Transitorios Electromagneticos

© All Rights Reserved

37 views

Transitorios Electromagneticos

© All Rights Reserved

- Circuit Breaker - Timing & Travel Analysis TR-112783 (1)
- Phase Shifting Transformers - Principles and Applications
- 29320A
- Switchyard Equipment
- Apparent Power
- Lighting Protection for roof mounted solar Panels
- SECE411_04_Overvoltages
- ijsei-21913-11
- Lightning Protection International Standard
- Average Voltage of a Sinusoidal AC Waveform
- Electrical Engineering Formula
- Contactor Sirius 3RT
- Electromagnetic Induction
- Harris Var Design
- Ferranti
- Electrical Power Measurement
- R-5
- Section 1 What Is Electricity.pdf
- compare and contrast activity- sound
- accircuit

You are on page 1of 20

by

Mohammed Nasr Zein Abd El-Hamid

A Thesis submitted to the

Faculty of Engineering at Cairo University

in Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements for the degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE

in

ELECTRICAL POWER AND MACHINES

GIZA, EGYPT

May 2012

IN HIGH VOLTAGE SUBSTATIONS

by

Mohammed Nasr Zein Abd El-Hamid

Faculty of Engineering at Cairo University

in Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements for the degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE

in

ELECTRICAL POWER AND MACHINES

Prof. Dr. Ahdab M.K. Elmorshedy

Electrical power and machines

Faculty of Engineering

Cairo University

Electrical power and machines

Faculty of Engineering

Cairo University

GIZA, EGYPT

May 2012

II

IN HIGH VOLTAGE SUBSTATIONS

by

Mohammed Nasr Zein Abd El-Hamid

A Thesis submitted to the

Faculty of Engineering at Cairo University

in Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements for the degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE

in

ELECTRICAL POWER AND MACHINES

Approved by the

Examining Committee

Prof. Dr. Ahdab M.K. Elmorshedy

Member

Member

GIZA, EGYPT

May 2012

III

CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .....ii

ABSTRACT ..iii

CONTENTS....v

LIST OF FIGURES .............xii

LIST OF TABLES ......xvi

LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS ......vxii

1

INTRODUCTION........1

1.1 Objectives of the thesis..2

1.2 Contents of this thesis2

OVERVOLTAGES......4

2.1 Introduction.4

2.2 Origin of overvoltages ....4

2.2.1 Lightning Overvoltages ....5

2.2.2 Switching Overvoltage .....................7

2.3 Control of Switching Overvoltage ...7

2.3.1 Draining of Trapped Charge of Line ..8

2.3.2 Series Resistance Switching ...9

2.3.3 Phase Controlled Closure .11

2.3.4 Use of Shunt Reactors ..11

2.3.5 Limiting Value of Minimum Switching Surge..12

2.4.1 Load Rejection ..........12

2.4.2 The Ferranti Effect .......13

2.4.3 Harmonic Overvoltages Due to Magnetic Saturation ........13

2.5

2.6.1 General Introduction of Surge Arrester ....15

2.6.2 Structure ...15

2.6.3

the Rated Voltage ...17

2.6.4 Performance...21

2.6.5 Types of Surge Arresters...22

2.6.5.1 Metal oxide Type...22

2.6.5.2 Gapped Silicon Carbide Type....22

2.6.5.3 Selection .......23

2.6.5.4 Equivalence ..23

2.6.6 Classification of Surge Arresters...23

2.7 Selecting the Line Discharge Class.....................23

2.8 Statistical Characteristics of Overvoltages.27

2.9 Statistical Variations in Lighting Surges.....27

2.10 Statistical Variation in Switching Surges....28

SUBSTATION DESCRIPTION.....30

3.1 A Generator...31

3.2 A Power Transformer....31

3.3 Circuit Breaker......................31

3.4 Transmission Line.32

3.4.1 Under Ground Cable ...32

3.4.2 Over Head Transmission Line conductor .......................32

3.5 Surge Arresters..33

3.5.1 GIS type Surge arrester .....33

3.5.2 Porcelain type surge arrester .....34

3.6 The load simulation.......35

vi

3.8 The ATP/EMTP models for substation output feeders .....37

4.1 Steady state output voltage and current of the design ATP-EMTP

model for Heliopoles feeder................................................................38

