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Computersecurity
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Computersecurity,alsoknownascybersecurityorITsecurity,istheprotectionofcomputersystemsfrom
thetheftordamagetothehardware,softwareortheinformationonthem,aswellasfromdisruptionor
misdirectionoftheservicestheyprovide.[1]
Itincludescontrollingphysicalaccesstothehardware,aswellasprotectingagainstharmthatmaycomevia
networkaccess,dataandcodeinjection,[2]andduetomalpracticebyoperators,whetherintentional,accidental,
orduetothembeingtrickedintodeviatingfromsecureprocedures.[3]
ThefieldisofgrowingimportanceduetotheincreasingrelianceoncomputersystemsandtheInternetinmost
societies,[4]wirelessnetworkssuchasBluetoothandWiFiandthegrowthof"smart"devices,including
smartphones,televisionsandtinydevicesaspartoftheInternetofThings.

Contents
1 Vulnerabilitiesandattacks
1.1 Backdoors
1.2 Denialofserviceattack
1.3 Directaccessattacks
1.4 Eavesdropping
1.5 Spoofing
1.6 Tampering
1.7 Privilegeescalation
1.8 Phishing
1.9 Clickjacking
1.10 Socialengineering
2 Systemsatrisk
2.1 Financialsystems
2.2 Utilitiesandindustrialequipment
2.3 Aviation
2.4 Consumerdevices
2.5 Largecorporations
2.6 Automobiles
2.7 Government
2.8 InternetofThingsandphysicalvulnerabilities
3 Impactofsecuritybreaches
4 Attackermotivation
5 Computerprotection(countermeasures)
5.1 Securitybydesign
5.2 Securityarchitecture
5.3 Securitymeasures
5.4 Vulnerabilitymanagement
5.5 Reducingvulnerabilities
5.6 Hardwareprotectionmechanisms
5.7 Secureoperatingsystems
5.8 Securecoding
5.9 Capabilitiesandaccesscontrollists
5.10 Responsetobreaches
6 Notableattacksandbreaches
6.1 RobertMorrisandthefirstcomputerworm
6.2 RomeLaboratory
6.3 TJXcustomercreditcarddetails
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6.3 TJXcustomercreditcarddetails
6.4 Stuxnetattack
6.5 Globalsurveillancedisclosures
6.6 TargetandHomeDepotbreaches
6.7 AshleyMadisonbreach
7 Legalissuesandglobalregulation
8 Government
9 ActionsandteamsintheUS
9.1 Legislation
9.2 Agencies
9.3 Computeremergencyreadinessteam
10 Internationalactions
10.1 Europe
11 Nationalteams
11.1 Canada
11.2 China
11.3 Germany
11.4 India
11.5 Pakistan
11.6 SouthKorea
11.7 Othercountries
12 Modernwarfare
13 Jobmarket
14 Terminology
15 Scholars
16 Seealso
17 Furtherreading
18 References
19 Externallinks

Vulnerabilitiesandattacks
Avulnerabilityisasystemsusceptibilityorflaw.ManyvulnerabilitiesaredocumentedintheCommon
VulnerabilitiesandExposures(CVE)database.Anexploitablevulnerabilityisoneforwhichatleastone
workingattackor"exploit"exists.[5]
Tosecureacomputersystem,itisimportanttounderstandtheattacksthatcanbemadeagainstit,andthese
threatscantypicallybeclassifiedintooneofthecategoriesbelow:

Backdoors
Abackdoorinacomputersystem,acryptosystemoranalgorithm,isanysecretmethodofbypassingnormal
authenticationorsecuritycontrols.Theymayexistforanumberofreasons,includingbyoriginaldesignor
frompoorconfiguration.Theymayhavebeenaddedbyanauthorizedpartytoallowsomelegitimateaccess,or
byanattackerformaliciousreasonsbutregardlessofthemotivesfortheirexistence,theycreatea
vulnerability.

Denialofserviceattack
Denialofserviceattacks(DDoS)aredesignedtomakeamachineornetworkresourceunavailabletoits
intendedusers.[6]Attackerscandenyservicetoindividualvictims,suchasbydeliberatelyenteringawrong
passwordenoughconsecutivetimestocausethevictimaccounttobelocked,ortheymayoverloadthe
capabilitiesofamachineornetworkandblockallusersatonce.WhileanetworkattackfromasingleIP
addresscanbeblockedbyaddinganewfirewallrule,manyformsofDistributeddenialofserviceattacksare
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possible,wheretheattackcomesfromalargenumberofpointsanddefendingismuchmoredifficult.Such
attackscanoriginatefromthezombiecomputersofabotnet,butarangeofothertechniquesarepossible
includingreflectionandamplificationattacks,whereinnocentsystemsarefooledintosendingtraffictothe
victim.

Directaccessattacks
Anunauthorizedusergainingphysicalaccesstoacomputerismostlikelyabletodirectlycopydatafromit.
Theymayalsocompromisesecuritybymakingoperatingsystemmodifications,installingsoftwareworms,
keyloggers,covertlisteningdevicesorusingwirelessmice.[7]Evenwhenthesystemisprotectedbystandard
securitymeasures,thesemaybeabletobebypassedbybootinganotheroperatingsystemortoolfromaCD
ROMorotherbootablemedia.DiskencryptionandTrustedPlatformModulearedesignedtopreventthese
attacks.

Eavesdropping
Eavesdroppingistheactofsurreptitiouslylisteningtoaprivateconversation,typicallybetweenhostsona
network.Forinstance,programssuchasCarnivoreandNarusInsighthavebeenusedbytheFBIandNSAto
eavesdroponthesystemsofinternetserviceproviders.Evenmachinesthatoperateasaclosedsystem(i.e.,
withnocontacttotheoutsideworld)canbeeavesdroppeduponviamonitoringthefaintelectromagnetic
transmissionsgeneratedbythehardwareTEMPESTisaspecificationbytheNSAreferringtotheseattacks.

Spoofing
Spoofing,ingeneral,isafraudulentormaliciouspracticeinwhichcommunicationissentfromanunknown
sourcedisguisedasasourceknowntothereceiver.Spoofingismostprevalentincommunicationmechanisms
thatlackahighlevelofsecurity.[8]

Tampering
Tamperingdescribesamaliciousmodificationofproducts.Socalled"EvilMaid"attacksandsecurityservices
plantingofsurveillancecapabilityintorouters[9]areexamples.

Privilegeescalation
Privilegeescalationdescribesasituationwhereanattackerwithsomelevelofrestrictedaccessisableto,
withoutauthorization,elevatetheirprivilegesoraccesslevel.Soforexampleastandardcomputerusermaybe
abletofoolthesystemintogivingthemaccesstorestricteddataorevento"becomeroot"andhavefull
unrestrictedaccesstoasystem.

Phishing
Phishingistheattempttoacquiresensitiveinformationsuchasusernames,passwords,andcreditcarddetails
directlyfromusers.[10]Phishingistypicallycarriedoutbyemailspoofingorinstantmessaging,anditoften
directsuserstoenterdetailsatafakewebsitewhoselookandfeelarealmostidenticaltothelegitimateone.
Preyingonavictim'strust,phishingcanbeclassifiedasaformofsocialengineering.

Clickjacking
Clickjacking,alsoknownas"UIredressattack"or"UserInterfaceredressattack",isamalicioustechniquein
whichanattackertricksauserintoclickingonabuttonorlinkonanotherwebpagewhiletheuserintendedto
clickonthetoplevelpage.Thisisdoneusingmultipletransparentoropaquelayers.Theattackerisbasically
"hijacking"theclicksmeantforthetoplevelpageandroutingthemtosomeotherirrelevantpage,mostlikely
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ownedbysomeoneelse.Asimilartechniquecanbeusedtohijackkeystrokes.Carefullydraftingacombination
ofstylesheets,iframes,buttonsandtextboxes,ausercanbeledintobelievingthattheyaretypingthe
passwordorotherinformationonsomeauthenticwebpagewhileitisbeingchanneledintoaninvisibleframe
controlledbytheattacker.

