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ChristopherColumbus
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

ChristopherColumbus(Italian:CristoforoColombo[a]c.1451
20May1506)wasanItalianexplorer,navigator,colonizer,
andcitizenoftheRepublicofGenoa.Undertheauspicesofthe
CatholicMonarchsofSpain,hecompletedfourvoyagesacross
theAtlanticOcean.Thosevoyagesandhiseffortstoestablish
permanentsettlementsontheislandofHispaniolainitiatedthe
EuropeancolonizationoftheNewWorld.
Westernimperialismandeconomiccompetitionwereemerging
amongEuropeankingdomsthroughtheestablishmentoftrade
routesandcolonies.ColumbusproposedtoreachtheEastIndies
bysailingwestward,andthiseventuallyreceivedthesupportof
theSpanishCrown,whichsawachancetoenterthespicetrade
withAsiathroughanewwestwardroute.Duringhisfirstvoyage
in1492,hereachedtheNewWorldinsteadofarrivingatJapan
ashehadintended,landingonanislandintheBahamas
archipelagothathenamed"SanSalvador".Overthecourseof
threemorevoyages,hevisitedtheGreaterandLesserAntilles,
aswellastheCaribbeancoastofVenezuelaandCentral
America,claimingallofitfortheCrownofCastile.
ColumbuswasnotthefirstEuropeanexplorertoreachthe
Americas,havingbeenprecededbytheVikingexpeditionledby
LeifEriksoninthe11thcentury,[3][4]buthisvoyagesledtothe
firstlastingEuropeancontactwiththeAmericas,inauguratinga
periodofEuropeanexploration,conquest,andcolonizationthat
lastedseveralcenturies.Thesevoyageshad,therefore,an
enormousimpactinthehistoricaldevelopmentofthemodern
Westernworld.Hespearheadedthetransatlanticslavetradeand
hasbeenaccusedbyseveralhistoriansofinitiatingthegenocide
oftheHispaniolanatives.Columbushimselfsawhis
accomplishmentsprimarilyinthelightofspreadingthe
Christianreligion.[5]
Columbusneveradmittedthathehadreachedacontinent
previouslyunknowntoEuropeans,ratherthantheEastIndies
forwhichhehadsetcourse.Hecalledtheinhabitantsofthe
landsthathevisitedindios(Spanishfor"Indians").[6][7][8]His
strainedrelationshipwiththeSpanishcrownanditsappointed
colonialadministratorsinAmericaledtohisarrestanddismissal
asgovernorofthesettlementsontheislandofHispaniolain
1500,andlatertoprotractedlitigationoverthebenefitsthathe
andhisheirsclaimedwereowedtothembythecrown.

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ChristopherColumbus

PosthumousportraitofChristopherColumbusby
SebastianodelPiombo,1519.Therearenoknown
authenticportraitsofColumbus. [1]
1stGovernoroftheIndies
Inoffice
14921499
Appointedby

IsabellaIofCastile

Succeededby

FranciscodeBobadilla
Personaldetails

Born

Before31October1451
Genoa,RepublicofGenoa

Died

20May1506(agedc.54)
Valladolid,CrownofCastile

Spouse(s)

FilipaMonizPerestrelo

Domesticpartner BeatrizEnrquezdeArana
Children

Diego
Fernando

Relatives

Brothers:
GiovanniPellegrino
Giacomo(alsocalledDiego)[2]
Bartholomew
Sister:
BianchinettaColumbus
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Contents
1 Earlylife
2 QuestforAsia
2.1 Background
2.2 Geographicalconsiderations
2.3 Nauticalconsiderations
2.4 Questforfinancialsupportforavoyage
2.5 AgreementwiththeSpanishcrown
3 Voyages
3.1 Firstvoyage
3.2 Secondvoyage
3.3 Thirdvoyage
3.4 Fourthvoyage
4 Accusationsoftyrannyduringgovernorship
5 Laterlife
6 Illnessanddeath
7 Commemoration
8 Legacy
8.1 Discoverer
8.2 FlatEarthmythology
8.3 Americaasadistinctland
8.4 Atrocitiesandtragediesofcolonization
9 Physicalappearance
10 Seealso
11 Notes
12 References
12.1 Bibliography
13 Furtherreading
14 Externallinks

Occupation
Religion

Maritimeexplorer
RomanCatholic

Signature

Militaryservice
Rank

AdmiraloftheOceanSea

Earlylife
ThenameChristopherColumbusistheAnglicisationoftheLatinChristophorusColumbus.HisnameinItalian
isCristoforoColomboand,inSpanish,itisCristbalColn.Hewasbornbefore31October1451inthe
territoryoftheRepublicofGenoa(nowpartofmodernItaly),thoughtheexactlocationremainsdisputed.[9][b]His
fatherwasDomenicoColombo,amiddleclasswoolweaverwhoworkedbothinGenoaandSavonaandwhoalso
ownedacheesestandatwhichyoungChristopherworkedasahelper.HismotherwasSusannaFontanarossa.
Bartolomeo,GiovanniPellegrino,andGiacomowerehisbrothers.Bartolomeoworkedinacartographyworkshop
inLisbonforatleastpartofhisadulthood.[10]HealsohadasisternamedBianchinetta.[11]
Columbusneverwroteinhisnativelanguage,whichispresumedtohavebeenaGenoesevarietyofLigurian(his
namewouldtranslateinthe16thcenturyGenoeselanguageasChristoffa[12]Corombo[13]pron.IPA:[kritffaku
ubu][14][15]).Inoneofhiswritings,hesayshewenttoseaattheageof10.In1470,theColumbusfamilymoved
toSavona,whereDomenicotookoveratavern.Inthesameyear,ChristopherwasonaGenoeseshiphiredinthe
serviceofRenofAnjoutosupporthisattempttoconquertheKingdomofNaples.Somemodernhistorianshave
arguedthathewasnotfromGenoabut,instead,fromtheAragonregionofSpain[16]orfromPortugal.[17]These
competinghypotheseshavegenerallybeendiscountedbymainstreamscholars.[18][19]
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In1473,Columbusbeganhis
apprenticeshipasbusinessagent
fortheimportantCenturione,Di
NegroandSpinolafamiliesof
Genoa.Later,heallegedlymade
atriptoChios,anAegeanisland
thenruledbyGenoa.[20]InMay
1476,hetookpartinanarmed
convoysentbyGenoatocarry
valuablecargotonorthern
Columbus'shandwrittennotesinLatin,
Europe.HedockedinBristol,
onthemarginsofhiscopyofTheTravels
England[21]andGalway,Ireland.
ofMarcoPolo
In1477,hewaspossiblyin
Iceland.Intheautumnof1477,
hesailedonaPortugueseshipfromGalwaytoLisbon,wherehefoundhis
brotherBartolomeo,andtheycontinuedtradingfortheCenturionefamily.
ColumbusbasedhimselfinLisbonfrom1477to1485.HemarriedFilipa
MonizPerestrelo,daughterofthePortoSantogovernorandPortuguese
noblemanofLombardoriginBartolomeuPerestrello.[22]

ChristopherColumbusatthegatesof
themonasteryofSantaMaradela
RbidawithhissonDiego,byBenet
Mercad

In1479or1480,hissonDiegoColumbuswasborn.Between1482and
1485,ColumbustradedalongthecoastsofWestAfrica,reachingthe
PortuguesetradingpostofElminaattheGuineacoast.[5]SomerecordsreportthatFilipadiedin1485.Itisalso
speculatedthathemayhavesimplylefthisfirstwife.Ineithercase,heleftPortugalforCastilein1485,wherehe
foundamistressin1487,a20yearoldorphannamedBeatrizEnrquezdeArana.[23]
Ambitious,ColumbuseventuallylearnedLatin,Portuguese,andCastilian.Hereadwidelyaboutastronomy,
geography,andhistory,includingtheworksofClaudiusPtolemy,CardinalPierred'Ailly'sImagoMundi,the
travelsofMarcoPoloandSirJohnMandeville,Pliny'sNaturalHistory,andPopePiusII'sHistoriaRerumUbique
Gestarum.AccordingtohistorianEdmundMorgan,
Columbuswasnotascholarlyman.Yethestudiedthesebooks,madehundredsofmarginalnotations
inthemandcameoutwithideasabouttheworldthatwerecharacteristicallysimpleandstrongand
sometimeswrong,...[24]
Throughouthislife,ColumbusalsoshowedakeeninterestintheBibleandinBiblicalprophecies,oftenquoting
biblicaltextsinhislettersandlogs.Forexample,partoftheargumentthathesubmittedtotheSpanishCatholic
MonarchswhenhesoughttheirsupportforhisproposedexpeditiontoreachtheIndiesbysailingwestwasbased
onhisreadingoftheSecondBookofEsdras(see2Esdras6:42(http://www.biblestudytools.com/tmba/2esdras/6
42.html),whichhetooktomeanthattheEarthismadeofsixpartsoflandtooneofwater).Towardstheendofhis
life,heproducedaBookofPropheciesinwhichhiscareerasanexplorerisinterpretedinthelightofChristian
eschatologyandofapocalypticism.[10]

