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Mohammed Nasr Zein Abd El-Hamid
A Thesis submitted to the
Faculty of Engineering at Cairo University
in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the degree of


May 2012



Mohammed Nasr Zein Abd El-Hamid

A Thesis submitted to the

Faculty of Engineering at Cairo University
in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the degree of

Under the supervision of

Prof. Dr. Ahdab M.K. Elmorshedy
Electrical power and machines
Faculty of Engineering
Cairo University

Dr. Ahmed Emam

Electrical power and machines
Faculty of Engineering
Cairo University


May 2012


Mohammed Nasr Zein Abd El-Hamid
A Thesis submitted to the
Faculty of Engineering at Cairo University
in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the degree of
Approved by the
Examining Committee
Prof. Dr. Ahdab M.K. Elmorshedy

Thesis main advisor

Prof. Dr. Rabah Y. Amer


Prof. Dr. Almoataz Youssef Abdelaziz



May 2012

LIST OF FIGURES .............xii
LIST OF TABLES ......xvi

1.1 Objectives of the thesis..2
1.2 Contents of this thesis2

2.1 Introduction.4
2.2 Origin of overvoltages ....4
2.2.1 Lightning Overvoltages ....5
2.2.2 Switching Overvoltage .....................7
2.3 Control of Switching Overvoltage ...7
2.3.1 Draining of Trapped Charge of Line ..8
2.3.2 Series Resistance Switching ...9
2.3.3 Phase Controlled Closure .11
2.3.4 Use of Shunt Reactors ..11
2.3.5 Limiting Value of Minimum Switching Surge..12

2.4 Temporary Overvoltages ....12

2.4.1 Load Rejection ..........12
2.4.2 The Ferranti Effect .......13
2.4.3 Harmonic Overvoltages Due to Magnetic Saturation ........13


Control of Temporary Overvoltages ....14

2.6 Surge Arrester .....14

2.6.1 General Introduction of Surge Arrester ....15
2.6.2 Structure ...15

Choosing the Continuous Operating Voltage and

the Rated Voltage ...17

2.6.4 Performance...21
2.6.5 Types of Surge Arresters...22 Metal oxide Type...22 Gapped Silicon Carbide Type....22 Selection .......23 Equivalence ..23
2.6.6 Classification of Surge Arresters...23
2.7 Selecting the Line Discharge Class.....................23
2.8 Statistical Characteristics of Overvoltages.27
2.9 Statistical Variations in Lighting Surges.....27
2.10 Statistical Variation in Switching Surges....28

3.1 A Generator...31
3.2 A Power Transformer....31
3.3 Circuit Breaker......................31
3.4 Transmission Line.32
3.4.1 Under Ground Cable ...32
3.4.2 Over Head Transmission Line conductor .......................32
3.5 Surge Arresters..33
3.5.1 GIS type Surge arrester .....33
3.5.2 Porcelain type surge arrester .....34
3.6 The load simulation.......35

3.7 Modeling for each element in the circuit...36

3.8 The ATP/EMTP models for substation output feeders .....37


4.1 Steady state output voltage and current of the design ATP-EMTP
model for Heliopoles feeder................................................................38
4.2 Switching simulation without any surge arrester .40
4.2.1 Statistical Analysis of Phase (A).....41
4.2.2 Statistical Analysis of Phase (B).....43
4.2.3 Statistical Analysis of Phase (C).45
4.3 Switching simulation with all surge arresters47
4.3.1 Statistical Analysis of Phase (A).....48
4.3.2 Statistical Analysis of Phase (B).50
4.3.3 Statistical Analysis of Phase (C).51
4.4 The current passing through arrester.54
4.4.1 The current passing through GIS surge arrester .54
4.4.2 The current passing through first porcelain surge arrester..55
4.4.3 The current passing through second porcelain surge arrester 56
4.5 The effect of switching angle57
4.6 The maximum Current Amplitude Versus to Switching Angle ...58
4.6.1 The maximum Current Amplitude Versus to Switching Angle
for GIS Surge Arrester ..59
4.6.2 The Maximum Current Amplitude Versus to Switching Angle
for First Porcelain Surge Arrester ...60
4.6.3 The maximum current Amplitude Versus to switching angle
for second Porcelain surge arrester .....61
4.7 The Maximum Voltage Amplitude Versus to Switching Angle ..62
4.7.1 The Maximum Voltage Amplitude Versus to Switching Angle
for GIS Surge Arrester.62

