum average of 35C over a 24 h period; and

(iii) minimum of 10C.


(b)

Atmospheric conditions
(i)

wind;

(ii)

rain; and

(iii) solar radiation.


(c)

Altitude A maximum of 1000 m above sea level.

15.3.2 Special service conditions


Examples of special outdoor service conditions are as follows:
(a)

Temperatures or altitudes differing from those specified in Clause 15.3.1.

(b)

Extreme solar radiation.

(c)

Special conditions in Items (b) to (g) of Clause 15.2.2.

(d)

Snow and ice.

(e)

Water sprayed from any direction, salt-laden spray, chemicals or windborne sand or
other abrasive particles.

15.4 HAZARDOUS AREAS


Where applicable, equipment, components and the assembly thereof shall be suitable for
use in hazardous areas.
Where a crane is located in a hazardous area, the area shall be classified, e.g., class, zone,
maximum surface temperature, gas grouping.
NOTE: Guidance is given in AS 2430.1, AS/NZS 61241.3 and the AS/NZS 2430.3 series on the
classification of hazardous areas. Requirements for electrical equipment for use in hazardous
areas are found in AS 2381 (all parts, as applicable). HB 13 also provides guidance for electrical
equipment for hazardous areas.

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SECT ION

16

AS 1418.12002

MANUA L S

16.1 GENERAL
The manuals that shall be supplied are
(a)

the crane operators manual;

(b)

the maintenance manual;

(c)

the logbook; and

(d)

the parts book.

16.2 CRANE OPERATORS MANUAL


The crane operators manual shall be a formal publication, covered in a durable material
and of a size suitable for its use. It may be combined with another manual or be an
individual manual. It may be cross-referenced to other manuals of the crane. It shall
present, in plain English, with explanations and definitions by words, the following
information:
(a)

The make, model and serial number of the crane or where appropriate, the range of
serial numbers to which the information applies, which shall be readily identifiable.

(b)

All technical data of importance to the crane operator to ensure correct operation,
travel speed in the unloaded rigged configuration, transportation, erection and
dismantling of the crane.

(c)

Description of and location of all indicating and limiting, settings and adjustments.

(d)

Instructions on the duties of the crane operator prior to operation, during operation
and after use.

(e)

Instructions on restrictions in environmental conditions of wind and temperature.

(f)

A diagram showing recommended clearances to be observed from overhead


conductors.

(g)

Description of all safety precautions to be observed during maintenance and servicing


of the crane.

NOTE: Diagrams or illustrations may be added for clarity.

16.3 MAINTENANCE MANUAL


The maintenance manual shall be a formal publication covered in durable material and of a
suitable size for the conditions of use. It may be combined with another manual or be an
individual manual. It may be cross-referenced to other manuals for the crane. It shall
present, in plain English, with explanation and definitions by words, the following
information:
(a)

The make, model and serial number of the crane or where applicable, the range of
serial numbers to which the information applies, which shall be readily identifiable.

(b)

All technical data necessary to enable the correct and safe maintenance of the crane.

(c)

Describe the location, operation and adjustments of all limiting and indicating
devices.

(d)

Details of safety precautions to be observed during maintenance and servicing of the


crane.

NOTE: Diagrams or illustrations may be added for clarity.


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16.4 SERVICE RECORD (LOGBOOK)

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A crane service record (logbook) shall be provided, which is capable of being maintained
current with details of the maintenance, service and repairs carried out on the crane.
16.5 PARTS BOOK
A crane parts book shall be provided and have all parts and elements adequately illustrated
and identified to enable descriptions to be readily given to the crane manufacturer.

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APPENDIX A

ORGANIZATION OF AUSTRALIAN STANDARD FOR CRANES


(Informative)
The organization of the Australian Standard for Cranes, hoists and winches is detailed in
the chart shown in Figure A1. At present, the Standard comprises 17 parts; Parts 1 to 10 and
Parts 12 to 18.
A list of Standards used in lifting systems is given in Appendix M. Appendix M also lists
other Standards that should be complied with, as applicable.

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FIGURE A1 (in part) STRUCTURE OF STANDARD

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Standards Australia

FIGURE A1 (in part) STRUCTURE OF STANDARD

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FIGURE A1 (in part) STRUCTURE OF STANDARD

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FIGURE A1 (in part) STRUCTURE OF STANDARD

AS 1418.12002

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APPENDIX B

LIST OF REFERENCED STANDARDS AND STANDARDS FOR REFERENCE


(Normative)
B1 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
The following documents are referred to in this Standard.
AS
1029
1029.1

Low voltage contactors


Part 1: Electromechanical (up to and including 1000 V a.c. and 1200 V d.c.)

1085
1085.1

Railway permanent way material


Part 1: Steel rails

1101
1101.1

Graphical symbols for general engineering


Part 1: Hydraulic and pneumatic systems

1138

Thimbles for wire rope

1163

Structural steel hollow section

1170
1170.1
1170.2

Minimum design loads on structures


Part 1: Dead and live loads and load combinations
Part 2: Wind loads

1210

Pressure vessels

1288

Glass in buildingsSelection and installation

1319

Safety signs for the occupational environment

1403

Design of rotating steel shafts

1418

Cranes (including hoists and winches) (all parts)

1448

Carbon steels and carbon-manganese steelsForgings (ruling section 300 mm


maximum)

1594

Hot-rolled steel flat products

1657

Fixed platforms, walkways, stairways and laddersDesign, construction and


installation

1680

Interior lighting

1720
1720.1

Timber structures
Part 1: Design methods

1726

Geotechnical site investigations

1768

Lightning protection

1830

Iron castingsGrey cast iron

1831

Iron castingsSpheroidal or nodular graphite cast iron

1832

Iron castingsMalleable cast iron

1874

Aluminium and aluminium alloysIngots and castings

1939

Degrees of protection provided by enclosures for electrical equipment (IP


Code)

2019

Fluid powerHydraulic and pneumatic cylindersBore and rod dimensions

2074

Steel castings

2076

Wire-rope grips for non-lifting applications

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AS
2318

Swivels for hoists

2319

Rigging screws and turnbuckles

2381
2381.2
2381.6
2381.7

Electrical equipment for explosive atmospheresSelection, installation and


maintenance
Part 2: Flameproof enclosure d
Part 6: Increased safety e
Part 7: Intrinsic safety I