QuestforAsia
Background

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UndertheMongolEmpire'shegemonyoverAsia(the
PaxMongolica,orMongolpeace),Europeanshadlong
enjoyedasafelandpassage,theSilkRoad,tothe
Indies(thenconstruedroughlyasallofsouthandeast
Asia)andChina,whichweresourcesofvaluablegoods
suchasspicesandsilk.WiththefallofConstantinople
totheOttomanTurksin1453,thelandroutetoAsia
becamemuchmoredifficultanddangerous.Portuguese
navigatorstriedtofindaseawaytoAsia.
In1470,theFlorentineastronomerPaolodalPozzo
ToscanellisuggestedtoKingAfonsoVofPortugalthat
sailingwestwouldbeaquickerwaytoreachtheSpice
"Columbusmap",drawnc.1490intheLisbonworkshopof
Islands,Cathay,andCipanguthantheroutearound
BartolomeoandChristopherColumbus[25]
Africa.Afonsorejectedhisproposal.[26]Portuguese
explorers,undertheleadershipofKingJohnII,then
developedapassagetoAsiabysailingaroundAfrica.Majorprogressinthisquestwasachievedin1488,when
BartolomeuDiasreachedtheCapeofGoodHope,inwhatisnowSouthAfrica.Meanwhile,inthe1480s,the
ColumbusbrothershadpickedupToscanelli'ssuggestionandproposedaplantoreachtheIndiesbysailingwest
acrossthe"OceanSea",i.e.,theAtlantic.However,Dias'sdiscoveryhadshiftedtheinterestsofPortuguese
seafaringtothesoutheastpassage,whichcomplicatedColumbus'sproposalssignificantly.[27]

Geographicalconsiderations
WashingtonIrving's1828biographyofColumbuspopularizedtheideathatColumbushaddifficultyobtaining
supportforhisplanbecausemanyCatholictheologiansinsistedthattheEarthwasflat.[28]Infact,nearlyall
educatedWesternershadunderstood,atleastsincethetimeofAristotle,thattheEarthisspherical.[29][27]The
sphericityoftheEarthisalsoaccountedforintheworkofPtolemy,onwhichmedievalastronomywaslargely
based.ChristianwriterswhoseworksclearlyreflecttheconvictionthattheEarthissphericalincludeSaintBede
theVenerableinhisReckoningofTime,writtenaroundAD723.InColumbus'stime,thetechniquesofcelestial
navigation,whichusethepositionofthesunandthestarsinthesky,togetherwiththeunderstandingthattheEarth
isasphere,hadlongbeeninusebyastronomersandwerebeginningtobeimplementedbymariners.[30]
Asfarbackasthe3rdcenturyBC,EratostheneshadcorrectlycomputedthecircumferenceoftheEarthbyusing
simplegeometryandstudyingtheshadowscastbyobjectsattwodifferentlocations:AlexandriaandSyene
(moderndayAswan).[31]Eratosthenes'sresultswereconfirmedbyacomparisonofstellarobservationsat
AlexandriaandRhodes,carriedoutbyPosidoniusinthe1stcenturyBC.Thesemeasurementswerewidelyknown
amongscholars,butconfusionabouttheoldfashionedunitsofdistanceinwhichtheywereexpressedhadled,in
Columbus'sday,tosomedebateabouttheexactsizeoftheEarth.
Fromd'Ailly'sImagoMundiColumbuslearnedofAlfraganus'sestimatethatadegreeoflatitude(oradegreeof
longitudealongtheequator)spanned56miles,butdidnotrealizethatthiswasexpressedintheArabicmile
ratherthantheshorterRomanmilewithwhichhewasfamiliar(1,480m).[32]Hethereforeestimatedthe
circumferenceoftheEarthtobeabout30,200km,whereasthecorrectvalueis40,000km(25,000mi).
Furthermore,mostscholarsacceptedPtolemy'sestimatethatEurasiaspanned180longitude,ratherthantheactual
130(totheChinesemainland)or150(toJapanatthelatitudeofSpain).Columbus,forhispart,believedthe
evenhigherestimateofMarinusofTyre,whichputthelongitudinalspanoftheEurasianlandmassat225,leaving
only135ofwater.HealsobelievedthatJapan(whichhecalled"Cipangu",followingMarcoPolo)wasmuch
larger,farthertotheeastfromChina("Cathay"),andclosertotheequatorthanitis,andthattherewereinhabited
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islandsevenfarthertotheeastthanJapan,includingthe
mythicalAntillia,whichhethoughtmightlienotmuchfarther
tothewestthantheAzores.Inthis,hewasinfluencedbythe
ideasofFlorentineastronomerToscanelli,whocorresponded
withColumbusbeforehisdeathin1482andwhoalso
defendedthefeasibilityofawestwardroutetoAsia.[33]
ColumbusthereforeestimatedthedistancefromtheCanary
IslandstoJapantobeabout3,000Italianmiles(3,700km,or
2,300statutemiles).Thetruefigureisnowknowntobevastly
larger:about20,000km.[34][c]Noshipinthe15thcentury
Toscanelli'snotionsofthegeographyoftheAtlantic
couldhavecarriedenoughfoodandfreshwaterforsuchalong
Ocean(shownsuperimposedonamodernmap),
voyage,andthedangersinvolvedinnavigatingthroughthe
whichdirectlyinfluencedColumbus'splans.
unchartedoceanwouldhavebeenformidable.MostEuropean
navigatorsreasonablyconcludedthatawestwardvoyagefrom
EuropetoAsiawasunfeasible.TheCatholicMonarchs,however,havingcompletedanexpensivewarinthe
IberianPeninsula,wereeagertoobtainacompetitiveedgeoverotherEuropeancountriesinthequestfortrade
withtheIndies.Columbus'sproject,thoughfarfetched,heldthepromiseofsuchanadvantage.

Nauticalconsiderations
ThoughColumbuswaswrongaboutthenumberofdegreesoflongitudethatseparatedEuropefromtheFarEast
andaboutthedistancethateachdegreerepresented,hedidpossessvaluableknowledgeaboutthetradewinds,
whichwouldprovetobethekeytohissuccessfulnavigationoftheAtlanticOcean.Duringhisfirstvoyagein
1492,thebrisktradewindsfromtheeast,commonlycalled"easterlies",propelledColumbus'sfleetforfiveweeks,
fromtheCanaryIslandstoTheBahamas.TheprecisefirstlandsightingandlandingpointwasSanSalvador
Island.[27]ToreturntoSpainagainstthisprevailingwindwouldhaverequiredseveralmonthsofanarduoussailing
technique,calledbeating,duringwhichfoodanddrinkablewaterwouldprobablyhavebeenexhausted.
Instead,Columbusreturnedhomebyfollowingthecurvingtradewindsnortheastwardtothemiddlelatitudesof
theNorthAtlantic,wherehewasabletocatchthe"westerlies"thatbloweastwardtothecoastofWesternEurope.
There,inturn,thewindscurvesouthwardtowardstheIberianPeninsula.[35][36]
ItisunclearwhetherColumbuslearnedaboutthewindsfromhisownsailingexperienceorifhehadheardabout
themfromothers.ThecorrespondingtechniqueforefficienttravelintheAtlanticappearstohavebeenexploited
firstbythePortuguese,whoreferredtoitastheVoltadomar("turnofthesea").Columbus'sknowledgeofthe
Atlanticwindpatternswas,however,imperfectatthetimeofhisfirstvoyage.Bysailingdirectlyduewestfrom
theCanaryIslandsduringhurricaneseason,skirtingthesocalledhorselatitudesofthemidAtlantic,Columbus
riskedeitherbeingbecalmedorrunningintoatropicalcyclone,bothofwhich,bychance,heavoided.[33]

Questforfinancialsupportforavoyage
In1485,ColumbuspresentedhisplanstoKingJohnIIofPortugal.Heproposedthatthekingequipthreesturdy
shipsandgrantColumbusoneyear'stimetosailoutintotheAtlantic,searchforawesternroutetotheOrient,and
return.Columbusalsorequestedhebemade"GreatAdmiraloftheOcean",appointedgovernorofanyandall
landshediscovered,andgivenonetenthofallrevenuefromthoselands.ThekingsubmittedColumbus'sproposal
tohisexperts,whorejectedit.ItwastheirconsideredopinionthatColumbus'sestimationofatraveldistanceof
2,400miles(3,860km)was,infact,fartoolow.[33]

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In1488,ColumbusappealedtothecourtofPortugalonceagainand,onceagain,
JohnIIinvitedhimtoanaudience.Thatmeetingalsoprovedunsuccessful,inpart
becausenotlongafterwardsBartolomeuDiasreturnedtoPortugalwithnewsofhis
successfulroundingofthesoutherntipofAfrica(neartheCapeofGoodHope).
WithaneasternsearoutetoAsiaapparentlyathand,KingJohnwasnolonger
interestedinColumbus'sfarfetchedproject.
ColumbustraveledfromPortugaltoboth
GenoaandVenice,buthereceived
encouragementfromneither.Hehadalso
dispatchedhisbrotherBartholomewtothe
courtofHenryVIIofEnglandtoinquire
whethertheEnglishcrownmightsponsor
hisexpedition,butalsowithoutsuccess.
Columbusoffershisservices

Columbushadsoughtanaudiencefromthe
totheKingofPortugal
monarchsFerdinandIIofAragonand
Chodowiecki,17thc.
ColumbusbeforetheQueen,as
IsabellaIofCastile,whohadunitedseveral
imagined[37]byEmanuelGottlieb
kingdomsintheIberianPeninsulaby
Leutze,1843
marryingandwererulingtogether.On1May1486,permissionhaving
beengranted,ColumbuspresentedhisplanstoQueenIsabella,who,in
turn,referredittoacommittee.Afterthepassingofmuchtime,thesavantsofSpain,liketheircounterpartsin
Portugal,repliedthatColumbushadgrosslyunderestimatedthedistancetoAsia.Theypronouncedtheidea
impracticalandadvisedtheirRoyalHighnessestopassontheproposedventure.

