You are on page 1of 214

CHAPTER : 1

SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY


1 mark questions
1. What is Chemistry?
Ans: It is a Branch of science deals with the study of composition,
properties and interaction of matter.
2. What are the basic constituents of matter?
Ans: The basic constituents of matter are atoms and molecules
3. Mention any two life saving drugs
Ans: 1. Cisplatin

2. Taxol

4. Name the drug used in the treatment of AIDS


Ans: Azidothymidine (AZT)
5. Name the drug used in the cancer therapy
Ans: 1. Cisplatin

2. Taxol

6. Which chemical is responsible for depletion of Ozone


Ans: Chloroflurocarbons (CFCs)
7. Mention green house gases
Ans: Methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2)
8. What is matter?
Ans: Matter is anything which has mass and occupies space.
9. Define solid
Ans: Solid is a substance have definite shape and volume
10. Define Liquid
Ans: Liquid is a substance which has definite volume but not definite
shape.
11. Define Gas
Ans: Gas is a substance which has neither definite volume nor definite
shape.
12. Name the SI unit of density
Ans: S.I unit of density is Kg/m3 or Kgm-3 or gm/cm3
1

13. Define Significant figure


Ans: Significant figures are meaningful digits which are known with
certainty.
14. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
Ans: Any calculation involving the use of the dimensions of the different
physical quantities involved is called dimensional analysis.
15. What is atomic mass unit?
Ans: Atomic mass unit is defined as a mass exactly equal to 1/12th the
mass of one carbon 12 atom
16. What is the value of 1 a.m.u ?
Ans: 1 a.m.u = 1.66056 x 10-24 g
17. Define molecular mass
Ans: Molecular mass is the sum of atomic masses of the elements
present in a molecule.
18. What is molar mass in gms?
Ans: The mass of one mole of a substance in grams is called molar mass.
19. Write the formula used to calculate the % composition of elements
Ans: Mass percentage of an element =
Mass of that element in the compound
---------------------------------------------------- x 100
Molar mass of the compound
20. What is empirical formula?
Ans: It is a simplest whole number ratio of various atoms present in a
compound.
21. What is molecular formula?
Ans: It is a exact formula indicates number of different types of atoms
present in a molecule of a compound.

22. What is a stoichiometry?


Ans: The quantitative relationships between the various reactants and
products interms of moles, masses, molecules and volumes is called
stoichiometry.
23. What is limiting reagent?
Ans: Out of various reactants in a reaction, a reactant that is completely
consumed in a chemical reaction is called limiting reagent.
24. Write the general formula of molarity equation
Ans: Molarity (M)

No. of moles of solute


Volume of solution in litre

25. Define mole fraction


Ans: It is a ratio of no of moles of a particular component to the total
number of moles of the solution.
26. Define molality
Ans: Molality is the number of moles of solute present in one Kg of
solvent
27. Define mass percentage
Ans: It is defined as the mass of the component in 100 grams of the
solution.
28. Define molarity
Ans: It is defined as the number of moles of solute present in one litre of
solution.
29. Define normality
Ans: Normality can be defined as gram equivalent mass of the substance
present in one dm3 of the solution.

30. Define mole


Ans: Mole can be defined as the amount of a substance that contains as
many particles or entities as there are atoms in exactly 12 gms of carbon
12 isotope.

31. Write the equation to give relationship between oC and oF


Ans: oF = 9/5 (oC) + 32

Two marks questions


1. What is the importance of chemistry in daily life ?
Ans: Chemistry plays an important role in meeting human needs for
food, health care products and other materials aimed at improving the
quality of life.
2. What is homogeneous mixture? Give an example.
Ans: Homogeneous mixture is a mixture in which the components are
completely mix with each other and its composition is uniform
throughout the solution
Ex: sugar solution, air, sodium chloride solution
3. What is heterogeneous mixture? Give an example.
Ans: It is a mixture in which the components are not completely mix with
each other and its composition is not uniform throughout the solution.
Ex: mixture of salt and sugar, grains and pulses
4. Distinguish between pure substance and mixture
Pure Substance

Mixture

1. Pure substance is composed 1. The composition of mixture is


of the same kind of particles
2.

The

pure

homogeneous,

substance
irrespective

variable
is 2. In mixture each of its components
of retains its characteristic properties.

its origin

5. Define atom with an example.


Ans: Atom is the smallest particle of an element which may or may not
be capable of independent existence.
Ex: Atoms of iron, copper, hydrogen
6. Define molecule with an example
Ans: A molecule is the smallest particle of an element or a compound
which can exist freely
Ex: Hydrogen molecule (H2), water molecule (H2O)
7. Define physical properties of matter with an example
Ans: The property which can be measured or observed without changing
the identity or the composition of the substance is called physical
property.
Ex: Colour, odour, melting point and boiling point
8. Define Chemical properties of matter with an example.
Ans: Chemical properties are those in which a chemical change in the
substance occurs.
Ex: Acidity, basacity, combustibility
9. Give the units of S.I. systems for the following a) Electric current
b) Amount of substance
Ans:

a) Electric current Ampere (A)


b) Amount of substance Mole (mol)

10. Define mass and weight


Ans: Mass of a substance is the amount of matter present in it and it is
constant.
Weight is the force exerted by gravity on an object it changes one place
to another due to change in the gravity.
11. Express the following into scientific notation
a) 0.00016
b) 33693.68
Ans:
a) 0.00016 = 1.6 x 10-4
b) 33693.68 = 3.369368 x 104

12. Define significant figures


Ans: The total number of digits in a number including the last digit
whose value is uncertain is called the number of significant figures.
13. Define precision and accuracy
Ans: Precision refers to the closeness of various measurements for the
same quantity. Accuracy is the agreement of a particular value to the
true value of the result.
14. How many significant figures are present in the following ?
a) 6.005
Ans:

b) 6.002 x 1023

a) 6.005 = Four because the zeroes between the non zero digits
are significant figures
b) 6.022 x 1023 = Four because the exponential term is not
considered.
c) 4.01 x 102 = 3 significant figures

15. State the law of conservation of mass and who proposed it ?


Ans: It states that matter can neither be created nor be destroyed. It
was proposed by Antomic Lavoisier.
16. State Law of Definite proportion
Ans: It states that a given compound always contains exactly same
proportion of elements by weight.
17. State Law of Multiple proportions
Ans: Law of multiple proportions can be defined as if two elements can
combine to form more than one compound the masses of one element
that combines with a fixed mass of the other element are in the ratio of
small whole numbers.

18. State Gay Lussacs law of Gaseous volumes


Ans: It can be defined as when gases combine or are produced in a
chemical reaction they do so in a simple ratio by volume provided all
gases are at same temperature and pressure.
19. State Aragadro Law
Ans: It can be defined as equal volumes of gases at the same
temperature and pressure should contain equal no of molecules
20. What are isotopes? Mention the isotopes of carbon
Ans: Atoms having same atomic number with different mass number
are called isotopes. Isotopes of carbon are

12C, 13C, 14C

21. Define Aragadro Number and mention its values


Ans: The number of particles present in one mole of a substance
6.022 x 1023
22. A piece of copper wire is 2.00 inch long. What is its length in centimeter
Ans: 1 inch = 2.54 cm
Therefore 2 inch = 2.54 x 2 = 5.08 Cms
1
23. A plastic Jug contains 3.5 Ltrs of milk calculate the volume of milk in
meter

Ans: 1 L = 1000 Cm3


3.5 L = 1000 x 3.5 Cm3 = 3500.0 Cm3
1m3

= 1mx1mx1m
= 102cm x 102cm x 102cm = 106 Cm3
= 3.5 x 1000 x 1m3 / 106
= 3.5x103
106

= 3.5 x 10-3 m3

24. How many seconds are there in 3 days


Ans: 1 day = 24 hours
1 hour = 60 minutes
7

1 minute = 60 seconds
3 day = 3 x 24 Hrs x 60 min x 60 sec
= 259 200 seconds
25. Calculate the molecular mass of the following

a) Ethane (C2H6)

b) Ammonia (NH3)
Ans: a) Ethane (C2H6)
Ethane = C2H6 2 x atomic mass of carbon + 6 x atomic mass of
Hydrogen
= 2 x (12.011u) + 6 x (1.008 U)
= 24.022u + 6.048u
= 30.070u
b) Ammonia (NH3)
Ammonia=(NH3) = 1x atomic mass of Nitrogen + 3 x atomic mass of Hydrogen

= 1x(14.01u) + 3 (1.008u)
= 14.01u + 3.024u = 17.034u
26. Calculate the formula mass of KCl (Potassium chloride)
Ans: formula mass of potassium chloride = Atomic mass of Potassium +
Atomic mass of chlorine
39.10u + 35.5u = 74.60u
27. Calculate the no of molecules present in 2.5 moles of water (H2O)
Ans: 1 mole of water = 6.022 x 1023
Therefore 2.5 moles of water = 2.5x6.022x1023
1
= 15.055 x 1023 molecules
28. Calculate the percent (%) composition of elements in methanol (CH3OH)
Ans: Molecular formula of methanol CH3OH
Molecular mass of methanol = 1x12.01+4x1.008+ 1x16.0
= 32.042 gm
Percent composition of carbon =
= 12.01
32.042

X 100

Mass of carbon x 100


Molecular mass of CH3OH

= 37.48%

Percent composition of Hydrogen =

Mass of Hydrogen
x 100
Molecular mass of CH3OH

= 4.032 x 100 = 12.5%


32.042
Percent composition of Oxygen = 16x100
32.04

= 49.93%

29. Calculate the amount of water in gm produced by the combustion of


8 gms of Ethane
Ans: Reaction C2H6 + 3 O2  2CO2 + 3H2O
(g)

(g)

(g)

(g)

30 gms of ethane = 1 mole = 3 moles of H2O


8 gms of ethane
1 mole of H2O = 18 gm of H2O
3 mole of H2O = 18x3 = 54 gms of water
30 gms of ethane produced = 54 gms of water
Therefore 8 gms ethane produced = 14.4 gms
8 x 54 = 14.4 gms
30
30. How many moles of methane required to produce 88 gms of CO2 after
combustion
Ans: Combustion reaction
CH4 + 2O2  CO2 + 2H2O
(g)

(g)

(g)

(g)

16 gms of Methane = 1 mole = 44 gms of CO2


44 gms of CO2 is produced from 1 mole of methane
88 gms of CO2 is produced from 88
44

x 1 = 2 moles

31. 25 Kg of N2 (gm) and 5 Kg of H2 are mixed to produce Ammonia (NH3).