2430

Classification of hazardous areas (set)

2549

Cranes (including hoists and winches)Glossary of terms

2550

CranesSafe use (all parts)

2670

Evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration (all parts)

2740

Wedge-type sockets

2741

Shackles

3007
3007.1
3007.2
3007.3

Electrical installationsSurface mines and associated processing plant


Part 1: Scope and definitions
Part 2: General protection requirements
Part 3: General requirements for equipment and ancillaries

3108

Approval and test specificationParticular requirements


transformers and safety isolating transformers

3600

Concrete structures

3608

InsulatorsPorcelain and glass, pin and shackle typeVoltages not exceeding


1000 V a.c.

3678

Structural steelHot-rolled structural plates, floorplates and slabs

3679
3679.1

Structural steel
Part 1: Hot-rolled bars and sections

3777

Shank hooks and large-eye hooksMaximum 25 t

3791

Hydraulic hose

3859

Effects of current passing through the human body

3990

Mechanical equipmentSteelwork

4024
4024.1

Safeguarding of machinery
Part 1: General principles

4041

Pressure piping

4100

Steel structures

4142
4142.1
4142.2
4142.3

Fibre ropes
Part 1: Care and safe usage
Part 2: Three-strand hawser-laid and eight-strand plaited
Part 3: Man-made fibre rope for static life rescue lines

AS/NZS
1269

AcousticsHearing conservation

1359

Rotating electrical machinesGeneral requirements

1554

Structural steel welding (all parts)

1664
1664.1
1664.2

Aluminium structures
Part 1: Allowable stress design
Part 2: Limit state design

1800

Occupational protective helmetsSelection, care and use

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isolating

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AS/NZS
1801

Occupational protective helmets

1841
1841.5
1841.6
1841.7

Portable fire extinguishers


Part 5: Specific requirements for powder type extinguishers
Part 6: Specific requirements for carbon dioxide type extinguishers
Part 7: Specific requirements for vaporizing-liquid type extinguishers

1891

Industrial fall-arrest systems and devices (set)

2080

Safety glass for land vehicles

2381
2381.1

Electrical equipment for explosive atmospheresSelection, installation and


maintenance
Part 1: General requirements

3000

Electrical installations (known as the Australian/New Zealand Wiring Rules)

3100

Approval and test specificationGeneral requirements for electrical equipment

3947
3947.1
3947.3
3947.4
3947.5.1

Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear


Part 1: General rules
Part 3: Switches, disconnectors, switch-disconnectors and fuse-combination
units
Part 4: Contactors and motor starters (all parts)
Part 5.1: Control circuit devices and switching elements

61000

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)

61241
61241.3

Electrical apparatus for use in the presence of combustible dust


Part 3: Classification of areas where combustible dusts are or may be present

IEC
61603
61603-1

Transmission of audio and/or video related signals using infra-red radiation


Part 1: General

ISO
1000

SI units and recommendations for the use of their multiples and of certain other
units

1328
1328-1

Cylindrical gearsISO system of accuracy


Part 1: Definitions and allowable values
corresponding flanks of gear teeth

6336

Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears (all parts)

7296
7296-2

CranesGraphical symbols
Part 2: Mobile cranes

12842
12842-1

CranesCondition monitoring
Part 1: General

11660
11660-1

CranesAccess, guards and restraints


Part 1: General

DIN
536

Part 1:

15020

Lighting appliances, principles relating to rope drives

15061

Sheet 1:
Sheet 2:

Standards Australia

of

deviations

relevant

to

Cranes rails, Type A (with foot flange); dimensions, static values,


steel grades
Cranes, grooved profiles for wire rope drums
Lifting appliances, groove profiles for wire rope sheaves

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JIS
E1101

AS 1418.12002

Flat bottom railway rails and special rails for switches and crossings of
non-treated steel

E1103

Light rails

BS
1726
1726.1

Coil springs
Part 1: Guide for the design of helical compression springs

SAI
HB 13

Electrical equipment for hazardous areas

Ministerial Council for Road Transport Australian code for the transport of dangerous
goods by road and rail (ADG) Code. 6th Edition. Canberra: AGPS, 1998. Known as the
Australian Dangerous Goods Code

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APPENDIX C

FAILURE TO SAFETY (FAIL-SAFE SYSTEMS)


(Informative)
C1 GENERAL
Failure to safety is conceptually applicable to any structural, mechanical, electrical or.
Failure to safety is the embodiment, in a system of components, of a characteristic such that
the failure of a single component
(a)

does not cause the system to cease its intended service; and

(b)

does not cause the device in which the system exists to reach, or tend toward, a lesser
degree of safety than would otherwise be the case.

It is self evident that a single component cannot fail-safe. To satisfy the concept of failure
to safety, a single component is replaced by a system of components or by re-configuring
the whole so that the failure of the component will be inconsequential.
Failure to safety has a rational meaning only on the basis that a given possible failure has a
non-zero probability of occurrence and that such a failure is not tolerable. However, for a
system devised to be fail-safe, if one of its components fails and the failure of that
component is not able to be readily detected, the system does not achieve failure to safety
and the probability of the failure of the system becomes equal to that of the probability of
failure of the next most critical component.
While failure to safety achieves a system with the most desirable level of integrity, in
certain circumstances it cannot be invoked and reliance for safety may remain on a single
component. Such circumstances involve considerations of practicability where backup,
redundancy, duplication, and the like, would not be possible. In these circumstances, the
probability of failure could be minimized by design, quality control and concentrated
routine inspection and test.
C2 COMMON FAIL-SAFE SYSTEMS
C2.1 Emergency stop systems
Typically, failure to safety is provided by a system of components consisting of a master
contactor arranged to remove all power from a device when one of a number of serieslinked, normally closed stop buttons is opened and de-energizes the coil of the contactor.
The system is fail-safe in that a circuit fault such as a broken wire, jammed button or opencircuited contactor coil causes the safe response, i.e. opening of the contactor. It is
generally accepted that because the contactor is dedicated to this purpose and only operates
in the unusual circumstance of an emergency, then, if properly sized, its probability to fault
closed (e.g. due to welded main contacts) is very low, the probability of failure in this state
being of a similar order of magnitude to that ascribed to any other non-redundant system.
Further safety is frequently introduced by making the stop buttons latch in the open state
mechanically and by requiring a reset by a start button to re-establish the contactor
independently of the reset of the stop button contacts.
The system described may be characterised as fail-safe provided that the probability that the
contactor will open when commanded (its intended service) is within the appropriate
ranges.