However,tokeepColumbusfromtakinghisideaselsewhere,andperhapstokeeptheiroptionsopen,theCatholic
Monarchsgavehimanannualallowanceof12,000maravedisand,in1489,furnishedhimwithaletterorderingall
citiesandtownsundertheirdomaintoprovidehimfoodandlodgingatnocost.[38]

AgreementwiththeSpanishcrown
AftercontinuallylobbyingattheSpanishcourtandtwoyearsofnegotiations,hefinallyhadsuccessinJanuary
1492.FerdinandandIsabellahadjustconqueredGranada,thelastMuslimstrongholdontheIberianPeninsula,and
theyreceivedColumbusinCrdoba,intheAlczarcastle.Isabellaturnedhimdownontheadviceofher
confessor.ColumbuswasleavingtownbymuleindespairwhenFerdinandintervened.Isabellathensentaroyal
guardtofetchhim,andFerdinandlaterclaimedcreditforbeing"theprincipalcausewhythoseislandswere
discovered".[40]
IntheApril1492"CapitulationsofSantaFe",KingFerdinandandQueenIsabellapromisedColumbusthatifhe
succeededhewouldbegiventherankofAdmiraloftheOceanSeaandappointedViceroyandGovernorofallthe
newlandshecouldclaimforSpain.Hehadtherighttonominatethreepersons,fromwhomthesovereignswould
chooseone,foranyofficeinthenewlands.Hewouldbeentitledto10percentofalltherevenuesfromthenew
landsinperpetuity.Additionally,hewouldalsohavetheoptionofbuyingoneeighthinterestinanycommercial
venturewiththenewlandsandreceiveoneeighthoftheprofits.[33]
Columbuswaslaterarrestedin1500anddismissedfromhisposts.Heandhissons,DiegoandFernando,then
conductedalengthyseriesofcourtcasesagainsttheCastiliancrown,knownasthepleitoscolombinos,alleging
thattheCrownhadillegallyrenegedonitscontractualobligationstoColumbusandhisheirs.TheColumbus
familyhadsomesuccessintheirfirstlitigation,asajudgmentof1511confirmedDiego'spositionasViceroy,but
reducedhispowers.Diegoresumedlitigationin1512,whichlasteduntil1536,andfurtherdisputescontinueduntil
1790.[41]
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Voyages
Between1492and1503,Columbuscompletedfourroundtrip
voyagesbetweenSpainandtheAmericas,allofthemunder
thesponsorshipoftheCrownofCastile.Thesevoyages
markedthebeginningoftheEuropeanexplorationand
colonizationoftheAmericancontinents,andarethusof
enormoussignificanceinWesternhistory.[10]
Columbusalwaysinsisted,inthefaceofmountingevidenceto
thecontrary,thatthelandsthathevisitedduringthosevoyages
werepartoftheAsiancontinent,aspreviouslydescribedby
MarcoPoloandotherEuropeantravelers.[10]Columbus's
refusaltoacceptthatthelandshehadvisitedandclaimedfor
SpainwerenotpartofAsiamightexplain,inpart,whythe
AmericancontinentwasnamedaftertheFlorentineexplorer
AmerigoVespucciandnotafterColumbus.[42]

Firstvoyage
Ontheeveningof3August1492,Columbusdepartedfrom
PalosdelaFronterawiththreeships:alargercarrack,the
SantaMaraexGallega("Galician"),andtwosmaller
caravels,thePinta("ThePint","TheLook",or"TheSpotted
One")andtheSantaClara,nicknamedtheNia("Girl")after
herownerJuanNioofMoguer.[43]Themonarchsforcedthe
citizensofPalostocontributetotheexpedition.The
SantaMarawasownedbyJuandelaCosaand
captainedbyColumbus.ThePintaandtheNiawere
pilotedbythePinznbrothers(MartnAlonsoand
VicenteYez).[27]

~FlagshipofColumbus~FleetofColumbus~
~400thAnniversaryIssuesof1893~
U.S.stampsreflectingthemostcommonlyheld
viewastowhatColumbus'sfirstfleetmighthave
lookedlike.TheSantaMara,theflagshipof
Columbus'sfleet,wasacarrackamerchantship
ofbetween400and600tons,75feet(23m)long,
withabeamof25feet(7.6m),allowingittocarry
morepeopleandcargo.Ithadadeepdraftof6feet
(1.8m).Thevesselhadthreemasts:amainmast,a
foremast,andamizzenmast.Fivesailsaltogether
wereattachedtothesemasts.Eachmastcarriedone
largesail.Theforesailandmainsailweresquare
thesailonthemizzenwasatriangularsailknown
asalateenmizzen.Theshiphadasmallertopsail
onthemainmastabovethemainsailandonthe
foremastabovetheforesail.Inaddition,theship
carriedasmallsquaresail,aspritsail,onthe
bowsprit. [39]

ColumbusfirstsailedtotheCanaryIslands,which
belongedtoCastile.Herestockedprovisionsandmade
repairsinGranCanaria,thendepartedfromSan
SebastindeLaGomeraon6September,forwhat
turnedouttobeafiveweekvoyageacrosstheocean.
Atabout2:00inthemorningof12October,alookout
onthePinta,RodrigodeTriana(alsoknownasJuan
RodrguezBermeo),spottedland,andimmediately
ThevoyagesofChristopherColumbus
alertedtherestofthecrewwithashout.Thereupon,
thecaptainofthePinta,MartnAlonsoPinzn,
verifiedthediscoveryandalertedColumbusbyfiringalombard.[44]Columbuslatermaintainedthathehimself
hadalreadyseenalightonthelandafewhoursearlier,therebyclaimingforhimselfthelifetimepensionpromised
byFerdinandandIsabellatothefirstpersontosightland.[27][45]
Columbuscalledtheisland(inwhatisnowTheBahamas)SanSalvadorthenativescalleditGuanahani.Exactly
whichislandintheBahamasthiscorrespondstoisunresolved.Basedonprimaryaccountsandonwhatonewould
expectfromthegeographicpositionsoftheislandsgivenColumbus'scourse,theprimecandidatesareSan
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SalvadorIsland(sonamedin1925onthetheorythatit
wasColumbus'sSanSalvador),[46]SamanaCay,and
PlanaCays.[27]
Theindigenous
peoplehe
encountered,
theLucayan,
Tano,or
Arawak,were
peacefuland
friendly.Noting
Firstvoyage.Modernplacenamesinblack,Columbus's
theirgoldear
LandingofColumbus(12October
placenamesinblue
ornaments,
1492),paintingbyJohnVanderlyn
Columbustook
someoftheArawaksprisonerandinsistedthattheyguidehimtothesource
[47]
ofthegold. Fromtheentryinhisjournalof12October1492,inwhichhewroteofthem:"ManyofthemenI
haveseenhavescarsontheirbodies,andwhenImadesignstothemtofindouthowthishappened,theyindicated
thatpeoplefromothernearbyislandscometoSanSalvadortocapturethemtheydefendthemselvesthebestthey
can.Ibelievethatpeoplefromthemainlandcomeheretotakethemasslaves.Theyoughttomakegoodand
skilledservants,fortheyrepeatveryquicklywhateverwesaytothem.Ithinktheycanveryeasilybemade
Christians,fortheyseemtohavenoreligion.IfitpleasesourLord,IwilltakesixofthemtoYourHighnesses
whenIdepart,inorderthattheymaylearnourlanguage."[48]Columbusremarkedthattheirlackofmodern
weaponryandmetalforgedswordsorpikeswasatacticalvulnerability,writing,"Icouldconquerthewholeof
themwith50men,andgovernthemasIpleased."[49]
ColumbusalsoexploredthenortheastcoastofCuba,wherehelandedon28October.On22November,Martn
AlonsoPinzntookthePintaonanunauthorizedexpeditioninsearchofanislandcalled"Babeque"or"Baneque",
whichthenativeshadtoldhimwasrichingold.Columbus,forhispart,continuedtothenortherncoastof
Hispaniola,wherehelandedon5December.[50]There,theSantaMararanagroundonChristmasDay1492and
hadtobeabandoned.Thewreckwasusedasatargetforcannonfiretoimpressthenativepeoples.[27]Columbus
wasreceivedbythenativecaciqueGuacanagari,whogavehimpermissiontoleavesomeofhismenbehind.
Columbusleft39men,includingLuisdeTorres,theConversointerpreter,whospokeHebrewandArabic,and
foundedthesettlementofLaNavidadatthesiteofpresentdayBorddeMerdeLimonade,Haiti.[51]Columbus
tookmorenativesprisonerandcontinuedhisexploration.[47]HekeptsailingalongthenortherncoastofHispaniola
withasingleship,untilheencounteredPinznandthePintaon6January.
On13January1493,ColumbusmadehislaststopofthisvoyageintheNewWorld,intheBayofRincnatthe
easternendoftheSamanPeninsulainnortheastHispaniola.[52]ThereheencounteredthewarlikeCigayos,the
onlynativeswhoofferedviolentresistanceduringhisfirstvoyagetotheAmericas.[53]TheCigayosrefusedto
tradetheamountofbowsandarrowsthatColumbusdesiredintheensuingclashoneSpaniardwasstabbedinthe
buttocksandanotherwoundedwithanarrowinhischest.[54]BecauseofthisandbecauseoftheCigayos'useof
arrows,hecalledtheinletwherehemetthemtheBayofArrows(orGulfofArrows).[55]Columbuskidnapped
about10to25nativesandtookthembackwithhim(onlysevenoreightofthenativesarrivedinSpainalive).[56]
ColumbusheadedforSpainontheNia,butastormseparatedhimfromthePinta,andforcedtheNiatostopat
theislandofSantaMariaintheAzores.Halfofhiscrewwentashoretosayprayersinachapeltogivethanksfor
havingsurvivedthestorm.Butwhilepraying,theywereimprisonedbythegovernoroftheisland,ostensiblyon
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suspicionofbeingpirates.Afteratwodaystandoff,theprisonerswere
released,andColumbusagainsetsailforSpain.[57]
AnotherstormforcedhimintotheportatLisbon.[27]Heanchorednext
totheKing'sharborpatrolshipon4March1493inPortugalandwas
interviewedbyBartolomeuDias,whoseroundingoftheCapeofGood
Hopeafewyearsearlierin14881489hadcomplicatedColumbus's
attemptsforfundingfromthePortuguesecourt.[27]NotfindingKing
JohnIIofPortugalinLisbon,Columbuswrotealettertohimand
waitedforJohn'sreply.JohnaskedColumbustogotoValedoParaso
northofLisbontomeethim.RelationsbetweenPortugalandCastile
werepooratthetime.ColumbuswenttomeetwithJohnatValedo
Paraso.HearingofColumbus'sdiscoveries,Johntoldhimthathe
believedthevoyagetobeinviolationofthe1479TreatyofAlcovas.

