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MAKALAH

TUGAS AKHIR BAHASA INGGRIS

Dosen Pengampu : Syamsul Hadi,S.Pd

O
L
E
H

Group 9 TI/III/V/E
Name :

1. Andri Setiyawan
2. Etik Sunarsih
3. Fajar hariadi

SEKOLAH TINGGI KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN


STKIP PGRI PACITAN
TAHUN 2012

FOREWORD
Our gratitude we wish for the presence of Almighty God, thanks to the blessings we
can finish this english paper.
In this paper we arranged based on the percentage that has held meetings every
lecture
thanks to all colleagues who have helped to resolve the papers' ll also lecturer in
English for his guidance.
I hope this paper can be useful to the reader as well.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover......................................................................................................................................
Foreword................................................................................................................................
Table Of Contetnt...................................................................................................................
ITEMS :
1. NOUN ...
2. TOBE.....
3. VERB.
4. INTERJECTION..
5. IDEVINITE ARTICLE
6. DIRECT AND INDERECT SPEECH.
7. NUMERAL ADJECTIVE
8. USE : SOME, ANY
9. PASSIVE VOICE
10. GERUND.
11. PEMBENTUKAN TATA KALIMAT B. INGGRIS .

1. NOUN
A. The Mining Of Noun

Noun or noun is a word used to name people or objects.


Example: Rini saw a snake in the garden
-Rini is the name of the person
-Snake is the name of the beast (snake)
-Garden is the name of a piece of land (garden)
Name of person: Dicky, Mia, Endang, Mother Nani, Mr Blake, etc..
Name of body parts: Head, Nose, Arm, Eyes, Elbow, Hair, etc..
Name of river: Citarum, Musi, Siak, Mississippi, Amazon.dll.
The name of the object (Noun) consists of two types, namely singular noun
and plural noun. Singular noun is a noun that consist of a single fruit (singular),
while the plural noun is a noun that consists of more than one (plural).
B. Of Form Plural Noun
Plural form of noun or plural noun consisting of two kinds, namely the regular
plural form (irregular plural form) and irregular plural forms (irregular plural
form).
1.Regular plural form (irregular plural form)
Here is a provision for the establishment of regular plural nouns.
a.

Pada generally regular plural noun is in the form by adding akhitan-s or-es
behind

the

singular

form

of

nouns

(noun)

Regular examples of the form by adding the suffix-s.

b.

Singular noun / a fruit


Plural noun / 2 fruit / more
One Car
Two Cars
One Truck
Two Trucks
One Day
Two Days
Noun (noun) that ends with the sound of voices 's' including sound 's', 'sh',
and 'ch', plural form is generated by adding the suffix-es to the singular.
Regular examples of the form by adding the suffix-ice.
1.Kata objects ending in-s or s sound:
Singular noun

Plural noun

One Class
A Glass

Two Classes
Five Glasses

is.

A Bus

Four Busses

2.Kata objects ending in-sh or sh sound:


Singular noun
One Brush
One Dish

Plural noun
Six Brushes
Two Dishes

3.Kata objects or sounds ending in-ch ch:


Singular noun
One Beach
One Inch
One Match

Plural noun
Six Beaches
Two Inches
Two Matches

c. Nouns ending in-y preceded (dead letter), plural form is generated by replacing
the suffix-y to-i then added the suffix-ice.
Example:
Singular noun
A Lady
A Baby

Plural noun
Two Ladies
Five Babies

2.Irregular Plural Noun


a.Kata objects ending in the letter-f and - fe, plural is formed by changing-f and-fe to-v
and add the suffix-es, Example:
Singular noun

Plural noun

A Thief

Two Thieves

A Leaf

Five Leaves

One Wolf

Two Wolves

But there are also nouns ending in-f and-fe that have plural forms ending in-s,
Example:
Singular noun

Plural noun

A Thief

Two Thieves

A Leaf

Five Leaves

One Wolf

Two Wolves

Singular noun
Plural noun
A Chief
Two Chiefs
A Roof
Five Roofs
A Gulf
Two Gulfs
Besides nouns ending in-f there are two pieces that have a plural form, eg:
Singular noun

Plural noun

Scart

Scarfs scarves

Hoof

Hoofs - hooves

b. Nouns ending in the letter - o usually plural form is generated by adding the suffixice in the singular. Example:
Singular noun

Plural noun

A Potato

Five Potatoes

A Hero

Three Heroes

One Tomato

Six Tomatoes

However there are exceptions from the rules above, namely that not all singular nouns
ending in-o have plurals ending in-es. Consider the following example:
Singular noun
A Bamboo
A Piano
A Solo