4.7.2 The maximum voltage Amplitude Versus to switching angle for

first porcelain surge arrester.63
4.7.3 The Maximum Voltage Amplitude Versus to Switching Angle
for Second Porcelain Surge Arrester64
4.8 Energy Generated on Arresters......65
4.8.1 Energy Generated on GIS Surge Arrester...65
4.8.2 Energy Generated on First Porcelain Surge Arrester.66
4.8.3 Energy Generated on Second Porcelain Surge arrester..67
4.9 Power Generated on Arresters...68
4.9.1 Power Generated on GIS Surge Arrester....68
4.9.2 Power Generated on First Porcelain Surge Arrester..69
4.9.3 Power Generated on Second Porcelain Surge arrester...70
4.10 Switching Overvoltage with All Surge Arrester In Case of Load
4.10.1 Statistical Analysis of Phase (A).72
4.10.2 Statistical Analysis of Phase (B).74
4.10.3 Statistical Analysis of Phase (C).76

4.11 The Arresters Currents at the Moment of Load Rejection .....78

4.11.1 The Current Passing through GIS Surge Arrester.78
4.11.2 The Current Passing Through First Porcelain Surge Arrester...79
4.11.3 The Current Passing Through Second Porcelain Surge.....80
4.11.4 Important Observation81
4.12 The Current Passing through the Arrester in Case of all the Arresters
are in discharge class 3 .. .83
4.12.1 Current Passing Through GIS Surge Arrester.83
4.12.2 Current Passing Through First Porcelain Surge Arrester....84
4.12.3 Current Passing Through Second Porcelain Surge Arrester...85
4.13 Steady State output Voltage And Current of The Design ATP.EMTP

Model for Bassous (1) Feeder.86

4.13.1 The result of Bassous model [Bassous (1)]...86
4.13.2 Switching Simulation for Bassous 188
4.13.3 Statistical Analysis of Phase (A) ..........89
4.13.4 Statistical Analysis of Phase (B)....91
4.13.5 Statistical Analysis of Phase (C).. .......93
4.13.6 The Current Passing Through GIS Surge Arrester.....95
4.13.7 The Current Passing Through GIS Surge Arrester... .95
4.13.8 The Energy Generated on GIS Surge Arrester96
4.13.9 The Energy Generated on Porcelain Surge Arrester97
4.13.10 The Power Generated on GIS Surge Arrester98
4.13.11 The Power Generated on Porcelain Surge Arrester.99
4.14 The result of Bassous model [Bassous (2)]..100
4.14.1 Switching Simulation for Bassous 2......100
4.14.2 Statistical Analysis of Phase (A)...101
4.14.3 Statistical Analysis of Phase (B)...104
4.14.4 Statistical Analysis of Phase (C)...105
4.14.5 The current passing through GIS surge arrester...106
4.14.6 The energy generated on GIS surge arrester.107
4.14.7 The power generated on GIS surge arrester..108

The result of GIB model.110

4.15.1 Steady state output voltage and current of the design
ATP.EMTP model for GIB feeder. .110
4.15.2 Switching Simulation for GIB .....112
4.15.3 Statistical Analysis of Phase (A)...113
4.15.4 Statistical Analysis of Phase (B)...115
4.15.5 Statistical Analysis of Phase (C)...117



5.1 Heliopolis Model.....................................................119
5.2 Bassous Model121
5.3 Bassous 1.....121
5.4 Bassous 2.....................121
5.5 Observation.122
5.6 GIB Model..122