ThereturnofChristopherColumbushis
audiencebeforeKingFerdinandand
QueenIsabella,paintingbyEugne
Delacroix

AfterspendingmorethanaweekinPortugal,andpayinghisrespects
toEleanorofViseu,ColumbusagainsetsailforSpain.FerdinandMagellanwasayoungboyandawardof
Eleanor'scourtitislikelyhesawColumbusduringthisvisit.[27]Afterdeparting,andafterreportedlybeingsaved
fromassassinsbyKingJohn,ColumbuscrossedthebarofSaltesandenteredtheharborofPalosdelaFronteraon
15March1493.WordofhisfindingnewlandsrapidlyspreadthroughoutEurope.

Secondvoyage
ColumbuslefttheportofCdizon24September1493,
withafleetof17shipscarrying1,200menandthe
suppliestoestablishpermanentcoloniesintheNew
World.Thepassengersincludedpriests,farmers,and
soldiers,whowouldbethenewcolonists.This
reflectedthenewpolicyofcreatingnotjust"colonies
ofexploitation",butalso"coloniesofsettlement"from
whichtolaunchmissionsdedicatedtoconvertingthe
nativestoChristianity.[58]Modernstudiessuggestthat,
asreportedbytheWashingtonPost,"crewmembers
mayhaveincludedfreeblackAfricanswhoarrivedin
theNewWorldaboutadecadebeforetheslavetrade
began."[59]

Columbus'ssecondvoyage

Asinthefirstvoyage,thefleetstoppedattheCanaryIslands,fromwhichitdepartedon13October,followinga
moresoutherlycoursethanonthepreviousexpedition.On3November,Columbussightedaruggedislandthathe
namedDominica(LatinforSunday)laterthatday,helandedatMarieGalante,whichhenamedSantaMarala
Galante.AftersailingpastLesSaintes(LosSantos,"TheSaints"),hearrivedattheislandofGuadeloupe,which
henamedSantaMaradeGuadalupedeExtremadura,aftertheimageoftheVirginMaryveneratedattheSpanish
monasteryofVilluercas,inGuadalupe,Cceres,Spain.Heexploredthatislandfrom4to10November.
MicheledaCuneo,Columbus'schildhoodfriendfromSavona,sailedwithColumbusduringthesecondvoyage
andwrote:"Inmyopinion,sinceGenoawasGenoa,therewasneverbornamansowellequippedandexpertinthe
artofnavigationasthesaidlordAdmiral."[60]Columbusnamedthesmallislandof"Saona...tohonorMicheleda
Cuneo,hisfriendfromSavona."[61]

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ThesamechildhoodfriendreportedinaletterthatColumbushadprovidedoneofthecapturedindigenouswomen
tohim.Hewrote,"WhileIwasintheboat,IcapturedaverybeautifulCaribwoman,whomthesaidLordAdmiral
gavetome.WhenIhadtakenhertomycabinshewasnakedaswastheircustom.Iwasfilledwithadesireto
takemypleasurewithherandattemptedtosatisfymydesire.Shewasunwilling,andsotreatedmewithhernails
thatIwishedIhadneverbegun.ButtocutalongstoryshortIthentookapieceofropeandwhippedher
soundly,andsheletforthsuchincrediblescreamsthatyouwouldnothavebelievedyourears.Eventuallywecame
tosuchterms,Iassureyou,thatyouwouldhavethoughtthatshehadbeenbroughtupinaschoolforwhores."[62]
PedrodelasCasas,fatherofthepriestBartolomdelasCasas,also
accompaniedColumbusonthisvoyage.[63]
TheexactcourseofColumbus'svoyagethroughtheLesserAntillesis
debated,butitseemslikelythatheturnednorth,sightingandnaming
severalislands,including:
Montserrat(forSantaMaradeMontserrate,aftertheBlessedVirgin
oftheMonasteryofMontserrat,whichislocatedontheMountainof
Montserrat,inCatalonia,Spain),
Antigua(afterachurchinSeville,Spain,calledSantaMarala
Antigua,meaning"OldSt.Mary's"),
Redonda(SantaMaralaRedonda,Spanishfor"St.Marythe
Round",owingtotheisland'sshape),
Nevis(derivedfromtheSpanishNuestraSeoradelasNieves,"Our
LadyoftheSnows",becauseColumbusthoughtthecloudsover
NevisPeakmadetheislandresembleasnowcappedmountain),
SaintKitts(forSt.Christopher,patronofsailorsandtravelers),
SintEustatius(fortheearlyRomanmartyr,St.Eustachius),
Saba(aftertheBiblicalQueenofSheba),
SaintMartin(SanMartn),and
SaintCroix(fromtheSpanishSantaCruz,meaning"HolyCross").

TheInspirationofChristopher
ColumbusbyJosMaraObregn,
1856

ColumbusalsosightedthechainoftheVirginIslands,whichhenamedIslasdeSantarsulaylasOnceMil
Vrgenes,"IslandsofSaintUrsulaandthe11,000Virgins"(shortened,bothonmapsofthetimeandincommon
parlance,toIslasVrgenes).HealsonamedtheislandsofVirginGorda("FatVirgin"),Tortola,andPeterIsland
(SanPedro).
HecontinuedtotheGreaterAntilles,andlandedinPuertoRico,whichhenamedSanJuanBautistainhonorof
SaintJohntheBaptist(anamethatwaslaterretainedonlyforthecapitalcityofSanJuan).Oneofthefirst
skirmishesbetweenNativeAmericansandEuropeanssincethetimeoftheVikings[64]occurredwhenColumbus's
menrescuedtwonativeboyswhohadjustbeencastratedbytheircaptorsinanothertribe.
On22November,ColumbusreturnedtoHispaniola,whereheintendedtovisitthefortofLaNavidad,builtduring
hisfirstvoyageandlocatedonthenortherncoastofHaiti.Columbusfoundthefortinruins,destroyedbythe
nativeTainopeople.[65]Amongtheruinswerethecorpsesof11ofthe39Spaniardswhohadstayedbehindasthe
firstcolonistsintheNewWorld.
Columbusthensailedmorethan100kilometres(62miles)eastwardsalongthenortherncoastofHispaniola,
establishinganewsettlement,whichhecalledLaIsabela,inthepresentdayDominicanRepublic.[66]However,La
Isabelaprovedtobepoorlylocatedandthesettlementwasshortlived.

Thirdvoyage
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On30May1498,Columbusleftwithsixshipsfrom
Sanlcar,Spain,forhisthirdtriptotheNewWorld.
ThreeoftheshipsheadeddirectlyforHispaniolawith
muchneededsupplies,whileColumbustooktheother
threeinanexplorationofwhatmightlietothesouthof
theCaribbeanislandshehadalreadyvisited,including
ahopeforpassagetocontinentalAsia.[67]
ColumbusledhisfleettothePortugueseislandof
PortoSanto,hiswife'snativeland.Hethensailedto
MadeiraandspentsometimetherewiththePortuguese
captainJooGonalvesdaCamara,beforesailingto
theCanaryIslandsandCapeVerde.Ashecrossedthe
Atlantic,Columbusdiscoveredthattheanglebetween
Thirdvoyage
NorthasindicatedbyamagneticcompassandNorthas
measuredbythepositionofthepolestarchangedwith
hisposition(aphenomenonnowknownas"compassvariation").Hewouldlaterusehispreviousmeasurementsof
thecompassvariationtoadjusthisreckoning.[5]
AfterbeingbecalmedforseveraldaysinthedoldrumsofthemidAtlantic,Columbus'sfleetregaineditswindand,
dangerouslylowonwater,turnednorthinthedirectionofDominica,whichColumbushadvisitedinhisprevious
voyage.TheshipssightedthelandofTrinidadon31Julyapproachingfromthesoutheast.[68]Thefleetsailed
alongthesoutherncoastandenteredDragon'sMouth,anchoringnearSoldadoRockwheretheymadecontactwith
agroupofnativeAmerindiansincanoes.[69]ColumbusthenlandedonTrinidadatIcacosPoint(whichhenamed
PuntadeArenal)on2August.[70]Afterresupplyingwithfoodandwater,from4to12AugustColumbusexplored
theGulfofParia,whichseparatesTrinidadfromwhatisnowVenezuela,nearthedeltaoftheOrinocoRiver.He
thentouchedthemainlandofSouthAmericaatthePariaPeninsula.
ColumbuscorrectlyinterpretedtheenormousquantityoffreshwaterthattheOrinocodeliveredintotheAtlantic
Oceanasevidencethathehadreachedacontinentallandmass.AshesailedtheGulfofParia,heobservedthe
diurnalrotationofthepolestarinthesky,whichheerroneouslyinterpretedasevidencethattheEarthwasnot
perfectlyspherical,butratherbulgedoutlikeapeararoundthenewfoundcontinent.[5]Healsospeculatedthatthe
newcontinentmightbethelocationofthebiblicalGardenofEden.HethensailedtotheislandsofChacachacare
andMargarita.HesightedTobago(whichhenamed"BellaForma")andGrenada(whichhenamed"Concepcin").
Inpoorhealth,ColumbusreturnedtoHispaniolaon19August,onlytofindthatmanyoftheSpanishsettlersofthe
newcolonywereinrebellionagainsthisrule,claimingthatColumbushadmisledthemaboutthesupposedly
bountifulrichesoftheNewWorld.AnumberofreturningsettlersandsailorslobbiedagainstColumbusatthe
Spanishcourt,accusinghimandhisbrothersofgrossmismanagement.Columbushadsomeofhiscrewhangedfor
disobedience.HehadaneconomicinterestintheenslavementoftheHispaniolanativesandforthatreasonwasnot
eagertobaptizethem,whichattractedcriticismfromsomechurchmen.[71]AnentryinhisjournalfromSeptember
1498reads:"Fromhereonemightsend,inthenameoftheHolyTrinity,asmanyslavesascouldbesold..."
Columbuswaseventuallyforcedtomakepeacewiththerebelliouscolonistsonhumiliatingterms.[72]In1500,the
Crownhadhimremovedasgovernor,arrested,andtransportedinchainstoSpain(see"Accusationsoftyranny
duringgovernorship"sectionbelow).HewaseventuallyfreedandallowedtoreturntotheNewWorld,butnotas
governor.