Socialengineering
Socialengineeringaimstoconvinceausertodisclosesecretssuchaspasswords,cardnumbers,etc.by,for
example,impersonatingabank,acontractor,oracustomer.[11]
ApopularandprofitablecyberscaminvolvesfakeCEOemailssenttoaccountingandfinancedepartments.In
early2016,theFBIreportedthatthescamhascostUSbusinessesmorethan$2bninabouttwoyears.[12]
InMay2016,theMilwaukeeBucksNBAteamwasthevictimofthistypeofcyberscamwithaperpetrator
impersonatingtheteam'spresidentPeterFeigin,resultinginthehandoverofalltheteam'semployees'2015W
2taxforms.[13]

Systemsatrisk
Computersecurityiscriticalinalmostanyindustrywhichusescomputers.Currently,mostelectronicdevices
suchascomputers,laptopsandcellphonescomewithbuiltinfirewallsecuritysoftware,butdespitethis,
computersarenot100percentaccurateanddependabletoprotectourdata(Smith,Grabosky&Urbas,2004.)
Therearemanydifferentwaysofhackingintocomputers.Itcanbedonethroughanetworksystem,clicking
intounknownlinks,connectingtounfamiliarWiFi,downloadingsoftwareandfilesfromunsafesites,power
consumption,electromagneticradiationwaves,andmanymore.However,computerscanbeprotectedthrough
wellbuiltsoftwareandhardware.Byhavingstronginternalinteractionsofproperties,softwarecomplexitycan
preventsoftwarecrashandsecurityfailure.[14]

Financialsystems
Websitesandappsthatacceptorstorecreditcardnumbers,brokerageaccounts,andbankaccountinformation
areprominenthackingtargets,becauseofthepotentialforimmediatefinancialgainfromtransferringmoney,
makingpurchases,orsellingtheinformationontheblackmarket.[15]InstorepaymentsystemsandATMshave
alsobeentamperedwithinordertogathercustomeraccountdataandPINs.

Utilitiesandindustrialequipment
Computerscontrolfunctionsatmanyutilities,includingcoordinationoftelecommunications,thepowergrid,
nuclearpowerplants,andvalveopeningandclosinginwaterandgasnetworks.TheInternetisapotential
attackvectorforsuchmachinesifconnected,buttheStuxnetwormdemonstratedthatevenequipment
controlledbycomputersnotconnectedtotheInternetcanbevulnerabletophysicaldamagecausedby
maliciouscommandssenttoindustrialequipment(inthatcaseuraniumenrichmentcentrifuges)whichare
infectedviaremovablemedia.In2014,theComputerEmergencyReadinessTeam,adivisionofthe
DepartmentofHomelandSecurity,investigated79hackingincidentsatenergycompanies.[16]Vulnerabilitiesin
smartmeters(manyofwhichuselocalradioorcellularcommunications)cancauseproblemswithbilling
fraud.[17]

Aviation
Theaviationindustryisveryreliantonaseriesofcomplexsystemwhichcouldbeattacked.[18]Asimplepower
outageatoneairportcancauserepercussionsworldwide,[19]muchofthesystemreliesonradiotransmissions
whichcouldbedisrupted,[20]andcontrollingaircraftoveroceansisespeciallydangerousbecauseradar
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surveillanceonlyextends175to225milesoffshore.[21]Thereisalsopotentialforattackfromwithinan
aircraft.[22]
InEurope,withthe(PanEuropeanNetworkService)[23]andNewPENS,[24]andintheUSwiththeNextGen
program,[25]airnavigationserviceprovidersaremovingtocreatetheirowndedicatednetworks.
Theconsequencesofasuccessfulattackrangefromlossofconfidentialitytolossofsystemintegrity,which
mayleadtomoreseriousconcernssuchasexfiltrationofdata,networkandairtrafficcontroloutages,whichin
turncanleadtoairportclosures,lossofaircraft,lossofpassengerlife,damagesonthegroundandto
transportationinfrastructure.Asuccessfulattackonamilitaryaviationsystemthatcontrolsmunitionscould
haveevenmoreseriousconsequences.

Consumerdevices
Desktopcomputersandlaptopsarecommonlyinfectedwithmalwareeithertogatherpasswordsorfinancial
accountinformation,ortoconstructabotnettoattackanothertarget.Smartphones,tabletcomputers,smart
watches,andothermobiledevicessuchasQuantifiedSelfdeviceslikeactivitytrackershavealsobecome
targetsandmanyofthesehavesensorssuchascameras,microphones,GPSreceivers,compasses,and
accelerometerswhichcouldbeexploited,andmaycollectpersonalinformation,includingsensitivehealth
information.Wifi,Bluetooth,andcellphonenetworksonanyofthesedevicescouldbeusedasattackvectors,
andsensorsmightberemotelyactivatedafterasuccessfulbreach.[26]
HomeautomationdevicessuchastheNestthermostatarealsopotentialtargets.[26]

Largecorporations
Largecorporationsarecommontargets.Inmanycasesthisisaimedatfinancialgainthroughidentitytheftand
involvesdatabreachessuchasthelossofmillionsofclients'creditcarddetailsbyHomeDepot,[27]Staples,[28]
andTargetCorporation.[29]Medicalrecordshavebeentargetedforuseingeneralidentifytheft,health
insurancefraud,andimpersonatingpatientstoobtainprescriptiondrugsforrecreationalpurposesorresale.[30]
NotallattacksarefinanciallymotivatedhoweverforexamplesecurityfirmHBGaryFederalsufferedaserious
seriesofattacksin2011fromhacktivistgroupAnonymousinretaliationforthefirm'sCEOclaimingtohave
infiltratedtheirgroup,[31][32]andSonyPictureswasattackedin2014wherethemotiveappearstohavebeento
embarrasswithdataleaks,andcripplethecompanybywipingworkstationsandservers.[33][34]

Automobiles
Ifaccessisgainedtoacar'sinternalcontrollerareanetwork,itispossibletodisablethebrakesandturnthe
steeringwheel.[35]Computerizedenginetiming,cruisecontrol,antilockbrakes,seatbelttensioners,door
locks,airbagsandadvanceddriverassistancesystemsmakethesedisruptionspossible,andselfdrivingcarsgo
evenfurther.Connectedcarsmayusewifiandbluetoothtocommunicatewithonboardconsumerdevices,and
thecellphonenetworktocontactconciergeandemergencyassistanceservicesorgetnavigationalor
entertainmentinformationeachofthesenetworksisapotentialentrypointformalwareoranattacker.[35]
Researchersin2011wereevenabletouseamaliciouscompactdiscinacar'sstereosystemasasuccessful
attackvector,[36]andcarswithbuiltinvoicerecognitionorremoteassistancefeatureshaveonboard
microphoneswhichcouldbeusedforeavesdropping.
A2015reportbyU.S.SenatorEdwardMarkeycriticizedmanufacturers'securitymeasuresasinadequate,and
alsohighlightedprivacyconcernsaboutdriving,location,anddiagnosticdatabeingcollected,whichis
vulnerabletoabusebybothmanufacturersandhackers.[37]
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Government
Governmentandmilitarycomputersystemsarecommonlyattackedbyactivists[38][39][40][41]andforeign
powers.[42][43][44][45]Localandregionalgovernmentinfrastructuresuchastrafficlightcontrols,policeand
intelligenceagencycommunications,personnelrecords,studentrecords,[46]andfinancialsystemsarealso
potentialtargetsastheyarenowalllargelycomputerized.PassportsandgovernmentIDcardsthatcontrol
accesstofacilitieswhichuseRFIDcanbevulnerabletocloning.

InternetofThingsandphysicalvulnerabilities
TheInternetofThings(IoT)isthenetworkofphysicalobjectssuchasdevices,vehicles,andbuildingsthatare
embeddedwithelectronics,software,sensors,andnetworkconnectivitythatenablesthemtocollectand
exchangedata[47]andconcernshavebeenraisedthatthisisbeingdevelopedwithoutappropriate
considerationofthesecuritychallengesinvolved.[48][49]
WhiletheIoTcreatesopportunitiesformoredirectintegrationofthephysicalworldintocomputerbased
systems,[50][51]italsoprovidesopportunitiesformisuse.Inparticular,astheInternetofThingsspreadswidely,
cyberattacksarelikelytobecomeanincreasinglyphysical(ratherthansimplyvirtual)threat.[52]Ifafront
door'slockisconnectedtotheInternet,andcanbelocked/unlockedfromaphone,thenacriminalcouldenter
thehomeatthepressofabuttonfromastolenorhackedphone.Peoplecouldstandtolosemuchmorethan
theircreditcardnumbersinaworldcontrolledbyIoTenableddevices.Thieveshavealsousedelectronic
meanstocircumventnonInternetconnectedhoteldoorlocks.[53]
Medicaldeviceshaveeitherbeensuccessfullyattackedorhadpotentiallydeadlyvulnerabilitiesdemonstrated,
includingbothinhospitaldiagnosticequipment[54]andimplanteddevicesincludingpacemakers[55]andinsulin
pumps.[56]

Impactofsecuritybreaches
Seriousfinancialdamagehasbeencausedbysecuritybreaches,butbecausethereisnostandardmodelfor
estimatingthecostofanincident,theonlydataavailableisthatwhichismadepublicbytheorganizations
involved."Severalcomputersecurityconsultingfirmsproduceestimatesoftotalworldwidelossesattributable
tovirusandwormattacksandtohostiledigitalactsingeneral.The2003lossestimatesbythesefirmsrange
from$13billion(wormsandvirusesonly)to$226billion(forallformsofcovertattacks).Thereliabilityof
theseestimatesisoftenchallengedtheunderlyingmethodologyisbasicallyanecdotal."[57]
However,reasonableestimatesofthefinancialcostofsecuritybreachescanactuallyhelporganizationsmake
rationalinvestmentdecisions.AccordingtotheclassicGordonLoebModelanalyzingtheoptimalinvestment
levelininformationsecurity,onecanconcludethattheamountafirmspendstoprotectinformationshould
generallybeonlyasmallfractionoftheexpectedloss(i.e.,theexpectedvalueofthelossresultingfroma
cyber/informationsecuritybreach).[58]

Attackermotivation
Aswithphysicalsecurity,themotivationsforbreachesofcomputersecurityvarybetweenattackers.Someare
thrillseekersorvandals,othersareactivistsorcriminalslookingforfinancialgain.Statesponsoredattackers
arenowcommonandwellresourced,butstartedwithamateurssuchasMarkusHesswhohackedfortheKGB,
asrecountedbyCliffordStoll,inTheCuckoo'sEgg.