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C2.2 Fail-safe brake


A fail-safe brake is a brake that requires power to be applied to cause it to lift or open, that
is, not be applied. The closing (or application) of the fail-safe brake is usually produced by
spring energy. Such a brake may not be fail-safe in itself, as the failure of one of its
components, e.g. the spring, may cause it to cease its intended service. The term fail-safe
brake describes the system of braking rather than the brake but rarely, if ever, is there
sufficient redundancy built into the brake or sufficient monitoring (to ensure that the brake
is not inopportunely disabled because of excessive wear) to make the system intrinsically
safe or fail to safety in all circumstances. The duplication of brakes in particular hazardous
environments is usually required; however, even this does not guarantee a fail-safe system,
and eventually reliance on appropriate and regular tests to prove the system is necessary to
secure intrinsic safety.
C2.3 Structural elements
Where a structure comprises a network of members in which their principals are continuous
and where braces, ties and struts are welded or otherwise connected to the principals by
joints that are capable of supporting a moment (albeit for a short time), there is a high
probability that the structure can be judged to be intrinsically safe. Where, because of the
redundancy of the continuity and moment capacity noted above, a member could be
removed without occasioning the structure to cease its intended service, and such removal
or loss could be evident in a casual inspection, the structure is fail-safe. However, it is up to
the designer to establish inspection procedures, both in method and timing, to ensure the
timely discovery of an initial failure and the consequent ongoing reliance on secondary
members and connections not specifically designed to accommodate the principal loads.
Example:
Consider a simply supported beam carrying dead and live working loads. If it were to fail
(cease its intended service), injury would be likely, and, therefore, it is not fail-safe.
Intrinsic safety could be achieved either by
(a)

the installation of a secondary member or trussing elements, which could handle the
load on a temporary basis while making it obvious that the primary member had
failed; or

(b)

designing the primary (single) component to satisfy the necessary maximum


probabilities of failure.

C2.4 Ratchet locks


Where a ratchet lock mechanism is employed, for instance to lock an over the shoulder
patron restraint, such a mechanism is fail-safe when the ratchet pawl is duplicated, that is,
lifted by a separate immediate device to that which lifts the primary ratchet pawl and which
acts on secondary ratchet teeth or on a portion of the primary ratchet not in contact with the
primary pawl. Intrinsic safety, however, is only secured by such a system when the failure
of the primary system is discoverable in a timely manner by immediately observable means
without the need for tools, for example, by counting clicks of engagement or by obvious
excessive travel to take-up. In certain systems of this type, it is not possible to determine
which is the primary and which is the secondary system, and the designer and manufacturer
should provide full explanatory information to the user so that those responsible have a
good understanding of the operation and service requirements of the total system.

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APPENDIX D

TYPICAL CRANE APPLICATION CLASSIFICATION


(Normative)

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LEGEND:
fr
= ratio of average hook path to nominal hook path available
Go down in class
Go up in class
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NOTES:
1

Typical crane application is selected from the centre of the above table.

The number of working cycles per day is cross-checked at the right-hand side depending on the duty, i.e.
light, moderate, heavy or very heavy.

If the selection is correct, a horizontal line is drawn.

The lift cycle is calculated from the expression


0.60

2 hook path (m)


60 VH (m/s )

A vertical line is drawn at the appropriate division. The intersection of both lines indicates the mechanical
classification that matches the selected crane classification.

The Table shows typical classifications for hoists and cranes as a whole. For classification of other
motions where insufficient data exists the following guidance may be used:

(a)

Long travel One classification lower than the chosen hoist classification.

(b)

Cross travel, slewing, luffing Two classifications lower.

For monorail travel classification, use one classification lower than the chosen hoist classification.
Example:
(a)

Indoor gantry crane of medium state of loading = Q2 (see Table 2.3.3).

(b)

Number of lifts during life = 6.3 10 4 = U2 (see Table 2.3.2).

(c)

Nominal load spectrum factor (K p ) = 0.25 (see Table 2.3.3).

(d)

Hoisting speed = 6m/min.

(e)

Hoisting path = 6 m.

(f)

Number of operations per day =

63 000
= 10 .
25 250

(g)

Average cycle for hoist = 0.60

2 6
= 1.2 min .
6

(h)

Enter a line horizontally from the right of the table to the left for gantry crane, 10 working cycles
per day with medium (K p) of 0.25.

(i)

Enter a vertical line cycle time of 1 > 2 min.

(j)

The intersection gives

(k)

(i)

Class of hoist = M2 ; and

(ii)

Class of crane = C2.

The load condition is 0 for which fatigue considerations do not apply.

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APPENDIX E

OBLIQUE TRAVEL FORCESDETAILED ANALYSIS


(Normative)
E1 GENERAL
All cranes travelling on two fixed parallel runways, such as bridge and gantry cranes,
experience oblique travelling. Oblique travel causes, in the instant of contact between the
rail and the front guiding element (wheel flange or guide roller), a contact force (P OT) that
tends to straighten the crane on its runways.
The major dimensions and forces due to oblique travel are set out in Figure E1.
NOTES:
1

P OT is the contact force between the front guiding element and the crane rail.

K F reduction factor (Table 4.6.5.5) may be used, but has not been included in this Appendix.

The most adverse condition for calculation of forces on crane components and crane runway
beams and structure is when a fully loaded crab is assumed to be positioned opposite the
contact force POT.