Plural noun
Two Bamboos
Five Pianos
Six Solos

c. There are plural nouns irregular that it must be memorized, for example:
Singular noun
A Man
A Woman
A Tooth

Plural noun
Two Men
Five Women
Four Teeth

d. Noun compound / compound (compound noun) also has a plural form yag generated
by adding the suffix 's' to noun stem. Example
Singular noun

Plural noun

A Looker on

Two Lookers on

A Posser by

Four Possers -by

e. There are some plural nouns that have the same form as the singular, the words of
these objects should also be memorized. Example:
Singular noun

Plural noun

One Sheep

Two Sheep

One Deer

Five Deer

f. There are also some actual noun plural but singular look, nouns of this type does not
have a single form (singular). Example:
The cettle are not mine
Those people have not arrived yet
g. The names of branches of science are also always in the plural, even though a single
meaningful. Example:

Politics
Ethics
Physies
Metaphysics
Mathematics
h. There is also a noun is always in the plural, and more often used in pairs, to declare
the couple used "a pair of" (a pair). Example:
Shoes
Sandals
Trousers

A pair of shoes
A pair of sandals
A pair of trousers

2. TOBE

The Greek sea god, Proteus, was (like the sea) capable of changing form in an instant.
In order to get any decent information out of him, you had to grab him and hold on
tight while he went through his various forms lion, wild boar, snake, tree, running
stream it wasn't easy. The verb To be is said to be the most protean of the English
language, constantly changing form, sometimes without much of a discernible pattern.
Considering that we use it so often, it is really too bad that the verb To be has to be
the most irregular, slippery verb in the language.
Present Tense
I am

We are

You are

You are

He/She/It is

They are

Past Tense
I was

We were

You were

You were

He/She/It was

They were

Perfect Form (past participle)

Progressive Form (present participle)

I have been, etc.

I am being, etc.

We must choose carefully among these various forms when selecting the proper verb to
go with our subject. Singular subjects require singular verbs; plural subjects require

plural verbs. That's usually an easy matter. We wouldn't write The troops was moving
to the border. But some sentences require closer attention. Do we write The majority
of students is (or are) voting against the referendum"? Review carefully the material in
our section on Subject-Verb Agreement, and notice how often the choices we make
require a familiarity with these forms of the To be verb.

Simple Questions
We create simple yes/no questions by inverting the order of subject and the To be
verb.

Is your brother taller than you?

Am I bothering you?

Were they embarrassed by the comedian?


The same inversion takes place when To be is combined with verbs in the
progressive:

Am I working with you today?

Is it snowing in the mountains?

Were your children driving home this weekend?

3. VERB
KALIMAT VERBAL
Verbal sentence is a sentence in which there is a verb (verb). Verbal phrase usually
indicates the action to do something. or indicate the name of the deeds done by the
subject, but perhaps also to indicate the state. Verbs usually the predicate of a sentence.
Verbal sentence ==> Subject + Verb
Here are some example sentences that use verbal tenses simple present tense.

Contoh Kalimat verbal :


He goes to school by on foot everyday.
They work in the hospital.
My father always reads English news paper everyday.

I study Bahasa, would be wrong if you write I am study Bahasa, because the study is a
verb.
In English, substantially all of the predicate in a sentence must express an active
activity directly. The sentences that do not use a predicate verb (active), then assisted
using Auxiliaty verb / Helping verb (to be, have / has, do / does, Will / Marshall)
as a function of the verb To Be is to assist in the sentences that do not contain the
predicate verb in nominal sentences. Subject + Object + Verb-s/es / Adverb Subject +
to be + complement.
There are two basic forms sentence, namely sentences verbal and nominal sentences.
So the things we need to consider in making sentences in English is that we should be
able to distinguish between sentence verbal and nominal sentences. And do not forget
to always adhere to the position of the predicate sentence in tense is used. the rest can
adjust.
note: we should not use a to be in front of the subject if the subject is in front of the
verb, except the use of the passive voice (passive voice).

Verb (verb) was used to reveal the activity of something or a group of nouns. In
the sentence, the verb functioning as a predicate. Verbs generally require the object
(called a transitive verb), but there are also some verbs that do not require an object
(called the intransitive verb).
Consider the example below:
~ She always sleeps well.
~ My mother is cooking five different special meals for our guests.Home
~ I study every Saturday night.
Sentences 1 to 3 is the intransitive sentence because it is not followed by the object
sentences, while sentences of 4 to 6 is a transitive sentence because the sentence was
followed by the object (ie: five different meals, Classic, and the mango fruit).
Here are some verbs that are commonly used:

run

write

ride

play

memorize

drive

sleep

think

help

study

calculate

borrow

do

multiply

lend

clean

subtract

cry

grow

devide

smile

kick

read

laugh

smoke

see

teach

erase

watch

walk

wash

hear

jump

dig

listen

go,etc.