6.1 Summary of Results...123
6.2 Conclusion..124
6.3 Suggestions for Future work.......125

REFERENCES ...........126
APPENDIX (A)...131
Performance of type RVLQD....131
Performance of type RVLQC....132
Performance of type RVLQB133
Performance of type RVLQE....134
Performance of type RVLQA....135
Dimension o type RVLQD, RVLQC, RVLQB, RVLQE, RVLQA..136
Standard ratings.137

Chapter (2)

The examination of overvoltages on the power system includes a study

of their magnitudes, shapes, durations, and frequency of occurrence. This study

should be performed not only at the point where an overvoltage originates but
also at all other points along the transmission network to which the surges may
With the steady increase in transmission voltages needed to fulfill the
required increase in transmitted powers, switching surges have become the
governing factor in the design of insulation for EHV and UHV systems. In the
meantime, lightning overvoltages come as a secondary factor in these
networks. There are two fundamental reasons for this shift in relative
importance from lightning to switching surges as higher transmission voltages
are called for:
1. Overvoltages produced on transmission lines by lightning strokes are only
slightly dependent on the power system voltages. As a result, their magnitudes
relative to the system peak voltage decrease as the latter is increased.
2. External insulation has its lowest breakdown strength under surges whose
fronts fall in the range 50-500 s, which is typical for switching surges[1].







recommendations, all equipment designed for operating voltages above 300 kV

should be tested under switching impulses (i.e., laboratory-simulated switching

2.2 Origin of Overvoltages

Overvoltages stressing a power system can generally be classified into
two main types [1]:
1. External overvoltages: generated by atmospheric disturbances. Of these
disturbances, lightning is the most common and the most severe.

2. Internal overvoltages: generated by changes in the operating conditions of

the network. Internal overvoltages can be divided into
(a) Switching overvoltages and
(b) Temporary overvoltages.

2.2.1 Lightning Overvoltages

According to theories generally accepted, lightning is produced in an
attempt by nature to maintain a dynamic balance between the positively
charged ionosphere and the negatively charged earth [3, 4]. Over fair-weather
areas there is a downward transfer of positive charges through the global airearth current. This is then counteracted by thunderstorms, during which
positive charges are transferred upward in the form of lightning [5].
During thunderstorms, positive and negative charges are separated by the
movements of air currents forming ice crystals in the upper layer of a cloud and
rain in the lower part. The cloud becomes negatively charged and has a larger
layer of positive charge at its top. As the separation of charge proceeds in the
cloud, the potential difference between the concentrations of charges increases
and the vertical electric field along the cloud also increases.
The total potential difference between the two main charge centers may vary
from 100 to 1000 MV. Only a part of the total charge-several hundred
coulombs-is released to earth by lightning; the rest is consumed in intercloud
discharges. The height of the thundercloud dipole above earth may reach 5 km
in tropical regions [1].
It is estimated that, 2000 storms and 100 lightning strikes take place
simultaneously on earth every second. This represents 4000 storms and 9
million flashes every day. Overhead lines are extremely vulnerable to direct
strokes or to induced voltage influences. Underground systems derived from
aerial lines may also be affected [3].
The most severe lightning stroke is that which strikes a phase conductor
on the transmission line as it produces the highest overvoltage for a given
stroke current. The lightning stroke injects its current into a termination

impedance Z, which in this case is half the line surge impedance Zo since the
current will flow in both directions as shown in Figure (2-1). Therefore, the
voltage surge magnitude at the striking point is [1]:
v = ()IZo


The lightning current magnitude is rarely less than 10 kA [6] and thus, for
typical overhead line surge impedance Zo of 300 , the lightning surge voltage
will probably have a magnitude in excess of 1500 kV.
Equation (2-1) assumes that the impedance of the lightning channel itself is
much larger than (1/2) Zo; indeed, it is believed to range from 100 to 3000 .
Equation (2-1) also indicates that the lightning voltage surge will have
approximately the same shape characteristics. In practice, however, the shapes
and magnitudes of lightning surge waves get modified by their reflections at
points of discontinuity as they travel along transmission lines Lightning strokes
represent true danger to life, structures, power systems, and communication
networks. Lightning is always a major source of damage to power systems
where equipment insulation may break down under the resulting overvoltage
and the subsequent high-energy discharge.