Calculate the ammonia formed
Ans: Equation N2+3H2  2NH3
(g)

(g)

(g)

= 25 Kg N2 + 5 Kg H2  NH3
1 Kg of N2 = 1000gm N2
25 Kg of N2 = 25 x 1000 = 25000/28 = 892.85 mol
1 Kg of H2 = 1000 gm H2
5 Kg of H2 = 5x 1000 = 5000/2.016 = 2480.15 mol
According to above equation 1 mol of N2(g) requires 3 moles of H2(g)
Hence 892.85 mole of N2 and the mols of H2 required would be
892.85 x 3 mol of H2 / 1 mol N2
= 2678.55 mol = 2.67855 x 103 mol H2
But we have 2480.15 mol of H2. Hence in this process 2678.55
mol of H2 is required.
3 moles of H2(g)  2 moles of NH3
2480.15 mole of H2  1653.43 mole of NH3 gas is formed
2480.15 x 2 = 1653.43 mol of NH3
3
32. A solution is prepared by adding 4.00 gm of a substance A to 18 gm of
water calculate the mass percent of the solute.
Ans: Mass % of solute (A) = Mass of solute (A)
Mass of solution

x 100

= 4 x 100 = 400
= 18.18 %
4+18g H2O 22gm
Mass % of solute = 18.18%
33. Calculate the molarity of sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) in the solution
prepared by dissolving 4 gm in 500ml of the solution.
Ans : Molarity =

No of moles of solute
Volume of solution in litre

= Mass of NaOH/molar mass of NaOH


0.5 Litre
= 4/40 = 0.1/0.5 = 1/5 = 0.2 mol / litre
0.5
10

34. The density of 2M solution of sodium chloride (NaCl) 1.13 g mol/litre.


Calculate molality of the solution. M= 2 mol per litre.
Ans: Mass of Nacl in 1 litre solution = 2 x 58.5
= 117.0 g
Mass of 1 litre solution = 1000 x 1.13 = 1130 g
Mass of water in solution = 1130 g 117.0 g = 1013 g
Molality = No of moles of solute
Mass of solvent in Kg
= 2 mol / 1.013 Kg = 1.9743 Molality

4 Marks questions

1. Write any four postulates of Daltons atomic theory


Ans: Dalton published a new system of chemical philosophy in 1808 in
which the proposed the following:
1) Matter consists of indivisible atoms
2) All the atoms of a given element have identical properties including
identical mass. Atoms of different elements differ in mass.
3) Compounds are formed when Atoms of different elements combine
in a fixed ratio.
4) Chemical reactions involve reorganization of atoms these are
neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction.
2. A Organic compound contain 57.14% of carbon, 6.16% Hydrogen, 9.52%
Nitrogen 27.18% oxygen. Calculate the empirical formula and molecular
formula. If its molecular mass is 294.3 gm/mole.

11

Ans:
Element

At mass

% at mass

Carbon

57.14

12

57.14/12

Nearest
whole no
4.76

Hydrogen

6.16

6.16/1

6.16

6.16/0.68=9.06

Nitrogen

9.52

14

9.52/14

0.68

0.68/0.68=1

Oxygen

27.18

16

27.18/16

1.698

1.698/0.68=2.45

4.76/0.68=7

Empirical formula = C7H9N1O


Empirical formula mass = C7H9N1O2.5
= 12x7 + 1x9 + 1x14 + 2.5x16
= 84+9+14+40
= 147
Molecular formula mass = 294.3
Molecular formula = Empirical formula x n
n = Molecular formula mass
Empirical formula

294.3
147

n=2
Therefore Molecular formula = Empirical formula x n
= (C7H9N1O2)2
= C14H18N2O4
3. Compound contains 4.07% Hydrogen 24.27% Carbon and 71.65%
chlorine. Its molecular mass is 98.96 gm what are its empirical formula
and molecular formula?
Ans:
Element

Symbol %

of At mass of Moles of the Simpler

element

element

element = %

mass

molar

Hydrogen

4.07

4.07/1 = 4.07

4.04/2.018=2.01

Carbon

24.27

12

24.27/12

2.022/2.018

= 2.022

=1.0019

71.65/35.5

2.018/2.018 = 1

Chlorine

Cl

71.65

35.5

= 2.018

12

Therefore Empirical formula = H2C Cl = CH2Cl


Empirical formula weight = 1x12 + 2x1 + 35.5x1
= 12+2+35.5 = 49.5
Molecular formula = Empirical formula x n
Therefore n = 98.96
49.5

=2

Therefore molecular formula = (CH2Cl)2 = C2H4Cl2

4. An organic substance containing carbon Hydrogen and oxygen gave the


percentage composition as C=40.687 % H=5.085 % and 0=54.228%
The vapour density of the compound is 59 calculate the molecular
formula of the compound.
Ans: Solution = Step 1
Element

Carbon

Symbol

% of
element

At mass
of
element

Moles of
the
element =
%

Simplest molar
ratio

40.687

12

40.687/12 3.390/3.389 = 1

Simplest
whole No.
multiplied
by 2
2

= 3.390
Hydrogen

5.085

5.085/1

5.085/3.389=1.5

= 5.085
Oxygen

54.228

16

54.228/16 3.389/3.389=1

= 3.389

Empirical formula C2H3O2


Step 2
To calculate the empirical formula mass
Empirical formula C2H3O2
Therefore Empirical formula mass 2x12+3x1+2x16 = 59

13

Step 3
To calculate the molecular mass of the compound
The vapour density of the compound = 59
Molecular mass

= Vapour density x 2
= 59 x 2 = 118

Step 4
To calculate the value of n
n=

molecular mass
= 118
Empirical formula mass
59

=2

Step 5
Molecular formula = Empirical formula x n
= C2H3O2 x 2
= C4H6O4
Therefore Molecular formula is C4H6O4

***********************************************

14

CHAPTER 2: STRUCTURE OF ATOM


NUMBER OF TEACHING HOURS: 10 HOURS
MARKS WEIGHTAGE: 09 (1 M, 2M, and 4M)
QUESTIONS CARRYING ONE MARK:

1.

Name the person who first proposed the atomic theory of matter on scientific
basis.

2.

Mention the sub atomic particles.

3.

What is the basic rule, regarding the behaviour of charged particles?

4.

Under what conditions of pressure and voltage, the electrical discharge through the
gases can be observed?

5.

How the pressure of gases in the discharge tube can be adjusted?

6.

What are cathode rays(cathode ray particles)?

7.

Name the phosphorescent material coated inside the discharge tube behind the
anode.

8.

Give the conditions under which cathode rays travel in straight line.

9.

What is the name given to the particles which constitute the cathode rays?

10.

Does the nature of cathode ray depend on the nature of gas in the discharge tube or
the electrode material?

11.

Name the scientist who was able to determine e/m value of an electron.

12.

What is the charge of an electron in coulomb?

13.

What is the mass of an electron in terms of kilogram?

14.

What are canal rays?

15.

Name the fundamental particle of an atom that has highest value for its e/m value.

16.

Does the e/m value of canal rays depend on the nature of gas in the discharge
tube?

17.

Name the gas to be filled in the discharge tube to obtain the smallest and the
lightest positive ion.

18.

Name the smallest and lightest positive ion obtained when hydrogen gas is
subjected to electrical discharge.

19.

Who discovered neutron?

20.

What is the mass of proton in terms of kilogram?

21.

What is the mass of neutron in terms of kilogram?

22.

Name the electrically neutral particle obtained by bombarding beryllium with particles.

23.

Who proposed spherical shape of an atom?

24.

Write one name given to the Thomson model of an atom.

25.

What is the important feature of Thomson model of an atom?

26.

Name the metal foil used in Rutherfords -particle scattering experiment.

27.

What are orbits?

28.

What is atomic number?

29.

What are nucleons?

30.

What is atomic mass number?

31.

What are isotopes?

32.

What are isobars?

33.

Name the three isotopes of hydrogen.

34.
35.

: what does A and Z represent?


How many neutrons are present in 17Cl?

36.

How many protons are present in

37.

How many electrons are present in 11Na?

38.

Name the fundamental particle of an atom which determines the chemical


properties of an element.

39.

Write the SI unit of frequency.

40.

What is the value of speed of light in vacuum?

41.

Define wave number.

ZX

6C?

42.

What is the SI unit of wave number?

43.

What is the relation between energy (E) and frequency ( )of an electromagnetic
radiation?

44.

What is the name given to the smallest quantity of energy that can be emitted or
absorbed in the form of electromagnetic radiation?

45.

What is the wave length range of the visible spectrum?

46.

What is the value of Plancks constant?

47.

What is black body?

48.

What is photoelectric effect?

49.

Give an example of a metal which exhibits photoelectric effect.

50.

What is threshold frequency?

51.

What is emission spectrum?

52.

What is spectroscopy?

53.

Name an element which is identified by spectroscopic method.

54.

What is the value of Rydbergs constant in joule?

55.

Name the series of spectral line of hydrogen obtained in visible region.

56.

Write the mathematical expression for the calculation of angular momentum of an


electron in a given stationary state.

57.

Write an expression for the calculation of energy associated with an electron in a


given stationary state.

58.

Write an expression to calculate the wave number of a spectral line in the


hydrogen spectrum.

59.

What is the value of the radius of the first stationary state (Bohr orbit)?

60.

Give an expression to calculate the radii of the stationary states.

61.

Write the relationship between wave length ( ), velocity (c) and frequency ( )of
a radiation.

62.

What is Zeeman effect?

63.

What is Stark effect?

64.

Write de Broglie equation.

65.

Write the mathematical form of Heisenbergs uncertainty principle.

66.

What is the implication of uncertainty principle?

67.

What does quantum mechanics deal with?

68.

What is Schrdinger equation?

69.

What is an atomic orbital?

70.

What are quantum numbers?

71.

What is the significance of (a) principal quantum number(n); (b) azimuthal


quantum number (l); (c) magnetic quantum number (ml); (d) spin quantum number
(ms)?

72.

What are the possible values of n (principal quantum number)?

73.

What are the possible values of l (azimuthal quantum number) for a given value
of n?

74.

What are the possible values for ml (magnetic quantum number) for a given value
of l?

75.

What are the possible values of ms (spin quantum number)?

76.

What is the total value of ml (magnetic quantum number) for a given value of l?

77.

What is the value of l for:- (a) s- sub shell; (b) p- sub shell; (c) d-sub shell; (d)
f-sub shell; (e) g-sub shell; (f) h- sub shell?

78.

Write the possible values of magnetic quantum number (ml) for l= 2.

79.

Name the quantum number that specifies the shape of an atomic orbital.

80.

Name the quantum number that specifies the size of an atomic orbital.

81.

Name the quantum number that designates the orientation of the atomic orbital.

82.

What are nodes?

83.

Write the total number of nodes for a given value of n.

84.

The total number of nodes for 3s orbital is ------------------

85.

What is the shape of: (a) s-orbital: (b) p- orbital; (c) d-orbital?

86.

On the basis of orientation, how the p-orbitals are designated?

87.

On the basis of orientation, how the d-orbitals are designated?

88.

What is the maximum number of electrons that can be accommodated in: (a) sorbital: (b) p- orbitals; (c) d-orbitals; (d) f-orbitals?

89.

How many number of orbital are possible for f-sub shell?

90.

Using s, p, d, notations, write the orbitals having following quantum numbers: (a)
n=4, l=0; (b) n=5, l=1; (c) n=3, l= 2.

91.

What are degenerate orbitals?

92.

What is the ground state of an atom?

93.

What is the excited state of an atom?

94.

What is effective nuclear charge?

95.

How many electrons in an atom may have the following quantum numbers: n=3,
l= 0?

96.

What is electronic configuration?

97.

Write the electronic configuration of the following elements: (a) Cr (Z=24) (b) Cu
(Z=29) (c) Ca (Z=20).

98.

Write the electronic configuration of the following: (a) Na+ (b) Cl- (c) O-2.

99.

Between 3d and 4s orbitals which is having higher energy?

100.

How many unpaired electrons are present in the following: (a) Na (b) P (c) O?

Two marks Questions


101.

State Heisenbergs uncertainty principle.

102.

Name the four quantum numbers.

103.

Write any two limitations of Bohrs model of an atom.

104.

Distinguish between orbit and orbital.

105.

Draw the shape of .a) s orbital. b) p orbital.