As a predicate, except in the simple present tense and simple past tense, tense other
uses auxiliary verbs are added. This is called a verb phrase.
Example:
# They usually play cards on Saturday night.
# We do not smoke.
# My sisters cleaned the house yesterday.
# Our teacher discussed the use of the Past Perfect Continuous Tense last week.
# Of the four examples above, only use a single verb: verb1 (samples 1-2) and verb2
(examples 3-4).

Now let us compare with the use of the verb phrase in this example the following
sentence:
1. Andi, Anto, Anjas, and I are doing homework now. (Note, to be are, am not used in a
sentence like this because of the use of conjunction and in Andy, Anto, Anjas, and I,
making a plural subject, and can be replaced with the subject pronoun They). Contrast
with the following sentence:
2. Either Andy, Anto, Anjas, or I am doing homework now. See the difference?
3. Mr. Dodo has gone to his office.
4. We will defeat him soon.
5. Before he went to Bali, John Had Bought a luggage full of clothes.
6. He Could've passed the exam if he Had studied well.
Note:

A. Use of the verb in the sentence (when we use verb1, verb2, verb3, (verb1 + ing),
ect) are always based on the tense (time and the ongoing process of events or activities
conducted by the subject line).
B. Between a subject with the verb must always be in agreement (see: subject-verb
agreement).
C. Verb is very much in number.
D. Most of the changes from verb1 to verb2 and verb3 is by adding affixes-ed or-d on
verb1 her. Verbs that change like this is called regular verbs (irregular verbs). So, who
needs to memorize the irregular verbs, ie verbs which change from verb1 to verb2 and
verb3 occur irregularly.

4. INTERJECTION

In grammar, an interjection is a word which is used to show a short sudden expression


of emotion:
"Hey!" is an interjection. INFORMAL
used as a way of attracting someone's attention, sometimes in a way which is not very
polite:
Hey! What are you doing with my car?
Hey, are you guys coming to Angela's party?

Read the grammar explanation below.

Can you find the interjection in the Reading? That's right, ha ha. It's an expression of
laughter.
Try using some of these interjections the next time you have a conversation in English!
aha
:
used
to
express
aw: used to express sympathy, tenderness,

surprise.

disapproval, or disbelief.
ooh

: used to express pleasure, satisfaction, surprise, or great

joy.
ugh
wow

:
used
to
express
horror,
disgust,
or
: used to express wonder, amazement, or great pleasure.

repugnance.

ouch: used to express sudden physical pain

ouch, you're hurting me!


aha: used when you suddenly understand or find something:
Aha, now I see what you mean!
Aha, that's where I put my keys!
Interjections are exclamation and may followed by an exclamation point(!) or a
comma.
It used to express an isolated emotion or sentiment on the part of the speaker.
An interjection is sometimes expressed as a single word or non-sentence phrase,
followed by a punctuation mark.
Some example of interjection :
Wow !

Ouch!

Well,/well!

Oh!
Horray!

Yuck!
Excuse me!

Sorry!

Example:
Wow, you are so cool !
Kata Seru Arti

Contoh

ah

Menyatakan rasa senang

Ah, that feels good.

Menyatakan mengerti atau


menyadari

Ah, now I get it.

Menyatakan kepasrahan

Ah well, it can not be


helped.

Menyatakan rasa heran

Ah! I have won!

alas

Menyatakan kesedihan atau


kasihan

Alas, she is dead now.

dear

Menyatakan rasa kasihan

Oh dear! Does it
hurt?

eh

Meminta pengulangan

Its cold today.


Eh?
I said its cold today.

Menyatakan rasa ingin tahu

What do you think of


that, eh?

Menyatakan keheranan

Eh! Really?

Meminta persetujuan

Lets go, eh?

er

Menyatakan kebimbangan

Jakarta is the capital


ofer Indonesia.

hello,
hullo

Menyatakan salam

Hello Jack. How are


you?

Menyatakan keterkejutan

Hello! My car is
gone!

Meminta perhatian

Hey! Look at that!

Menyatakan keheranan,
kegembiraan, dll

Hey! What a good


idea!

hi

Menyatakan salam

Hi! Whats new?

hmm

Menyatakan kebimbangan,
keraguan atau
ketidaksetujuan

Hmm. I am not so
sure.