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Astandardpartofthreatmodellingforanyparticularsystemistoidentifywhatmightmotivateanattackon
thatsystem,andwhomightbemotivatedtobreachit.Thelevelanddetailofprecautionswillvarydepending
onthesystemtobesecured.Ahomepersonalcomputer,bank,andclassifiedmilitarynetworkfacevery
differentthreats,evenwhentheunderlyingtechnologiesinusearesimilar.

Computerprotection(countermeasures)
Incomputersecurityacountermeasureisanaction,device,procedure,ortechniquethatreducesathreat,a
vulnerability,oranattackbyeliminatingorpreventingit,byminimizingtheharmitcancause,orby
discoveringandreportingitsothatcorrectiveactioncanbetaken.[59][60][61]
Somecommoncountermeasuresarelistedinthefollowingsections:

Securitybydesign
Securitybydesign,oralternatelysecurebydesign,meansthatthesoftwarehasbeendesignedfromtheground
uptobesecure.Inthiscase,securityisconsideredasamainfeature.
Someofthetechniquesinthisapproachinclude:
Theprincipleofleastprivilege,whereeachpartofthesystemhasonlytheprivilegesthatareneededfor
itsfunction.Thatwayevenifanattackergainsaccesstothatpart,theyhaveonlylimitedaccesstothe
wholesystem.
Automatedtheoremprovingtoprovethecorrectnessofcrucialsoftwaresubsystems.
Codereviewsandunittesting,approachestomakemodulesmoresecurewhereformalcorrectnessproofs
arenotpossible.
Defenseindepth,wherethedesignissuchthatmorethanonesubsystemneedstobeviolatedto
compromisetheintegrityofthesystemandtheinformationitholds.
Defaultsecuresettings,anddesignto"failsecure"ratherthan"failinsecure"(seefailsafeforthe
equivalentinsafetyengineering).Ideally,asecuresystemshouldrequireadeliberate,conscious,
knowledgeableandfreedecisiononthepartoflegitimateauthoritiesinordertomakeitinsecure.
Audittrailstrackingsystemactivity,sothatwhenasecuritybreachoccurs,themechanismandextentof
thebreachcanbedetermined.Storingaudittrailsremotely,wheretheycanonlybeappendedto,cankeep
intrudersfromcoveringtheirtracks.
Fulldisclosureofallvulnerabilities,toensurethatthe"windowofvulnerability"iskeptasshortas
possiblewhenbugsarediscovered.

Securityarchitecture
TheOpenSecurityArchitectureorganizationdefinesITsecurityarchitectureas"thedesignartifactsthat
describehowthesecuritycontrols(securitycountermeasures)arepositioned,andhowtheyrelatetotheoverall
informationtechnologyarchitecture.Thesecontrolsservethepurposetomaintainthesystem'squality
attributes:confidentiality,integrity,availability,accountabilityandassuranceservices".[62]
Techopediadefinessecurityarchitectureas"aunifiedsecuritydesignthataddressesthenecessitiesand
potentialrisksinvolvedinacertainscenarioorenvironment.Italsospecifieswhenandwheretoapplysecurity
controls.Thedesignprocessisgenerallyreproducible."Thekeyattributesofsecurityarchitectureare:[63]
therelationshipofdifferentcomponentsandhowtheydependoneachother.
thedeterminationofcontrolsbasedonriskassessment,goodpractice,finances,andlegalmatters.
thestandardizationofcontrols.

Securitymeasures

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Astateofcomputer"security"istheconceptualideal,attainedbytheuseofthethreeprocesses:threat
prevention,detection,andresponse.Theseprocessesarebasedonvariouspoliciesandsystemcomponents,
whichincludethefollowing:
Useraccountaccesscontrolsandcryptographycanprotectsystemsfilesanddata,respectively.
Firewallsarebyfarthemostcommonpreventionsystemsfromanetworksecurityperspectiveasthey
can(ifproperlyconfigured)shieldaccesstointernalnetworkservices,andblockcertainkindsofattacks
throughpacketfiltering.Firewallscanbebothhardwareorsoftwarebased.
IntrusionDetectionSystem(IDS)productsaredesignedtodetectnetworkattacksinprogressandassist
inpostattackforensics,whileaudittrailsandlogsserveasimilarfunctionforindividualsystems.
"Response"isnecessarilydefinedbytheassessedsecurityrequirementsofanindividualsystemandmay
covertherangefromsimpleupgradeofprotectionstonotificationoflegalauthorities,counterattacks,
andthelike.Insomespecialcases,acompletedestructionofthecompromisedsystemisfavored,asit
mayhappenthatnotallthecompromisedresourcesaredetected.
Today,computersecuritycomprisesmainly"preventive"measures,likefirewallsoranexitprocedure.A
firewallcanbedefinedasawayoffilteringnetworkdatabetweenahostoranetworkandanothernetwork,
suchastheInternet,andcanbeimplementedassoftwarerunningonthemachine,hookingintothenetwork
stack(or,inthecaseofmostUNIXbasedoperatingsystemssuchasLinux,builtintotheoperatingsystem
kernel)toproviderealtimefilteringandblocking.Anotherimplementationisasocalled"physicalfirewall",
whichconsistsofaseparatemachinefilteringnetworktraffic.Firewallsarecommonamongstmachinesthatare
permanentlyconnectedtotheInternet.
Someorganizationsareturningtobigdataplatforms,suchasApacheHadoop,toextenddataaccessibilityand
machinelearningtodetectadvancedpersistentthreats.[64][65]
However,relativelyfeworganisationsmaintaincomputersystemswitheffectivedetectionsystems,andfewer
stillhaveorganisedresponsemechanismsinplace.Asresult,asReuterspointsout:"Companiesforthefirst
timereporttheyarelosingmorethroughelectronictheftofdatathanphysicalstealingofassets".[66]The
primaryobstacletoeffectiveeradicationofcybercrimecouldbetracedtoexcessiverelianceonfirewallsand
otherautomated"detection"systems.Yetitisbasicevidencegatheringbyusingpacketcaptureappliancesthat
putscriminalsbehindbars.

Vulnerabilitymanagement
Vulnerabilitymanagementisthecycleofidentifying,andremediatingormitigatingvulnerabilities",[67]
especiallyinsoftwareandfirmware.Vulnerabilitymanagementisintegraltocomputersecurityandnetwork
security.
Vulnerabilitiescanbediscoveredwithavulnerabilityscanner,whichanalyzesacomputersysteminsearchof
knownvulnerabilities,[68]suchasopenports,insecuresoftwareconfiguration,andsusceptibilitytomalware
Beyondvulnerabilityscanning,manyorganisationscontractoutsidesecurityauditorstorunregularpenetration
testsagainsttheirsystemstoidentifyvulnerabilities.Insomesectorsthisisacontractualrequirement.[69]

Reducingvulnerabilities
Whileformalverificationofthecorrectnessofcomputersystemsispossible,[70][71]itisnotyetcommon.
OperatingsystemsformallyverifiedincludeseL4,[72]andSYSGO'sPikeOS[73][74]butthesemakeupavery
smallpercentageofthemarket.
Cryptographyproperlyimplementedisnowvirtuallyimpossibletodirectlybreak.Breakingthemrequires
somenoncryptographicinput,suchasastolenkey,stolenplaintext(ateitherendofthetransmission),orsome
otherextracryptanalyticinformation.
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Twofactorauthenticationisamethodformitigatingunauthorizedaccesstoasystemorsensitiveinformation.
Itrequires"somethingyouknow"apasswordorPIN,and"somethingyouhave"acard,dongle,cellphone,or
otherpieceofhardware.Thisincreasessecurityasanunauthorizedpersonneedsbothofthesetogainaccess.
Socialengineeringanddirectcomputeraccess(physical)attackscanonlybepreventedbynoncomputer
means,whichcanbedifficulttoenforce,relativetothesensitivityoftheinformation.Trainingisoften
involvedtohelpmitigatethisrisk,[75][76]buteveninahighlydisciplinedenvironments(e.g.military
organizations),socialengineeringattackscanstillbedifficulttoforeseeandprevent.
Itispossibletoreduceanattacker'schancesbykeepingsystemsuptodatewithsecuritypatchesandupdates,
usingasecurityscanneror/andhiringcompetentpeopleresponsibleforsecurity.Theeffectsofdata
loss/damagecanbereducedbycarefulbackingupandinsurance.