106.

State aufbau principle.

107.

State Paulis exclusion principle.

108.

State Hunds rule of maximum multiplicity.

109.

What is an orbital? Mention different orbitals.

110.

Write the schematic diagram to remember sequences of filling atomic orbitals.

111.

Name two series of hydrogen spectra which fall in infra red region.

112.

Name the series of lines in the emission spectrum of hydrogen.

113.

Write de Broglie equation and explain the terms.

114.

Write Rydbergs equation and explain the terms.

115.

Write two draw backs of Rutherfords model of an atom.

116.

State (n+l) rule.

117.

Calculate the wave length of the radiation emitted with a frequency of 1,200kHz
(c =3.0x108m/s)

118.

Calculate the wave number of radiation having wavelength 5800A0.

119.

Calculate the energy of one mole of photon of radiation whose frequency is 4


X1012 Hz.

120.

The threshold frequency 0 for a metal is 6.0 X 1013 s-1. Calculate the kinetic
energy of an electron when the radiation of frequency = 1.0 X 1014 s-1 hits the
metal.

121.

What will be the wavelength of a ball of mass 0.2 kg moving with velocity of 10
ms-1?

122.

Calculate the wave number of the spectral line of shortest wavelength appearing in
the Balmer series of hydrogen spectrum (Given RH = 1.09 X 107 m-1)

Four Mark Question


123.

What are the results drawn from the Cathode ray discharge experiment?

124.

What are the Characteristics of Canal Rays?

125.

What are the observations made out of Ruther fords -ray scattering experiment?

126.

What are the conclusions drawn regarding the structure of the atom on the basis of
observations in the -ray scattering experiment?

127.

Describe Rutherfords nuclear model of the atom.

128.

What are the properties of electromagnetic waves (electromagnetic radiation)?

129.

What are the factors that cannot be explained by electromagnetic theory?

130.

What are the observations made by Hertz after conducting the photo electric effect
experiment?

131.

What are the postulates of Bohrs model of hydrogen atom?

132.

Write the significance of the four quantum numbers.

Answers
Chapter 2: Structure of atom
1.

John Dalton

2.

Protons, Neutrons and electrons

3.

Like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other.

4.

At very low pressure and at very high voltage

5.

By using vacuum pump

6.

The particles moving in the discharge tube from cathode to anode.

7.

Zinc sulphide

8.

In the absence of electrical or magnetic field.

9.

Electrons

10.

No. Neither nature of the gas nor electrode material

11.

J.J. Thomson.

12.

-1.6x10-19C.

13.

9.1094x10-31Kg.

14.

The particles carrying positive charge in a discharge tube.

15.

Electron.

16.

Yes.

17.

Hydrogen.

18.

Proton.

19.

James Chad Wick.

20.

1.672x10-27 Kg.

21.

1.675x10-27 Kg.

22.

Neutron.

23.

J. J. Thomson.

24.

Plum pudding or raisin pudding or watermelon.

25.

Mass of the atom is uniformly distributed over the atom.

26.

Gold.

27.

The circular path of an electron moving around the nucleus of an atom.

28.

No. of Protons present in the nucleus or No. of electrons in a neutral atom.

29.

Protons and neutrons present in the Nucleus of an atom.

30.

Total No. of Protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of an atom.

31.

Atoms of the same element having identical atomic Number but different mass
No.

32.

Atoms of different elements having same mass No. but different atomic No.

33.

Protium, deuterium and Tritium.

34.

A= Mass No,

35.

18.

36.

6.

37.

11.

38.

Electron

39.

Hertz2

40.

3.0x108 m/s.

41.

Number of wave lengths per unit length is called wave number ().

42.

m-1 or per meter

43.

E =h

44.

Proton.

45.

400 nm to 750 nm

46.

6.626x10-34 Js.

47.

The ideal body which emits and absorbs radiations of all frequency.

48.

The ejection of electrons from metal surface when radiation strikes it.

49.

Potassium or Caesium or Rubidium.

50.

The minimum frequency below which photoelectric effect is not observed.

Z= Atomic No.

51.

The spectrum of radiation emitted by a substance that has absorbed energy is


called an emission spectrum.

52.

The study of emission or absorption spectra is known as spectroscopy.

53.

Rubidium or Caesium, or Thallium or Indium, or Gallium or Scandium or


Helium.

54.

2.18x10-18 J.

55.
56.

Balmer series
me vr = n h
2
1
n2
1 - 1
n12
n22

57.

En= -RH

58.

= RH

59.

a0 = 52.9 Pm.

60.

rn = n 2 a 0

61.

C=

62.

The splitting of spectral lines in the presence of magnetic field.

63.

The splitting of spectral lines in an electric field.

64.

= h =
mv

cm-1

h
p

65.
66.

It rules out existence of definite paths of electrons.

67.

It deals with dual behavior of matter.

68.

H = E

69.

It is the region around the nucleus where electron will most probably be found.

70.

Quantum Numbers specify the energy, size, shape and orientation of an orbital.

71.

a) It determines the size and energy of the orbital.


b) It determines the three dimensional shape of the orbital.
c) It gives the spatial orientation of the orbital.

d) It refers to orientation of the spin of the electron.


72.

n=1,2,3 - - - - - .

73.

l=0,1,2,3 - - - - (n-1).

74.

m=-l, -(l-1), -(l-2)- - - - 0,1 - - - (l-2), (l-1),l

75.

+ 1 and - 1
2
2

76.

(2l+1) values.

77.

a) l=0,

78.

ml = -2, -1, 0, + 1, + 2.

79.

Azimuthal Q.no(l)

80.

Principal Q. no (n)

81.

Magnetic Q.no (ml)

82.

The region where probability density function reduces to zero.

83.

Total no. of nodes = (n-1).

84.

No. of nodes = 2

85.

a) Spherical

86.

px , py and pz

87.

dxy, dyz, dzx, dx2 -y2 and dz2

88.

a) 2

89.

90.

a) 4s

91.

Orbitals having the same energy.

92.

Atom having electrons occupying lowest energy level.

93.

The state of an atom having its electron in higher energy level.

94.

The net positive charge experienced by the outer electrons.

95.

2 electrons.

96.

The distribution of electrons into orbitals of an atom.

b) l=1,

c) l=2,

d) l=3,

b) dumb bell

b) 6

c) 10

b) 5p

c) 3d

e) l=4,

f) l=5

c) double dumb bell.

d) 14

97.

a) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p63d5 4s1

b) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p63d10 4s1

c) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2


98.

a) 1s2 2s2 2p6

99.

3d

100.

a) 1

b) 3

b) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p6

c) 1s2 2s2 2p6

c) 2

Answers to two marks questions


101.

It is impossible to determine simultaneously the exact position and exact


momentum of an electron.

102.

a. Principal Q. Number (n)


b. Azimuthal Q. Number (l)
c. Magnetic Q. Number (ml)
d. Spin Q. Number (ms)

103.

It fails to accounts for the finer details of the hydrogen atom spectrum. It could
not explain the ability of atom to form molecules by chemical bonds

104.
Orbit
1 It is a circular path around the
nucleus in which an electron
moves.

Orbital
1 It is the three dimensional region of
space where the probability of
finding the electron is maximum

2 Maximum number of electrons 2 Maximum number of electrons in an


that can be accommodated is
orbital is 2.
equal to 2n2
105.
S orbital

p Orbital

106.

In the ground state of the atom orbitals are filled in the order of their increasing
energies.

107.

No two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum
numbers.

108.

Pairing of electrons in the orbitals belonging to the same sub shell does not
takes place until each orbital belonging to that sub shell has got one electron
each.

109.

It is the three dimensional region of space where the probability of finding


the electron is maximum.
The different orbitals are s, p, d, and f

110.

111.

Bracket series
Paschen series
Pfund series ( any two)

112.

Lyman series
Balmer Series
Bracket series
Paschen series
Pfund series

113.

= h
Mv

De Broglie Equation

Where m is the mass of the particle?


v is the velocity of the particle
114.

= RH 1

n12

115.

cm-1

n22

wave number

RH

Rydberg constant

a. This model fails to account for the stability of an atom.


b. This model does not explain the line spectrum of an atom.
Or
This model does not have any specific radius for radius electron orbit.

116.

Lower the value of (n+l) for an orbital , the lower is its energy . If two
orbitals have the same value of (n + l) , the orbital with lower value of n will
have the lower energy.

117.

=C

3 X 10 8 ms-1
1200 X 103 s-1

= 0.0025 X 105 m

118.

= 250 m

Calculation of wave number


= 5800 A0 = 5800 X 10-8 cm = 5800 x 10-10 m

= 1 = 1/ 580 X 10-10 m

= 1.724 X 106 m-1

119.

Energy of photon

E = h
h = 6.626 X 10-34 JS

= 4 X 10 12 Hz (s-1)
E = 6.626 X 10-34 Js X 4 X 1012 S-1
= 26.504 X 10 22
= 2.65 X 10 21 J
120.

Kinetic Energy = h ( o)
= (6.626 X 10 -34 Js) (1.0x1014 s-1 6.0 X 1013 s-1 )
= (6.626 X 10-34 Js) (4.0 X 1013 s-1)
= 2.65 X 10-20J

121.

=h
m
= (6.626 X 10 -34 Js)/ (0.2 Kg X 10 ms-1)
= 3.313 X 10 -34 m

122.
= RH (1/n12 1/n22 )
For Balmer series with shortest wavelength
n1 = 2

n2 =

RH = 1.09 X 107 m-1


= 1.09 X 107 (1/22 1/ 2)
= 1.09 X 107 ( - 0 )
= 2.725 X 106 m-1
123.

i.

The Cathode rays start form cathode and move towards anode.

ii.

Cathode rays are not visible.

iii.

In the absence of electrical or Magnetic field, Cathode rays travel in straight


lines.

iv.

In the presence of electrical or magnetic field, the direction of deflection of


cathode rays shows that they contain negatively charged particles.

v.

The characteristics of cathode rays do not depend on the material of electrodes


and nature of the gas present in the cathode ray tube.
(Any Four Points)

124.
i.

Positively charged particles (Canal Rays) depend upon the nature of the gas
present in the cathode-ray tube.

ii.

The charge to mass ratio of the particles depend on the gas from which they
originate.

iii.

Some of the positively charged particles carry a multiple of the fundamental


unit of electrical charge.

iv.

In the presence of electrical or magnetic field, the behavior of positively


charged particles is opposite to that observed for cathode rays.

125.
i.

Most of the particles passed through the gold foil undeflected.

ii.

A small fraction of the Particles was deflected by small angles.

iii.

A very few -particles bounced back, that is were defected nearly 1800

126.
i.

Most of the space in the atom is empty

ii.

The Positive charge of the atom is not spread through out the atom, but
concentrated in a very small volume

iii.

The volume occupied by the nucleus is negligibly small as compared to the


total volume of the atom

127.
i.

The positive charge and most of the mass of the atom is concentrated in a small
region called nucleus

ii.

The nucleus is surrounded by Electrons

iii.

The Electrons move around the nucleus in circular paths called orbits.

iv.

The Electrons and the nucleus are held together by Electrostatic force of
attraction

128.
i.

Electrical and Magnetic waves are perpendicular to each other and both are
perpendicular to the direction of the propagation of the wave.

ii.

Electromagnetic waves do not require medium and they can move in vacuum

iii.

There are many types of electromagnetic radiations. They differ from one
another in wavelength or frequency

iv.