4.2 Switching simulation without any surge arrester .40

4.2.1 Statistical Analysis of Phase (A).....41

4.2.2 Statistical Analysis of Phase (B).....43

4.2.3 Statistical Analysis of Phase (C).45

4.3 Switching simulation with all surge arresters47

4.3.1 Statistical Analysis of Phase (A).....48

4.3.2 Statistical Analysis of Phase (B).50

4.3.3 Statistical Analysis of Phase (C).51

4.4 The current passing through arrester.54

4.4.1 The current passing through GIS surge arrester .54

4.4.2 The current passing through first porcelain surge arrester..55

4.4.3 The current passing through second porcelain surge arrester 56

4.5 The effect of switching angle57

4.6 The maximum Current Amplitude Versus to Switching Angle ...58

4.6.1 The maximum Current Amplitude Versus to Switching Angle

for GIS Surge Arrester ..59

4.6.2 The Maximum Current Amplitude Versus to Switching Angle

for First Porcelain Surge Arrester ...60

4.6.3 The maximum current Amplitude Versus to switching angle

for second Porcelain surge arrester .....61

4.7 The Maximum Voltage Amplitude Versus to Switching Angle ..62

4.7.1 The Maximum Voltage Amplitude Versus to Switching Angle

for GIS Surge Arrester.62

vii

first porcelain surge arrester.63

4.7.3 The Maximum Voltage Amplitude Versus to Switching Angle

for Second Porcelain Surge Arrester64

4.8 Energy Generated on Arresters......65

4.8.1 Energy Generated on GIS Surge Arrester...65

4.8.2 Energy Generated on First Porcelain Surge Arrester.66

4.8.3 Energy Generated on Second Porcelain Surge arrester..67

4.9 Power Generated on Arresters...68

4.9.1 Power Generated on GIS Surge Arrester....68

4.9.2 Power Generated on First Porcelain Surge Arrester..69

4.9.3 Power Generated on Second Porcelain Surge arrester...70

4.10 Switching Overvoltage with All Surge Arrester In Case of Load

Rejection...71

4.10.1 Statistical Analysis of Phase (A).72

4.10.2 Statistical Analysis of Phase (B).74

4.10.3 Statistical Analysis of Phase (C).76

4.11.1 The Current Passing through GIS Surge Arrester.78

4.11.2 The Current Passing Through First Porcelain Surge Arrester...79

4.11.3 The Current Passing Through Second Porcelain Surge.....80

4.11.4 Important Observation81

4.12 The Current Passing through the Arrester in Case of all the Arresters

are in discharge class 3 .. .83

4.12.1 Current Passing Through GIS Surge Arrester.83

4.12.2 Current Passing Through First Porcelain Surge Arrester....84

4.12.3 Current Passing Through Second Porcelain Surge Arrester...85

4.13 Steady State output Voltage And Current of The Design ATP.EMTP

viii

4.13.1 The result of Bassous model [Bassous (1)]...86

4.13.2 Switching Simulation for Bassous 188

4.13.3 Statistical Analysis of Phase (A) ..........89

4.13.4 Statistical Analysis of Phase (B)....91

4.13.5 Statistical Analysis of Phase (C).. .......93

4.13.6 The Current Passing Through GIS Surge Arrester.....95

4.13.7 The Current Passing Through GIS Surge Arrester... .95

4.13.8 The Energy Generated on GIS Surge Arrester96

4.13.9 The Energy Generated on Porcelain Surge Arrester97

4.13.10 The Power Generated on GIS Surge Arrester98

4.13.11 The Power Generated on Porcelain Surge Arrester.99

4.14 The result of Bassous model [Bassous (2)]..100

4.14.1 Switching Simulation for Bassous 2......100

4.14.2 Statistical Analysis of Phase (A)...101

4.14.3 Statistical Analysis of Phase (B)...104

4.14.4 Statistical Analysis of Phase (C)...105

4.14.5 The current passing through GIS surge arrester...106

4.14.6 The energy generated on GIS surge arrester.107

4.14.7 The power generated on GIS surge arrester..108

4.15

4.15.1 Steady state output voltage and current of the design

ATP.EMTP model for GIB feeder. .110

4.15.2 Switching Simulation for GIB .....112

4.15.3 Statistical Analysis of Phase (A)...113

4.15.4 Statistical Analysis of Phase (B)...115

4.15.5 Statistical Analysis of Phase (C)...117

ix

5.1 Heliopolis Model.....................................................119

5.2 Bassous Model121

5.3 Bassous 1.....121

5.4 Bassous 2.....................121

5.5 Observation.122

5.6 GIB Model..122

6.1 Summary of Results...123

6.2 Conclusion..124

6.3 Suggestions for Future work.......125

REFERENCES ...........126

APPENDIX (A)...131

Performance of type RVLQD....131

Performance of type RVLQC....132

Performance of type RVLQB133

Performance of type RVLQE....134

Performance of type RVLQA....135

Dimension o type RVLQD, RVLQC, RVLQB, RVLQE, RVLQA..136

Standard ratings.137

Chapter (2)