Hardwareprotectionmechanisms
Whilehardwaremaybeasourceofinsecurity,suchaswithmicrochipvulnerabilitiesmaliciouslyintroduced
duringthemanufacturingprocess,[77][78]hardwarebasedorassistedcomputersecurityalsooffersanalternative
tosoftwareonlycomputersecurity.Usingdevicesandmethodssuchasdongles,trustedplatformmodules,
intrusionawarecases,drivelocks,disablingUSBports,andmobileenabledaccessmaybeconsideredmore
secureduetothephysicalaccess(orsophisticatedbackdooraccess)requiredinordertobecompromised.Each
oftheseiscoveredinmoredetailbelow.
USBdonglesaretypicallyusedinsoftwarelicensingschemestounlocksoftwarecapabilities,[79]but
theycanalsobeseenasawaytopreventunauthorizedaccesstoacomputerorotherdevice'ssoftware.
Thedongle,orkey,essentiallycreatesasecureencryptedtunnelbetweenthesoftwareapplicationandthe
key.Theprincipleisthatanencryptionschemeonthedongle,suchasAdvancedEncryptionStandard
(AES)providesastrongermeasureofsecurity,sinceitishardertohackandreplicatethedonglethanto
simplycopythenativesoftwaretoanothermachineanduseit.Anothersecurityapplicationfordongles
istousethemforaccessingwebbasedcontentsuchascloudsoftwareorVirtualPrivateNetworks
(VPNs).[80]Inaddition,aUSBdonglecanbeconfiguredtolockorunlockacomputer.[81]
Trustedplatformmodules(TPMs)securedevicesbyintegratingcryptographiccapabilitiesontoaccess
devices,throughtheuseofmicroprocessors,orsocalledcomputersonachip.TPMsusedin
conjunctionwithserversidesoftwareofferawaytodetectandauthenticatehardwaredevices,preventing
unauthorizednetworkanddataaccess.[82]
Computercaseintrusiondetectionreferstoapushbuttonswitchwhichistriggeredwhenacomputer
caseisopened.ThefirmwareorBIOSisprogrammedtoshowanalerttotheoperatorwhenthecomputer
isbootedupthenexttime.
Drivelocksareessentiallysoftwaretoolstoencryptharddrives,makingtheminaccessibletothieves.[83]
Toolsexistspecificallyforencryptingexternaldrivesaswell.[84]
DisablingUSBportsisasecurityoptionforpreventingunauthorizedandmaliciousaccesstoan
otherwisesecurecomputer.InfectedUSBdonglesconnectedtoanetworkfromacomputerinsidethe
firewallareconsideredbythemagazineNetworkWorldasthemostcommonhardwarethreatfacing
computernetworks.[85]
Mobileenabledaccessdevicesaregrowinginpopularityduetotheubiquitousnatureofcellphones.
BuiltincapabilitiessuchasBluetooth,thenewerBluetoothlowenergy(LE),Nearfieldcommunication
(NFC)onnoniOSdevicesandbiometricvalidationsuchasthumbprintreaders,aswellasQRcode
readersoftwaredesignedformobiledevices,offernew,securewaysformobilephonestoconnectto
accesscontrolsystems.Thesecontrolsystemsprovidecomputersecurityandcanalsobeusedfor
controllingaccesstosecurebuildings.[86]

Secureoperatingsystems

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Oneuseoftheterm"computersecurity"referstotechnologythatisusedtoimplementsecureoperating
systems.Inthe1980stheUnitedStatesDepartmentofDefense(DoD)usedthe"OrangeBook"[87]standards,
butthecurrentinternationalstandardISO/IEC15408,"CommonCriteria"definesanumberofprogressively
morestringentEvaluationAssuranceLevels.ManycommonoperatingsystemsmeettheEAL4standardof
being"MethodicallyDesigned,TestedandReviewed",buttheformalverificationrequiredforthehighest
levelsmeansthattheyareuncommon.AnexampleofanEAL6("SemiformallyVerifiedDesignandTested")
systemisIntegrity178B,whichisusedintheAirbusA380[88]andseveralmilitaryjets.[89]

Securecoding
Insoftwareengineering,securecodingaimstoguardagainsttheaccidentalintroductionofsecurity
vulnerabilities.Itisalsopossibletocreatesoftwaredesignedfromthegrounduptobesecure.Suchsystemsare
"securebydesign".Beyondthis,formalverificationaimstoprovethecorrectnessofthealgorithmsunderlying
asystem[90]importantforcryptographicprotocolsforexample.

Capabilitiesandaccesscontrollists
Withincomputersystems,twoofmanysecuritymodelscapableofenforcingprivilegeseparationareaccess
controllists(ACLs)andcapabilitybasedsecurity.UsingACLstoconfineprogramshasbeenproventobe
insecureinmanysituations,suchasifthehostcomputercanbetrickedintoindirectlyallowingrestrictedfile
access,anissueknownastheconfuseddeputyproblem.IthasalsobeenshownthatthepromiseofACLsof
givingaccesstoanobjecttoonlyonepersoncanneverbeguaranteedinpractice.Bothoftheseproblemsare
resolvedbycapabilities.ThisdoesnotmeanpracticalflawsexistinallACLbasedsystems,butonlythatthe
designersofcertainutilitiesmusttakeresponsibilitytoensurethattheydonotintroduceflaws.
Capabilitieshavebeenmostlyrestrictedtoresearchoperatingsystems,whilecommercialOSsstilluseACLs.
Capabilitiescan,however,alsobeimplementedatthelanguagelevel,leadingtoastyleofprogrammingthatis
essentiallyarefinementofstandardobjectorienteddesign.AnopensourceprojectintheareaistheE
language.
ThemostsecurecomputersarethosenotconnectedtotheInternetandshieldedfromanyinterference.Inthe
realworld,themostsecuresystemsareoperatingsystemswheresecurityisnotanaddon.

Responsetobreaches
Respondingforcefullytoattemptedsecuritybreaches(inthemannerthatonewouldforattemptedphysical
securitybreaches)isoftenverydifficultforavarietyofreasons:
Identifyingattackersisdifficult,astheyareofteninadifferentjurisdictiontothesystemstheyattemptto
breach,andoperatethroughproxies,temporaryanonymousdialupaccounts,wirelessconnections,and
otheranonymisingprocedureswhichmakebacktracingdifficultandareoftenlocatedinyetanother
jurisdiction.Iftheysuccessfullybreachsecurity,theyareoftenabletodeletelogstocovertheirtracks.
Thesheernumberofattemptedattacksissolargethatorganisationscannotspendtimepursuingeach
attacker(atypicalhomeuserwithapermanent(e.g.,cablemodem)connectionwillbeattackedatleast
severaltimesperday,somoreattractivetargetscouldbepresumedtoseemanymore).Notehowever,
thatmostofthesheerbulkoftheseattacksaremadebyautomatedvulnerabilityscannersandcomputer
worms.
Lawenforcementofficersareoftenunfamiliarwithinformationtechnology,andsolacktheskillsand
interestinpursuingattackers.Therearealsobudgetaryconstraints.Ithasbeenarguedthatthehighcost
oftechnology,suchasDNAtesting,andimprovedforensicsmeanlessmoneyforotherkindsoflaw
enforcement,sotheoverallrateofcriminalsnotgettingdealtwithgoesupasthecostofthetechnology
increases.Inaddition,theidentificationofattackersacrossanetworkmayrequirelogsfromvarious
pointsinthenetworkandinmanycountries,thereleaseoftheserecordstolawenforcement(withthe
exceptionofbeingvoluntarilysurrenderedbyanetworkadministratororasystemadministrator)requires
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asearchwarrantand,dependingonthecircumstances,thelegalproceedingsrequiredcanbedrawnoutto
thepointwheretherecordsareeitherregularlydestroyed,ortheinformationisnolongerrelevant.