Different kinds of units are used to represent Electromagnetic

v.

radiation.

129.
i.

The nature of emission of radiation from hot bodies (black body radiation)

ii.

Ejection of electrons from metal surface when radiation strikes it (Photo


electric effect)

iii.

Variation of heat capacity of solids as a function of temperature

iv.

Line spectra of atoms with special reference to hydrogen

130.
i.

The electrons are ejected from the metal surface as soon as the beam of light
strikes the surface

ii.

The number of electrons ejected is proportional to the intensity of light

iii.

For each metal there is a characteristic minimum frequency called threshold


frequency below which photo electric effect is not observed.

iv.

The kinetic energies of ejected electrons increase with increase of frequency of


light used.

131.
i.

The electron in the hydrogen atom can move around the nucleus in a circular
path of fixed radius and energy and the paths are called orbits

ii.

The energy of an electron in the orbit does not change with time

iii.

The frequency of radiation absorbed or emitted when transition occurs between


two stationary states that differ in energy by E is given by

E
h
= E2-E1
h

iv.

The angular momentum of an electron in a given stationary state is integral


multiple of

h
2

i.e., meVr = n h
2
132.
i.

Principal quantum number determines energy and size of the orbital

ii.

Azimuthal quantum number defines three dimensional shape of the orbital.

iii.

Magnetic quantum number gives the information about the spatial orientation
of the orbital.

iv.

Spin quantum number refers to orientation of the spin of the electron.

UNIT-3
Classification of elements and periodicity in properties
One mark questions:
1. For the triad of elements A, B and C if the atomic weights of A and C are 7 and 39.
Predict the atomic weight of B.
2. Every eighth element has property similar to the 1st element when placed
(arranged) in increasing order of their atomic weight. Name the law for the above
statement.
3. Which property of the element was the basis for the classification of elements by
Mendeleev?
4. State Mendeleevs periodic law.
5. Name the scientist whose experiment on x-ray spectra of elements led to modern
periodic law.
6. State modern periodic law.
7. What is more fundamental property for an atom of an element according to
Moseley?
8. Which quantum number corresponds to the period number in the modern periodic
table?
9. How many elements are there in the 4th period of long form of periodic table?
10. Write the atomic number of the element unniltrium.
11. Give the IUPAC name of the element whose atomic number is 109?
12. Which one of the following subshell is not filled in the 5th period (5s, 5p, 5d, 4d)?
13. In which period does the lanthanoids appear?
14. In which period does the actinide series of elements appear?
15. Name the series of inner transition element found in the 7th period.
16. How many elements are in lanthanide series?
17. Elements of a group have similar chemical properties. Why?
18. The position of helium is in 18th group of p block and not in 2nd group of s block of
long form of periodic table. Justify the statement.
19. To which block of the periodic table do the elements of group-I and II belong?
20. How many groups of elements form p block of the periodic table?
21. What are representative elements?
22. Which group of elements are called chalcogens?
23. Write the general outer electronic configuration of d block elements.
24. Which block of elements are more known for exhibiting paramagnetism and
catalytic properties?
25. A metal X forms coloured ions, is paramagnetic and is used as a catalyst. Predict
the block to which the metal belongs.

26. Why are d block elements also called transition elements?


27. Write the general outer electronic configuration of f block elements.
28. What are transuranium elements?
29. What is the trend in the metallic character of elements down a group?
30. In bromine molecule (Br2) the bond distance is 228 pm. What is the covalent
radius of bromine?
31. What is covalent radius for a non-metal?
32. Define metallic radius.
33. Arrange the following in the decreasing order of their atomic radius:
K
Be
N
Na
(Z=19) (Z=4)
(Z=7)
(Z=11)
34. For noble gases covalent radius cannot be defined. Why?
35. Name a group of non-metals for which covalent radius cannot be defined.
36. Size of the cation is smaller than the parent atom. Give reason.
37. Size of the anion is larger than the parent atom. Give reason.
38. Hydride ion (H) is larger than hydrogen atom. Give reason.
39. Mention a species that is isoelectronic with neon.
40. Arrange the following in the increasing order of their ionic radii: F, N3, Na+, O2.
X+2 (g) + e. Correct the equation to represent the 2nd ionisation
41. X+ (s)
enthalpy of the element X.
42. Define second ionisation enthalpy.
43. 2nd ionisation enthalpy for an element is higher than the 1st ionisation enthalpy.
Give reason.
44. Using the graph, match the ionisation energy of Ar, Na, Ne, Li
with positions P, Q, R and S.
45. Define electron gain enthalpy.
46. Why is ionisation enthalpy always positive?
47. Arrange the below elements X, Y, Z in the increasing order of electron gain
enthalpy.
Element Electron gain enthalpy kJ/mol
X
48
Y
+77
Z
295
48. What is electronegativity for an atom?
49. Ability of an atom in a compound to attract the shared electrons to itself. Which
periodic property does the above quote represent?
50. On the basis of Pauling scale what is the value of electronegativity of fluorine?
51. How is electronegativity related to non-metallic property of an element?

52. Give reason for the anamalous properties of 2nd period elements when compared to
the elements in their respective groups.
53. Mention one property common to all actinoid elements.
54. How are H and He related?
55. By what name do we know the 17th group elements?
56. Isoelectronic species do not have the same size. Why?
57. Arrange the following in the increasing order of their metallic character: Cu, K,
Ge, Br.
58. What is the difference between an amphoteric oxide and a neutral oxide?
59. Give an example for a basic oxide.
60. Give an example for a neutral oxide.
61. Name the element that is diagonally related to beryllium.
62. Why do 17th group elements have high negative electron gain enthalpy?
Two Marks questions:
1. Mention one merit and one drawback of Mendeleevs periodic table.
2. What was the name given by Mendeleev to the element if existed and had
properties similar to that of the aluminium? What is the present name of the
element?
3. What observation made by Moseley showed that atomic number and not atomic
mass is more fundamental property of an element?
4. With respect to long form of periodic table what are groups and periods?
5. How many groups and periods are present in the long form of periodic table?
6. How many elements are there in 2nd period? Justify your answer.
7. Which is the i) shortest ii) longest period in the long form of periodic table?
8. What are the subshells filled in i) 2nd period ii) 4th period?
9. Hydrogen is placed separately at the top of the long form periodic table. Justify its
position giving two reasons.
10. The electronic configuration of an element is [Ar] 3d7 4s2. To which block and
period does it belong?
11. Write the electronic configuration of the element with atomic number 118. Predict
the group the element belongs to.
12. Mention any two differences in the properties of metals and non-metals.
13. What are metalloids? Give an example.
14. Determination of size of an atom cannot be precise. Give reason.
15. How does atomic radius vary along a period and down a group in the periodic
table.
16. Explain why atomic size decreases along a period and increases down a group.

17. Given: a) F, Cl, Br


b) N, O, F : For which one of these set of elements does
the atomic radius increase? Justify your answer.
18. What are isoelectronic species? Give example.
19. Which among the following has i)largest ii)smallest ionic radii:Na+,Al+3,Mg+2, F?
20. Define ionisation enthalpy. Give its SI unit.
21. Compare the 1st and 2nd ionisation enthalpies of magnesium with reason.
22. Which group of elements have maximum value for ionisation enthalpy. Give
reason.
23. Draw a graph showing the variation of ionisation enthalpy with atomic number for
the elements Li, Be, B and C.
24. How does ionisation enthalpy vary along a period? Give reason.
25. How does ionisation enthalpy vary down a group? Give reason.
26. Ionisation enthalpy of boron is less than that of beryllium. Give reason.
27. Why is ionisation enthalpy of oxygen less than that of nitrogen?
28. Ionisation enthalpy of aluminium is less than that of magnesium. Justify the
statement.
29. Give two differences between ionisation enthalpy and electron gain enthalpy for an
element.
30. How does electron gain enthalpy vary along a period? Give reason.
31. How does electron gain enthalpy vary down the group? Explain.
32. Between flourine and chlorine which one of these has low electron gain enthalpy.
Give reason.
33. Which among the following has the most positive and the most negative electron
gain enthalpy: O, Ar, Na, S?
34. How does electronegativity vary along a period? Give reason.
35. How does electronegativity vary down a group? Give reason.
36. Name any two periodic properties that increases along a period.
37. Name any two periodic properties that decreases down a group.
38. Arrange the elements in the following two sets in the increasing order of their
electronegativity values: a) [Cl, F, I, Br]
b) [S, Cl, Al, Na]

3
39. Which one of these is possible: BF4 or BF6 . Justify your answer. (atomic number
of boron = 5)
40. Why is the chemical reactivity of elements at the two extremes (except noble
gases) of the periodic table very high?
41. Why are the elements placed in the extreme left of the periodic table most
metallic?
42. Mention two factors on which ionisation enthalpy depends.

43. Mention one exception (anomaly) each found in the variation of i) ionisation
enthalpy in the 2nd period ii) electron gain enthalpy in the 16th period.
44. Classify these into acidic, basic, amphoteric and neutral oxide: CO, Na2O, Cl2O7,
Al2O3.
Four Marks:
1. a) What is the valence of 2nd group elements?
b) Using the table given below, evolve the formulae of i) aluminium oxide,
ii) aluminium nitride, iii) aluminium fluoride:
Group No. 13 15 16 17
Element Al N O F
2. a) When is a cation and an anion is formed from an atom?
b) Arrange H+, H, H in decreasing order of their size.
c) What does the energy absorbed in the reaction represent?
X (g)
X (+g ) + e
3. What does ionisation enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy and electronegativity
measure for an atom? Which one of these is not a measurable quantity?
4. Given:
Element Electronic configuration
P
1s2 2s2
Q
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1
R
1s2 2s2 2p4
S
i) Arrange P, Q, R, S in decreasing order of their atomic radii.
ii) Which one among these is a chalcogen?
iii) Which one among these has more positive electron gain enthalpy?
iv) Give the formula of the oxide formed from R and S.
5. Mention any two characteristic properties each for s and p block elements.
6. How does metallic and non-metallic character vary along a period and down a
group. Give reasons.
7. Given the outer electronic configurations of A and B as .... 3s2 and .... 3s2 3p5.
a) Locate their position in the periodic table (group and period)
b) Which one of these has i) larger atomic size ii) higher ionisation energy

Scheme of valuation with complete answers


One mark questions:
Qn.No.