Oh, o

Menyatakan rasa heran

Oh! He is here!

Menyatakan rasa sakit

Oh! Ive got


headache.

Menyatakan pembelaan

Oh, please say no!

ouch

Menyatakan rasa sakit

Ouch! That hurts!

uh

Menyatakan kebimbangan

UhI dont know the


answer.

uh-huh

Menyatakan kesepakatan

Shall we go?
uh-huh.

hey

Um, umm Menyatakan kebimbangan

24 divided by 4 is
um6.

well

Menyatakan rasa heran

Well I never!

Memberikan keterangan

Well, what did she


say?

5. IDEVINITE ARTICLE

There are two indefinite articles indefinite or definite article, namely a and an.
Grammatically both are equal and have the meaning as, one or something.
Article placed before a singular count-nouns (singular nouns which can be calculated)
beginning with a consonant or a vowel pronounced like the letter consonants, such as:
a man, a table, a cow, a sheep, a university, a useful device, a unique opportunity, a
Euro, a UN declaration, etc. While the article is placed before singular count-nouns
beginning with vowels (a, i, u, e, o) or consonants is pronounced like the vowels, such
as: an elephant, an apple, an open door, an hour, an X-rays, an Honourable man, an
ugly incident, an FM radio, an MP3 file, etc.
Indefinite articles a and an are used:
1. to refer to someone or something (or singular countable nouns) for the first time or
when talking about people or things that are not well known.
- We have a problem.
- Suddenly They Heard a loud bang.
- I have an idea
2. to refer to someone or something specific general not specifically mentioned.
- I suggest you leave it to an expert.
- I was waiting for a bus.
- You need a dictionary.
3. in front of the noun that can not be counted when referring to an example or type
only (single type).
- A dry wine
- A rare, highly prized wines

4. in front of the name of the day, month, celebration, seasons, or a particular event.
- The interview took place on a Friday afternoon.
- It was a bitterly cold winter.
- She was born at six o'clock on a Sunday morning.
5. to show that someone or something that is a member of a group or profession.
- I explained that i was an artist.
- He's a teacher.
- Their new car is a BMW.
6. in front of the name of an artist who refers to works of art
(paintings, sculptures, carvings, etc..) that have been made.
- Most people have very little difficulty in seeing why a Van

Gogh is a work of genius.


- The gallery has recently acquired a Picasso.
7. as a substitute for the word 'one', especially in front of words such as hundred, hour,
metre, half, quarter, third, etc.
- More than a thousand acres of land
- A quarter of an hour
8. in front of the name of the drink in a cup or glass.
- Can I get you a coffee?
- Renwick went to the bar and ordered a beer.
- Would you like a cola?
9. in front of the noun to express a feeling of the situation at hand.
- It's a relief to know they're safe.
- What a shame he could not be there to receive the prize!
10. in front of the name of an object (solid, powder, liquid, gas), product, food, etc.,
that refers to certain types of these objects.
- Use a good cheese to the make the sauce.
- Brie is a soft creamy cheese.
- Plants will not grow in a soil contains too much lime That.
6. DIRECT AND INDERECT SPEECH
Sentences Direct (Direct Speech) is a sentence which, when reported speech stating the
actual words. Sentences are not connected by "that" it should be with (punctuation)
comma.
Sentences (indirect speech) is a sentence which, when reported speech gives substance
to the words used by the speaker and not the actual words. In indirect speech sentences
are associated with the word "that".
Example
Examples

:
of

direct

speech

(There

are

quotes

in

the

content

words):

-Tugio said, "I am happy.


Examples

of

indirect

-Tugio said (that) he was happy.


Compare these two sentences.
-Tugio said, "I am happy." (Direct)
-Tugio said (that) he was happy. (Indirect)

speech

(no

quotes):

Note:

In indirect speech / reported speech there is a change verb tenses or sentence


pronounced on the speaker.

I am happy in direct speech turned into a he was happy in indirect speech.

I became the speaker because he is Tugio.

Am a simple present was due to turn into simple past.

(That) word is may be used, perhaps not.

7. NUMERAL ADJECTIVE
Numeral adjectives are those that express numbers. They include one, two, three, first,
second, and many others.
Numeral adjectives are divided into:

cardinal adjectives that denote how many.


For example
one life
three blind mice
five important ideas

ordinal adjectives that show which one of a series.


For example
the first chapter
the fourth commandment
the third floor

multiplicative adjectives that show the number of repetitions


For example
twice thought
thrice tried, once achieved.