Notableattacksandbreaches
Someillustrativeexamplesofdifferenttypesofcomputersecuritybreachesaregivenbelow.

RobertMorrisandthefirstcomputerworm
In1988,only60,000computerswereconnectedtotheInternet,andmostweremainframes,minicomputersand
professionalworkstations.OnNovember2,1988,manystartedtoslowdown,becausetheywererunninga
maliciouscodethatdemandedprocessortimeandthatspreaditselftoothercomputersthefirstinternet
"computerworm".[91]Thesoftwarewastracedbackto23yearoldCornellUniversitygraduatestudentRobert
TappanMorris,Jr.whosaid'hewantedtocounthowmanymachineswereconnectedtotheInternet'.[91]

RomeLaboratory
In1994,overahundredintrusionsweremadebyunidentifiedcrackersintotheRomeLaboratory,theUSAir
Force'smaincommandandresearchfacility.Usingtrojanhorses,hackerswereabletoobtainunrestricted
accesstoRome'snetworkingsystemsandremovetracesoftheiractivities.Theintruderswereabletoobtain
classifiedfiles,suchasairtaskingordersystemsdataandfurthermoreabletopenetrateconnectednetworksof
NationalAeronauticsandSpaceAdministration'sGoddardSpaceFlightCenter,WrightPattersonAirForce
Base,someDefensecontractors,andotherprivatesectororganizations,byposingasatrustedRomecenter
user.[92]

TJXcustomercreditcarddetails
Inearly2007,AmericanapparelandhomegoodscompanyTJXannouncedthatitwasthevictimofan
unauthorizedcomputersystemsintrusion[93]andthatthehackershadaccessedasystemthatstoreddataon
creditcard,debitcard,check,andmerchandisereturntransactions.[94]

Stuxnetattack
ThecomputerwormknownasStuxnetreportedlyruinedalmostonefifthofIran'snuclearcentrifuges[95]by
disruptingindustrialprogrammablelogiccontrollers(PLCs)inatargetedattackgenerallybelievedtohavebeen
launchedbyIsraelandtheUnitedStates[96][97][98][99]althoughneitherhaspubliclyacknowledgedthis.

Globalsurveillancedisclosures
Inearly2013,massivebreachesofcomputersecuritybytheNSAwererevealed,includingdeliberately
insertingabackdoorinaNISTstandardforencryption[100]andtappingthelinksbetweenGoogle'sdata
centres.[101]TheseweredisclosedbyNSAcontractorEdwardSnowden.[102]

TargetandHomeDepotbreaches
In2013and2014,aRussian/Ukrainianhackingringknownas"Rescator"brokeintoTargetCorporation
computersin2013,stealingroughly40millioncreditcards,[103]andthenHomeDepotcomputersin2014,
stealingbetween53and56millioncreditcardnumbers.[104]Warningsweredeliveredatbothcorporations,but
ignoredphysicalsecuritybreachesusingselfcheckoutmachinesarebelievedtohaveplayedalargerole."The
malwareutilizedisabsolutelyunsophisticatedanduninteresting,"saysJimWalter,directorofthreat
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intelligenceoperationsatsecuritytechnologycompanyMcAfeemeaningthattheheistscouldhaveeasily
beenstoppedbyexistingantivirussoftwarehadadministratorsrespondedtothewarnings.Thesizeofthethefts
hasresultedinmajorattentionfromstateandFederalUnitedStatesauthoritiesandtheinvestigationisongoing.

AshleyMadisonbreach
InJuly2015,ahackergroupknownas"TheImpactTeam"successfullybreachedtheextramaritalrelationship
websiteAshleyMadison.Thegroupclaimedthattheyhadtakennotonlycompanydatabutuserdataaswell.
Afterthebreach,TheImpactTeamdumpedemailsfromthecompany'sCEO,toprovetheirpoint,and
threatenedtodumpcustomerdataunlessthewebsitewastakendownpermanently.Withthisinitialdata
release,thegroupstated"AvidLifeMediahasbeeninstructedtotakeAshleyMadisonandEstablishedMen
offlinepermanentlyinallforms,orwewillreleaseallcustomerrecords,includingprofileswithallthe
customers'secretsexualfantasiesandmatchingcreditcardtransactions,realnamesandaddresses,and
employeedocumentsandemails.Theotherwebsitesmaystayonline."[105]WhenAvidLifeMedia,theparent
companythatcreatedtheAshleyMadisonwebsite,didnottakethesiteoffline,TheImpactGroupreleasedtwo
morecompressedfiles,one9.7GBandthesecond20GB.Aftertheseconddatadump,AvidLifeMediaCEO
NoelBidermanresigned,butthewebsiteremainedfunctional.

Legalissuesandglobalregulation
Conflictoflawsincyberspacehasbecomeamajorcauseofconcernforcomputersecuritycommunity.Someof
themainchallengesandcomplaintsabouttheantivirusindustryarethelackofglobalwebregulations,aglobal
baseofcommonrulestojudge,andeventuallypunish,cybercrimesandcybercriminals.Thereisnoglobal
cyberlawandcybersecuritytreatythatcanbeinvokedforenforcingglobalcybersecurityissues.
Internationallegalissuesofcyberattacksarecomplicatedinnature.Evenifanantivirusfirmlocatesthecyber
criminalbehindthecreationofaparticularvirusorpieceofmalwareorformofcyberattack,oftenthelocal
authoritiescannottakeactionduetolackoflawsunderwhichtoprosecute.[106][107]Authorshipattributionfor
cybercrimesandcyberattacksisamajorproblemforalllawenforcementagencies.
"[Computerviruses]switchfromonecountrytoanother,fromonejurisdictiontoanothermovingaroundthe
world,usingthefactthatwedon'thavethecapabilitytogloballypoliceoperationslikethis.SotheInternetis
asifsomeone[had]givenfreeplaneticketstoalltheonlinecriminalsoftheworld."[106]UseofdynamicDNS,
fastfluxandbulletproofservershaveaddedowncomplexitiestothissituation.

Government
Theroleofthegovernmentistomakeregulationstoforcecompaniesandorganizationstoprotecttheir
systems,infrastructureandinformationfromanycyberattacks,butalsotoprotectitsownnational
infrastructuresuchasthenationalpowergrid.[108]
Thequestionofwhetherthegovernmentshouldinterveneornotintheregulationofthecyberspaceisavery
polemicalone.Indeed,foraslongasithasexistedandbydefinition,thecyberspaceisavirtualspacefreeof
anygovernmentintervention.Whereeveryoneagreethatanimprovementoncybersecurityismorethanvital,
isthegovernmentthebestactortosolvethisissue?Manygovernmentofficialsandexpertsthinkthatthe
governmentshouldstepinandthatthereisacrucialneedforregulation,mainlyduetothefailureoftheprivate
sectortosolveefficientlythecybersecurityproblem.R.ClarkesaidduringapaneldiscussionattheRSA
SecurityConferenceinSanFrancisco,hebelievesthatthe"industryonlyrespondswhenyouthreaten
regulation.Ifindustrydoesn'trespond(tothethreat),youhavetofollowthrough."[109]Ontheotherhand,
executivesfromtheprivatesectoragreethatimprovementsarenecessary,butthinkthatthegovernment
interventionwouldaffecttheirabilitytoinnovateefficiently.

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ActionsandteamsintheUS
Legislation
The198618U.S.C.1030(https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/1030),morecommonlyknownasthe
ComputerFraudandAbuseActisthekeylegislation.Itprohibitsunauthorizedaccessordamageof"protected
computers"asdefinedin18U.S.C.1030(e)(2)(https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/1030#e_2).
Althoughvariousothermeasureshavebeenproposed,suchasthe"CybersecurityActof2010S.773"in
2009,the"InternationalCybercrimeReportingandCooperationActH.R.4962"[110]and"Protecting
CyberspaceasaNationalAssetActof2010S.3480"[111]in2010noneofthesehassucceeded.
Executiveorder13636ImprovingCriticalInfrastructureCybersecuritywassignedFebruary12,2013.