Value points

1
2
3

23
Law of octaves
Atomic weight or atomic mass
Properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic
weight
Moseley or Henry Moseley
Physical and chemical properties or properties of the elements are
periodic functions of their atomic numbers
Atomic number
Principal quantum number
18
103
Unnilennium
5d
6th period or 6
7th period or 7
Actinoids or actinide series
14
Similar outermost electronic configuration or same number and
same distribution of electrons in their outermost orbital
It has completely filled value shell (1s2) and has properties
characteristic of noble gases
s block
6
s and p block
16th group or 16
(n1) d110 ns02
d block
d block
They act as a bridge between chemically most active metals of sblock and less active elements of groups 13 and 14.
(n2) f114 (n1) d01 ns2
Elements appearing after uranium
Metallic character increases
114 pm
It is one half the distance between two atoms bonded by a single
covalent bond
It is half the internuclear distance separating the metal cores in the
metallic crystal

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

Marks
allotted
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62

K > Na > Be > N


They are monoatomic gases
Noble gases
It has fewer electrons and nuclear charge remains same
It has more electrons and effective nuclear charge decreases
In H due to more number of electrons the effect of nuclear charge
is less
Na+ (or Mg+2, Al+3 or any other)
Na+ < F < O2 < N3
+
+2
X (g)

X (g)
+ e
It is the energy required to remove the 2nd most loosely bound
electron
It is more difficult to remove an electron from a positively charged
ion than from a neutral atom
P = Li, Q = Ne, R = Na, S = Ar
It is the enthalpy change that occurs when an electron is added to a
neutral gaseous atom
It is an endothermic process or energy is always absorbed to
remove an electron
Y<X<Z
It is the ability of an atom in a compound to attract the shared
electrons to itself
Electronegativity
4
Electronegativity non-metallic character
Same size, large charge / radius ratio, high electronegativity (any
two)
Radioactivity
Isoelectronic
Halogens
They have different nuclear charge
Br < Ge < Cu < K
Amphoteric oxide has both acidic and basic character. But a
neutral oxide is neither acidic nor basic.
Na2O
CO
Aluminium
By gaining one electron they attain noble gas configuration

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Two mark questions:


Qn.No.
1
2

4
5
6
7
8

10
11

12

13
14

Marks
allotted
i) Position of some elements do not fit in with the scheme of
1
classification or element of lower atomic weight are placed
before the element with high atomic weight.
ii) He correctly predicted the existence of few elements.
1
Eka-aluminium
1
Gallium
1
The regularities in the x-ray spectra of elements could be
1
accounted if a plot of ( is the frequency of x-rays emitted)
versus atomic number and not atomic mass was done.
1
or
1
A graph of versus atomic number and not atomic mass could
1
explain the characteristics of x-ray spectra of elements.
The vertical column of elements are called groups.
1
The horizontal rows of elements are called periods.
1
18 groups and 7 periods
1+1
1
8 elements
nd
1
In the 2 period (n = 2) the sub-shells filled are 2s and 2p only
st
1
1 period
th
1
6 period
i) 2s and 2p
1
ii) 4s, 3d and 4p
1
st
i) It has only one electron in 1 orbital and hence could be
placed in I group
1
ii) It can also gain one electron to achieve a noble gas
configuration like 17 group elements and hence can be placed
1
in 17 group.
Block d
1
1
Period 4
2
2
6
2
6
2
10
6
2
10
6
2
14
10
6
2
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 7s
1
14
10
6
2
14
10
6
5f 6d 7p or [Rn] 7s 5f 6d 7p
18 group or noble gas group
1
Metals
Non-metals
(any
1. Have high melting point
Have low melting point.
two)
2. Good conductor of heat and Bad conductor of heat and
1+1
electricity
electricity
3. Malleable and ductile
Not malleable and ductile
Elements that show properties similar to both metals and non1
metals
Silicon (or any other)
1
i) Atom is very small
1
ii) Electron cloud of the atom does not have a sharp boundary
1
Value points

15
16

17
18
19
20
21
22

It decreases along a period


It increases down a group
i) Along a period the electron is added to same valence shell and
effective nuclear charge increases.
ii) Down a group the electron is added to a new shell and
effective nuclear charge decreases.
Set a
The elements belong to a group and down the group the atomic
size increases.
Species containing same number of electrons.
E.g.: Na+, Mg+2
F
Al+3
It is the energy required to remove an electron from an isolated
gaseous atom in its ground state.
kJ mol1 or kJ
1st ionisation enthalpy of magnesium is less than the 2nd.
More energy is required to remove an electron from Mg+ than
from Mg
Noble gases or 18 group.
They have a very stable electronic configuration.

23

24
25

26

27

28

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1+1
Graph-1
Position of elements-1
It increases.
Increase in nuclear charge outweighs (or is more prominent) the
shielding effect
It decreases.
Increase in shielding effect outweighs the increase in nuclear
charge.
In Beryllium electron is removed from 2s electron which is closer
to the nucleus.
In boron the electron is removed from 2p orbital which is far
away from the nucleus and is also shielded by 2s electrons.
In nitrogen the three 2p electrons are in different atomic orbitals.
In oxygen, two of the four 2p electrons occupy the same 2p
orbital resulting in electron-electron repulsion.
In magnesium the electron has to be removed from 3s orbital
which is closer to the nucleus.
In aluminium the electron has to be removed from 3p orbital
which is far from the nucleus and is also well shielded by 3s
electrons.

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Ionisation enthalpy
Its always positive

29

30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

Electron gain enthalpy


It may be positive, negative or
zero
It measures the hold of the It measures the affinity of an
nucleus on its electron.
atom to add an electron.
It increases or it becomes more negative.
Effective nuclear charge increases.
It decreases or it becomes less negative.
Size of the atom increases and effective nuclear charge decreases.
Fluorine
The electron is added to 2p orbital which is small and experiences
more repulsion from other electrons.
Ar
O
It increases
Atomic radius decreases
It decreases
Atomic radius increases
Ionisation enthalpy and electronegativity
Electron gain enthalpy and electronegativity
I < Br < F < Cl
Na < Al < S < Cl
[BF4]
Boron has only 4 valence orbitals.
Towards the left, ionisation energy is the least and atoms have the
tendency to lose the electron.
Towards the right, electron gain enthalpy is more negative and
hence atoms have tendency to gain an electron.
The elements have low ionisation enthalpy and have high
tendency to form cations.
Attraction of electrons towards the nucleus.
Repulsion of electrons from each other.
Beryllium and Boron or oxygen and nitrogen
Oxygen and sulphur
CO- neutral, Na2O basic, Al2O3 amphoteric, Cl2O7 acidic

Any other suitable answer to be considered as value point.

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2

Four mark questions:


Qn.No.
1

4
5
6
7

Marks
allotted
1
a) 2
1
b) i) Al2O3
ii) AlN
1
iii) AlF3
1
When an atom loses an electron and when an atom gains an
2
electron.
1
H > H > H+
st
1
1 ionisation enthalpy
Ionisation energy measures tendency of an atom to lose an
1
electron.
Electron gain enthalpy measures tendency of an atom to gain an
1
electron.
Electronegativity measures the ability of an atom in a compound
1
to attract shared electrons.
Electronegativity
1
Q>R>P>S
1
S
1
Q
1
R 2S
1
s block : They are metals and form basic oxides.
2
p block : They are non-metals and form acidic oxides.
2
Metallic character increases down a group.
1
Ionisation energy decreases.
1
Non-metallic character increases along a period.
1
Electron gain enthalpy increases.
1
nd
rd
th
rd
2
A: 2 group, 3 period ; B: 17 group, 3 period
i) A ii) B
2
Value points

I PUC QUESTION BANK


Chapter: 4

Chemical bonding
1 Mark Questions
1) Who were the first to propose a theory on chemical bonding using electrons?
2) What is a chemical bond?
3) Write Lewis dot symbols for atoms of the following elements
Mg, Na, B, O, N, and Br.
4) Draw the Lewis structures for the following molecules and ions.
H2, O2, CO2, C2H4, C2H2, HNO3, CO
5) In the periodic table, the group of highly electronegative elements is _____.
6) In the periodic table, the group of highly electropositive elements is _____.
7) Write the general electronic configuration of noble gases.
8) What type of bond is present in NaCl?
9) Which force holds oppositely charged ions together in an ionic bond?
10) Name a cation that contains cation having two non metallic elements in an ionic
compound.
11) How does resonance stabilize a molecule?
12) Give the mathematical expression for dipole moment.
13) Expand VSEPR
14) What is the basis of VSEPR theory?
15) Arrange the repulsive interaction between electron pairs (lp-bp, bp-bp, and lp-lp)
in increasing order.
16) What is lone pair of electrons?
17) What is bonded pair of electrons?
18) Among bonded pair of electron and lone pair of electron, which occupy more
space in a molecule?
19) How many lone pairs of electrons are present in a molecule of ammonia?
20) How many lone pairs of electrons are present in a molecule of water?
21) How many lone pairs of electrons are present in a molecule of ClF3?

22) How many lone pairs of electrons are present in a molecule of SF4?
23) What is hybridization?
24) Write the shape and bond angle of sp hybrid orbitals?
25) Give an example of a molecule having sp hybridization?
26) What is the percentage of s character in sp hybridization?
27) What is the shape and bond angle of sp2 hybrid orbitals?
28) What is the percentage of s character in sp3 hybridizations?
29) Give an example for sp2 and sp3 hybrid molecules
30) Write the shape and bond angle of sp3 hybridized orbitals.
31) Write the shape, hybridization and bond angle of a) NH3 and, b) H2O
32) How many and bonds are there in a) ethylene b) ethyne?
33) What is the type of hybridization found in PCl5?
34) What is the shape and hybridization of SF6?
35) Write the number of axial and equatorial bonds in PCl5
36) Give example of a molecule showing dsp2 hybridization.
37) Write the shape of Br F5 molecule.
38) Arrange the following orbitals in the increasing order of s- character.sp, sp2, sp3
39) Define hydrogen bond.
40) How is the magnitude of hydrogen bonding in different states of matter?
41) Is the force between two nuclei of hydrogen atoms attractive or repulsive?
42) Which of the force (i.e. attractive or repulsive) is stronger?
43) What is bond enthalpy?
44) The electrons present in valence shells should have ___spins in order to be
paired up.
45) Will a bond be stronger when there is more overlap or less overlap of atomic
orbitals?
46) Hydrogen molecule is formed due to overlap of ____ orbitals.
47) What is tetrahedral bond angle?
48) What are the types of overlap depending on the sign (phase) of orbital wave
function?

49) If the wave functions of participating atomic orbitals are same phase, the overlap
is called _________.
50) The energy required for changing the electronic configuration from ground to
exited state is provided from where?
51) What is the angle between any two p orbitals?
52) What are the two types of covalent bonds?
53) What is a pi bond?
54) What is the shape of the electron cloud in a pi bond?
55) Can a pi bond exist without a sigma bond?
56) Is there greater overlap in sigma or pi bonds?
57) Define hydrogen bond.

2 Marks
1) Which type of elements is likely to form anions and give the reason for the same?
2) Which factor favours formation of cation? Explain.
3) Among KCl and NaCl, which is more stable? Give reason.
4) Under what conditions the concept of resonance is applied?
5) The dipole moment in BF3 is zero. Explain
6) The net dipole of NH3 is greater than that of NF3. Why?
7) Write the resonance structures of CO32- and CO2.
8) List the outcome of repulsive interaction between electron pairs in a molecule.
9) Account for the shape of the following molecules based on VSEPR theory
i) Water molecule.
ii) SO2 molecule
iii) Ammonia molecule
iv) SF4 molecule.
10) What are the causes of formation of hydrogen bond?
11) What are the conditions for hydrogen bonding?
12) Draw the shapes of following hybrid orbitals.
sp, sp2,sp3

13) Considering X- axis as the internuclear axis, which out of the following will not
form sigma bond? Why?
1s and 2s

b) 1s and 2px

c) 2py and 2py

d) 1s and 2s

14) Draw the shapes of H2O and C2H4 molecule


15) Describe the change in the hybridization of the Al atom in the following reaction.
AlCl3 + Cl- AlCl416) Is there any change in hybridization of B and N as a result of the reaction?
BF3 + NH3 BF3.NH3
17) What are the various forces that arise between the two atoms of hydrogen as they
approach each other?
18) Give the ground and exited configuration of carbon for the formation of methane
molecule.
19) What is a sigma bond? Mention types.
20) Explain the LCAO method for the formation of molecular orbitals from the
atomic orbitals.
21) Distinguish between atomic orbital and molecular orbital.
22) Distinguish between bonding molecular orbital and anti-bonding molecular
orbital.
23) Define bond order and give the relationship between bond order and bond length
24) What are the causes of formation of hydrogen bond?
25) What are the conditions for formation of hydrogen bonds?