Figure (2-1) Development of lightning overvoltage.

2.2.2 Switching Overvoltage

There is a great variety of events that would initiate a switching surge in
a power network. The switching operations of greatest relevance to insulation
design can be classified as follows:
1. Energization of transmission lines and cables. The following specific
switching operations are some of the most common in this category:
a. Energization of a line that is open circuited at the far end
b. Energization of a line that is terminated by an unloaded transformer
c. Energization of a line through the low-voltage side of a transformer
2. Reenergization of a line. This means the energization of a transmission line
carrying charges trapped by previous line interruptions when high-speed
reclosures are used.
3. Load rejection. This is affected by a circuit breaker opening at the far end of
the line. This may also be followed by opening the line at the sending end in
what is called a line dropping operation.
4. Switching on and off of equipment. All switching operations involving an
element of the transmission network will produce a switching surge. Of
particular importance, however, are the following operations:
a. Switching of high-voltage reactors
b. Switching of transformers that are loaded by a reactor on their tertiary
c. Switching of a transformer at no load
5. Fault initiation and clearing.

2.3 Control of Switching Overvoltage

The adverse effects of overvoltages on power networks can be reduced
in two ways: by using protective devices-chiefly surge arresters-or by reducing
their magnitudes wherever the surge originates. The latter way is commonly
known as overvoltage control. The techniques employed to control switching
surges are outlined briefly below [7].

2.3.1 Draining of Trapped Charge of Line

Charges are trapped on the capacitance to ground of transmission lines after
their sudden reenergization. If the line is reenergized soon after, usually by
means of automatic reclosures, these charges may cause an increase in the
resulting surge. If, in the simple system of Figure (2-2), the capacitance C has
an initial voltage Vc(0) = Vo caused by trapped charges, the surge voltage will
include an extra component V0 which, if the same polarity as the surges peak
voltage, will increase the overvoltage on the line. In practice, trapped charges
may be partially drained through the switching resistors incorporated in

Figure (2-2) Energization switching transient

circuit breakers. Magnetic-type potential transformers also drain trapped
charges via a low-frequency oscillation which is highly damped by the effect of
magnetic saturation [1].
Shunt reactors are invariably used at both ends of an E.H.V. line as shown
in Figure. (2-3)(a). The schemes used is known as The 4-legged reactor [7]. The
reactor in the common neutral connection serves to quench secondary arc
produced under single-pole reclosing which is not discussed in this thesis. The
shunt reactors are designed with a very low resistance (high Q at power
frequency of the order of 200). These provide compensating VARs at nearly zero
power factor during normal steady-state operation. If one of the purposes of
using shunt reactors is also to drain the trapped charge after a de-energizing or

line-dropping operation, the reactor in the neutral will be replaced by a resistor.

In such schemes, the time constant is low and the line discharges completely in 5
time constants which usually is set at 5 ms or 1/4 cycle on 50 Hz basis. The
resistor is short-circuited by a vacuum switch VS rated for 15 kV. It is
interlocked with the main circuit breaker such that VS opens at the same instant
as the circuit breaker and closes just prior to the main circuit breaker does.
Instrument transformers such as the inductive type potential transformers (IPT)
can also discharge the trapped line charge in contrast to capacitive voltage
transformers (CVT). Power transformers help to drain the trapped charge in
about 20 ms, if they are still left connected. But switching a transformerterminated line is not looked with favour because of the possibility of ferroresonance conditions. The Hydro-Quebec Company of Canada relies solely on
shunt rectors to keep the switching overvoltage to 2.1 p.u. on their 735 kV line
and have not equipped the circuit breakers with series resistances.