OVERVOLTAGES

2.1

Introduction

The examination of overvoltages on the power system includes a study

should be performed not only at the point where an overvoltage originates but

also at all other points along the transmission network to which the surges may

travel.

With the steady increase in transmission voltages needed to fulfill the

required increase in transmitted powers, switching surges have become the

governing factor in the design of insulation for EHV and UHV systems. In the

meantime, lightning overvoltages come as a secondary factor in these

networks. There are two fundamental reasons for this shift in relative

importance from lightning to switching surges as higher transmission voltages

are called for:

1. Overvoltages produced on transmission lines by lightning strokes are only

slightly dependent on the power system voltages. As a result, their magnitudes

relative to the system peak voltage decrease as the latter is increased.

2. External insulation has its lowest breakdown strength under surges whose

fronts fall in the range 50-500 s, which is typical for switching surges[1].

According

to

the

International

Electrotechnical

Commission

(IEC)

should be tested under switching impulses (i.e., laboratory-simulated switching

surges)[1].

Overvoltages stressing a power system can generally be classified into

two main types [1]:

1. External overvoltages: generated by atmospheric disturbances. Of these

disturbances, lightning is the most common and the most severe.

4

the network. Internal overvoltages can be divided into

(a) Switching overvoltages and

(b) Temporary overvoltages.

According to theories generally accepted, lightning is produced in an

attempt by nature to maintain a dynamic balance between the positively

charged ionosphere and the negatively charged earth [3, 4]. Over fair-weather

areas there is a downward transfer of positive charges through the global airearth current. This is then counteracted by thunderstorms, during which

positive charges are transferred upward in the form of lightning [5].

During thunderstorms, positive and negative charges are separated by the

movements of air currents forming ice crystals in the upper layer of a cloud and

rain in the lower part. The cloud becomes negatively charged and has a larger

layer of positive charge at its top. As the separation of charge proceeds in the

cloud, the potential difference between the concentrations of charges increases

and the vertical electric field along the cloud also increases.

The total potential difference between the two main charge centers may vary

from 100 to 1000 MV. Only a part of the total charge-several hundred

coulombs-is released to earth by lightning; the rest is consumed in intercloud

discharges. The height of the thundercloud dipole above earth may reach 5 km

in tropical regions [1].

It is estimated that, 2000 storms and 100 lightning strikes take place

simultaneously on earth every second. This represents 4000 storms and 9

million flashes every day. Overhead lines are extremely vulnerable to direct

strokes or to induced voltage influences. Underground systems derived from

aerial lines may also be affected [3].

The most severe lightning stroke is that which strikes a phase conductor

on the transmission line as it produces the highest overvoltage for a given

stroke current. The lightning stroke injects its current into a termination

impedance Z, which in this case is half the line surge impedance Zo since the

current will flow in both directions as shown in Figure (2-1). Therefore, the

voltage surge magnitude at the striking point is [1]:

v = ()IZo

(2-1)

The lightning current magnitude is rarely less than 10 kA [6] and thus, for

typical overhead line surge impedance Zo of 300 , the lightning surge voltage

will probably have a magnitude in excess of 1500 kV.

Equation (2-1) assumes that the impedance of the lightning channel itself is

much larger than (1/2) Zo; indeed, it is believed to range from 100 to 3000 .

Equation (2-1) also indicates that the lightning voltage surge will have

approximately the same shape characteristics. In practice, however, the shapes

and magnitudes of lightning surge waves get modified by their reflections at

points of discontinuity as they travel along transmission lines Lightning strokes

represent true danger to life, structures, power systems, and communication

networks. Lightning is always a major source of damage to power systems

where equipment insulation may break down under the resulting overvoltage

and the subsequent high-energy discharge.