3 Mark questions
1) Explain the conditions for the combination of atomic orbitals to form molecular orbitals.
2) Write the assumptions of the molecular orbital theory.
3) Explain the diamagnetic behaviour of Hydrogen molecule on the basis of molecular
orbital theory.
4) Show the non-existence of helium molecule based on molecular orbital theory.
5) Explain the formation of Lithium molecule on the basis of molecular orbital.

6) Show that oxygen molecule is paramagnetic based on molecular orbital theory.


7) Write the molecular orbital electronic configuration for carbon molecule and comment
on its magnetic property
8) Define octet rule. Write its significance and limitations.
9) Explain why crystal structure of NaCl is stable in spite of having sum of electron gain
energy and ionization enthalpy as positive. Substantiate with an example
10) Why it is required to take average bond enthalpy in case of polyatomic molecules?
Explain with example.
11) Among O2 and N2 which is more stable and why?
12) The net dipole moment of NH3 is greater than that of NF3. Why?
13) State the postulates of VSEPR theory
14) Indicate the geometry in the following compounds and give one example for each.
i) AB2
ii) AB3
iii) AB4
iv) AB5
v) AB6
15) What are the types of hydrogen bonds?
16) What are the salient features of hybridization?
17) With the help of potential energy diagram explain how bonding between two hydrogen
atoms takes place.
18) Explain the shape of methane molecule through valence bond theory.
19) Explain the formation of BeCl2 using hybridization.
20) Explain the sp2 hybridization with the example of BCl3.
21) Explain the shape of NH3 molecule using hybridization.
22) Explain the formation of SF6 using sp3d2 hybridization.

1mark Answers:
1). Ans: Kossel and Lewis
2). Ans: The attractive force which holds various constituents (atoms or ions etc) together
in different chemical species is called a chemical bond
3). Ans:
2 2
6 2
12Mg=1s 2s 2p 3s
2 2 6 1
11Na= 1s 2s 2p 3s
2 2 1
5B=1s 2s 2p
2 2 6
8O = 1s 2s 2p
2 2 3
7N =1s 2s 2p
2 2 6 2 6 2 10 5
35Br =1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p
4). Ans: Refer to pages 99 and 100
5) Ans: Halogens
6) Ans: Alkali metals
7) Ans: The general electronic configuration of noble gases is ns2np6
8) Ans: Electrovalent bond
9) Ans: Electrostatic force or coulombic force.
10) Ans: NH4+ in NH4Cl
11) Ans: Resonance stabilizes the molecule as the energy of the resonance hybrid is
less than the energy of any single canonical structure.
12) Ans: =Q
Dipole moment=chargedistance
13) Ans: Valence shell electron pair repulsion
14) Ans: Based on repulsive interactions between valence electron pairs in a molecule.
15) Ans: Bond pair-bond pair < bond pair-lone pair < lone pair-lone pair.
16) Ans: The localized pair of valence electrons over the central atom of a molecule
which do not take part in covalent bond formation
. 17) Ans: The pair of electron shared between two atoms in a molecule.
18) Ans: Lone pair.
19) Ans: One lone pair.
20) Ans: Two lone pair.
21) Ans: Two lone pair.
22) Ans: One lone pair
23) Ans: The process of intermixing of atomic orbitals of different energies to get
same number of new orbitals of equivalent energies is called hybridization
24) Ans: Linear shape, bond angle-1800
25) Ans: BeCl2
26) Ans: 50%
27) Ans: Shape-trigonal planar, bond angle-1200
28) Ans: 25 %
29) Ans: BCl3 - sp2
CH4 sp3
30) Ans: Shape: regular tetrahedron
Bond angle: 1090 28

31) Ans: a) NH3


Shape: Pyramidal
Hybridization: sp3
Bond angle: 107o
b) H2O
Shape: V shape or angular shape
Hybridization: sp3
Bond angle: 104.5o
32) Ans: Ethylene bond = 5, bond = 1
Ethyne bond = 3, bond = 2
33) Ans: sp3d hybridization
34) Ans: Shape Octahedral
Hybridization sp3d2
35) Ans: Axial bond 2
Equatorial bond -3
36) Ans: [PtCl4]237) Ans: Square pyramidal
38) Ans: Sp3<sp2<sp
39) Ans: Hydrogen bond is defined as the attractive force which binds hydrogen atom
of one molecule with the electronegative atom (F, O or N) of another molecule.
40) Ans: It is maximum in solid state and minimum in the gaseous state.
41) Ans: Repulsive
42) Ans: Attractive
43) Ans: The energy released when a bond is formed between two atoms is called
bond enthalpy.
44) Ans: Opposite
45) Ans: More overlap
46) Ans: 1s
47) Ans: 109028
48) Ans: Positive, negative, zero
49) Ans: Positive
50) Ans: When atomic orbitals overlap there is release in energy, this energy is used
to change the electronic configuration
51) Ans: 900
52) Ans: Sigma and pi
53) Ans: It is a type of covalent bond formed due to overlap of atomic orbitals side
ways.
54) Ans: A pi electron cloud consists of two saucer shaped clouds above and below
the plane of participating atoms.
55) Ans: No
56) Ans: Sigma bonds.
57) Ans: Hydrogen bond is defined as the attractive force which binds hydrogen atom
of one molecule with the electronegative atom (F, O or N) of same molecule or
another molecule.

2 Marks answers
1) Ans: Non-metallic elements have high electron gain enthalpy to form anions which
is produced in the process
Cl (g) + e-1 Cl-(g)
H = 348.7kJmol-1
2) Ans: Metallic elements have low ionization energy which facilitates the easy
release of electrons from the metal and formation of cation is
Na Na+ + e
3) Ans: NaCl is more stable than KCl.
Lattice energy of NaCl (788KJ/mol) greater than lattice energy of KCl
(718KJ/mol) because smaller ionic radius of Na+ (95pm) when compared to
K+ (133pm).
4)Ans: According to the concept of resonance, whenever a single Lewis structure
cannot describe a molecule accurately, a number of structures with similar
energy, positions of nuclei, bonding and nonbonding pairs of electrons are
taken as the canonical structures and the hybrid describes the molecule
accurately.
5) Ans: In BF3 = 0, although the B-F bonds are oriented at an angle of 1200to one
another. This is because the bond moments give a net sum of zero as the
resultant of any two is equal and opposite of third.
6)Ans: In case of NH3 the 0rbital dipole due to lone pair of electron on nitrogen atom ,
is in the same direction as the resultant dipole moment of N-H bonds, where
as in NF3, it is in the direction opposite to resultant dipole moment of 3 N-F
bonds. The orbital dipole decreases the effect of the resultant N-F bond
moments which reduces dipole moment of NF3.
7) Ans: For the resonance structures of CO32- and CO2 refer to page no 106( Part-1)
8) Ans: a) Deviation in the shape of the molecule
b) Alterations in the bond angle in the molecule.
9) Ans: i) Water molecule belongs to type of AB2E2
The shape of water molecule should have been tetrahedral if there were all
bond pair. But because of the presence of two lone pair, the shape is distorted
tetrahedral or angular. The reason is lp-lp repulsion is more than bp-bp
repulsion. Thus the angle is reduced to 104.50 from 109.50.
Refer to page no 112 for structure.
ii) SO2 molecule
SO2 molecule belongs to AB2E
The shape of SO2 molecule should have been triangular planar but it is found
to be bent or V-shaped .This is due to the fact that lp-bp repulsion is much
more than bp-bp repulsion. So the angle is reduced to 119.50 from 1200.
iii) Ammonia molecule
Ammonia molecule belong to AB3E type

The shape of NH3 molecule should have been tetrahedral if all the electrons
were bond pair. But because of the presence of one lp,ther is lp-bp repulsion
which is more than bp-bp repulsion and the angle is reduced from 1070 to 104.50.
iv) SF4 molecule.
SF4 molecule belongs to AB4E type.
The shape of SF4 molecule is distorted tetrahedron or a folded square or a
see- saw in which the lp is in an equatorial position where there are only two
lp-bp repulsions. This arrangement is more stable than the arrangement
where the lp is present at axial position where there are three lp-bp
repulsions at 900.
10) Ans: When there is formation of covalent bond between hydrogen and
electronegative elements, the electrons of the covalent bond are shifted
towards more electronegative atom as of which the positively charged
hydrogen forms a bond with the other electronegative atom .
11) Ans: a) Hydrogen atom should be bonded to highly electronegative atoms such as
fluorine, oxygen or nitrogen.
b) Size of the electronegative atoms should be small.
12) Ans: sp Refer to page 117,fig 4.10
sp2 Refer to page 117, fig 4.11
sp3 Refer to page 118, fig 4.12
13) Ans: 2py and 2py will not form a sigma bond because taking x- axis as the
internuclear axis, there will be lateral overlapping between 2py orbitals forming a
pi bond.
14) Ans: For H2O refer page 118, fig 4.14 and for C2H4 refer page 119, Fig 4.15
15) Ans: Electronic configuration of Al = 1s22s22p63s23p2
Exited state configuration is 1s22s22p63s13px13py1
Hence hybridization is sp2
In AlCl4- empty 3pz orbital is also involved so the hybridization is sp3 and
shape is tetrahedral.
16) Ans: In BF3, B atom is sp2 hybridized. In NH3, N atom is sp3 hybridized. After
the reaction hybridization changes from sp2 to sp3.
17) Ans: a) Attractive force between nucleus and its own electron.
b) Attractive force between nucleus and electron of other atom
c) Repulsive force between the two nuclei
d) Repulsive force between two electrons.
18) Ans: Ground state [He] 2s22p2
Excited state [He] 2s12px12py12pz1

19) Ans: This type of covalent bond is formed by the head on overlap of atomic
orbitals along the internuclear axis. The sigma bonds result from the
following types of overlap
a) s-s b) s-p c) p-p
20) Ans: The molecular orbitals are formed by the linear combination of wave functions of
the participating atomic orbitals. They may combine either by addition or by

subtraction. Let A and B represent the wave functions of the two combining
atomic orbitals A and B taking part in chemical combination.
21) Ans: Atomic orbitals
1. Atomic orbitals are monocentric.
2. Atomic orbitals have simple shapes like spherical or dumb-bell.
Molecular orbitals
1. Molecular orbitals are polycentric.
2. Molecular orbitals have complex shapes.
22) Ans: Bonding molecular orbitals
1. Formed by symmetric combination of atomic orbitals.
2. Has more electron density between the nuclei.
Antibonding molecular orbitals.
1. Formed by asymmetric combination of atomic orbitals.
2. Has less electron density between the nuclei.
23) Ans: It is half of the difference between the number of electrons present in
bonding molecular orbitals and the number of electrons present in the
antibonding molecular orbitals.
Bond order=Number of electrons in B.M.O-Number of electrons in A.B.M.O/2
24) Ans: When there is formation of covalent bond between hydrogen and
electronegative elements, the electrons of the covalent bond are shifted
towards more electronegative atom which makes the hydrogen atom
positive and it forms the hydrogen bond with other electronegative atom.
25) Ans: The conditions are
a) Hydrogen atom should be bonded to a highly electronegative atom such as F, O or N
b) Size of the electronegative atoms should be small.