When a numeral is uses as a noun, the cardinal, like the pronominal adjectives, takes no
article. On the other hand, the ordinal uses the article.
For example
Two only were present.
The third was lost.
A qualifying adjective is one that limits the meaning of a noun, by denoting some property
or quality.
For example

a virtuous person
that running horse
Participles belong to this class of adjectives. Participles have the signification of the verb
and the construction of the adjective. When the participle is placed before the noun that it
modifies it is called a participial adjective.
For example
the rising sun
that winning season
those studying students
When a participle is placed after the noun and is, itself, limited by the other words, it is
parsed as a participle.
For example
the sun rising in the East
the lion pursuing its prey
the students studying their lessons
When a qualifying adjective represents either a definite or indefinite understood object, the
article the must be place before it.
For example
the wise [persons]
the benevolent [leaders]
the beautiful
the good and the true
When a quality is used abstractly, the adjective is changed to an abstract noun.
For example
Wise becomes wisdom.
Beautiful become beauty.
Comparison of Adjectives
Comparison is the variation of the adjectives to express different degrees of the quality
that the adjective denotes. The variation may take place only in the meaning as when the
following are added before the adjective:

generous
rather

very

somewhat

too

quite generous

more generous

most generous

The variation can also be in both meaning and form; as in:

clear
clearer

clearest

There are three degrees of comparison:

the positive
the comparative

the superlative

The positive denotes a quality without comparison.


For example
righteous
pleasant
The pen is long.
The street is long.
The Atlantic cable is long.
Had pen, street, and Atlantic cable been compared with each other in respect to length, we
should have had

a long pen
a longer street

the longest cable

The comparative expresses a higher or a lower degree than the positive.


For example
The sun is larger than the moon.
The march was less difficult by night than by day.
The superlative expresses the highest or the lowest degree of the quality.
For example
The dog is the most faithful of animals.
Sampson was our strongest warrior.
The miser is the least esteemed of men.
He received the lowest grades on the test.
In respect to intensity, comparison may show equal or unequal degrees.
For example

Monday will be as convenient as Tuesday.


Truth is stranger than fiction.
the sweetest, wildest land on earth
In respect to the terms compared, the term may show:

that two objects, qualities, or conditions are contrasted in the comparative degrees
one with two more, or with others in the superlative.
For example
George is older than his brother.
George is the older of the two brothers.
He is more prosperous that scrupulous.
Many animals are more active by night than by day.
Of all jewels, the diamond is the most precious.
Of all men, he was the wisest.

that different objects may possess the same quality is equal or in unequal degrees.
For example
Cotton is as white as wool.
Wool is whiter than hemp.
This tree is the tallest of all (of the trees.)

that, in different circumstances, the same quality may belong to the same object in
equal or unequal degrees.
For example
Our commander was as self-possessed in danger as in safety.
The Asiatic cholera is more prevalent in autumn than in winter and usually most
prevalent in the summer.

that different qualities may belong to the same object in equal and unequal degrees.
For example
The aid was as timely as acceptable.
The servant was more skillful than willing.

The different qualities may belong to different objects in equal or rarely if ever in unequal
degrees.
For example
He was as agreeable as his opponent was offensive.
Scarcely, with priority, he was more agreeable than his opponent was offensive.
In respect to form, comparison may take place:

without any change of the adjective, as in comparison of equality or when an adverb


is applied to vary the meaning.
by a change of termination as with warm, warmer, and warmest

Formation of the Comparative and the Superlative


The comparative of monosyllable adjectives is regularly formed by adding r or er to the
positive. The superlatives of these adjectives are formed by adding st or est.
For example
wise, wiser, wisest
bold, bolder, boldest
Two syllable positive adjectives ending in le or y are also compared like monosyllable
adjectives.
For example
noble, nobler, noblest
worthy, worthier, worthiest
The comparative of most adjectives of more than one syllable are formed by prefixing the
positive form of the adjective with more or less. The superlative is formed by prefixing the
positive form with most or least.
For example
industrious, more industrious, most industrious
beautiful, less beautiful, least beautiful
The following adjectives are compared irregularly:
Irregular Adjectives
Positive Comparative Superlative
good

better

best

bad

worse

worst

little

less

least

much

more

most

many

more

most

old

older or elder oldest or eldest

Adjectives terminating in ish indicate a quality in a lower degrees than the positive.
For example
Bluish indicates a color that approaches the color blue.
The meaning of the adjective is also varied by the addition of such adverbs as somewhat,
rather, slightly, a little, too, vary, greatly, exceedingly, and others. The formation of the
comparative and superlative may be done by adding adverbs such as much, far, vastly,
altogether, by far, and many others.