Figure (2-3) (a) Four-legged reactor for draining trapped charge and quenching
secondary arc during single-pole reclosing.
(b) Switching arrangement of series resistance in circuit breaker.
MBMain breaker. ABAuxiliary breaker

2.3.2 Series Resistance Switching

For lines of 400 kV and higher (or on some very long 220 kV lines also)
reduction of switching surges to 2 p.u. or less can be attained by inserting a
resistance R in series with the line. At the time of energization, Fig. (2-3) (b),
the main breaker is open while the auxiliary breaker closes. The voltage
impressed at the line entrance is thus Ve = e(t ).Zo /(Rs+Zo ). If R = Zo, only
50% of the source voltage is impressed on the line giving 1 p.u. at the open end
due to total reflection. Because the line is matched at the source end, the

voltage settles down to the source voltage very quickly. However, when reenergization with trapped charge occurs a maximum of 2 p.u. will be attained.
Thus, with series-resistance switching the overvoltage is never higher than2
p.u. This has been verified by a large number of switching surge studies using
the Transient Network Analyzer and Digital computer. The value of resistance
R in general depends on a large number of factors as follows, [7]:
(a) The value of R is selected to achieve optimum results for the system.
(b) The surge impedance of connected lines when there is a single line or
multiple lines.
The lines switched might not all be of equal length so that complications arise
due to reflections from the shorter lines getting into the longer ones and viceversa.
(c) The insertion time of the resistance controls the overvoltage. From a large
number of studies, the following recommendations are made:
1. The insertion time is 810 ms or 1/ 2 cycle on 60 Hz or 50 Hz basis. After
this time, the resistance is shorted.
2. The value of resistance is slightly higher than the surge impedance of a
single line which is switched. In older designs a value of the order of 1000
Ohms was used, but modern practice is nearly 400 Ohms.
3. The closing span of the circuit-breaker poles must be controlled within 60.
The last item is very important under 3-phase reclosing operations. Poorlymaintained breakers can have a 180 lag between the first and last pole to close
which result in high overvoltages since the last phase has a trapped voltage
induced in it by the other phases which have already been energized. On the
other hand, because of the non-synchronous or nonsimultaneous closure of the
poles with resulting unbalanced conditions, ground-return currents are present
which help to attenuate the surges. However, each case must be studied
carefully on models and the worst case guarded against.


2.3.3 Phase-Controlled Closure

It is known that the amplitude of the energization surge depends on the
switching phase angle t. By properly timing of the closing of the circuit
breaker poles, the resulting switching overvoltage can be greatly reduced.
Phase-controlled switching should be carried out successively for the three
poles to accomplish a reduction in the initial voltages on all three phases. This
is extremely difficult with conventional circuit breakers but is quite possible
with solid-state circuit breakers [1].
In the resistance-insertion scheme the maximum overvoltage condition
exists when the main breaker closes to short-circuit R in the auxiliary breaker,
and at the same instant the polarity of line-side voltage is opposite to that of the
source. Very sophisticated electronic circuitry using sensors and logic elements
to sense the polarities of the two voltages and to activate the closing
mechanism of the main circuit breaker exist. This connects the line directly to
the source while the polarities of voltages are the same. This applies when there
is a trapped charge on the line. In such schemes the overvoltage is brought
down as low as 1.5 p.u. at the open end. The scheme is improved further if the
main breaker closes when the current in the line is zero when there are
oscillations caused by the inductance and capacitance of the line itself. Such a
scheme has been developed and used successfully in the U.S.A. by the
Bonneville Power Administration [7].

2.3.4 Use of Shunt Reactors

Shunt reactors are used on many high-voltage transmission lines as a
means of shunt compensation to improve the performance of the line, which
would otherwise draw large capacitive currents from the supply. They have the
additional advantage of reducing energization surge magnitudes. This is
accomplished mainly by the reduction in temporary overvoltages [1].


