Water Supply & Sanitary Engineering; (Sample theory questions) a) What are the main considerations for the selection

of a water supply source? [4] b) State the three broad objectives underlying any water supply system. [3] c) State and sketch the six major components of a water supply system [4] d) List atleast five requirements of a Water supply system [5] e) What is the importance of taking note of the following when carrying out water monitoring and water sampling? 1. Time of Monitoring/sampling 2. Weather or condition of the day 3. Surrounding land use 4. Flow rate 5. depth of sampling [8]

a) State the World Health Organisation (W.H.O) definition for Enviromental Sanitation. [2] b) Give the U.S.A’s national sanitation foundation definition for Sanitation? [2] c) Why is Public health Engineering said to be “a positive force in the field of preventative medicine” [4] d) Explain how political will and religion affect programmes on Environmental sanitation [5] d) Write short notes on the following: 1. Water-borne diseases 2. Water-washed diseases 3. water-based diseases 4. water-related diseases [12]
2. 3.

a) Define wholesome water and state the major requirements of wholesome water.

[7] b) With respect to water quality, define the following: 1. Palatable water 2. Potable water 3. Polluted water 4. contaminated water [4] c) List and describe the three major impurities found in water giving examples in each case. [9] d) When Monitoring Water, what is turbidity? Is water quality better when turbidity is high or low? What kinds of materials cause turbidity? a.) What do we mean by “Water quality”? [2] b) What do Engineers and Scientists do, to determine Water quality? [2] c) How is Water quality measured? [2] d) State any five safety tips when monitoring water quality in the field. [5] e) Why do we have water-quality standards and guidelines? [3]

f) Briefly explain how natural processes affect water quality. [3] g) How do human activities affect water quality? [4] h) What is naturally in the water? [4] a)What is Water Pollution? b) Briefly explain the importance of knowing the values/results for the following parameters in a river: 1. Turbidity 2. Dissolved Oxygen 3. pH 4. Temperature 5. Presence of macroinvertebrate in the vicinity c) With respect to water pollution, describe the effects and remedial measures for: Arsenic Iron Suspended Solids Calcium

a) b) c) d)

a) Explain mass inflow (mass balance) eurve method to determine balancing storage tank in a water supply system. Also describe demand curve. b) Discuss the seven major methods for forcasting population for water supply design. c) Define water demand and state and describe the main water demand factors d) List and describe the common pipe materials used for water distribution stating advantages and disadvantages for each.

a) Explain with a very neat sketch in detail slow sand filtration to treat water supply.Also give two advantages and two disadvantages of slow sand filtration. [9] b) Write notes on the following: 1. Break-point chlorination 2. Coagulation and Flocculation 3. Spring Intake 4. Residual Chlorine [8] c) Briefly describe the following methods as used for purification of water for rural water supply and for other small scale water supplies 1. Boiling 2. Chemical disinfection 3. Filtration 4. Solar water pasteurization [8]

a) What do you understand by the term Bio-Chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)? Describe its significance with respect to Waste Water Treatment system. b) Describe and sketch the following: 1. septic tank 2. soakaway 3. arrangement of a septic tank and soakaway with respect to a house c) Design a septic tank and soakaway for a household of 10 people

Describe Ventilated Improved Pit latrine and Pour-flush latrine to dispose excreta in isolated buildings giving sketches where possible. 10. Explain in detail the dilution method of disposal of sewage. State the Oxygen sag curve and write the factors affecting self-purification. 11. Write notes on the following: a) Determination of storm water b) Dry weather flow (DWF) c) Drop-manholes and lamp holes d) Catch basins e) Ventilating shaft f) Sewer Materials

12. Explain the causes, effects and remedial measures of global warming. Also describe green house gases
13. 14.

What are the factors for the selection of reservoir site and an intake site?

a) What is the pH Scale? Can a body of water with very low pH support wildlife? What is the pH of a lemon?

What is a Watershed? Give atleast two examples of watersheds in your country.

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