3 Mark answers
1) Ans: The conditions for the combination of atomic orbitals to form molecular orbitals are
1. The combining atomic orbitals must have same or nearly the same energy.

2. The combining atomic orbitals must have the same symmetry about the molecular
axis.
3. The combining atomic orbitals must overlap to the maximum extent.
2) Ans: The assumptions of the molecular orbital theory are
1. The molecular orbital is the region in space comprising the nuclei of the combining
atoms around which there is maximum probability of finding electron density.
2. The number of molecular orbitals formed is equal to the number of atomic orbitals
taking part in the combination.
3. When two atomic orbitals combine according to L.C.A.O. principle, they form two
molecular orbitals i.e. bonding and antibonding.
4. The bonding molecular orbital has lower energy (more stability) as compared to
antibonding molecular orbital.
3) Ans: It is formed by the combination of the two hydrogen atoms.
Each hydrogen atom has one electron in 1s orbital.
Hence there are two electrons in Hydrogen molecule.
The molecular orbital configuration is 1s2
The bond order is calculated as follows
Bond order = Nb Na/2
= 2-0/2
=1
Hydrogen molecule is diamagnetic since there is no unpaired electron.
4) Ans: It is formed by the combination of the two helium atoms.
Each helium atom has two electrons in 1s orbital.
Hence there are four electrons in Helium molecule.
The molecular orbital configuration is 1s2, *1s2
The bond order is calculated as follows
Bond order = Nb Na/2
=2-2/2
=0
Helium molecule is unstable and does not exist.
5) Ans: It is formed by the combination of the two Lithium atoms.
Each Lithium atom has three electrons and its electronic configuration is 1s2 2s1
Hence there are two electrons in Hydrogen molecule.
The molecular orbital configuration is 1s2 *1s2 2s2
The bond order is calculated as follows
Bond order = Nb Na/2
= 4-2/2
=1
Lithium molecule is diamagnetic since there is no unpaired electron.

6) Ans:

It is formed by the combination of the two oxygen atoms.


Each oxygen atom has eight electrons and its electronic configuration is
1s2, 2s2, 2px2, 2py1, 2pz1.
Hence there are 16 electrons in oxygen molecule.
The molecular orbital configuration is
1s2, *1s2, 2s2, *2s2, 2pz2, 2px2 = 2py2, *2px1 = *2py1
The bond order is calculated as follows
Bond order = Nb Na/2
=10-6/2
=2
Oxygen molecule is paramagnetic since there are unpaired electrons.

7) Ans:

It is formed by the combination of the two carbon atoms.


Each carbon atom has six electrons and its electronic configuration is
1s2, 2s2, 2px1, 2py1.
Hence there are 12 electrons in carbon molecule.
The molecular orbital configuration is
1s2 *1s2 2s2 *2s2 2px2 = 2py2
The bond order is calculated as follows

Bond order = Nb Na/2


= 8-4/2
=2
Carbon molecule is diamagnetic since there no unpaired electrons.
8) Ans: Octet rule: Atoms can combine either by transfer of valence electrons from one atom
to another (gaining or losing) or by sharing of electron in order to acquire stable gas
configuration.
Significance: It helps to explain why different atoms combine with each other to
form ionic compounds or covalent compounds.
Limitations:
1) According to octet rule, atoms take part in chemical combination to achieve the
configuration of nearest noble gas elements. However some of noble gas elements
like Xenon have formed compounds with fluorine and oxygen.
2) The theory does not account for shape of molecule.
9) Ans: It is because energy released during the formation of crystal lattice ( lattice energy) is
greater than the sum of electron gain enthalpy and ionization enthalpy.
Example: In NaCl
Ionization enthalpy
Na (g) Na+ + e-1
HI = 495.8kJmol-1
Electron gain enthalpy
Cl (g) + e-1 Cl-(g)
HE = 348.7kJmol-1

Therefore Na (g) + Cl (g) Na+ + Cl- H = 147.1kJmol-1


This is compensated by the lattice energy of NaCl
Na+ (g) + Cl-(g) NaCl(s)
H = -788 kJmol-1
Thus stability of ionic compound is due to enthalpy of lattice formation not just by
octet ionic species in gaseous state.
10) Ans: In polyatomic molecules the enthalpy required to break the same bond in different
chemical environment are different.
Example: H2O (g) H (g) + OH (g) H1 = 502 kJmol-1
OH (g) H (g) + O (g)
H2 = 427 kJmol-1
Average bond enthalpy is 502+427/2 = 464.5 Kjmol-1
11) Ans:

Bond order

bond length

N2 NN

110nm

O2 O=O

121nm

bond dissociation enthalpy


945 kJmol-1
498 kJmol-1

Greater the bond order, bond enthalpy (energy required to break the bond) increases,
bond length decreases. Hence stability of the molecule increases. Thus N2 is more
stable than O2.
12) Ans: In case of NH3 the orbital dipole due to lone pair of electrons on N atom , is in the
same direction as the resultant dipole moment of N-H bonds, whereas in NF3 it is in
the direction opposite to resultant dipole moment of three N-F bonds. The orbital
dipole decreases the effect of the resultant N-F bond moments which reduces of
NF3.
13) Ans: a) The shape of the molecule depends upon the number of valence shell electron
pairs (bonded or non bonded) around the central atom.
b) Pairs of electrons in the valence shell repel one another since their electron clouds
are negatively charged.
c) These pairs of electrons tend to occupy such positions in space that minimize
repulsion and thus maximize distance between them.
d) The valence shell is taken as a sphere with the electron pairs localizing on the
spherical surface at maximum distance from one another.
e) A multiple bond is treated as if it is a single electron pair and the two or three
electron pairs of a multiple bond are treated as a single super pair.
f) Where two or more resonance structure can represent a molecule, the VSEPR
model is applicable to any such structure.
14) Ans: a) AB2
Linear geometry, Ex: BeCl2
b) AB3
Trigonal planar geometry, Ex: BF3
c) AB4
Tetrahedral geometry, Ex: CH4
d) AB5

Trigonal bipyramidal geometry, Ex: PCl5


e) AB6
Octahedral geometry, Ex: SF6.
15) Ans: There are two types of hydrogen bonds
Intermolecular hydrogen bond: It is formed between two different molecules of the
same or different molecules of the same or different compounds.
Example: HF, H2O, Alcohols
Intramolecular hydrogen bond: It is formed when hydrogen atom is in between the
two highly electronegative atoms present within the same molecule.
Example: O-nitrophenol.
16) Ans: a) The number of hybrid orbitals is equal to the number of atomic orbitals
undergoing hybridization.
b) The hybridized orbitals are always equivalent in energy and shape
c) Hybrid orbitals are more effective in forming stable bonds than pure atomic
orbitals
d) Type of hybridization indicates the geometry of the molecule
e) The orbitals in the valence shell of atom are hybridized
f) The orbitals undergoing hybridization should have comparable energy.
g) Not only half filled orbitals but filled orbitals also take part in hybridization
17) Ans: When two atoms approach each other, a number of attractive and repulsive forces
operate. Experimentally it has been found that attractive forces have greater
magnitude and hence the atoms come closer together. A point is reached here net
attractive force balances net repulsive force and potential energy reaches a
minimum. At this stage the atoms are said to be bonded. Refer fig 4.8, pg: 114
18).Ans: In the formation of methane molecule the unpaired electrons in each of the orbital s
of carbon pair up with electron in 1s of hydrogen, resulting in formation of 4 C-H
bonds. As the angle between p-orbitals is 900 the H-C-H bond angle should also be
900 and as 1s orbital is spherical the overlap can occur in any direction and direction
of fourth C-H bond cannot be ascertained but CH4 has a tetrahedral structure hence
simple atomic overlap cannot explain the tetrahedral shape of methane.
19) Ans: The ground state electronic configuration of Be is 1s22s2. In the exited state one of
the 2s-electrons is promoted to vacant 2p orbital to account for its bivalency. One 2s
and one 2p orbitals get hybridized to form two sp hybridized orbitals. These two sp
hybrid orbitals are oriented in opposite direction forming an angle of 180o. Each of
the sp hybridized orbital overlaps with the 2p- orbital of chlorine axially and form
two Be-Cl sigma bonds. Ref Pg 117 , Fig 4.10 (b).
20).Ans: In BCl3 molecule, the ground state electronic configuration of central boron atom is
1s22s22p1. In the exited state, one of the 2s electrons is promoted to vacant 2p orbital
as a result boron has three unpaired electrons. These 3 orbitals (one 2s and two 2p)
hybridized to form three sp2 hybrid orbitals. The three hybrid orbitals so formed are
oriented in a trigonal planar arrangement and overlap with 2p orbitals of chlorine to
form three B Cl bonds. Therefore, in BCl3, the geometry is trigonal planar with
Cl-B-Cl bond angle of 1200. Ref pg 117, Fig 4.11.
21) Ans: In ammonia, the valence shell electronic configuration of N in the ground state is
2s22px12py12pz1 having three unpaired electrons in the sp3 hybrid orbitals and a lone
pair of electrons is present in the fourth one. These 3 hybrid orbitals overlap with 1s

orbitals of hydrogen atoms to form 3 N-H sigma bonds. Force of repulsion between a
lone pair and a bond pair is more than the force of repulsion between two bond pairs
of electrons. The molecules thus get distorted and the bond angle is reduced to 1070
from 109.50. The geometry of such a molecule will be pyramidal and can be
explained with sp3 hybridization. Ref Pg 118, Fig 4.13.
22).Ans: In SF6 the central sulphur atom has the ground state outer electronic configuration of
3s23p4. In the exited state the available 6 orbitals i.e., 1s, 3p and 2d are singly
occupied by electrons. These orbitals hybridise to form 6 new sp3d2 hybrid orbitals,
which are projected towards the 6 corners of a regular octahedron in SF6. These 6
sp3d2 hybrid orbitals overlap with singly occupied orbitals of Fluorine atoms to form
6 S-F sigma bonds. Thus it has regular octahedron shape. Ref pg121, Fig 4.18

UNIT 5
States of matter
I. Questions carrying one mark
5.1 What are van der Waals forces?
5.2 What type of van der Waals force exists between HCl molecules?
5.3 Between which type of molecules does dipole induced dipole forces exist?
5.4 Even though HF has lower molecular mass compared to HCl, HF is in the liquid
state and HCl is in the gaseous state at room temperature .why?
5.5 Why are liquids & solids are hard to compress?
5.6 State Boyles law
5.7 What happens to the pressure when the volume of a gas is doubled at constant
temperature?
5.8 Give the relationship between pressure and density of a gas
5.9

Mountaineers carry oxygen cylinders along with them . Which gas law will account
to the above statement?

5.10 Relate absolute temperature scale or Kelvin temperature to Celsius scale.


5.11

If a volume vs temperature graph is plotted in degree centigrade at constant


pressure, at what temperature the line cuts the temperature axis?

5.12 Each line of volume vs pressure graph at constant temperature is known as what?
5.13 Define absolute zero temperature
5.14 Represent Charles law graphically
5.15 What is the volume occupied by the gas at -273.15C?
5.16 State Gay Lussacs law
5.17 Equal volumes of all gases under the same condition of temperature and pressure
contain equal number of molecules. Name the gas law for the above statement
5.18 Which law relates temperature and pressure ?
5.19 If the numbers of moles of a gas are doubled by keeping the temperature and
pressure constant, what would be the new volume of the gas?
5.20 Relate density and molar mass of a gas molecule
5.21 Give the value of R in SI unit.