There is a great variety of events that would initiate a switching surge in

a power network. The switching operations of greatest relevance to insulation

design can be classified as follows:

1. Energization of transmission lines and cables. The following specific

switching operations are some of the most common in this category:

a. Energization of a line that is open circuited at the far end

b. Energization of a line that is terminated by an unloaded transformer

c. Energization of a line through the low-voltage side of a transformer

2. Reenergization of a line. This means the energization of a transmission line

carrying charges trapped by previous line interruptions when high-speed

reclosures are used.

3. Load rejection. This is affected by a circuit breaker opening at the far end of

the line. This may also be followed by opening the line at the sending end in

what is called a line dropping operation.

4. Switching on and off of equipment. All switching operations involving an

element of the transmission network will produce a switching surge. Of

particular importance, however, are the following operations:

a. Switching of high-voltage reactors

b. Switching of transformers that are loaded by a reactor on their tertiary

winding

c. Switching of a transformer at no load

5. Fault initiation and clearing.

The adverse effects of overvoltages on power networks can be reduced

in two ways: by using protective devices-chiefly surge arresters-or by reducing

their magnitudes wherever the surge originates. The latter way is commonly

known as overvoltage control. The techniques employed to control switching

surges are outlined briefly below [7].

Charges are trapped on the capacitance to ground of transmission lines after

their sudden reenergization. If the line is reenergized soon after, usually by

means of automatic reclosures, these charges may cause an increase in the

resulting surge. If, in the simple system of Figure (2-2), the capacitance C has

an initial voltage Vc(0) = Vo caused by trapped charges, the surge voltage will

include an extra component V0 which, if the same polarity as the surges peak

voltage, will increase the overvoltage on the line. In practice, trapped charges

may be partially drained through the switching resistors incorporated in

circuit breakers. Magnetic-type potential transformers also drain trapped

charges via a low-frequency oscillation which is highly damped by the effect of

magnetic saturation [1].

Shunt reactors are invariably used at both ends of an E.H.V. line as shown

in Figure. (2-3)(a). The schemes used is known as The 4-legged reactor [7]. The

reactor in the common neutral connection serves to quench secondary arc

produced under single-pole reclosing which is not discussed in this thesis. The

shunt reactors are designed with a very low resistance (high Q at power

frequency of the order of 200). These provide compensating VARs at nearly zero

power factor during normal steady-state operation. If one of the purposes of

using shunt reactors is also to drain the trapped charge after a de-energizing or

In such schemes, the time constant is low and the line discharges completely in 5

time constants which usually is set at 5 ms or 1/4 cycle on 50 Hz basis. The

resistor is short-circuited by a vacuum switch VS rated for 15 kV. It is

interlocked with the main circuit breaker such that VS opens at the same instant

as the circuit breaker and closes just prior to the main circuit breaker does.

Instrument transformers such as the inductive type potential transformers (IPT)

can also discharge the trapped line charge in contrast to capacitive voltage

transformers (CVT). Power transformers help to drain the trapped charge in

about 20 ms, if they are still left connected. But switching a transformerterminated line is not looked with favour because of the possibility of ferroresonance conditions. The Hydro-Quebec Company of Canada relies solely on

shunt rectors to keep the switching overvoltage to 2.1 p.u. on their 735 kV line

and have not equipped the circuit breakers with series resistances.

Figure (2-3) (a) Four-legged reactor for draining trapped charge and quenching

secondary arc during single-pole reclosing.

(b) Switching arrangement of series resistance in circuit breaker.

MBMain breaker. ABAuxiliary breaker

For lines of 400 kV and higher (or on some very long 220 kV lines also)

reduction of switching surges to 2 p.u. or less can be attained by inserting a

resistance R in series with the line. At the time of energization, Fig. (2-3) (b),

the main breaker is open while the auxiliary breaker closes. The voltage

impressed at the line entrance is thus Ve = e(t ).Zo /(Rs+Zo ). If R = Zo, only

50% of the source voltage is impressed on the line giving 1 p.u. at the open end

due to total reflection. Because the line is matched at the source end, the

9

voltage settles down to the source voltage very quickly. However, when reenergization with trapped charge occurs a maximum of 2 p.u. will be attained.

Thus, with series-resistance switching the overvoltage is never higher than2

p.u. This has been verified by a large number of switching surge studies using

the Transient Network Analyzer and Digital computer. The value of resistance

R in general depends on a large number of factors as follows, [7]:

(a) The value of R is selected to achieve optimum results for the system.