E2 GENERAL METHOD OF CALCULATION APPLICABLE TO ALL BRIDGE


AND GANTRY CRANES
Where a crane bridge skews, that is, where it assumes an oblique travel gradient () relative
to the runway, a contact force (POT) is produced on the front guiding means or group of
guiding means (wheel flange or guide roller) as seen in relation to the direction of
movement, and consequently a group of frictional forces (X1i , Y1i and X 2i , Y2i ) act on the
contact areas of the track wheels.
The contact force (P OT) and the wheel frictional forces (X 1i , Y1i and X2i , Y2i ) are calculated
by the following equations:

POT = K O PG
X 1i = 1ix K O PG

X 2i = 2ix K O PG

Y1i = 1iy K O PG

Y2i = 2iy K O PG

where
P OT = contact force

= ..........(see Table E2)

K O = coefficient of frictional contact (see Table E1)


P G = the sum of all wheel loads due to the mass of the crane and the hoisted load,
without the dynamic multipliers in Clauses 4.5.2.1 and 4.5.3.3
X 1i = frictional force
1ix = ..........(see Table E3)
X 2i = frictional force
2ix = ..........(see Table E3)
Y1i = frictional force
1iy = ..........(see Table E3)
Y2i = frictional force
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145

FIGURE E1 DIMENSIONS AND FORCES DUE TO OBLIQUE TRAVEL OF A CRANE


WITH FOUR PAIRS OF TRACK WHEELS REPRESENTING DIFFERENT DESIGN
FEATURES
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2iy = ..........(see Table E3)

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= oblique travel gradient resulting from the total of all displacements possible for
oblique travel of the crane as related to the distance, SG , of the position guiding
means
= F + v + s15

F = oblique travel gradient resulting from 75% of the clearance between a straight
rail and the positive guiding means, which is not less than 5 mm for guide
rollers and not less than 10 mm for wheel flanges
v = oblique travel gradient resulting from wear of not less than 3% of the rail head
width for all cranes with guide rollers and for Class C1 to C5 cranes with
flanged wheels for Class C6 to C9 cranes with flanged wheels the oblique travel
gradient resulting from wear of not less than 10% of the railhead width
o = 1
= parts per thousand (pro mille)
TABLE E1
COEFFICIENT OF FRICTIONAL CONTACT (K o ) AS A FUNCTION
OF THE OBLIQUE ANGLE ()
1
0

/00
Ko

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

10.0

12.5

15.0

15.0

0.094 0.118 0.139 0.158 0.175 0.190 0.203 0.214 0.233 0.248 0.259 0.268 0.275 0.287 0.293 0.300

NOTES:
1

Assume linear interpolation between values.

K O = 0.30 (1-e -0.25 ) where e equals 2.71828 (basis of the natural logarithms) and oblique travel gradient is in 0/00 .

The factors , 1ix , 1iy and 2ix , 2iy for calculating the forces P OT , X 11, Y11, X 21, Y 21 and the
position h of the slip pole are given in accordance with Tables E2 and E3 by the dimensions
of the crane (see Figure E1), the position of the overall centre of gravity due to the dead
loads and the hoisted loads, and the system of the drive and support as defined in AS 2549.
The contact force (P OT) due to oblique travel of cranes with flanged track wheels shall be
distributed in accordance with Figure E2.
For cranes with a total of N W pairs of track wheels arranged each on an axis i, and of which
N S are synchronized, and whose wheel loads PWi1 on side 1 and PWi2 on side 2 are of equal
magnitude, respectively, for each side, and assuming the usual tolerances for track wheel
diameter, axial parallelism of track wheel bores and position of the runway, with a
linearized frictional contact relationship applying equally to longitudinal and transverse
slip.

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EXPRESSION FOR THE POSITION OF SLIP POLE h


AND FACTOR TO CALCULATE THE CONTACT FORCE
System

FF

N S X 1 X 2 S T + ei
ei

FL

N S X 1 S T + ei
e i

ei
Nwh

e
X 2 1 i
Nwh

TABLE E3
FACTORS FOR CALCULATING THE FRICTION FORCES
System

1ix

1iy

2ix

2iy

WFF

X1 X 2 ST

NW
h

X 2 ei
1
NW
h

X1 X 2 ST

NW
h

X 1 ei
1
NW
h

X 2 ei
1
NW
h

X 1 ei
1
NW
h

X 1 X 2 ST

NW
h

EFF

WFL

X 1 X 2 ST

NW
h

EFL
0

X2
NW

ei
1
h

X 2 ei
1
NW
h

e i = The distance measured at right angles between the line of action of the contact force P OT and the
individual pair of wheels under design consideration.
X 1 and X 2 are coefficients that describe the position of the slip pole (see Figure E1).

FIGURE E2 DISTRIBUTION OF LATERAL FORCES

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APPENDIX F

FATIGUE DESIGN OF MECHANISMS


(Informative)
F1 INTRODUCTION
F1.1 General
The designing of engineering parts to prevent fatigue failure is a more complex process
than designing on the basis of static strength. The complexities of the variables in crane
mechanisms are numerous and it is not practicable to lay down particular design rules for
all mechanisms. The Standard is not intended to direct the crane designer to use only those
equations and methods provided. Should the designer wish to carry out a detailed analysis
of any aspect of crane behaviour, the results of such an analysis may be substituted for the
corresponding requirement of the Standard.
In general, considerable test data is required for the following:
(a)

Evaluation of parameters by a process of logical analysis.

(b)

Demonstration of the applicability of the particular method of analysis.

F1.2 Approaches
With deterministic fatigue analysis, there are two fundamental approaches to fatigue life
estimation:
(a)

Stress life (S-N), a traditional approach where a known stress is compared to the
statistical survival of a material, drawn from a number of tests that characterize the
specific material and geometry used. In general, the stress range is used to calculate
fatigue life, as fatigue damage is assumed to occur with stress fluctuations. This
technique is primarily intended for low stress, high cycle fatigue. Its validity is
limited for high stress, low cycle fatigue where stress does not equal strain, e.g. near
local stress concentrations or where residual fabrication stresses are present.

(b)

Strain life (e-N), a method that takes into account the actual stress-strain response of
a material and is considered better for high-stress low cycle fatigue design. The total
stress (both applied and residual stress) at the point of consideration is required for
this form of analysis. The method only accounts for life up to the initiation of a
fatigue crack, where life beyond the initiation of a fatigue crack is important, it is
normally accounted for by a linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) approach.

F1.3 Choice of approach


There are a number of circumstances where neither of the above may be adequate in
predicting the fatigue life of a component, such as
(a)

where multi-axial stress occurs;

(b)

in material that exhibits different elastic moduli in tension and compression,


(e.g. some cast irons);

(c)

non-homogenous or non-isotropic materials; and

(d)

where fatigue mechanisms interact with other effects (creep, corrosion, etc.).