Fourthvoyage
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Beforeleavingforhisfourthvoyage,Columbuswrote
alettertotheGovernorsoftheBankofSaintGeorge,
Genoa,datedatSeville,2April1502.[73]Hewrote
"Althoughmybodyisheremyheartisalwaysnear
you."[74]
Columbusmadeafourthvoyagenominallyinsearchof
theStraitofMalaccatotheIndianOcean.
AccompaniedbyhisbrotherBartolomeoandhis13
yearoldsonFernando,heleftCdizon11May1502,
withhisflagshipSantaMaraandthevesselsGallega,
Vizcana,andSantiagodePalos.HesailedtoArzilaon
theMoroccancoasttorescuePortuguesesoldiers
whomhehadheardwereundersiegebytheMoors.

Columbus'sfourthvoyage

On15JunetheylandedatCarbetontheislandofMartinique(Martinica).A
hurricanewasbrewing,sohecontinuedon,hopingtofindshelteron
Hispaniola.HearrivedatSantoDomingoon29Junebutwasdeniedport,and
thenewgovernorrefusedtolistentohisstormprediction.Instead,while
Columbus'sshipsshelteredatthemouthoftheRioJaina,thefirstSpanish
treasurefleetsailedintothehurricane.Columbus'sshipssurvivedwithonly
minordamage,while29ofthe30shipsinthegovernor'sfleetwerelosttoa
stormon1July.Inadditiontotheships,500lives(includingthatofthe
governor,FranciscodeBobadilla)andanimmensecargoofgoldwere
surrenderedtothesea.
AfterabriefstopatJamaica,ColumbussailedtoCentralAmerica,arrivingat
Guanaja(IsladePinos)intheBayIslandsoffthecoastofHondurason30
July.HereBartolomeofoundnativemerchantsandalargecanoe,whichwas
describedasbeing"longasagalley"andfilledwithcargo.On14Augusthe
landedonthecontinentalmainlandatPuertoCastilla,nearTrujillo,Honduras.
HespenttwomonthsexploringthecoastsofHonduras,Nicaragua,andCosta
Rica,beforearrivinginAlmiranteBayinPanamaon16October.

CoatofArmsgrantedto
ChristopherColumbusandthe
HouseofColonbyPope
AlexanderVImotuproprioin
1502.

On5December1502,Columbusandhiscrewfoundthemselvesinastorm
unlikeanytheyhadeverexperienced.InhisjournalColumbuswrites,
ForninedaysIwasasonelost,withouthopeoflife.Eyesneverbeheldtheseasoangry,sohigh,so
coveredwithfoam.Thewindnotonlypreventedourprogress,butofferednoopportunitytorun
behindanyheadlandforshelterhencewewereforcedtokeepoutinthisbloodyocean,seethinglikea
potonahotfire.Neverdidtheskylookmoreterribleforonewholedayandnightitblazedlikea
furnace,andthelightningbrokewithsuchviolencethateachtimeIwonderedifithadcarriedoffmy
sparsandsailstheflashescamewithsuchfuryandfrightfulnessthatweallthoughtthattheship
wouldbeblasted.AllthistimethewaterneverceasedtofallfromtheskyIdonotsayitrained,forit
waslikeanotherdeluge.Themenweresowornoutthattheylongedfordeathtoendtheirdreadful
suffering.[75]
InPanama,ColumbuslearnedfromtheNgobeofgoldandastraittoanotherocean,butwastoldbylocalleader
Quibannottogopastacertainpointdowntheriver.Aftermuchexploration,inJanuary1503heestablisheda
garrisonatthemouthoftheBelnRiver.On6Apriloneoftheshipsbecamestrandedintheriver.Atthesame
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time,thegarrisonwasattackedbyQuibanandtheothershipswere
damaged.Shipwormsalsodamagedtheshipsintropicalwaters.[76]
ColumbusleftforHispaniolaon16Aprilheadingnorth.On10May
hesightedtheCaymanIslands,namingthem"LasTortugas"afterthe
numerousseaturtlesthere.Hisshipsnextsustainedmoredamageina
stormoffthecoastofCuba.Unabletotravelfarther,on25June1503
theywerebeachedinSt.Ann'sBay,Jamaica.
ForoneyearColumbusandhismenremainedstrandedonJamaica.A
Spaniard,DiegoMndez,andsomenativespaddledacanoetogethelp
fromHispaniola.Thegovernor,NicolsdeOvandoyCceres,detested
ColumbusawestheJamaicannativesby
Columbusandobstructedalleffortstorescuehimandhismen.Inthe
predictingthelunareclipseof1504.
meantimeColumbus,inadesperateefforttoinducethenativesto
continueprovisioninghimandhishungrymen,wontheirfavorby
predictingalunareclipsefor29February1504,usingAbrahamZacuto'sastronomicalcharts.[77][78][79]Help
finallyarrived,nothankstothegovernor,on29June1504,andColumbusandhismenarrivedinSanlcar,Spain,
on7November.

Accusationsoftyrannyduringgovernorship
Followinghisfirstvoyage,ColumbuswasappointedViceroyandGovernoroftheIndiesunderthetermsofthe
CapitulationsofSantaFe.Inpractice,thisprimarilyentailedtheadministrationofthecoloniesintheislandof
Hispaniola,whosecapitalwasestablishedinSantoDomingo.Bytheendofhisthirdvoyage,Columbuswas
physicallyandmentallyexhausted,hisbodywrackedbyarthritisandhiseyesbyophthalmia.InOctober1499,he
senttwoshipstoSpain,askingtheCourtofSpaintoappointaroyalcommissionertohelphimgovern.
Bythistime,accusationsoftyrannyandincompetenceonthepartofColumbushadalsoreachedtheCourt.Queen
IsabellaandKingFerdinandrespondedbyremovingColumbusfrompowerandreplacinghimwithFranciscode
Bobadilla,amemberoftheOrderofCalatrava.Bobadilla,whoruledasgovernorfrom1500untilhisdeathina
stormin1502,hadalsobeentaskedbytheCourtwithinvestigatingtheaccusationsofbrutalitymadeagainst
Columbus.ArrivinginSantoDomingowhileColumbuswasawayintheexplorationsofhisthirdvoyage,
BobadillawasimmediatelymetwithcomplaintsaboutallthreeColumbusbrothers:Christopher,Bartolom,and
Diego.ArecentlydiscoveredreportbyBobadillaallegesthatColumbusregularlyusedtortureandmutilationto
governHispaniola.The48pagereport,foundin2006inthestatearchiveintheSpanishcityofValladolid,
containstestimoniesfrom23people,includingbothenemiesandsupportersofColumbus,aboutthetreatmentof
colonialsubjectsbyColumbusandhisbrothersduringhissevenyearrule.[80]
Accordingtothereport,Columbusoncepunishedamanfoundguiltyofstealingcornbyhavinghisearsandnose
cutoffandthensellinghimintoslavery.TestimonyrecordedinthereportclaimsthatColumbuscongratulatedhis
brotherBartolomon"defendingthefamily"whenthelatterorderedawomanparadednakedthroughthestreets
andthenhadhertonguecutoutforsuggestingthatColumbuswasoflowlybirth.[80]Thedocumentalsodescribes
howColumbusputdownnativeunrestandrevolthefirstorderedabrutalcrackdowninwhichmanynativeswere
killedandthenparadedtheirdismemberedbodiesthroughthestreetsinanattempttodiscouragefurther
rebellion.[81]"Columbus'sgovernmentwascharacterisedbyaformoftyranny,"ConsueloVarela,aSpanish
historianwhohasseenthedocument,toldjournalists.[80]"Eventhosewholovedhim[Columbus]hadtoadmitthe
atrocitiesthathadtakenplace."[80]

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Becauseoftheirgrossmismanagementofgovernance,Columbusandhisbrotherswerearrestedandimprisoned
upontheirreturntoSpainfromthethirdvoyage.TheylingeredinjailforsixweeksbeforebusyKingFerdinand
orderedtheirrelease.Notlongafter,thekingandqueensummonedtheColumbusbrotherstotheAlhambrapalace
inGranada.Theretheroyalcoupleheardthebrothers'pleasrestoredtheirfreedomandwealthand,aftermuch
persuasion,agreedtofundColumbus'sfourthvoyage.ButthedoorwasfirmlyshutonColumbus'sroleas
governor.HenceforthNicolsdeOvandoyCcereswastobethenewgovernoroftheWestIndies.