(b) The surge impedance of connected lines when there is a single line or

multiple lines.

The lines switched might not all be of equal length so that complications arise

due to reflections from the shorter lines getting into the longer ones and viceversa.

(c) The insertion time of the resistance controls the overvoltage. From a large

number of studies, the following recommendations are made:

1. The insertion time is 810 ms or 1/ 2 cycle on 60 Hz or 50 Hz basis. After

this time, the resistance is shorted.

2. The value of resistance is slightly higher than the surge impedance of a

single line which is switched. In older designs a value of the order of 1000

Ohms was used, but modern practice is nearly 400 Ohms.

3. The closing span of the circuit-breaker poles must be controlled within 60.

The last item is very important under 3-phase reclosing operations. Poorlymaintained breakers can have a 180 lag between the first and last pole to close

which result in high overvoltages since the last phase has a trapped voltage

induced in it by the other phases which have already been energized. On the

other hand, because of the non-synchronous or nonsimultaneous closure of the

poles with resulting unbalanced conditions, ground-return currents are present

which help to attenuate the surges. However, each case must be studied

carefully on models and the worst case guarded against.

10

It is known that the amplitude of the energization surge depends on the

switching phase angle t. By properly timing of the closing of the circuit

breaker poles, the resulting switching overvoltage can be greatly reduced.

Phase-controlled switching should be carried out successively for the three

poles to accomplish a reduction in the initial voltages on all three phases. This

is extremely difficult with conventional circuit breakers but is quite possible

with solid-state circuit breakers [1].

In the resistance-insertion scheme the maximum overvoltage condition

exists when the main breaker closes to short-circuit R in the auxiliary breaker,

and at the same instant the polarity of line-side voltage is opposite to that of the

source. Very sophisticated electronic circuitry using sensors and logic elements

to sense the polarities of the two voltages and to activate the closing

mechanism of the main circuit breaker exist. This connects the line directly to

the source while the polarities of voltages are the same. This applies when there

is a trapped charge on the line. In such schemes the overvoltage is brought

down as low as 1.5 p.u. at the open end. The scheme is improved further if the

main breaker closes when the current in the line is zero when there are

oscillations caused by the inductance and capacitance of the line itself. Such a

scheme has been developed and used successfully in the U.S.A. by the

Bonneville Power Administration [7].

Shunt reactors are used on many high-voltage transmission lines as a

means of shunt compensation to improve the performance of the line, which

would otherwise draw large capacitive currents from the supply. They have the

additional advantage of reducing energization surge magnitudes. This is

accomplished mainly by the reduction in temporary overvoltages [1].

11

While a designer or user of such sophisticated and expensive equipment

aims at lowering the overvoltages to 1.5 p.u. or less, it has been observed that

there is not much advantage in lowering the overvoltage to less than 1.5 p.u.

The main reason for this is that under a single line to ground fault, the dynamic

voltage rise is 1.5 p.u. or very near this value. For an 80% arrester of the

conventional type, the overvoltage under a fault reaches 0.83 = 1.4 p.u.

Therefore, there is not much advantage gained in lowering only the switching

overvoltage. However, with new gapless Metal Oxide arresters, the voltage

rating of the arrester can be as low as 60 to 65% of line-to-line voltage which

permits a lowering of equipment insulation levels. These arresters are meant for

switching-surge duty so that E.H.V. insulation levels can be brought down

further [7].

Temporary overvoltages (i.e., sustained overvoltages) differ from

transient switching overvoltages in that they last for longer durations, typically

from a few cycles to a few seconds. They take the form of undamped or

slightly damped oscillations at a frequency equal or close to the power

frequency. The classification of temporary overvoltages as distinct from

transient switching overvoltages is due mainly to the fact that the responses of

power network insulation and surge arresters to their wave shapes are different.

Some of the most important events leading to the generation of temporary

overvoltages are discussed briefly below [1].

When a transmission line or a large inductive load that is fed from a

power station is suddenly switched off, the generator will speed up and the

busbar voltage will rise. The amplitude of the overvoltage can be evaluated

approximately [1].

12

V E

XC

XC X

(2-2)

S

constant over the sub transient period and equal to its value before the incident

Xs the transient reactance of the generator in series with the transformer

reactance, and Xc the equivalent capacitive input reactance of the system.