It is beyond the scope of this Standard to detail these (or other) approaches or to
recommend the most appropriate method for particular cases. The method adopted should
be based upon acceptable risk and available data. The S-N approach is currently the most

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widely used and has the most data available, but shortcomings in this method have led to a
gradual increase in the popularity of other (however, more complicated) methods.
One of the significant problems associated with fatigue design, particularly from a
designers point of view, is determining the actual loads (and stresses) and their associated
frequencies. When this is in error, the appropriateness of the analysis methodology is a
moot point.
F2 DESIGN CRITERIA
The design life should be as agreed between the supplier and the purchaser; however, the
minimum recommended life is
(a)

for mechanisms, 10 years (where inspection and repair or replacement is feasible);


and

(b)

for structures, 25 years.

NOTE: The design life requirements, for a particular type of crane, could be affected by
mandatory inspection requirements. Refer to AS 2550.1, and its associated part, and other parts of
this Standard for further guidance.

Where statistical approaches are adopted, the minimum recommended survival rate is 90%.
NOTE: B10 life or 90% survival (10% failure) is common in the design of bearings. Other codes
of practice adopt a minimum 2 standard deviation (97.7% survival, normal distribution).

Where significant risk to personnel or property is present, much larger survival probabilities
have to be considered.
Irrespective of the design technique or survival probability, the component strength has to
be greater than that prescribed by its static capacity.
Different component types have traditionally adopted different techniques. These have been
incorporated in various standards and codes of practice, which have been used successfully
in the fatigue design process. Guidance should be sought from the following Standards:
AS
2729

Rolling bearingsDynamic load ratings and rating life

3890

Rolling bearingsSystem life and reliability

4171

Rolling bearingsStatic load ratings

1403

Design of rotating steel shafts

2938

GearsSpur and helicalGuide to specification and rating

4100

Steel structures

AS/NZS
1554.5 Structural steel weldingWelding of steel structures subject to high levels of
fatigue loading
The following overseas Standards provide useful information on fatigue design:
ASTM
E739

Standard Practice for Statistical Analysis of Linear or Linearized Stress-Life (S-N)


and Strain-Life (e-N) Fatigue Data

ANSI/ABMA
11
Roller Bearings, Load Ratings and Fatigue Life for
9

Ball Bearings, Load Ratings and Fatigue Life for

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APPENDIX G

REEVED SYSTEMSALLOWANCE FOR FRICTIONAL EFFECTS


(Normative)
Frictional resistance in a reeved system results in an increase in rope tension. This
resistance is caused by bearing or journal friction and by internal friction induced in the
rope by its flexing and unflexing as it passes over each sheave.
Where a number of parts of rope support a load, the sum of the tension in each part is equal
to the force applied by the load to the reeved system. When the system is stationary, the
tension in each part is equal; when the system is in motion, half the parts have tension
greater and half the parts have tension less than the average tension.
The value of maximum rope tension (P RM) in a reeved system may be calculated by the
following equation:

(1 + ) N 1
PRM =
(1 + ) N D PE
2
3
N 1

1 + (1 + ) + (1 + ) + (1 + ) + . . . + (1 + )

. . . G(1)

where
P RM = maximum rope tension, in kilonewtons

= friction allowance

= number of falls of rope supporting P E

N D = number of deflection sheaves


P E = load applied to the reeved system, in kilonewtons
The friction allowance depends on type, arrangement and method of lubrication of the
sheave bearings, and the flexibility of the rope.
Where the number of falls is large, the inherent flexibility of the rope system and the lower
speed of motion lowers impact and other dynamic effects and consequently the increase in
rope tension is allowed to be absorbed into the load factor. Where the reeved system has
more than 10 parts of rope supporting the load, frictional effects become of such
significance that they cannot be disregarded.
Clause 7.16 requires allowance to be made for frictional effects. Where the system has more
than 10 parts of rope supporting the load, frictional effects shall be considered.
The following example has been included in this Appendix to clarify the method of making
such allowance.
Example:
Calculate the maximum rope tension (PRM) in the reeved system shown in Figure G1.
DATA:
PE

= 100 9.81 kN

= 12

ND

= 3

= 0.02 (assumed)

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1.0211
PRM =
1.02 3 981
2
3
11
1 + 1.02 + 1.02 + 1.02 + ... + 1.02

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= 96.5 kN

FIGURE G1 EXAMPLE OF SHEAVE SYSTEM

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APPENDIX H

EXAMPLES OF WIRE ROPE SELECTION


(Informative)
H1 EXAMPLE 1
A lifting appliance is to operate under duty conditions defined in the classification of
mechanisms as M4. The maximum rope tension has been established as 79 kN.
The type and grade of the rope to be selected has a K value of 0.356, as specified by the
manufacturer, and its R o value is 1,770 N/mm 2 . From Equation 7.16.2.2 the C value is
0.080.
d min = 0.080 79 000
= 22,486 mm

For practical purposes, the minimum diameter of the rope selected is not to be less than
22.5 mm or greater than 28.1 mm.
Equation 7.16.2.4 gives the minimum breaking force:
Fo = 79 4
= 316 kN

For practical purposes, the minimum breaking force of the rope selected shall not be less
than 316 kN.
H2 EXAMPLES 2
Exactly similar parameters are required as indicated in Example 1, but on this occasion the
constructor of the appliance wishes to employ a smaller rope size to reduce equipment
weight and therefore selects a rope type and grade having a K value of 0.497 and Ro value
of 1,960 N/mm 2 .
From Equation 7.16.2.2:
4
0.497 1 960

C=

= 0.064 1

corrected to 0.065 (Renard number from R40 series)


d min = 0.065 79 000
= 18.270 mm

For practical purposes, the nominal diameter of the rope selected is not to be less than
19 mm or greater than 22 mm.
Equation 7.16.2.4 gives the minimum breaking force:
Fo = 79 4
= 316 kN

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APPENDIX I

ROPE ANCHORAGE POINT LOCATION


(Informative)
The correct method for locating the rope anchorage point on a drum is given in Figure I1.
Right hand lay ropes should be used in configurations a and c. Left land lay ropes should be
used in configurations b and d.

(a) Right-hand lay ropeunderwind

(b) Left-hand lay ropeunderwind

(c) Right-hand lay ropeoverwind

(d) Left-hand lay ropeoverwind

NOTE: Thumb indicates the side of the rope anchorage.