Agencies
TheDepartmentofHomelandSecurityhasadedicateddivisionresponsiblefortheresponsesystem,risk
managementprogramandrequirementsforcybersecurityintheUnitedStatescalledtheNationalCyber
SecurityDivision.[112][113]ThedivisionishometoUSCERToperationsandtheNationalCyberAlert
System.[113]TheNationalCybersecurityandCommunicationsIntegrationCenterbringstogethergovernment
organizationsresponsibleforprotectingcomputernetworksandnetworkedinfrastructure.[114]
ThethirdpriorityoftheFederalBureauofInvestigation(FBI)isto:"ProtecttheUnitedStatesagainstcyber
basedattacksandhightechnologycrimes",[115]andthey,alongwiththeNationalWhiteCollarCrimeCenter
(NW3C),andtheBureauofJusticeAssistance(BJA)arepartofthemultiagencytaskforce,TheInternet
CrimeComplaintCenter,alsoknownasIC3.[116]
Inadditiontoitsownspecificduties,theFBIparticipatesalongsidenonprofitorganizationssuchas
InfraGard.[117][118]
InthecriminaldivisionoftheUnitedStatesDepartmentofJusticeoperatesasectioncalledtheComputer
CrimeandIntellectualPropertySection.TheCCIPSisinchargeofinvestigatingcomputercrimeand
intellectualpropertycrimeandisspecializedinthesearchandseizureofdigitalevidenceincomputersand
networks.[119]
TheUnitedStatesCyberCommand,alsoknownasUSCYBERCOM,istaskedwiththedefenseofspecified
DepartmentofDefenseinformationnetworksand"ensureUS/Alliedfreedomofactionincyberspaceanddeny
thesametoouradversaries."[120]Ithasnoroleintheprotectionofciviliannetworks.[121][122]
TheU.S.FederalCommunicationsCommission'sroleincybersecurityistostrengthentheprotectionofcritical
communicationsinfrastructure,toassistinmaintainingthereliabilityofnetworksduringdisasters,toaidin
swiftrecoveryafter,andtoensurethatfirstrespondershaveaccesstoeffectivecommunicationsservices.[123]
TheFoodandDrugAdministrationhasissuedguidanceformedicaldevices,[124]andtheNationalHighway
TrafficSafetyAdministration[125]isconcernedwithautomotivecybersecurity.Afterbeingcriticizedbythe
GovernmentAccountabilityOffice,[126]andfollowingsuccessfulattacksonairportsandclaimedattackson
airplanes,theFederalAviationAdministrationhasdevotedfundingtosecuringsystemsonboardtheplanesof
privatemanufacturers,andtheAircraftCommunicationsAddressingandReportingSystem.[127]Concernshave
alsobeenraisedaboutthefutureNextGenerationAirTransportationSystem.[128]

Computeremergencyreadinessteam
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"Computeremergencyresponseteam"isanamegiventoexpertgroupsthathandlecomputersecurity
incidents.IntheUS,twodistinctorganizationexist,althoughtheydoworkcloselytogether.
USCERT:partoftheNationalCyberSecurityDivisionoftheUnitedStatesDepartmentofHomeland
Security.[129]
CERT/CC:createdbytheDefenseAdvancedResearchProjectsAgency(DARPA)andrunbythe
SoftwareEngineeringInstitute(SEI).

Internationalactions
Manydifferentteamsandorganisationsexist,including:
TheForumofIncidentResponseandSecurityTeams(FIRST)istheglobalassociationofCSIRTs.[130]
TheUSCERT,AT&T,Apple,Cisco,McAfee,Microsoftareallmembersofthisinternationalteam.[131]
TheCouncilofEuropehelpsprotectsocietiesworldwidefromthethreatofcybercrimethroughthe
ConventiononCybercrime.[132]
ThepurposeoftheMessagingAntiAbuseWorkingGroup(MAAWG)istobringthemessagingindustry
togethertoworkcollaborativelyandtosuccessfullyaddressthevariousformsofmessagingabuse,such
asspam,viruses,denialofserviceattacksandothermessagingexploitations.[133]FranceTelecom,
Facebook,AT&T,Apple,Cisco,SprintaresomeofthemembersoftheMAAWG.[134]
ENISA:TheEuropeanNetworkandInformationSecurityAgency(ENISA)isanagencyofthe
EuropeanUnionwiththeobjectivetoimprovenetworkandinformationsecurityintheEuropeanUnion.

Europe
CSIRTsinEuropecollaborateintheTERENAtaskforceTFCSIRT.TERENA'sTrustedIntroducerservice
providesanaccreditationandcertificationschemeforCSIRTsinEurope.AfulllistofknownCSIRTsin
EuropeisavailablefromtheTrustedIntroducerwebsite.

Nationalteams
Herearethemaincomputeremergencyresponseteamsaroundtheworld.Mostcountrieshavetheirownteam
toprotectnetworksecurity.

Canada
OnOctober3,2010,PublicSafetyCanadaunveiledCanada'sCyberSecurityStrategy,followingaSpeechfrom
theThronecommitmenttoboostthesecurityofCanadiancyberspace.[135][136]Theaimofthestrategyisto
strengthenCanada's"cybersystemsandcriticalinfrastructuresectors,supporteconomicgrowthandprotect
Canadiansastheyconnecttoeachotherandtotheworld."[136]Threemainpillarsdefinethestrategy:securing
governmentsystems,partneringtosecurevitalcybersystemsoutsidethefederalgovernment,andhelping
Canadianstobesecureonline.[136]Thestrategyinvolvesmultipledepartmentsandagenciesacrossthe
GovernmentofCanada.[137]TheCyberIncidentManagementFrameworkforCanadaoutlinesthese
responsibilities,andprovidesaplanforcoordinatedresponsebetweengovernmentandotherpartnersinthe
eventofacyberincident.[138]TheActionPlan20102015forCanada'sCyberSecurityStrategyoutlinesthe
ongoingimplementationofthestrategy.[139]
PublicSafetyCanada'sCanadianCyberIncidentResponseCentre(CCIRC)isresponsibleformitigatingand
respondingtothreatstoCanada'scriticalinfrastructureandcybersystems.TheCCIRCprovidessupportto
mitigatecyberthreats,technicalsupporttorespondandrecoverfromtargetedcyberattacks,andprovides
onlinetoolsformembersofCanada'scriticalinfrastructuresectors.[140]TheCCIRCpostsregularcyber
securitybulletinsonthePublicSafetyCanadawebsite.[141]TheCCIRCalsooperatesanonlinereportingtool
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whereindividualsandorganizationscanreportacyberincident.[142]Canada'sCyberSecurityStrategyispartof
alarger,integratedapproachtocriticalinfrastructureprotection,andfunctionsasacounterpartdocumenttothe
NationalStrategyandActionPlanforCriticalInfrastructure.[137]
OnSeptember27,2010,PublicSafetyCanadapartneredwithSTOP.THINK.CONNECT,acoalitionofnon
profit,privatesector,andgovernmentorganizationsdedicatedtoinformingthegeneralpubliconhowtoprotect
themselvesonline.[143]OnFebruary4,2014,theGovernmentofCanadalaunchedtheCyberSecurity
CooperationProgram.[144]Theprogramisa$1.5millionfiveyearinitiativeaimedatimprovingCanada'scyber
systemsthroughgrantsandcontributionstoprojectsinsupportofthisobjective.[145]PublicSafetyCanadaaims
tobeginanevaluationofCanada'sCyberSecurityStrategyinearly2015.[137]PublicSafetyCanadaadministers
androutinelyupdatestheGetCyberSafeportalforCanadiancitizens,andcarriesoutCyberSecurityAwareness
MonthduringOctober.[146]

China
China'snetworksecurityandinformationtechnologyleadershipteamwasestablishedFebruary27,2014.The
leadershipteamistaskedwithnationalsecurityandlongtermdevelopmentandcoordinationofmajorissues
relatedtonetworksecurityandinformationtechnology.Economic,political,cultural,socialandmilitaryfields
asrelatedtonetworksecurityandinformationtechnologystrategy,planningandmajormacroeconomicpolicy
arebeingresearched.Thepromotionofnationalnetworksecurityandinformationtechnologylaware
constantlyunderstudyforenhancednationalsecuritycapabilities.

Germany
BerlinstartsNationalCyberDefenseInitiative:OnJune16,2011,theGermanMinisterforHomeAffairs,
officiallyopenedthenewGermanNCAZ(NationalCenterforCyberDefense)NationalesCyber
AbwehrzentrumlocatedinBonn.TheNCAZcloselycooperateswithBSI(FederalOfficeforInformation
Security)BundesamtfrSicherheitinderInformationstechnik,BKA(FederalPoliceOrganisation)
Bundeskriminalamt(Deutschland),BND(FederalIntelligenceService)Bundesnachrichtendienst,MAD
(MilitaryIntelligenceService)AmtfrdenMilitrischenAbschirmdienstandothernationalorganisationsin
Germanytakingcareofnationalsecurityaspects.AccordingtotheMinistertheprimarytaskofthenew
organisationfoundedonFebruary23,2011,istodetectandpreventattacksagainstthenationalinfrastructure
andmentionedincidentslikeStuxnet.