The Ferranti effect of an uncompensated transmission line is given by

Vr

1

=

Vs cos ol

(2-3)

and l is the line length (km). o is the phase shift constant of the line per unit

length. It is equal to the imaginary part of ZY , where Z and Y are the

impedance and admittance of the line per unit length. For a lossless line,

o = LC where L and C are the inductance and capacitance of the line per

unit length. o has a value of about 6o per 100 km at normal power

frequency[1].

Harmonic oscillations in power systems are initiated by system

nonlinearities whose primary source is that of the saturated magnetizing

13

these components increases rapidly and contains a high percentage of

harmonics for voltages above the rated voltage. Therefore, saturated

transformers inject large harmonic currents into the system. [1]

Referring to Figure (2.4) and its related overvoltage equation (2-2), it is

evident that by increasing the capacitive input reactance of the transmission

line Xc the magnitude of the temporary overvoltage V is reduced. If a shunt

reactor of reactance Xr is added to the transmission line, the equivalent input

reactance of that line will be increased from Xc to

X

'

C

XC

1 X c / X

(2-4)

r

decreasing Xr (down from its infinite value in the absence of the reactor), thus

reducing the overvoltage magnitude according to equation (2-2). Furthermore,

the second harmonic component of temporary overvoltages can be successfully

suppressed, or even eliminated, by the use of surge arresters with nonlinear

resistor (varistor) characteristics [8]. A properly designed varistor would

conduct in such a way as to provide large losses at the frequency in question.

A surge arrester is a protective device for limiting surge voltages on

equipment by discharging or bypassing surge current. Surge arresters allow

only minimal flow of the 50-hertz-power current to ground. After the highfrequency lightning or switching surge current has been discharged, a surge

arrester, correctly applied, will be capable of repeating its protective function

until another surge voltage must be discharged [1].

14

- Circuit Breaker - Timing & Travel Analysis TR-112783 (1)Uploaded bycadtil
- Phase Shifting Transformers - Principles and ApplicationsUploaded byRanko Čop
- 29320AUploaded byGabriely Murilo
- Switchyard EquipmentUploaded byAbhishek Kumar Jha
- Apparent PowerUploaded byAi Ra
- Lighting Protection for roof mounted solar PanelsUploaded bytmmsekar
- SECE411_04_OvervoltagesUploaded byreh223
- ijsei-21913-11Uploaded byzerferuz
- Lightning Protection International StandardUploaded byAli Ateeq
- Average Voltage of a Sinusoidal AC WaveformUploaded byRoboconDK
- Electrical Engineering FormulaUploaded byArun M
- Contactor Sirius 3RTUploaded byJoab Tacam
- Electromagnetic InductionUploaded byVenu Gopal
- Harris Var DesignUploaded byeciceran
- FerrantiUploaded bySarwar Hosen Simon
- Electrical Power MeasurementUploaded bySurendra Reddy
- R-5Uploaded byGuru Mishra
- Section 1 What Is Electricity.pdfUploaded byN PM
- compare and contrast activity- soundUploaded byapi-290605278
- accircuitUploaded byHumayun Sultan
- 13.2Uploaded byAnonymous GhskOM48D
- [Disciple] Volume 2Uploaded bysyahri ardi
- BondingUploaded bySabeeh Hasnain
- November 2011Uploaded byhealthsourcemns
- SPDUploaded bySurangaWeerasooriya
- adv3 (1).pptUploaded bybalaeee123
- elec lab 1Uploaded byShada Alrubaei
- 0409UPECUploaded bymjimenezg
- Untitled 92Uploaded by54045114
- EatonLVBreakers70C1446Uploaded byAl Jo

