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CFD-1 exam questions

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90 Spring 2013

Final Exam

I certify that:

Prior to taking this exam, I did not discuss the content of the exam with anyone that had

In the 30 minute preparation period for this exam, I did not use any resources in preparing

my response.

After taking this exam, I will not discuss the content of the exam with anyone until after

Signature:

Please bring this signed form to the oral, along with any notes you generated in the 30 minute

preparation period. You can use these notes in your oral response.

Question 1

In designing the layout of an of-shore wind farm, we need to analyze the performance of each

candidate design by computing the expected power generation rate under uncertain wind speed and

uncertain wind direction. You are given a computational fuid dynamics (CFD) simulation code

that can compute the power generation rate of a candidate design at any given wind speed and

direction. Your job is to use a Monte Carlo method to compute the expected power generation rate.

from our Creative Commons license. For more information,

see https://ocw.mit.edu/help/faq-fair-use/.

(a) The uncertain wind speed V is described by a Weibull distribution, whose cumulative distribution function (CDF) is

k

FV (x) = 1 e(x/)

where and k are calibrated from historic meteorological data at the wind farm site. The

uncertain wind direction is described by a uniform [0, 2] distribution, and is independent

of V . Discuss how one can generate random samples of V and for the purpose of Monte

Carlo simulation.

(b) The CFD simulation code is run at N randomly sampled pairs of V and . The computed

power generation rates are P1 , P2 , . . . , PN . What is your estimate of the expected power

generation rate?

(c) Continuing on Question (b), how would you ascertain that the expected power generation rate

lies within X Watts of your estimated value with 95% confdence?

(d) The CFD simulations are time consuming. Discuss how you can construct a response surface

model (RSM). How can the RSM be used in estimating the expected power generation rate?

(Note: Open ended discussion)

Question 2

Consider the advection equation:

w

w

+U

=0,

t

x

(1)

in a periodic domain of x [0, 2]. Suppose the domain is discretized into N grid points

xi = ix ,

i = 1, . . . , N ,

where x =

2

N

and the equation is discretized with the following fnite diference scheme

(k+1)

w

i

(k)

(k)

w

i

t

+U

(k)

(k)

(k)

(k)

w

i+1 w

i1

w

+w

i1 2w

i

= i+1

2x

x

(2)

for some constant > 0, where wi(k) is the numerical solution at x = xi and t = kt. The initial

(k)

(k)

condition wi(0) , i = 1, . . . , N is given. The periodic boundary condition is enforce by wN

1

+1 w

(k)

and w0(k) wN

.

(a) Is this a consistent scheme? Why or why not?

(b) Use von Neumann stability analysis to determine the amplifcation factors of this scheme for

any given U , t and x.

(c) [Bonus] What is the maximum t at which the scheme is stable for any given combination of

U , and x?

MIT OpenCourseWare

https://ocw.mit.edu

Spring 2014

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: https://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

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