FIGURE I1 LOCATING THE ROPE ANCHORAGE POINT ON A DRUM

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APPENDIX J

GROOVE PROFILES FOR WIRE ROPE SHEAVES


(Informative)
This Appendix provides guidance on groove profiles for wire rope sheaves. Figure J1 shows
the accuracy of surface conditions for groove profiles. The information in this Appendix is
drawn from DIN 15061, for general guidance on groove profiles for wire rope sheaves.
Groove profiles to this Standard shall fall within permissible deviations governed by
nominal rope diameters given in Tables J1 and J2.
TABLE J1
GROOVE DEVIATION
Rope
nominal
diameter
(d 1)

>3
6

>6
7

>7

Permissible
deviation, %

+8
0

+7
0

+6
0

+5
0

NOTE: Maximum fleet angle of 5 each side


permissible subject to requirements of DIN 15020-1.

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FIGURE J1 SHEAVE GROOVE PROFILE

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TABLE J2
ROPE SHEAVE DATA
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Groove radius permanent


deviation for accuracy range
r1
mm
1.6
2.2
2.7
3.2
3.7
4.2
4.8
5.3
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8.5
9
9.5
10
10.5
11
12
12.5
13
13.5
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

+0.2

+0.1

+0.6

+0.3

+0.2

+0.8

+0.4

+0.2

+1.6

+0.8

+0.4

27
28
29
30
31
32

hg
Guiding
values

3*

+0.4

26

8
10
12.5
12.5
15
15
17.5
17.5
20
20
22.5
25
25
27.5
30
30
32.5
35
35
35
35
37.5
40
40
40
45
45
50
55
55
60
60
65
65
67.5
70
70
72.5
72.5
75
77.5
82.65
82.65
85

9
11
14
15
17
18
21
22
25
25
28
31
31
34
37
38
40
43
44
45
46
48
51
52
53
59
60
65
71
72
78
79
84
86
89
91
93
95
96
99
103
110
110
113

Rope
nominal
diameter
(d 1)
mm

2
2
2
3
4
4
4.5
4.5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
10
10
11
11
11
11
12.5
12.5
12.5
12.5
12.5
12.5
12.5
12.5
12.5
12.5
12.5

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27.28
29.30
31.32
33.34
35.36
37.38
39.40
41
42.43
44.45
46
47
48
49
50
52
54
56
58
60

* For production cranes, e.g. steel mill crane, accuracy range 3 is recommended.
hg min. = d s.2.

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APPENDIX K

GROOVE PROFILES FOR ROPE DRUMS


(Normative)
Figure K1 shows details of the drum groove profile. The information in this Appendix is
drawn from DIN 15061.
These details are not applicable to serial hoists. Drum groove profiles shall fall within
permissible deviations governed by nominal rope diameters given in Table K1.
TABLE K1
DRUM GROOVE DEVIATION
Rope
nominal
diameter
(d 1)

>3
6

>6
7

>7

Permissible
deviation, %

+8
0

+7
0

+6
0

+5
0

NOTES:
1

Maximum fleet angle of 5 each side permissible


subject to requirements of Clause 7.16.3.

Deviation of flank angle is permissible related to


slope and position tolerances, if groove profile is
maintained.

NOTE: Diagram of groove profile for a rope pulley of groove radius r1 = 11 mm


Groove profile DIN 15061-2-11.

FIGURE K1 DRUM GROOVE PROFILE


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APPENDIX L

THEORETICAL THICKNESS OF HOIST DRUM


(Normative)
L1 APPLICATION
This Appendix may be used to determine the theoretical thickness of a crane drum (see
Clause 1.1). The method is more precise and less conservative than that specified in
Clause 7.19.5, and, consequently, in the manufacture of the drum, close control over
manufacturing inaccuracies, e.g., machining eccentricity, core shift in casting or
out-of-roundness in rolling, needs to be maintained. Allowance for such inaccuracies shall
be added to the theoretical drum-shell thickness in accordance with Clause 7.19.4.
L2 NOTATION
The following notation is used in this Appendix:
D DM = mean diameter of drum shell (see Figure L7), in millimetres
= D DN TD
D DN

= nominal diameter of drum shell, in millimetres


= for grooved drum, the diameter between the roots of the rope groove
= for ungrooved drum, the outside diameter of the drum shell

D FI

= inner diameter of drum flange or stiffener (see Figure L7), in millimetres

D FO

= outer diameter of drum flange or stiffener (see Figure L7), in millimetres

D RO

= diameter of outer coil of rope on drum, in millimetres


= D DM + T D + (1 + 0.82 N L ) d

= nominal rope diameter, in millimetres

E RC

= cross-sectional modulus of elasticity of wire rope, in megapascals

Fc

= permissible compressive stress (see Clause L3), in megapascals

Ft

= permissible tensile stress (see Clause L3), in megapascals

fb

= bending stress (due to beam action) (see Clauses L5 and L6), in megapascals

f bf

= bending stress between flange or stiffener and drum shell (see Clause L6), in
megapascals

f bfa

= bending stress in flange due to axial force exerted by rope layers on drum flange
(see Clause L6), in megapascals

f bft

= resultant bending stress between flange and drum shell due to drum deflection and
axial force exerted by rope layers on drum flange (see Clause L6), in megapascals

f bL

= local bending stress under turn of rope adjacent to a vacant groove (see
Clauses L5 and L6), in megapascals

fcL

= local compressive stress under turn of rope adjacent to a vacant groove


(see Clauses L5 and L6), in megapascals

fcm

= accumulated compressive crushing stress in the middle of the fully-wound drum


(one layer of rope) (see Clauses L5 and L6), in megapascals

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A1

AS 1418.12002

fcmn

= accumulated compressive crushing stress in the middle of the fully wound drum
(N layers of rope) (see Clause L6), in megapascals

fco

= reference compressive stress (see Clauses L5 and L6), in megapascals

feq

= resultant equivalent stress due to local-bending beam action and to local crushing
(see Clauses L5 and L6), in megapascals

hg

= height of rope groove, in millimetres

KF

= rigidity constant of drum flange


= 18.865 T F 3 , where the material has its tensile strength equal to its compressive
strength
= 10.762 T F 3 , where the material has its tensile strength significantly different from
its compressive strength

KR

= relative-rigidity constant, drum flange to drum shell (see Clause L7)

KS

= rigidity constant of drum shell


= 34.294

(TDE )5
D DM

where the material has a tensile strength approximately equal to

its compressive strength


= 19.965

(TDE )5
D DM

where the material has a tensile strength significantly different

from its compressive strength


K1

= ratio of reference compressive stress (fco) to actual maximum compressive stress


induced in central area of an infinitely long drum shell under a single layer of rope
without considering the reduction in stress due to additional deflection of the shell
caused by neighbouring coils of rope (see Figure L1)