India
SomeprovisionsforcybersecurityhavebeenincorporatedintorulesframedundertheInformationTechnology
Act2000.
TheNationalCyberSecurityPolicy2013isapolicyframeworkbyDepartmentofElectronicsandInformation
Technology(DeitY)whichaimstoprotectthepublicandprivateinfrastructurefromcyberattacks,and
safeguard"information,suchaspersonalinformation(ofwebusers),financialandbankinginformationand
sovereigndata".
TheIndianCompaniesAct2013hasalsointroducedcyberlawandcybersecurityobligationsonthepartof
Indiandirectors.

Pakistan
CybercrimehasrisenrapidlyinPakistan.Thereareabout34millionInternetuserswith133.4millionmobile
subscribersinPakistan.AccordingtoCyberCrimeUnit(CCU),abranchofFederalInvestigationAgency,only
62caseswerereportedtotheunitin2007,287casesin2008,ratiodroppedin2009butin2010,morethan312
caseswereregistered.However,therearemanyunreportedincidentsofcybercrime.[147]
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"Pakistan'sCyberCrimeBill2007",thefirstpertinentlaw,focusesonelectroniccrimes,forexamplecyber
terrorism,criminalaccess,electronicsystemfraud,electronicforgery,andmisuseofencryption.[147]
NationalResponseCentreforCyberCrime(NR3C)FIAisalawenforcementagencydedicatedtofight
cybercrime.InceptionofthisHiTechcrimefightingunittranspiredin2007toidentifyandcurbthe
phenomenonoftechnologicalabuseinsociety.[148]However,certainprivatefirmsarealsoworkingincohesion
withthegovernmenttoimprovecybersecurityandcurbcyberattacks.[149]

SouthKorea
Followingcyberattacksinthefirsthalfof2013,whengovernment,newsmedia,televisionstation,andbank
websiteswerecompromised,thenationalgovernmentcommittedtothetrainingof5,000newcybersecurity
expertsby2017.TheSouthKoreangovernmentblameditsnortherncounterpartfortheseattacks,aswellas
incidentsthatoccurredin2009,2011,[150]and2012,butPyongyangdeniestheaccusations.[151]

Othercountries
CERTBrazil,memberofFIRST(ForumforIncidentResponseandSecurityTeams)
CARNetCERT,Croatia,memberofFIRST
AECERT,UnitedArabEmirates
SingCERT,Singapore
CERTLEXSI,France,Canada,Singapore
INCIBE,Spain
IDCERT,Indonesia

Modernwarfare
Cybersecurityisbecomingincreasinglyimportantasmoreinformationandtechnologyisbeingmadeavailable
oncyberspace.Thereisgrowingconcernamonggovernmentsthatcyberspacewillbecomethenexttheatreof
warfare.AsMarkClaytonfromtheChristianScienceMonitordescribedinanarticletitled"TheNewCyber
ArmsRace":
Inthefuture,warswillnotjustbefoughtbysoldierswithgunsorwithplanesthatdropbombs.
Theywillalsobefoughtwiththeclickofamouseahalfaworldawaythatunleashescarefully
weaponizedcomputerprogramsthatdisruptordestroycriticalindustrieslikeutilities,
transportation,communications,andenergy.Suchattackscouldalsodisablemilitarynetworksthat
controlthemovementoftroops,thepathofjetfighters,thecommandandcontrolofwarships.[152]
Thishasledtonewtermssuchascyberwarfareandcyberterrorism.Moreandmorecriticalinfrastructureis
beingcontrolledviacomputerprogramsthat,whileincreasingefficiency,exposesnewvulnerabilities.Thetest
willbetoseeifgovernmentsandcorporationsthatcontrolcriticalsystemssuchasenergy,communicationsand
otherinformationwillbeabletopreventattacksbeforetheyoccur.AsJayCross,thechiefscientistofthe
InternetTimeGroup,remarked,"Connectednessbegetsvulnerability."[152]

Jobmarket
Cybersecurityisafastgrowing[153]fieldofITconcernedwithreducingorganizations'riskofhackordata
breach.AccordingtoresearchfromtheEnterpriseStrategyGroup,46%oforganizationssaythattheyhavea
"problematicshortage"ofcybersecurityskillsin2016,upfrom28%in2015.[154]Commercial,governmentand
nongovernmentalorganizationsallemploycybersecurityprofessionals.Thefastestincreasesindemandfor
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cybersecurityworkersareinindustriesmanagingincreasingvolumesofconsumerdatasuchasfinance,health
care,andretail.[155]However,theuseoftheterm"cybersecurity"ismoreprevalentingovernmentjob
descriptions.[156]
Typicalcybersecurityjobtitlesanddescriptionsinclude:[157]
Securityanalyst
Analyzesandassessesvulnerabilitiesintheinfrastructure(software,hardware,networks),investigates
usingavailabletoolsandcountermeasurestoremedythedetectedvulnerabilities,andrecommends
solutionsandbestpractices.Analyzesandassessesdamagetothedata/infrastructureasaresultof
securityincidents,examinesavailablerecoverytoolsandprocesses,andrecommendssolutions.Testsfor
compliancewithsecuritypoliciesandprocedures.Mayassistinthecreation,implementation,and/or
managementofsecuritysolutions.
Securityengineer
Performssecuritymonitoring,securityanddata/logsanalysis,andforensicanalysis,todetectsecurity
incidents,andmountsincidentresponse.Investigatesandutilizesnewtechnologiesandprocessesto
enhancesecuritycapabilitiesandimplementimprovements.Mayalsoreviewcodeorperformother
securityengineeringmethodologies.
Securityarchitect
Designsasecuritysystemormajorcomponentsofasecuritysystem,andmayheadasecuritydesign
teambuildinganewsecuritysystem.
Securityadministrator
Installsandmanagesorganizationwidesecuritysystems.Mayalsotakeonsomeofthetasksofa
securityanalystinsmallerorganizations.
ChiefInformationSecurityOfficer(CISO)
Ahighlevelmanagementpositionresponsiblefortheentireinformationsecuritydivision/staff.The
positionmayincludehandsontechnicalwork.
ChiefSecurityOfficer(CSO)
Ahighlevelmanagementpositionresponsiblefortheentiresecuritydivision/staff.Anewerposition
nowdeemedneededassecurityrisksgrow.
SecurityConsultant/Specialist/Intelligence
Broadtitlesthatencompassanyoneoralloftheotherroles/titles,taskedwithprotectingcomputers,
networks,software,data,and/orinformationsystemsagainstviruses,worms,spyware,malware,
intrusiondetection,unauthorizedaccess,denialofserviceattacks,andaneverincreasinglistofattacks
byhackersactingasindividualsoraspartoforganizedcrimeorforeigngovernments.
Studentprogramsarealsoavailabletopeopleinterestedinbeginningacareerincybersecurity.[158][159]
Meanwhile,aflexibleandeffectiveoptionforinformationsecurityprofessionalsofallexperiencelevelsto
keepstudyingisonlinesecuritytraining,includingwebcasts.[160][161][162]