2.3.5 Limiting Value of Minimum Switching Surge

While a designer or user of such sophisticated and expensive equipment
aims at lowering the overvoltages to 1.5 p.u. or less, it has been observed that
there is not much advantage in lowering the overvoltage to less than 1.5 p.u.
The main reason for this is that under a single line to ground fault, the dynamic
voltage rise is 1.5 p.u. or very near this value. For an 80% arrester of the
conventional type, the overvoltage under a fault reaches 0.83 = 1.4 p.u.
Therefore, there is not much advantage gained in lowering only the switching
overvoltage. However, with new gapless Metal Oxide arresters, the voltage
rating of the arrester can be as low as 60 to 65% of line-to-line voltage which
permits a lowering of equipment insulation levels. These arresters are meant for
switching-surge duty so that E.H.V. insulation levels can be brought down
further [7].

2.4 Temporary Overvoltages

Temporary overvoltages (i.e., sustained overvoltages) differ from
transient switching overvoltages in that they last for longer durations, typically
from a few cycles to a few seconds. They take the form of undamped or
slightly damped oscillations at a frequency equal or close to the power
frequency. The classification of temporary overvoltages as distinct from
transient switching overvoltages is due mainly to the fact that the responses of
power network insulation and surge arresters to their wave shapes are different.
Some of the most important events leading to the generation of temporary
overvoltages are discussed briefly below [1].

2.4.1 Load Rejection

When a transmission line or a large inductive load that is fed from a
power station is suddenly switched off, the generator will speed up and the
busbar voltage will rise. The amplitude of the overvoltage can be evaluated
approximately [1].


Figure (2-4) equivalent circuit during load reject




Where E is the voltage behind the transient reactance, which is assumed to be

constant over the sub transient period and equal to its value before the incident
Xs the transient reactance of the generator in series with the transformer
reactance, and Xc the equivalent capacitive input reactance of the system.

2.4.2 The Ferranti Effect

The Ferranti effect of an uncompensated transmission line is given by

Vs cos ol


Where Vr and Vs are the receiving-end and sending-end voltages, respectively,

and l is the line length (km). o is the phase shift constant of the line per unit
length. It is equal to the imaginary part of ZY , where Z and Y are the
impedance and admittance of the line per unit length. For a lossless line,

o = LC where L and C are the inductance and capacitance of the line per
unit length. o has a value of about 6o per 100 km at normal power

2.4.3 Harmonic Overvoltages Due to Magnetic Saturation

Harmonic oscillations in power systems are initiated by system
nonlinearities whose primary source is that of the saturated magnetizing


characteristics of transformers and shunt reactors. The magnetizing current of

these components increases rapidly and contains a high percentage of
harmonics for voltages above the rated voltage. Therefore, saturated
transformers inject large harmonic currents into the system. [1]

2.5 Control of Temporary Overvoltages

Referring to Figure (2.4) and its related overvoltage equation (2-2), it is
evident that by increasing the capacitive input reactance of the transmission
line Xc the magnitude of the temporary overvoltage V is reduced. If a shunt
reactor of reactance Xr is added to the transmission line, the equivalent input
reactance of that line will be increased from Xc to


1 X c / X


In equation (2.4), the goal of increasing Xc is obviously achieved by means of

decreasing Xr (down from its infinite value in the absence of the reactor), thus
reducing the overvoltage magnitude according to equation (2-2). Furthermore,
the second harmonic component of temporary overvoltages can be successfully
suppressed, or even eliminated, by the use of surge arresters with nonlinear
resistor (varistor) characteristics [8]. A properly designed varistor would
conduct in such a way as to provide large losses at the frequency in question.

2.6 Surge Arrester

A surge arrester is a protective device for limiting surge voltages on
equipment by discharging or bypassing surge current. Surge arresters allow
only minimal flow of the 50-hertz-power current to ground. After the highfrequency lightning or switching surge current has been discharged, a surge
arrester, correctly applied, will be capable of repeating its protective function
until another surge voltage must be discharged [1].