Laterlife
Columbushadalwaysclaimedtheconversionofnonbelieversasonereasonfor
hisexplorations,buthegrewincreasinglyreligiousinhislateryears.Probablywith
theassistanceofhissonDiegoandhisfriendtheCarthusianmonkGaspar
Gorricio,Columbusproducedtwobooksduringhislateryears:aBookof
Privileges(1502),detailinganddocumentingtherewardsfromtheSpanishCrown
towhichhebelievedheandhisheirswereentitled,andaBookofProphecies
(1505),inwhichheconsideredhisachievementsasanexplorerbutafulfillmentof
BibleprophecyinthecontextofChristianeschatology.[10][83]
Inhislateryears,ColumbusdemandedthattheSpanishCrowngivehim10percent
ofallprofitsmadeinthenewlands,asstipulatedintheCapitulationsofSantaFe.
Becausehehadbeenrelievedofhisdutiesasgovernor,thecrowndidnotfeel
boundbythatcontractandhisdemandswererejected.Afterhisdeath,hisheirs
suedtheCrownforapartoftheprofitsfromtradewithAmerica,aswellasother
rewards.Thisledtoaprotractedseriesoflegaldisputesknownasthepleitos
colombinos("Columbianlawsuits").

ReplicaoftheSantaMara,
Columbus'sflagshipduring
hisfirstvoyage,athis
Valladolidhouse[82]

Illnessanddeath
Duringaviolentstormonhisfirstreturnvoyage,Columbus,thenapproximately
41,sufferedanattackofwhatwasbelievedatthetimetobegout.Insubsequent
years,hewasplaguedwithwhatwasthoughttobeinfluenzaandotherfevers,
bleedingfromtheeyes,andprolongedattacksofgout.Thesuspectedattacks
increasedindurationandseverity,sometimesleavingColumbusbedriddenfor
monthsatatime,andculminatedinhisdeath14yearslater.
BasedonColumbus'slifestyleandthedescribedsymptoms,moderndoctors
suspectthathesufferedfromReiter'ssyndrome,ratherthangout.[85][86]Reiter's
ThedeathofColumbus,
syndromeisacommonpresentationofreactivearthritis,ajointinflammation
lithographbyL.Prang&
causedbyintestinalbacterialinfectionsorafteracquiringcertainsexually
Co.,1893
transmitteddiseases(primarilychlamydiaorgonorrhea)."Itseemslikelythat
[Columbus]acquiredreactivearthritisfromfoodpoisoningononeofhisocean
voyagesbecauseofpoorsanitationandimproperfoodpreparation,"writesDr.FrankC.Arnett,arheumatologist
andprofessorofinternalmedicine,pathologyandlaboratorymedicinetheUniversityofTexasMedicalSchoolat
Houston.[85]
On20May1506,agedprobably54,ColumbusdiedinValladolid,Spain.Hisremainswerefirstinterredat
Valladolid,thenatthemonasteryofLaCartujainSeville(southernSpain)bythewillofhissonDiegoColn,who
hadbeengovernorofHispaniola.In1542,theremainsweretransferredtoColonialSantoDomingo,inthepresent
dayDominicanRepublic.In1795,whenFrancetookovertheentireislandofHispaniola,Columbus'sremains
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weremovedtoHavana,Cuba.AfterCubabecameindependentfollowingthe
SpanishAmericanWarin1898,theremainsweremovedbacktoSpain,tothe
CathedralofSeville,[87]wheretheywereplacedonanelaboratecatafalque.
However,aleadboxbearinganinscription
identifying"DonChristopherColumbus"
andcontainingbonefragmentsandabullet
wasdiscoveredatSantoDomingoin1877.
Tolaytorestclaimsthatthewrongrelics
hadbeenmovedtoHavanaandthat
Columbus'sremainshadbeenleftburiedin
thecathedralatSantoDomingo,DNA
samplesofthecorpserestinginSeville
weretakeninJune2003(HistoryToday
TombinSevilleCathedral.
August2003)aswellasotherDNA
Theremainsareborneby
samplesfromtheremainsofhisbrother
kingsofCastile,Leon,
DiegoandyoungersonFernandoColn.
AragonandNavarre. [84]
Initialobservationssuggestedthatthebones
didnotappeartobelongtosomebodywith
SilverCaravel.AshesofChristopher
thephysiqueorageatdeathassociatedwithColumbus.[89]DNAextraction
Columbus[88]
proveddifficultonlyshortfragmentsofmitochondrialDNAcouldbe
isolated.ThemtDNAfragmentsmatchedcorrespondingDNAfrom
Columbus'sbrother,givingsupportthatbothindividualshadsharedthesamemother.[90]
Suchevidence,togetherwithanthropologicandhistoricanalyses,ledtheresearcherstoconcludethattheremains
foundinSevillebelongedtoChristopherColumbus.[91]TheauthoritiesinSantoDomingohaveneverallowedthe
remainstheretobeexhumed,soitisunknownifanyofthoseremainscouldbefromColumbus'sbodyas
well.[90][91]TheDominicanremainsarelocatedin"TheColumbusLighthouse"(FaroaColn),inSantoDomingo.

Commemoration
TheanniversaryofColumbus's1492landingintheAmericasisusuallyobservedon12OctoberinSpainand
throughouttheAmericas,exceptCanada.InSpainitiscalledtheFiestaNacionaldeEspaayDadela
Hispanidad,whileanumberofcountriesinLatinAmericacelebrateitasDadelaRaza.IntheUnitedStatesitis
calledColumbusDayandisobservedannuallyonthesecondMondayinOctober.
TheWorldColumbianExpositioninChicago,1893,commemoratedthe
400thanniversaryofthelandingofChristopherColumbusinthe
Americas.[92]Over27millionpeopleattendedtheexpositionduringitssix
monthduration.
TheU.S.PostalServiceparticipatedinthecelebrationissuingthefirstUS
commemorativepostagestamps,aseriesof16postageissuescalledthe
ColumbianIssuedepictingColumbus,QueenIsabellaandothersinthe
variousstagesofhisseveralvoyages.Theissuesrangeinvaluefromthe1
U.S.ColumbianIssueof1893.
centtothe5dollardenominations.UnderBenjaminHarrisonandhis
PostmasterGeneralJohnWanamakertheColumbiancommemorative
stampsweremadeavailableandwerefirstissuedattheWorldColumbianExpositioninChicago,Illinois,in1893.
Wanamakeroriginallyintroducedtheideaofissuingthenation'sfirstcommemorativestamptoHarrison,the
CongressandtheU.S.PostOffice.TodemonstratehisconfidenceinthenewColumbiancommemorativeissues
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Wanamakerpurchased$10,000worthofstampswithhisownmoney.TheColumbianExpositionlastedseveral
months,andover$40millionincommemorativepostagestampshadbeensold.[93]The400thanniversary
ColumbianissueswereverypopularintheUnitedStates.Atotaloftwobillionstampswereissuedforallthe
Columbiandenominations,and72percentofthesewerethetwocentstamps,"LandingofColumbus",whichpaid
thefirstclassratefordomesticmailatthetime.[94]
In1992,asecondColumbianissuewasreleasedthatwasidenticaltothefirsttocommemoratethe500th
anniversary,exceptforthedateintheupperrighthandcornerofeachstamp.Theseissuesweremadefromthe
originaldiesofwhichthefirstengravedissuesof1893wereproduced.TheUnitedStatesissuedtheseriesjointly
forthefirsttimewiththreeothercountries,Italyinlire,PortugalinescudosandSpaininpesetas.[95]

Legacy
Discoverer
ThoughChristopherColumbuscametobeconsideredthe"discovererof
America"inUSandEuropeanpopularculture,histruehistoricallegacyis
morenuanced.Americawasfirstdiscoveredbyitsindigenouspopulation,
andColumbuswasnoteventhefirstEuropeantoreachitsshoresashewas
precededbytheVikingsatL'AnseauxMeadows.Butthelasting
significanceofColumbus'svoyagesoutshonethatofhisViking
predecessors,becausehemanagedtobringwordofthecontinentbackto
Europe.BybringingthecontinenttotheforefrontofWesternattention,
ColumbusinitiatedtheenduringrelationshipbetweentheEarth'stwomajor
landmassesandtheirinhabitants."Columbus'sclaimtofameisn'tthathe
gottherefirst,"explainshistorianMartinDugard,"it'sthathestayed."[97]

ColumbusLighthouse(Faroa
Coln),SantoDomingo[96]

HistorianshavetraditionallyarguedthatColumbusremainedconvincedto
theveryendthathisjourneyshadbeenalongtheeastcoastofAsia,[98]butwriterKirkpatrickSalearguesthata
documentintheBookofPrivilegesindicatesColumbusknewhefoundanewcontinent.[99]Furthermore,his
journalsfromthethirdvoyagecallthe"landofParia"a"hithertounknown"continent.[100]Ontheotherhand,his
otherwritingscontinuedtoclaimthathehadreachedAsia,suchasa1502lettertoPopeAlexanderVIwherehe
assertedthatCubawastheeastcoastofAsia.[101]HealsorationalizedthatthenewcontinentofSouthAmerica
wasthe"EarthlyParadise"thatwaslocated"attheendoftheOrient".[100]Thus,itremainsunclearwhathistrue
beliefswere.
Theterm"preColumbian"isusuallyusedtorefertothepeoplesandculturesoftheAmericasbeforethearrivalof
ColumbusandhisEuropeansuccessors.