K2

= stress-reducing factor allowing for reduction of compressive stress due to


deflection of shell caused by neighbouring coils of rope (see Figure L2)

K3

= rope-layer factor (see Figure L3)

K4

= stress-increasing factor for the bending stress at the connection between the drum
shell and the flange assuming the connection to be completely rigid (see
Figure L4)

K5

= stress-reducing factor for the bending stress at the drum shell-to-flange connection
allowing for the relative rigidity of the shell and flange (see Figure L5)

K6

= stress-increasing factor for the bending stress at the drum shell-to-flange


connection allowing for the axial force of rope layers on the flange (see
Figure L6)

= bending moment due to beam action of unfactored, i.e. static, rope load PRS , in
newton metres

NL

= number of rope layers on a fully-wound drum

P RS

= maximum unfactored, i.e. static, rope load, in kilonewtons

= pitch of rope coils, in millimetres

TD

= minimum theoretical thickness of drum shell measured, for a grooved drum, to the
roots of the rope groove, in millimetres

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AS 1418.12002

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T DE

160

= equivalent thickness of drum shell, in millimetres


for an ungrooved drum
= TD

A1

for a grooved drum where h g TD


= TD
for a grooved drum where h g > T D
=

4
TD
3

TF

= thickness of flange or stiffener, in millimetres

= dynamic multiplier (see Clause 4.5.2.1)

= dynamic multiplier (see Clause 4.5.3.3)

L3 PERMISSIBLE STRESSES
Permissible stresses Fc and F t for use in Clauses L5 and L6 shall be as follows:
Fc

= permissible compressive stress, in megapascals


= 0.45 times the compressive strength

Ft

= permissible tensile stress, in megapascals


= 0.67 times the yield stress of a material with yield stress not greater than
0.7 times the tensile strength
= 0.60 times the yield stress of a material with yield stress greater than
0.7 times but not greater than 0.9 times the tensile strength
= 0.30 times the tensile strength of a material with yield stress greater than
0.9 times the tensile strength

L4 LIMITATIONS ON DRUM-SHELL THICKNESS


The minimum theoretical thickness of drum shell (T D) shall be not less than 5 mm for grey
cast iron drums nor less than 3 mm for drums of material other than grey cast iron.
L5 STRESSES IN SINGLE-LAYER DRUM*
The following stresses calculated in accordance with this Clause shall be not greater than
the corresponding permissible stresses specified in Clause L3:
NOTE: It is necessary to know the value of the drum-shell thickness T D to calculate drum-shell
stresses. The abbreviated method of determining drum-shell thickness specified in Clause 7.19.5
may be used to select a suitable value of TD for use in this Clause.

(a)

Accumulated compressive crushing stress in the middle of the fully-wound drum fcm :
f cm = K 1 K 2 f co
Fc

(b)

. . . L5(1)

Resultant equivalent stress due to local bending beam action and to local crushing f eq:

* Paragraphs L5 and L6 are based on the papers Ein Verfahren zur Berechnung einund mehrlagig bewickelter
Seiltrommeln by Dip.-Ing. Peter Dietz, published in the Journal of Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (VDI-Verlag GmbH,
Dusseldorf) Series 13, No. 12, July 1972, and Untersuchungen uber die Beanspruchung der Seiltrommeln von Kranen
und Winden by Dr.-Ing. Helmut Ernst, published in Mitt. Forsch. Anst. GHH-Konzern, September 1938.
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(i)

AS 1418.12002

where the drum-shell material has its tensile strength approximately equal to its
compressive strength:

f eq = ( f b + f bL ) + ( f b + f bL ) f cL + f cL
2

2 1/ 2

Ft

(ii)

. . . L5(2)

where the drum-shell material has its tensile strength significantly different
from its compressive strength:
tensile strength of drum- shell material
F eq = f b + f bL + f cL

compressive strength of drum- shell material . . . L5(3)


Ft

(c)

Bending stress between flange or stiffener and drum shell due to drum deflection f bf :
f bf =

K4 K5
f cm
K1 K 2

. . . L5(4)

Ft

Stresses f co , f b, fbL and fcL shall be calculated by the following equations:


f co =

1000 PRS
pTDE

f b = 1 2

f bL = 1 2

. . . L5(5)

1250M

. . . L5(6)

D DM TD

(D

700 PRS
DM

TDE

f cL = 0.5 f cm

. . . L5(7)
. . . L5(8)

L6 STRESSES IN MULTILAYER DRUM*


The following stresses calculated in accordance with this Clause shall be not greater than
the corresponding permissible stresses specified in Clause L3:
NOTE: It is necessary to know the value of the drum-shell thickness T D to calculate drum-shell stresses.
The abbreviated method of determining drum-shell thickness specified in Clause 7.19.5 may be used to
select a suitable value for T D for use in this Clause.

(a)
A1

Accumulated compressive stress in the middle of the fully-wound drum (N layers of


rope) f cmn :
f cmn =

D
4
K 3 DM f cm
3
DRO

. . . L6(1)

Fc

* See Footnote to Paragraph L5.


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Standards Australia

AS 1418.12002

(b)

Resultant equivalent stress due to local bending beam action and to local crushing f eq:
(i)

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162

where the drum-shell material has its tensile strength approximately equal to its
compressive strength:

f eq = ( f b + f bL ) + ( f b + f bL ) f cL + f cL
(ii)

. . . L6(2)

where the drum-shell material has tensile strength significantly different from
its compressive strength:
Feq = f b + f

(c)

2 1/ 2

bL

tensile strength of drum- shell material


+ f cL
. . . L6(3)
compressive strength of drum- shell material

Resultant bending stress between flange and drum shell due to drum deflection and
axial force exerted by rope layers on the drum flange f bft:
f bft = f bf + f bfa

. . . L6(4)

Ft

Stresses f cm , f co , f b, fbL , f cL , f bf and fbfa shall be calculated by the following equations:


f cm = K 1 K 2 f co
f co =

. . . L6(5)

1000 PRS
pTDE

f b = 1 2

. . . L6(6)

1250M

. . . L6(7)

DDM TD

f bL = 1 2

(D

700 PRS
DM

TDE

f cL = 0.5 f cm
f bf =

K4 K5
f cmn
K1 K 2

f bfa = 6 K 6

PRS 103
3
TF

. . . L6(8)
. . . L6(9)
. . . L6(10)

. . . L6(11)

L7 DRUM DESIGN FACTORS


Values of factors K 1 to K6 for determining the stress in single-layer drums (see Clause L5)
and multilayer drums (see Clause L6) shall be selected by means of Figures L1 to L6
respectively.
Factor K5 (see Figure L5) is related to relative-rigidity constant (drum flange to drum shell)
(KR) calculated from the appropriate equation from Table L1 (see Figure L7).