For example
rather weak tea
Citation was much the better horse.
Lincoln was a far wiser leader.
Adjectives derived from proper names, numerals those referring to position, material, and
form; and those having an absolute signification are seldom, if ever, compared.
For example
German
Spanish
seventh
sixth
perpendicular
level
square
woolen
icy
With the exception of much, few first, last, little, less, least, many, more, and most, the
pronominal adjectives are not compared.
To parse adjectives:
Indicate that the word is an adjective.
Indicate what kind of adjective it is.
If it is a qualifying adjective, compare it and give its degree.
Indicate which noun the adjective modifies.
Parse the adjectives in the following sentence:
The faithful person will be rewarded.
Faithful is an adjective
It is a qualifying adjective.
Faithful compared:
faithful
more faithful
most faithful
In this sentence, faithful modifies the noun person
Parse the adjectives in the following sentence:
Her house is larger than mine.
Larger is an adjective.
It is a qualifying adjective.
Larger compared:
large
larger
largest

Larger is in the comparative degree.


Larger modifies the noun house.
Parse the adjectives in the following sentence:
The teacher is worthy of the highest praise.
The is an adjective. It appears in the sentence twice.
The is an article, and, thus, is a limiting adjective.
The first the modifies the noun teacher.
The second the modifies the noun praise.
Worthy is an adjective.
It is a qualifying adjective.
Worthy compared:
worthy
more worthy
most worthy
Worthy is in the positive degree.
Worthy modifies the noun teacher.
Highest is an adjective.
It is a qualifying adjective.
Highest compared:
high
higher
highest
Highest is in the superlative degree.
Highest modifies the noun praise.
Parse the adjectives in the following sentence:
Three wolves were killed.
Three is an adjective.
It is a limiting adjective.
Three modifies the noun wolves.
Parse the adjectives in the following sentence:
Give me this apple, and I will give you that.
This is an adjective.
It is a limiting adjective.
It modifies the noun apple.
That is an adjective.
It is a limiting adjective.
It, also, modifies the noun apple.
Parse the adjectives in the following sentence:
The field of combat fills the young and bold.
Alexander Pope

The is an adjective.
It is a limiting adjective.
It modifies the noun field.
Young is an adjective.
It is qualifying adjective.
Young compared:
young
more young
most young
It is in the positive degree.
Young modifies an understood noun person.
Bold is also a qualifying adjective.
Bold compared:
bold
bolder
boldest
Bold is in the positive degree.
Bold modifies the understood noun person.
The is a limiting adjective.
It modifies the noun council.
Solemn is a qualifying adjective.
Solemn compared:
solemn
more solemn
most solemn
Solemn modifies the noun council.
Best is a qualifying adjective.
Best compared:
good
better
best
Best is in the superlative degree.
Best modifies the understood noun person.
The is a limiting adjective.
It modifies the understood noun person.
Old is a qualifying adjective.
Old compared:
old
older
oldest
Old is in the positive degree.
Old modifies the understood noun person.

8. USE : SOME, ANY

SOME
Some are used to indicate the amount of uncertainty, the exact number is not
considered important. Some are used in affirmative statements,
Example :
- I have some books.
- She wants some apples.
Some are also used in questions, but only if we estimate the answer to that question is
"Yes".
Example :
- Do you have some paper?
- Would you like some french fries?
ANY
Any used in negative statements.
Example:
-

I do not have any money.

Taxis There are not any near here.

Any is also generally used in questions, especially if we expect the answer is "No".
Example:
-

Do you have any paper?

Is there any time to go to the doctor's?

Some and any are often used like articles (a / an) for plural nouns. A / an is used for
singular countable nouns, and some / any can be used for plural nouns, countable or
uncountable.

For example:

- I have a newspaper, some newspaper, and some money

"A newspaper" is a singular countable noun so used a , "newspapers" is a plural


countable noun so used some , and money is an uncountable noun so also used some
.

At first it looks complicated, but when you are practicing their use and not just read
it will be more meaningful, and the more you are experienced and confident you
will soon learn to use English grammar properly.