FlatEarthmythology
ColumbusisoftenattributedwithrefutingaprevalentbeliefinaflatEarth.However,thislegacyisapopular
misconception.Tothecontrary,thesphericalshapeoftheEarthhadbeenknowntoscholarssinceantiquity,and
wascommonknowledgeamongsailors.Coincidentally,theoldestsurvivingglobeoftheEarth,theErdapfel,was
madein1492justbeforeColumbus'sreturntoEurope.AssuchitcontainsnosignoftheAmericasandyet
demonstratesthecommonbeliefinasphericalEarth.[102]

Americaasadistinctland
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ThescholarAmerigoVespucci,whosailedtoAmericaintheyears
followingColumbus'sfirstvoyage,wasthefirsttospeculatethattheland
wasnotpartofAsiabutinfactconstitutedsomewhollynewcontinent
previouslyunknowntoEurasians.Histraveljournals,published150204,
convincedGermancartographerMartinWaldseemllertoreachthesame
conclusion,andin1507ayearafterColumbus'sdeathWaldseemller
publishedaworldmapcallingthenewcontinentAmericafromVespucci's
Latinizedname"Americus".AccordingtoPaulLunde,"Thepreoccupation
ofEuropeancourtswiththeriseoftheOttomanTurksintheEastpartly
explainstheirrelativelackofinterestinColumbus'sdiscoveriesinthe
West."[104]

ReplicasofNia,PintaandSanta
MariasailedfromSpaintothe
ChicagoColumbianExposition

Historically,theBritishhaddownplayedColumbusandemphasizedthe
roleoftheVenetianJohnCabotasapioneerexplorer,butfortheemerging
UnitedStates,Cabotmadeforapoornationalhero.Venerationof
ColumbusinAmericadatesbacktocolonialtimes.ThenameColumbiafor
"America"firstappearedina1738weeklypublicationofthedebatesofthe
BritishParliament.[105]TheuseofColumbusasafoundingfigureofNew
Worldnationsandtheuseoftheword"Columbia",orsimplythename
"Columbus",spreadrapidlyaftertheAmericanRevolution.Columbus's
namewasgiventothefederalcapitaloftheUnitedStates(Districtof
Columbia),thecapitalcitiesoftwoU.S.states(OhioandSouthCarolina),
Columbusmonumentnearthestate
andtheColumbiaRiver.OutsidetheUnitedStatesthenamewasusedin
capitolinDenver,Colorado[103]
1819fortheGranColombia,aprecursorofthemodernRepublicof
Colombia.Numerouscities,towns,counties,streets,andplazas(called
PlazaColnorPlazadeColnthroughoutLatinAmericaandSpain)havebeennamedafterhim.Acandidatefor
sainthoodintheCatholicChurchin1866,celebrationofColumbus'slegacyperhapsreachedazenithin1892with
the400thanniversaryofhisfirstarrivalintheAmericas.MonumentstoColumbusliketheColumbianExposition
inChicagoandColumbusCircleinNewYorkCitywereerectedthroughouttheUnitedStatesandLatinAmerica
extollinghim.
In1909,descendantsofColumbusundertooktodismantletheColumbusfamilychapelinSpainandmoveitto
BoalsburgnearStateCollege,Pennsylvania,whereitmaynowbevisitedbythepublic.[106]Atthemuseum
associatedwiththechapel,thereareanumberofColumbusrelicsworthyofnote,includingthearmchairthatthe
"AdmiraloftheOceanSea"usedathischarttable.

Atrocitiesandtragediesofcolonization
MorerecentviewsofColumbushavebeencriticalofhiscolonizationandtreatmentofnatives.[107][108][109]Among
reasonsforthiscriticismisthetreatmentanddisappearanceofthenativeTainopeopleofHispaniola,where
Columbusbeganarudimentarytributesystemforgoldandcotton.Thepeopledisappearedrapidlyaftercontact
withtheSpanishbecauseofoverworkandthefirstpandemicofEuropeandiseases,whichstruckHispaniolaafter
1519.[110][111]DelasCasasrecordsthatwhenhefirstcametoHispaniolain1508,"therewere60,000peopleliving
onthisisland,includingtheIndianssothatfrom1494to1508,overthreemillionpeoplehadperishedfromwar,
slavery,andthemines.Whoinfuturegenerationswillbelievethis?Imyselfwritingitasaknowledgeable
eyewitnesscanhardlybelieveit...."[112]ModernestimatesforthepreColumbianpopulationofHispaniolaare
around250,000300,000.AccordingtothehistorianGonzaloFernandezdeOviedoyValdesby1548,56years
afterColumbuslanded,fewerthanfivehundredTainowereleftontheisland.[113]

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ThenativeTainopeopleoftheislandweresystematicallyenslavedviatheencomiendasystemimplementedby
Columbus,[114]whichresembledafeudalsysteminMedievalEurope.[115]Diseaseplayedasignificantroleinthe
destructionofthenatives.Indirectevidencesuggeststhatsomeseriousillnessmayhavearrivedwiththe1500
colonistswhoaccompaniedColumbus'ssecondexpeditionin1493.Andbytheendof1494,diseaseandfamine
hadclaimedtwothirdsoftheSpanishsettlers.[111][116]Whenthefirstpandemicfinallystruckin1519itwipedout
muchoftheremainingnativepopulation.
Columbus'ssoldierskilledandenslavedwithimpunityateverylanding.WhenColumbusfellillin1495,"what
littlerestrainthehadmaintainedoverhismendisappearedashewentthroughalengthyperiodofrecuperation.
Thetroopswentwild,stealing,killing,raping,andtorturingnatives,tryingtoforcethemtodivulgethe
whereaboutsoftheimaginedtreasurehousesofgold."AccordingtodeLasCasas,50,000nativesperishedduring
thisperiod.Uponhisrecovery,Columbusorganizedhistroops'efforts,formingasquadronofseveralhundred
heavilyarmedmenandmorethantwentyattackdogs.Thementoreacrosstheland,killingthousandsofsickand
unarmednatives.Soldierswouldusetheircaptivesforswordpractice,attemptingtodecapitatethemorcutthemin
halfwithasingleblow.[117]
ThehistorianHowardZinnwritesthatColumbusspearheadedamassiveslavetradein1495hismencapturedina
singleraid1500Arawakmen,women,andchildren.WhenheshippedfivehundredoftheslavestoSpain,40
percentdiedenroute.[47]HistorianJamesW.Loewenassertsthat"Columbusnotonlysentthefirstslavesacross
theAtlantic,heprobablysentmoreslavesaboutfivethousandthananyotherindividual...othernationsrushed
toemulateColumbus."[56]
DeLasCasaswritesthatwhenslavesheldincaptivitybegantodieathighrates,Columbusswitchedtoadifferent
systemofforcedlabor:heorderedallnativesovertheageofthirteentocollectaspecifiedamount(onehawk'sbell
full)ofgoldpowdereverythreemonths.Nativeswhobroughttheamountweregivenacoppertokentohang
aroundtheirnecks,andthosefoundwithouttokenshadtheirhandsamputatedandwerelefttobleedto
death.[47][118]
TheArawaksattemptedtofightbackagainstColumbus'smenbutlackedtheirarmor,guns,swords,andhorses.
Whentakenprisoner,theywerehangedorburnedtodeath.Desperationledtomasssuicidesandinfanticideamong
thenatives.InjusttwoyearsunderColumbus'sgovernorshipmorethanhalfofthe250,000ArawaksinHaitiwere
dead.[47]Themaincauseforthedepopulationwasdiseasefollowedbyothercausessuchaswarfareandharsh
enslavement.[119][120][121]
SamuelEliotMorison,aHarvardhistorianandauthorofamultivolumebiographyonColumbuswrites,"Thecruel
policyinitiatedbyColumbusandpursuedbyhissuccessorsresultedincompletegenocide."[122]Loewenlaments
thatwhile"HaitiundertheSpanishisoneoftheprimaryinstancesofgenocideinallhumanhistory",onlyone
majorhistorytexthereviewedmentionsColumbus'sroleinit.[123]
HoweversomeoftheseaccountsmaybepartofBlackLegend.[124][125][126]NobleDavidCook,writingaboutthe
BlackLegendandtheconquestoftheAmericaswrote,"ThereweretoofewSpaniardstohavekilledthemillions
whowerereportedtohavediedinthefirstcenturyafterOldandNewWorldcontact".Heinsteadestimatesthatthe
deathtollwascausedbydiseaseslikesmallpox,[127]whichaccordingtosomeestimateshadan8090%fatality
rateinNativeAmericanpopulations.[128]
ThereisevidencethatthemenofthefirstvoyagealsobroughtsyphilisfromtheNewWorldtoEurope.[129]Many
ofthecrewmemberswhoservedonthisvoyagelaterjoinedthearmyofKingCharlesVIIIinhisinvasionofItaly
in1495.Afterthevictory,Charles'slargelymercenaryarmyreturnedtotheirrespectivehomes,therebyspreading
"theGreatPox"acrossEuropeandtriggeringthedeathsofmorethanfivemillionpeople.[130]
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Physicalappearance
AlthoughanabundanceofartworkinvolvingChristopherColumbusexists,no
authenticcontemporaryportraithasbeenfound.[131]JamesW.Loewen,author
ofLiesMyTeacherToldMe,believesthevariousposthumousportraitshave
nohistoricalvalue.[132]
Sometimebetween1531and1536,AlejoFernndezpaintedanaltarpiece,The
VirginoftheNavigators,thatincludesadepictionofColumbus.Thepainting
wascommissionedforachapelinSeville'sCasadeContratacin(Houseof
Trade)andremainsthere,astheearliestknownpaintingaboutthediscoveryof
theAmericas.[133][134]

InTheVirginoftheNavigators,
153136

Atthe1893World'sColumbianExposition,71allegedportraitsofColumbus
weredisplayedmostdidnotmatchcontemporarydescriptions.[135]These
writingsdescribehimashavingreddishorblondhair,whichturnedtowhite
earlyinhislife,lightcoloredeyes,[136]aswellasbeingalighterskinned
personwithtoomuchsunexposureturninghisfacered.Accountsconsistently
describeColumbusasalargeandphysicallystrongmanofsomesixfeet(1.83
metres)ormoreinheight,easilytallerthantheaverageEuropeanofhis

day.[137]
ThemosticonicimageofColumbusisaportraitbySebastianodelPiombo,whichhasbeenreproducedinmany
textbooks.ItagreeswithdescriptionsofColumbusinthatitshowsalargemanwithauburnhair,butthepainting
datesfrom1519andcannot,therefore,havebeenpaintedfromlife.Furthermore,theinscriptionidentifyingthe
subjectasColumbuswasprobablyaddedlater,andthefaceshowndiffersfromotherimages,includingthatofthe
"VirginoftheNavigators."[138]