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TABLE L1
EXPRESSIONS FOR RELATIVE-RIGIDITY CONSTANT, DRUM FLANGE
TO DRUM-SHELL (KR)
Drum flange and
shell arrangement

Flange of drum welded


to drum axle or
bearing block

Drum with stiffener

(a) and (b)

(c)

(d)

Expressions for calculating (K R )


Drum material has its tensile strength approximately
equal to its compressive strength

KF 4
KS DDM

KF 4
KS DDM

D
0.7 + 1.3 FO

DFI

DDM 1 0.7 + 1.3 DFO

D
D
DM

FI

2
2
DFO
DDM

1
D
D
1
DM

FI
+
2

2
DFO

0.7 + 1.3

1.3 + 0.7 DFO

DDM
DM

KF 4
KS DDM

KF 4
KS DDM

D
0.9 + 1.1 FO

DFI

DDM 1 0.9 + 1.1 DFO

D
D
FI

DM

2
2

D
D
DM 1
FO 1
D

DFI
+ DM

2
2

DFO
DFO


1.1 + 0.9
0.9 + 1.1

DDM
DDM

DDM 1
K F 1.98 DFI

2
KS DDM
DDM

1.1
+
0.9

D
FI

AS 1418.12002

Standards Australia

DDM 1
K F 1.82 DFI

2
KS DDM
DDM

1.3
+
0.7

D
FI

Drum material has its tensile strength significantly


different from its compressive strength

163

Drum with gearwheel


fitted to flange

Reference
Figure L7

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AS 1418.12002

Standards Australia

164

FIGURE L1 (in part) FACTOR K 1

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AS 1418.12002

FIGURE L1 (in part) FACTOR K 1

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AS 1418.12002

166

NOTE:
K S = 34.294

(T DE ) 5
D DM

where the material has its tensile strength approximately equal to its compressive

strength.
K S = 19.965

(T DE ) 5
where the material has its strength significantly different from its compressive strength.
D DM

FIGURE L2 FACTOR K2

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167

A1

AS 1418.12002

NOTE: Where the value of ERC is not known and is not readily obtainable, the following values may be assumed:
E RC = 250 for ropes with wire-rope core (WRC) or wire-strand core (WSC)
E RC = 125 for ropes with fibre core (FC)

FIGURE L3 FACTOR K3

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AS 1418.12002

Standards Australia

168

FIGURE L4 FACTOR K4

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AS 1418.12002

FIGURE L5 FACTOR K5

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170

FIGURE L6 FACTOR K6

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AS 1418.12002

FIGURE L7 DRUM FLANGE AND SHELL ARRANGEMENTS

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APPENDIX M

RELATED STANDARDS
(Informative)
M1 STANDARDS FOR COMPONENTS USED IN LIFTING SYTEMS
The following is a list of Standards for components that are used in lifting systems:
AS
1138

Thimbles for wire rope

1353
1353.1
1353.2

Flat synthetic-webbing slings


Part 1: Product specification
Part 2: Care and use

1380
1380.1
1380.2

Fibre-rope slings
Part 1: Product specification
Part 2: Care and use

1438
1438.1
1438.2

Wire-coil flat slings


Part 1: Product specification
Part 2: Care and use

1666
1666.1
1666.2

Wire-rope slings
Part 1: Product specification
Part 2: Care and use

2076

Wire rope grips for non-lifting applications

2089

Sheave blocks for lifting purposes

2317

Collared eyebolts

2318

Swivels for hoists

2319

Rigging screws and turnbuckles

2321

Short-link chain for lifting purposes

2740

Wedge-type sockets

2741

Shackles

2759

Steel wire ropeApplication guide

2841

Galvanized steel wire strand

3569

Steel wire ropes

3585

End fittings for flat-webbing slings

3775

Chain slingsGrade T

3776

Lifting components for Grade T chain slings

3777

Shank hooks and large-eye hooksMaximum 25 t

4142
4142.2

Fibre ropes
Part 2: Three-stand hawser-laid and eight-strand plaited

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AS 1418.12002

M2 OTHER RELATED DOCUMENTS

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The following documents are not referenced elsewhere in this Standard. However, they
should be complied with, as applicable:
AS
1055
1055.2

AcousticsDescription and measurement of environmental noise


Part 2: Application to specific situations

1170
1170.3

Minimum design loads on structures


Part 3: Snow loads

1250

The use of steel in structures

1360

Rotating electrical machines of particular types or for particular applications

2752

Preferred numbers and their use

2759

Steel wire ropeApplication guide

2938

GearsSpur and helicalGuide to specification and rating

3569

Steel wire ropes

3998

Non-destructive testingQualification and certification of personnel


General engineering

BS
2573
2573.1

Rules for the design of cranes


Part 1: Specification for classification, stress calculations and design
criteria for structures

8004

Code of practice for foundations

DIN
50100

Testing of material, continuous vibration test

VDE 0109

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Part 10: Insulation coordination within low-voltage systems including


clearances and creepage distances for equipment

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AMENDMENT CONTROL SHEET


AS 1418.12002
Amendment No. 1 (2004)

REVISED TEXT
SUMMARY: This Amendment applies to the Preface, Clauses 1.2, 2.1, 7.12.8.7, 7.16.1, 7.20.3.6, 7.20.6.4,
7.20.6.5, Section 13.4 and Appendix L.
Published on 4 November 2004.

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and other relevant sectors. The requirements or recommendations contained in published Standards are
a consensus of the views of representative interests and also take account of comments received from
other sources. They reflect the latest scientific and industry experience. Australian Standards are kept
under continuous review after publication and are updated regularly to take account of changing
technology.

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formulation of international Standards and that the latest international experience is incorporated in
national Standards. This role is vital in assisting local industry to compete in international markets.
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for Standardization) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

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