9. PASSIVE VOICE

Active and Passive Voice


Active sentence (active voice) is a sentence where the subject of his doing the work,
by contrast, the passive voice (passive voice) is a sentence where the subject of his work

are the object of the sentence. Active voice is more often used in everyday life compared
with the passive voice. However, often we find the passive voice in newspapers, articles in
magazines and scholarly writings. Passive voice is used as the object of the active voice is
more important information than its subject.
Example:
Active: We fertilize the soil every 6 months
Passive: The soil is fertilized by us every 6 months
From this example we can see that:
1. Object of the active voice (the soil) became the subject of the passive voice
2. Subject of the active voice (we) became the object of the passive voice. Note also that
there is a change of subject pronoun 'we' becomes the object pronoun 'us'.
3. Verb1 (fertilize) the active voice becomes verb3 (fertilized) in the passive voice.
4. He added that be 'is' in front verb3. Be used is dependent on the subject of passive voice
and tenses used. (Note the passive voice patterns below).
5. He added the word 'by' behind verb3. However, if the object of the passive voice is
considered not important or unknown, then the object is usually not mentioned and so is the
word 'by'.
6. Especially for progressive sentences (present, past, past perfect, future, past future, and
past perfect continuous future, need to add 'being' in front verb3). If not added "being",
tensisnya will change, not progressive / continuous again. Consider the examples in point h
- o below.
Based on the six points above the passive voice followed the pattern as follows:
Verb3 + Subject + be + by + Object + modifier
The pattern of active and passive voice in every tense
a. If the active voice in simple present tense, then 'be' it is the passive voice is, am or are.
Example:
Active: He meets Them everyday.
Passive: They are met by him everyday.
Active: She waters this plant every two days.
Passive: This plant is watered by her every two days.
b. If the active voice in simple past tense, then 'be' passive voice-it is was or were the
resource persons
Example:
Active: He met yesterday Them
Passive: They were the resource persons met by him yesterday
Active: She watered this plant this morning
Passive: This plant was watered by her this morning

c. If the active voice in present perfect tense, then 'be' passive voice it is been placed after
the auxiliary has or have, so it becomes 'has been' or 'have been'
Example:
Active: He has met Them
Passive: They have been met by him
Active: She has watered this plant for 5 minutes.
Passive: This plant has been watered by her for 5 minutes.
d. If the active voice in the past perfect tense, then 'be' passive voice it is been placed after
the auxiliary had, so to be Had been
Example:
Active: He Had Met Them before I CAME.

Passive: They Had been met by him before I CAME.


Active: She Had watered this plant for 5 minutes Pls I got here
Passive: This Had plants been watered by her for 5 minutes Pls I got here
e. If the active voice in the simple future tense, then 'be' passive voice is to be his
Example:
Active: He Will meet tomorrow Them.
Passive: They Will be met by him tomorrow.
Active: She Will this water plant this afternoon.
Passive: This Will plant be watered by her this afternoon.
Active: The Farmers are going to harvest the crops next week
Passive: The crops are going to be harvested by the Farmers next week.
f. If the active voice in the future perfect tense, then 'be' passive voice it is been placed after
the auxiliary Will have, so it becomes 'Will have been'
Example:
Active: He Met Them Will have before I get there tomorrow.
Passive: Will They have been met by him before I get there tomorrow.
Active: She Will have watered this plant before I get here this afternoon.
Passive: This Will plants have been watered by her before I get here this afternoon.
g. If the active voice in the future past perfect tense, then 'be' passive voice-it is been placed
after the auxiliary would have, so it becomes 'would have been'.
Example:
Active: He would have met Them.
Passive: They would have been met by him.
Active: She would have watered this plant.
Passive: This plant would have been watered by her.
h. If the active voice in present continuous tense, then 'be' passive voice is (is, am or are) +
being.
Example:
Active: He is meeting Them now.
Passive: They are being met by him now.
Active: She is watering this plant now.
Passive: This plant is being watered by her now.
i. If the active voice in the past continuous tense, then 'be' passive voice is (was or were the
resource persons) + being.
Example:
Active: He was meeting Them.
Passive: They were the resource persons being met by him.
Active: She was watering this plant.
Passive: This plant was being watered by her.
j. If the active voice in perfect continuous tense, then 'be' passive voice is (has / have) been
+ being.
Example:
Active: He has been meeting Them.
Passive: They have been being met by him.
Active: She has been watering this plant.
Passive: This plant has been watered by her being.
k. If the active voice in the past perfect continuous tense, then 'be' passive voice-it is Had
been + being.
Example:
Active: He Had been meeting Them.
Passive: They Had been being met by him.
Active: She Had been watering this plant.
Passive: This plant being watered by Had been her.
l. If the active voice in the future continuous tense, then 'be' passive voice-it was Will be +

