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What is GIS?

It is a technological tool that allows comprehension of geographical data. It is used to

capture, store, analyze and display spatial data. Information that is captured within the
system are geo-referenced to an explicit coordinate projection system. This allows
precise placement of features on the earths surface and can be utilized to overlay data
to determine relationships connecting them.
Geographic Information System (GIS) Organized activity by which people measure
and represent geographic phenomena then transform these representations into other
forms while interacting with social structures.- Chrisman, Nicholas R(1999)
How is GIS used?
It can execute mathematical functions to answer fundamental questions. Primarily it is
used to answer basic locational questions: To determine what is located at a precise
point on the earth or what feature is located at precise coordinates. One of the more
powerful features of GIS is its ability to synthesize different layers of information to
establish an indefinite correlation between them. This is especially significant when
dealing with climate change as a transformation in a single system variable result in a
change of various other variables, having a domino effect.
A GIS also can be utilized for intricate modelling to answer a vast range of "what if"
and environmental simulation questions. This will allow scientist to predict what
might happen in the future and the changes that our world may undergo due to climate
change which will furthermore aid significantly in climate change mitigation.
Regardless of the application in which GIS technology is used, these systems provide
rapid data access and multidimensional analysis and graphical output capabilities
that can result in more effective resource management decisions.- J. Scurry
GIS in Climate Change
Climate change and its effects, as a whole, it is a geographic challenge that necessitate
a geographic approach. Understanding this geographic phenomenon is an intricate
assignment and reducing the risks is a colossal challenge. Hence the development of
GIS programs has been the focal component in tackling such issues moreover a key
component in offering substantial solutions.
Reforestation and impeding deforestation is the easiest and most effectual approach
toward climate change mitigation. It is the fastest way that civilization can reduce
carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. GIS is monumentally important in carbon
monitoring systems. Land-use tracking is of vital importance as well, so as to monitor
endangered regions of forests. This permits scientists to envisage, contrast and
forecast data so that they may be able to devise different methods of saving and
replenishing the worlds forests.
The comprehensive arrangement of curbing climate change is to manage our
environment. Which is impressively aided by the use of GIS programs. Intricate
environmental challenges demand complex geographical solutions. GIS is a powerful

tool for environmental data analysis. It permits improved viewing and understanding
of physical features that influence each in a given critical condition. GIS helps in
managing the environmental hazards and risks in order to plan and monitor the
environmental problems, the valuation of threats and risks becomes the foundation for
planning decisions and for mitigation activities.
There are many different environmental and climatic scenarios in which GIS can be
used. It can be used in disaster management, sea level analysis, carbon management,
climate change modelling and many more.