Terminology
Thefollowingtermsusedwithregardstoengineeringsecuresystemsareexplainedbelow.
Accessauthorizationrestrictsaccesstoacomputertogroupofusersthroughtheuseofauthentication
systems.Thesesystemscanprotecteitherthewholecomputersuchasthroughaninteractivelogin
screenorindividualservices,suchasanFTPserver.Therearemanymethodsforidentifyingand
authenticatingusers,suchaspasswords,identificationcards,and,morerecently,smartcardsand
biometricsystems.
Antivirussoftwareconsistsofcomputerprogramsthatattempttoidentify,thwartandeliminate
computervirusesandothermalicioussoftware(malware).
Applicationswithknownsecurityflawsshouldnotberun.Eitherleaveitturnedoffuntilitcanbe
patchedorotherwisefixed,ordeleteitandreplaceitwithsomeotherapplication.Publiclyknownflaws
arethemainentryusedbywormstoautomaticallybreakintoasystemandthenspreadtoothersystems
connectedtoit.ThesecuritywebsiteSecuniaprovidesasearchtoolforunpatchedknownflawsin
popularproducts.
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Authenticationtechniquescanbeusedtoensurethatcommunicationendpointsarewhotheysaythey
are.
Automatedtheoremprovingandotherverificationtoolscanenablecriticalalgorithmsandcodeusedin
securesystemstobemathematicallyproventomeettheirspecifications.
Backupsareawayofsecuringinformationtheyareanothercopyofalltheimportantcomputerfileskept
inanotherlocation.Thesefilesarekeptonharddisks,CDRs,CDRWs,tapesandmorerecentlyonthe
cloud.Suggestedlocationsforbackupsareafireproof,waterproof,andheatproofsafe,orinaseparate,
offsitelocationthanthatinwhichtheoriginalfilesarecontained.Someindividualsandcompaniesalso
keeptheirbackupsinsafedepositboxesinsidebankvaults.Thereisalsoafourthoption,whichinvolves
usingoneofthefilehostingservicesthatbacksupfilesovertheInternetforbothbusinessand
individuals,knownasthecloud.
Backupsarealsoimportantforreasonsotherthansecurity.Naturaldisasters,suchasearthquakes,
hurricanes,ortornadoes,maystrikethebuildingwherethecomputerislocated.Thebuildingcan
beonfire,oranexplosionmayoccur.Thereneedstobearecentbackupatanalternatesecure
location,incaseofsuchkindofdisaster.Further,itisrecommendedthatthealternatelocationbe
placedwherethesamedisasterwouldnotaffectbothlocations.Examplesofalternatedisaster
recoverysitesbeingcompromisedbythesamedisasterthataffectedtheprimarysiteinclude
havinghadaprimarysiteinWorldTradeCenterIandtherecoverysitein7WorldTradeCenter,
bothofwhichweredestroyedinthe9/11attack,andhavingone'sprimarysiteandrecoverysitein
thesamecoastalregion,whichleadstobothbeingvulnerabletohurricanedamage(forexample,
primarysiteinNewOrleansandrecoverysiteinJeffersonParish,bothofwhichwerehitby
HurricaneKatrinain2005).Thebackupmediashouldbemovedbetweenthegeographicsitesina
securemanner,inordertopreventthemfrombeingstolen.
Capabilityandaccesscontrollisttechniquescanbeusedtoensureprivilegeseparationandmandatory
accesscontrol.Thissectiondiscussestheiruse.
Chainoftrusttechniquescanbeusedtoattempttoensurethatallsoftwareloadedhasbeencertifiedas
authenticbythesystem'sdesigners.
Confidentialityisthenondisclosureofinformationexcepttoanotherauthorizedperson.[163]
Cryptographictechniquescanbeusedtodefenddataintransitbetweensystems,reducingtheprobability
thatdataexchangedbetweensystemscanbeinterceptedormodified.
Cyberwarfareisaninternetbasedconflictthatinvolvespoliticallymotivatedattacksoninformationand
informationsystems.Suchattackscan,forexample,disableofficialwebsitesandnetworks,disruptor
disableessentialservices,stealoralterclassifieddata,andcripplefinancialsystems.
Dataintegrityistheaccuracyandconsistencyofstoreddata,indicatedbyanabsenceofanyalterationin
databetweentwoupdatesofadatarecord.[164]
Encryptionisusedtoprotectthemessagefromthe
eyesofothers.Cryptographicallysecureciphersare
designedtomakeanypracticalattemptofbreaking
infeasible.Symmetrickeyciphersaresuitablefor
bulkencryptionusingsharedkeys,andpublickey
encryptionusingdigitalcertificatescanprovidea
Cryptographictechniquesinvolvetransforming
practicalsolutionfortheproblemofsecurely
information,scramblingitsoitbecomesunreadable
communicatingwhennokeyissharedinadvance.
duringtransmission.Theintendedrecipientcan
Endpointsecuritysoftwarehelpsnetworkstoprevent
unscramblethemessageideally,eavesdroppers
exfiltration(datatheft)andvirusinfectionatnetwork
cannot.
entrypointsmadevulnerablebytheprevalenceof
potentiallyinfectedportablecomputingdevices,such
aslaptopsandmobiledevices,andexternalstoragedevices,suchasUSBdrives.[165]
FirewallsareanimportantmethodforcontrolandsecurityontheInternetandothernetworks.Anetwork
firewallcanbeacommunicationsprocessor,typicallyarouter,oradedicatedserver,alongwithfirewall
software.Afirewallservesasagatekeepersystemthatprotectsacompany'sintranetsandothercomputer
networksfromintrusionbyprovidingafilterandsafetransferpointforaccesstoandfromtheInternet
andothernetworks.Itscreensallnetworktrafficforproperpasswordsorothersecuritycodesandonly
allowsauthorizedtransmissioninandoutofthenetwork.Firewallscandeter,butnotcompletelyprevent,
unauthorizedaccess(hacking)intocomputernetworkstheycanalsoprovidesomeprotectionfrom
onlineintrusion.
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Honeypotsarecomputersthatareeitherintentionallyorunintentionallyleftvulnerabletoattackby
crackers.Theycanbeusedtocatchcrackersorfixvulnerabilities.
Intrusiondetectionsystemscanscananetworkforpeoplethatareonthenetworkbutwhoshouldnotbe
thereoraredoingthingsthattheyshouldnotbedoing,forexampletryingalotofpasswordstogain
accesstothenetwork.
Amicrokernelisthenearminimumamountofsoftwarethatcanprovidethemechanismstoimplement
anoperatingsystem.Itisusedsolelytoprovideverylowlevel,verypreciselydefinedmachinecode
uponwhichanoperatingsystemcanbedeveloped.Asimpleexampleistheearly'90sGEMSOS(Gemini
Computers),whichprovidedextremelylowlevelmachinecode,suchas"segment"management,atop
whichanoperatingsystemcouldbebuilt.Thetheory(inthecaseof"segments")wasthatratherthan
havetheoperatingsystemitselfworryaboutmandatoryaccessseparationbymeansofmilitarystyle
labelingitissaferifalowlevel,independentlyscrutinizedmodulecanbechargedsolelywiththe
managementofindividuallylabeledsegments,betheymemory"segments"orfilesystem"segments"or
executabletext"segments."Ifsoftwarebelowthevisibilityoftheoperatingsystemis(asinthiscase)
chargedwithlabeling,thereisnotheoreticallyviablemeansforacleverhackertosubvertthelabeling
scheme,sincetheoperatingsystempersedoesnotprovidemechanismsforinterferingwithlabeling:the
operatingsystemis,essentially,aclient(an"application,"arguably)atopthemicrokerneland,assuch,
subjecttoitsrestrictions.
PingingThepingapplicationcanbeusedbypotentialcrackerstofindifanIPaddressisreachable.Ifa
crackerfindsacomputer,theycantryaportscantodetectandattackservicesonthatcomputer.
Socialengineeringawarenesskeepsemployeesawareofthedangersofsocialengineeringand/orhaving
apolicyinplacetopreventsocialengineeringcanreducesuccessfulbreachesofthenetworkandservers.

Scholars
RossJ.Anderson
AnnieAnton
AdamBack
DanielJ.Bernstein
MattBlaze
StefanBrands
L.JeanCamp
LanceCottrell
LorrieCranor
DorothyE.Denning
PeterJ.Denning
CynthiaDwork
DeborahEstrin

DeborahEstrin
JoanFeigenbaum
IanGoldberg
ShafiGoldwasser
LawrenceA.Gordon
PeterGutmann
PaulKocher
MonicaS.Lam
ButlerLampson
BrianLaMacchia
CarlLandwehr
KevinMitnick
PeterG.Neumann

PeterG.Neumann
SusanNycum
RogerR.Schell
BruceSchneier
DawnSong
GeneSpafford
JosephSteinberg
SalvatoreJ.Stolfo
WillisWare
MotiYung

Dancingpigs
Datalossprevention
software
Datasecurity
Differentiatedsecurity
Diskencryption
Exploit(computersecurity)
Faulttolerance
Humancomputerinteraction
(security)
Identitymanagement
Identitytheft
Identitybasedsecurity
Informationsecurity
awareness
Internetprivacy

ITrisk
Killchain
ListofComputerSecurity
Certifications
Mobilesecurity
Networksecurity
NetworkSecurityToolkit
NextGenerationFirewall
Opensecurity
OWASP
Penetrationtest
Physicalinformation
security
Presumedsecurity
Privacysoftware
Proactivecyberdefence

Seealso
Attacktree
CAPTCHA
CERT
CertiVox
Cloudcomputingsecurity
CommonCriteria
Comparisonofantivirus
software
Computersecuritymodel
ContentDisarm&
Reconstruction
Contentsecurity
Countermeasure(computer)
Cyberhygiene
CyberInsurance
Cybersecuritystandards
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Riskcybernetics
Sandbox(computersecurity)

ComputersecurityWikipedia

Separationofprotectionand
security

SoftwareDefinedPerimeter

Furtherreading
Wu,ChwanHwa(John)Irwin,J.David(2013).IntroductiontoComputerNetworksandCybersecurity.
BocaRaton:CRCPress.ISBN9781466572133.
Lee,Newton(2015).CounterterrorismandCybersecurity:TotalInformationAwareness(2nded.).
Springer.ISBN9783319172439.
Singer,P.W.Friedman,Allan(2014).CybersecurityandCyberwar:WhatEveryoneNeedstoKnow.
OxfordUniversityPress.ISBN9780199918119.
Kim,Peter(2014).TheHackerPlaybook:PracticalGuideToPenetrationTesting.Seattle:CreateSpace
IndependentPublishingPlatform.ISBN9781494932633.

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