being.
Example:
Active: He Will be meeting Them.
Passive: They Will be being met by him.
Active: She Will be watering this plant.
Passive: This plant will of some being watered by her.
m. If the active voice in the future past continuous tense, then 'be' it is the passive voice
would be + being.
Example:
Active: He would be meeting Them.
Passive: They would be being met by him.
Active: She would be watering this plant.
Passive: This plant would be being watered by her.
n. If the active voice in the future perfect continuous tense, then 'be' passive voice is the
will of his have been + being.
Example:
Active: He will of Them have been meeting.
Passive: Will They have been being met by him.
Active: She Will have been watering this plant.
Passive: This Will plant have been being watered by her.
o. If the active voice in the past future perfect continuous tense, then 'be' it is the passive
voice would have been + being.
Example:
Active: He would be meeting Them.
Passive: They would be being met by him.
Active: She would be watering this plant.
Passive: This plant would be being watered by her.
Other examples:
1. Koko's nose is bleeding. He was punched by his friend right on his nose. (Koko's nose
was bleeding. He was beaten by his friend right on the nose).
2. The Indonesian football team was beaten by the Saudi Arabian team. (Indonesia football
team was defeated by the Saudi Arabian team).
3. These plants were the resource persons watered by my sister A Few minutes ago. (The
plants are watered by my brother a few minutes ago).
4. There is no meal left. All has been devoured by Yeyes. (There is no food left. Everything
had been eaten away by Yeyes).
5. Home is studied by all high school students. (English learned by all advanced high
school students (high school).
10. GERUND

When a verb ends in ing, it may be a gerund or a present participle. It is important


to understand that they are not the same.

When we use a verb in ing form more like a noun, it is usually a gerund

When we use a verb in ing form more like a verb or an adjective, it is usually a
present participle.
Gerunds as a Subject, Object or Complement
a. As a Subject

Smoking costs a lot of money.

Reading is a good habit.

Swimming is a good sport.


b. As an Object
* My hobby is reading.
* My favorite activity is singing

11. PEMBENTUKAN TATA KALIMAT B. INGGRIS


Definition of Tenses
Tenses is a form of the verb tenses in

English which changes depending on

the timing and nature of cerain events in a context sentence.


Tenses adalah bentuk kata kerja dalam bahasa Inggris yang perubahannya
tergantung pada waktu dan sifat kejadian tertentu pada suatu kontek kalimat
Tenses are divided into 4 kinds :
Present Tense

Simple Present Tense ()

Present Continous Tense

Present Perfect Tense

Present Perfect Continuous Tense


Past Tense

Simple Past Tense

Past Continous Tense

Past Perfect Tense

Past Perfect Continuous Tense


Future Tense

Simple Future Tense

Future Continous Tense

Future Perfect Tense

Future Perfect Continuous Tense


Past Future Tense

Past FutureTense

Past Future Continuous Tense

Past Future Perfect Tense

Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense

tenses are used to make sentences about things that had happened, and we talk about
it now. Tense is marked with the words past, which indicates past.

In the past tenses there are some parts,

simple past tense,

past continuous tense,

past perfect tense

past perfect continuous TENS.

Past Tense formula:


Positive: S + V2
Negative: S + did not + V1
Question: Did + S + V1
Simple Past Tense
Indicates an

event

that happened in

the

past and

ends at

certain

moment in timepast and time of occurrence are known.


menunjukkan suatu peristiwa yang terjadi pada waktu lampau dan berakhir pada
saat tertentu di waktu lampau dan waktu terjadinya diketahui.
verbal sentence

Nominal Sentence

Formula
(+) S + V2 + C
(-) S + did + not + V1 + C
(?) did + S + V1 + C
(Passive) O + was/were + V3 + by + S + C

Example

(+)

We

(-)

We

didn't

(?)

did

we

ate
eat
eat

some
some
some

cake

yesterday.

cake

yesterday.

cake

(Passive)Some cake was eaten by us yesterday.


use of Simple Past Tense
To declare the incident in the past at a particular time is now complete /

yesterday?

Untuk menyatakan kejadian di waktu lampau pada waktu tertentu sekarang sudah
selesai
Example: She got a letter last month .
To express the habits that made in the past is now not performed anymore / Untuk
menyatakan kebiasaan-kebiasaan yang dilakukan di waktu lampau sekarang tidak
dilakukan lagi
Example: I always woke up at 6 oclock
States that an event or action which clearly done in the past, although the timing is
notmentioned / menyatakan bahwa suatu kejadian atau perbuatan yang secara jelas
dilakukan di waktu lampau walaupun waktunya tidak disebutkan
Example: Fifi gave me a present
Used in conditional type 2 / Digunakan dalam conditional type 2
Example: If I had a lot of money, I would buy a new house
time information that is often used :

Yesterday /kemaren

Last night/semalam

Last week/minggu lalu

Last month/bulan lalu

Two days ago/dua hari lalu

The day before/kemaren dulu

A long day/sepanjang hari

Last year/tahun lalu