Seealso
ChristopherColumbusinfiction
IndigenousPeoples'Day
TerritoriesoftheUnitedStatesonstamps@Explorers
Columbianhalfdollar

Notes
a.Inotherrelevantlanguages:
Ligurian:CristoffaCombo
Spanish:CristbalColn
Portuguese:CristvoColombo
Latin:ChristophorusColumbus
b."Evenwithlessthanacompleterecord,however,scholarscanstatewithassurancethatColumbuswasborninthe
republicofGenoainnorthernItaly,althoughperhapsnotinthecityitself,andthathisfamilymadealivinginthewool
businessasweaversandmerchants....ThetwomainearlybiographiesofColumbushavebeentakenasliteraltruthby
hundredsofwriters,inlargepartbecausetheywerewrittenbyindividualscloselyconnectedtoColumbusorhis
writings....Bothbiographieshaveseriousshortcomingsasevidence."
c.About10,600nm

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119.AlfredW.Crosby,TheColumbianExchangeWestport,1972,p.47.
120.Abbot2010.
121.Chrisp2006,p.34.
122.Morison,SamuelEliot(June1955).ChristopherColumbus,Mariner.LittleBrown&Co(T)FirstEditionedition(June
1955).ISBN0316583561.
123.Loewen1995,pp.6364.
124.Hanke,Lewis,"AModestProposalforaMoratoriumonGrandGeneralizations:SomeThoughtsontheBlackLegend",
TheHispanicAmericanHistoricalReview51,No.1(Feb.,1971),pp.112127
125.Keen,Benjamin,"TheBlackLegendRevisited:AssumptionsandRealities",HispanicAmericanHistoricalReview49,
no.4(November1969):70319.
126.Keen,Benjamin,"TheWhiteLegendRevisited:AReplytoProfessorHanke's'ModestProposal,'"HispanicAmerican
HistoricalReview51,no.2(May1971):33655.
127.NobleDavidCook(13February1998).BorntoDie:DiseaseandNewWorldConquest,14921650.Cambridge
UniversityPress.pp.914.ISBN9780521627306.
128.ArthurC.Aufderheide,ConradoRodrguezMartn,OdinLangsjoen(1998).TheCambridgeencyclopediaofhuman
paleopathology(https://books.google.com/books?id=qubTdDk1H3IC&pg=PA205&dq&hl=en#v=onepage&q=&f=false).
CambridgeUniversityPress.p.205.ISBN0521552036
129.Harper,Kristinetal.(January2008)."OntheOriginoftheTreponematoses:APhylogeneticApproach".Retrieved
21January2008.
130.CBCNewsStaff(January2008)."StudytracesoriginsofsyphilisinEuropetoNewWorld".Archivedfromtheoriginal
on20080607.Retrieved15January2008.
131.Alden,HenryMills.Harper'sNewMonthlyMagazine.Volume84,Issues499504.PublishedbyHarper&Brothers,
1892.OriginallyfromHarvardUniversity.Digitizedon16December2008.732(https://books.google.com/books?id=Mk
49AAAAYAAJ&pg=PA732).Retrievedon8September2009.'Major,Int.LettersofColumbus,ixxxviii.,says"Notone
ofthesocalledportraitsofColumbusisunquestionablyauthentic."Theydifferfromeachother,andcannotrepresentthe
sameperson.'
132.Loewen1995,p.55.
133.JohnNoble,SusanForsyth,VesnaMaric,PaulaHardy.Andaluca.LonelyPlanet,2007,p.100
134.LindaBieseleHall,TeresaEckmann.Mary,motherandwarrior,UniversityofTexasPress,2004,p.46
135.Morison,SamuelEliotAdmiraloftheOceanSea:ALifeofChristopherColumbus,pp.4748,Boston1942.
136.BartolomdeLasCasas,HistoriadelasIndias,ed.AgustnMillaresCarlo,3vols.(MexicoCity,1951),book1,
chapter2,1:29.TheSpanishwordgarzosisnowusuallytranslatedas"lightblue,"butitseemstohaveconnotedlight
greygreenorhazeleyestoColumbus'scontemporaries.Thewordrubiocanmean"blonde,""fair,"or"ruddy."The
WorldsofChristopherColumbusbyWilliamD.andCarlaRahnPhillips,p.282.
137."DNATestsonChristopherColumbus'bones,onhisrelativesandonGenoeseandCatalanclaimants".Retrieved
9February2009.
138.[1](http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/thecollectiononline/search/437645),MetropolitanMuseumofArt

Bibliography
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Cohen,J.M.(1969)TheFourVoyagesofChristopherColumbus:BeingHisOwnLogBook,LettersandDispatches
withConnectingNarrativeDrawnfromtheLifeoftheAdmiralbyHisSonHernandoColonandOthers.LondonUK:
PenguinClassics.
Columbus,Christopher(1847).Major,RichardHenry,ed.SelectLettersofChristopherColumbus:WithOtherOriginal
Documents,RelatingtoHisFourVoyagestotheNewWorld.London:TheHakluytSociety.Retrieved20160228.
Columbus,ChristopherToscanelli,Paolo(2010)[1893].Markham,ClementsR.,ed.TheJournalofChristopher
Columbus(DuringHisFirstVoyage).CambridgeUniversityPress.ISBN9781108012843.Retrieved20160228.
Columbus,Christopher(1991)[1938].FirstVoyagetoAmerica:Fromthelogofthe"SantaMaria".Dover.ISBN0
486268446.Retrieved20160228.
Columbus,Ferdinand(1571).AHistoryoftheLifeandActionsofAdm.ChristopherColumbus.inChurchill,Awnsham
(1732).ACollectionofvoyagesandtravels.2.pp.501624.
Crosby,A.W.(1987)TheColumbianVoyages:theColumbianExchange,andtheirHistorians.Washington,DC:
AmericanHistoricalAssociation.
Davidson,MilesH.(1997).Columbusthenandnow:alifereexamined.Norman,OK:UniversityofOklahomaPress.
ISBN0806129344.Retrieved20160228.
Froom,LeRoy(1950).ThePropheticFaithofourFathers(DjVuandPDF).1.
Fuson,RobertH.(1992)TheLogofChristopherColumbus.InternationalMarinePublishing
Wey,GmezNicols(2008).Thetropicsofempire:WhyColumbussailedsouthtotheIndies(http://www.worldcat.org/o
clc/137222779).Cambridge,Mass:MITPress.ISBN9780262232647
Joseph,EdwardLanzar(1838).HistoryofTrinidad.A.K.Newman&Co.Retrieved20160228.
Irving,Washington(1828).AHistoryoftheLifeandVoyagesofChristopherColumbus.JohnMurray(UK),G.&C.
Carvill(USA).LinkstoscansontheInternetArchive:Volume1(https://archive.org/stream/historyoflifeand01irviiala#pa
ge/n5/mode/2up),Volume2(https://archive.org/stream/historyoflifeand02irviiala#page/n5/mode/2up),Volume3(https://a
rchive.org/stream/historyoflifeand03irviiala#page/n3/mode/2up),Volume4(https://archive.org/stream/historyoflifevoy04i
rvi#page/n5/mode/2up).
Loewen,JamesW.(1995).LiesMyTeacherToldMe.TheNewPress.
Lopez,Barry(1990).TheRediscoveryofNorthAmerica.Lexicon,KY:UniversityPressofKentucky.ISBN08131
17429.Retrieved20160228.
Morison,SamuelEliot(1942).AdmiraloftheOceanSea:ALifeofChristopherColumbus.Boston:Little,Brownand
Company.ISBN9781406750270.Retrieved20160228.
Morison,SamuelEliot,ChristopherColumbus,Mariner,Boston,Little,BrownandCompany,1955
Phillips,Jr,WilliamD.Phillips,CarlaRahn(1992).TheworldsofChristopherColumbus.Cambridge,UK:Cambridge
UniversityPress.ISBN0521350972.Retrieved20160228.
Sale,KirkpatrickTheConquestofParadise:ChristopherColumbusandtheColumbianLegacy,Plume,1991
Varela,Consuelo(2006).LaCadadeCristbalColn.Madrid:MarcialPons.ISBN9788496467286.Retrieved
20160228.
Wilford,JohnNoble(1991),TheMysteriousHistoryofColumbus:AnExplorationoftheMan,theMyth,theLegacy,
NewYork:AlfredA.Knopf.

Furtherreading
Keen,Benjamin(1978)[1959].TheLifeoftheAdmiralChristopherColumbusbyhisSonFerdinand.
WestportCT:GreenwoodPress.ISBN9780313201752.
Winsor,Justin(1891).ChristopherColumbusandhowhereceivedandimpartedthespiritofdiscovery.
Boston:HoughtonMifflin.Retrieved20160228.

Externallinks
QuotationsrelatedtoChristopherColumbusatWikiquote
WorksbyChristopherColumbus(http://www.gutenberg.org/author/C
olumbus,+Christopher)atProjectGutenberg
WorksbyoraboutChristopherColumbus(https://archive.org/search.
php?query=%28%28subject%3A%22Columbus%2C%20Christophe
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Columbus

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opera/excerpts.html)
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ml)
ColumbusMonumentsPages(overviewofmonumentsforColumbusallovertheworld)(http://columbus.va
nderkrogt.net/)
"ButforColumbusThereWouldBeNoAmerica",TizianoThomasDossena,Bridgepugliausa.it,2012(htt
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