- Shunt Reactor Switching Transients at High Compensation LevelsUploaded byJames Ernes Llacza Carmelo
- CableUploaded byLuis Chonchis
- TRANSFORMER MODELING IN ATP EMTPUploaded bymspd2003
- Single Phase Switching Parameters for Untransposed EHV TLUploaded byCarlos Lino Rojas Agüero
- Test System ReportUploaded byCarlos Lino Rojas Agüero
- numerical Methods with FreeMatUploaded bypreveenrrt4142
- EHV Single Pole Switching - It is Not Only a Matter of Seconsary Arc ExtinctionUploaded byCarlos Lino Rojas Agüero
- Effects of TL Construction on Resonance in Shunt Compensated EHV LinesUploaded byCarlos Lino Rojas Agüero
- Proceedings ECT 2011Uploaded byCarlos Lino Rojas Agüero
- Transient Analysis of Shunt Reactor SwitchingUploaded bynicesreekanth
- Effects of Faults and Shunt Reactor Parameters on Parallel ResonanceUploaded byCarlos Lino Rojas Agüero
- Computer Model of the Secondary Arc in Single Phase Operation of TL.pdfUploaded byCarlos Lino Rojas Agüero
- Evaluation Methods of Limiting Switching Overvoltage during Line EnergizationUploaded byInternational Journal of Science and Engineering Investigations
- Analysis and Review - Secondary Arc Extinction Auto Reclosing for 765 KV EHV TLUploaded byCarlos Lino Rojas Agüero
- A Study on Reclosing of Asaluyeh-Isfahan 765 KV TL Considering the Effect of Neutral Reactor in Reducing Resonant VoltagesUploaded byCarlos Lino Rojas Agüero
- V4I5-IJERTV4IS051071Uploaded bypvenky
- Single Pole Switching on BPA 500 KV SystemUploaded byCarlos Lino Rojas Agüero
- Non Optimum Compensation Schemes for Single Pole Reclosing on EHV Double Circuit TLUploaded byCarlos Lino Rojas Agüero
- On the Problem of Shunt Reactor Tripping during Singl and Three Phase Auto Reclosing.pdfUploaded byCarlos Lino Rojas Agüero
- Statistical analysis of overvoltages due to the energisation of a.pdfUploaded byCarlos Lino Rojas Agüero
- Mitigation of Switching Overvoltages Due to Energization Procedures in Grid-Connected Offshore Wind FarmsUploaded byCarlos Lino Rojas Agüero
- Cigre 035 Monograph on GIS Very Fast TransientsUploaded byCarlos Lino Rojas Agüero
- transmission_line_studyUploaded byapi-19757160
- Numerical AnalysisUploaded bySonya Bajwa
- Cigre Report 543Uploaded byCarlos Lino Rojas Agüero
- rez48a_775908Uploaded byromancyy

- What Are the Three Types of Speed ControlUploaded bypugazhendira
- Engineering journal ; Effect of Strontium concentration on the luminescent properties of (Ba1-xSrx)2SiO4:Eu2+ prepared by pressure-assisted combustion-synthesisUploaded byEngineering Journal
- DiodeUploaded byMohammed Bilal Tamkin
- CAST IRON-Chemical CompostionUploaded byvmgobinath
- Dresser Instruments Micro Corrector Specs.Uploaded bydavid
- 271 - PH8252 Physics for Information Science - Notes UNIT IV OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS.pdfUploaded byHari
- Kyoritsu Model 1009Uploaded bywanna_ac
- Laser and Its ApplicationsUploaded byrenugandhan
- EMI Susceptibility in Analog CircuitsUploaded byTelemetro
- Metal & Alloys Corporation, Delhi, IndiaUploaded byVineet Agarwal
- 6031574-Repair Manual Pioneer Pdp R05g Media ReceiverUploaded bydjstraughan
- esa-sp-1173.pdfUploaded bystoufsaxo
- STM32F446RET6.pdfUploaded byNguyen Trong Nghia
- Soldering in ElectronicsUploaded byDmitri Antonov
- ele-211_module_678_questions.docxUploaded byHashem EL-MaRimey
- Errata.lpc2138.01Uploaded byRohit Kshirsagar
- Power Electronic Traction TranformerUploaded bySwarna Dwipa
- Bob Boyce TPUUploaded byTim Janzer
- Electronic Mechanic Sem 4Uploaded byHashim Muhammed Haneefa
- Electronics Catalog Gb 11 12Uploaded bytelecom1212
- These Slides Incorporate Figures From Digital Design Principles and Practices,Uploaded bysrinivaschinni
- BUK444-200Uploaded by'Nesli ÖzşahiN'
- PILKOR_PCX2_335MUploaded byadminagent
- As h 13c AlternatingcurrentsUploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 74s08.pdfUploaded byCristian Pavas
- List\ of ElectiveUploaded byashudby
- COMM704- Introduction.pdfUploaded byIbra Nazla
- PT1302B-C2Uploaded byG Ivan Torres R
- Electronics PbUploaded byspidyan
- Dynamo 250Uploaded byAlejandra Ledesma