5.22 Write the value of molar volume of an ideal gas at STP, when pressure is 1bar
5.23 State Daltons law of partial pressure
5.24 Write a postulate of kinetic molecular theory of gases that explains the great
compressibility of gases
5.25 Define aqueous tension
5.26 Why do the gases expand &occupy the entire space available to them?
5.27 How does a gas exert pressure?
5.28 Collision of the gas molecules does not change average kinetic energy.why?
5.29 Write van der Waals equation for n moles of a gas
5.30Write the expression for compressibility factor Z for one mole of a gas.
5.31Define Boyle temperature
5.32 The value of Van der walls constant a for a gas is zero, what does it signify?
5.33 Define boiling point temperature at a given pressure for a liquid
5.34 Give the value for standard boiling point of water
5.35 Define surface energy
5.36 What would be SI unit of a quantity PV2 T2/n ?
5.37 The magnitude of coefficient of viscosity of liquid at 25C ,45C, 19C and 57C
are p, q, r, s respectively. Arrange them in the increasing value of co-efficient of
viscosity
5.38 What is meant by most probable speed of gas molecule ?
5.39 Water has higher vapour pressure than mercury. Justify
5.40 Name the property of the liquid that measures the resistance to the flow of liquid
due to internal friction.
5.41 How does the volume of a gas under given temperature and pressure vary with
molar mass?
5.42. The size of the weather balloon becomes larger and larger as it ascends up into
higher attitude. Which gas law explains the above phenomenon?
5.43 Arrange Urms,Ump,Uav in the increasing value for a gas at a given temperature

II. Questions carrying Two marks


5.1 Name two types of forces which determines the physical state of substances
5.2 Write any two important physical properties of gases.
5.3 How does pressure for a given amount of gas vary with volume at a given
temperature? Represent this graphically
5.4 In terms of Charles law, explain why -273.15C is the lowest possible temperature of
gases.
5.5 Represent Charles law graphically. What is each line in the graph known as?
5.6 Write the Avogadros law. Write the mathematical representation of the law.
5.7 Using ideal gas equation derive an equation that relates density and molar mass of a
gaseous substance .
5.8 Deduce the value of R in SI unit
5.9 State Daltons law of partial pressure. How is partial pressure of a gas is related to
mole fraction
5.10 Justify: collisions among the molecules in a gas are perfectly elastic
5.11 Two flasks of equal volumes contains nitrogen and oxygen gases at the same
temperature and pressure. Which will have greater number of molecules? Justify
the answer by stating the law.
5.12 If the number of moles of a gas is doubled by keeping the temperature and pressure
constant, what will happen to the volume? Give reason.
5.13 Which two postulates of the kinetic theory of gases are not applicable for real
gases?
5.14 Explain the physical significance of Van der Waals parameters a & bfor a real
gas.
5.15 Under what condition real gases tend to show ideal gas behaviour?
5.16 Draw Z vs P graph for ideal gas and CO2 gas.
5.17 At high attitude time required to cook food is more than at sea level.
Justify the statement.
5.18 Out of NH3 and N2, which will have higher value of a- the van der Waals
parameter and why?

5.19 What happens to the compressibility factor for gases like CO2 at
i) Very high pressure & ordinary temperature
ii) Low pressure & ordinary temperature
5.20 Can Daltons law of partial pressure be used to calculate pressure of mixture of NH3
& HCl? Justify the answer .
5.21 Two gases A and B have critical temperature of 250K & 125K respectively. Which
one of these can be liquefied easily and why?
5.22 Define surface tension. Write the SI unit of surface tension.
5.23 A drop of liquid assumes spherical shape. why?
5.24 Name the two factors on which the magnitude of surface tension depends?
5.25 A balloon has a volume of 175dm3 when filled with hydrogen gas at a pressure of
1.0 bar. Calculate the volume of the balloon when the pressure is 0.8bar. Assume
that the temperature remains constant.
5.26 A gas cylinder containing cooking gas can withstand a pressure of 14.9bar. The
pressure gauge of the cylinder indicates 12bar at 27C. Due to sudden fire in the
building, the temperature starts rising. At what temperature will the cylinder
explode?
5.27 A weather balloon filled with hydrogen at 1 atm & 27C has volume equal to
1200dm3. On ascending it reaches a place where the temperature is -23C and
pressure is 0.5 atm. What is the volume of the balloon at this temperature?
5.28 Write two factors on which molecular speed of a gas depends?
5.29. The density of a gas is found to be 1.56g /dm3 at 0.98bar pressure & 65C.
Calculate the molar mass of the gas (R=0.083 bar dm3/K/mol).

III.Questions carrying three marks


5.1 On a hot summer day, pressure in the well inflated tyre of an automobile increases
considerably and the tyre may burst if the pressure is not adjusted properly. Name the
gas law suitable for the above phenomenon .State the law & write the mathematical
statement for the above law
5.2 Define an ideal gas. Derive ideal gas equation using gas laws

5.3. Enlist the three postulates of kinetic molecular theory of gases.


5.4. Define the terms
i) Critical temperature for a gas
ii) Aqueous tension
iii) Critical volume
5.5. What is the effect of temperature on i) Density ii) Surface tension iii) Vapour pressure of the liquid.
5.6 The mass of 0.5 dm3 of hydrogen gas at a pressure of 1bar of Hg and at a temperature
of 300K was found to be 4 x 10-2g. Calculate the molar mass of hydrogen (R= 0.083
bar dm3/K/mol).
5.7 2.9g of a gas at 95C occupies the same volume as 0.184 g of dihydrogen at 17 C
at the same pressure . What is the molar mass of the gas?
5.8 Calculate the total pressure of mixture of 8g of oxygen and 4g of hydrogen
confined in a vessel of 1dm3 at 27C (R=0.083 bar dm3/K/mol).
5.9 Calculate volume occupied by 8.8gof CO2 at 31.10C&1bar pressure
(R =0.083 bar LK-1 mol-1).

Answers
I. Answers for Questions carrying 1 mark
Q. NO
5.1

Value point
Attractive intermolecular forces

Marks
1

5.2

Dipole- dipole forces

5.3

Polar molecule &non-polar molecule

5.4

Due to the presence of hydrogen bonding between the

molecules in HF.
5.5

Intermolecular forces are very strong or

Particles in liquids &solids are very close to each other


5.6

At constant temperature, the pressure of fixed amount of a gas

varies inversely with its volume


5.7

Reduces to half of the initial pressure

5.8

Pressure density

OR

PM=dRT
5.9

Boyles Law

5.10

T= 273+t

Where T is Kelvin temp scale and t is Celsius scale


5.11

-273.15C

5.12

Isotherms

5.13

lowest imaginary temperatures at which gases are supposed to

occupy zero volume


5.14

5.15

Zero or 0

5.16

At constant volume, pressure of fixed amount of a gas varies

directly with temperature


5.17

Avogadros law

5.18

Gay Lussacs law

5.19

Doubles

5.20

Density Molar mass


or
M= (d/P) RT

5.21

8.341J/K/mol

5.22

22.7 L/ mol

5.23

The total pressure exerted by the mixture of non- reactive

gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of individual


gases under same conditions of volume &temperature.
5.24

Gases consists of large number of identical particles called

atoms or molecules .The volume of the molecule is negligible


in comparison to the empty space between them.
5.25

Pressure exerted by saturated water

5.26

There is no force of attraction between the particles of the

gases at ordinary temperature & pressure


5.27

collision of the gas molecule with the walls of the container

during their random motion


5.28

Collisions of the gas molecule is elastic.

5.29

(P+ an2/ v2) (v-nb) = n RT

5.30

Z= PV/RT

5.31

Temperature at which a real gas obeys ideal gas law over an

appreciable range of pressure


5.32

5.33

attractive forces among the gas molecules are absent


or
gas cannot be liquified
The temperature at which vapour pressure of liquid is equal to

the external pressure


5.34

99.6C

5.35

The energy required to increase the surface area of the liquid

by one unit
5.36

Nm4K2/mol

5.37

s<q< p < r

5.38

Speed possessed by maximum number of molecules.

5.39

The inter molecular attraction in water are lower than mercury

5.40

Viscosity

5.41

Volume is inversely proportional to molar mass or

V1/M or V= mRT/MP

5.42

Boyles law

5.43

Ump < Uav < Urms

II. Answers for Questions carrying 2 marks


Q. NO
5.1

Value point
i.
ii

5.2

Thermal energy
Inter molecular forces

i) Gases are highly compressible .


ii) Gases exert pressure equally in all direction.
iii) Gases have much lower density than solids and liquids.
iv) The volume and the shape of the gases are not fixed.

Marks
1
1
1

NOTE: Write any two.


5.3

At constant temperature the pressure of fixed amount of


gas varies inversely with its volume.
or
P1 = V2
P2 V1

Or
P1
V

5.4

Vt = V0 (273.15 + t)
273.15
Substitute t = -273.150 C Vt = 0
Or
volume of a gas at - 273.150 C is zero indicates that
substances fails to exist as gas below this temperature.

5.5
1

Isobar
5.6
It states that equal volumes of all gases under same
conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal
number of molecules

1
V n
5.7

PV=nRT
P=m RT
MXV
PM = d R T since m = d
V

5.8

1
where M is the molar mass
&d is the density

PV = n R T where R is proportionality constant.

R = P V / n T = 105 x 22.7x10 -3
1 x 273
= 8.314 Pa m3/K/mol

= 8.314 J/K/mol.

5.9
The total pressure of exerted by the mixture of non-reactive
gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of
individual gases.
Partial pressure = mole fraction x total pressure.
or
PA = XA X PTotal

5.10
It means that total energy of molecules before and after the
collision remains same.
If there were loss of kinetic energy, the motion of the
molecules would stop & gases will settle down.But this does
not happen shows that collisions are elastic.

5.11
The two gases will have equal number of molecules

5.12

.This is according to Avagadros law which states that equal


volumes of different gases under similar conditions of
temperature and pressure contains equal number of
molecules.
Volume will be doubled.
Since v n - according to Avogadros law.

1
1

1
1

5.13

5.14

5.15

i) The volume occupied by the gas molecule is negligible as


compared to the total volume of the gas.

ii) The force of attraction and repulsion among the gas


molecules are negligible.

Van der Waals constant a is measure of magnitude of


intermolecular attractive forces with in the gas.
Van der waals constant b represent co-volume or
excluded volume which is effective volume of the
molecules in a gas.
i) At low pressure
ii) high temperature

1
1

5.16
2

Z=1

5.17

5.18

5.19

5.20

5.21

At high attitude atmospheric pressure is low.


Hence boiling point of water is lowered since pressure is
directly proportional to temperature; more time is required
to cook the food.
NH3
Attraction forces in NH3 is higher due to the presence of
inter molecular hydrogen bounding
i) Z > 1 or compressibility factor is more than 1.
ii) Z < 1 or compressibility factor is less than 1.

No
It is applicable to a mixture of non reacting molecules.

Gas A

1
1
1
1

1
1

Higher the critical temperature ,greater the inter molecular

5.22

5.23

force of attraction

Surface tension is defined as the force acting on unit length


perpendicular to the line drawn on the surface of the liquid.

SI unit is expressed as N m-1.

Because of the surface tension, a liquid tends to possess


minimum surface area.
For a given volume sphere has minimum surface area.Hence
drop of liquid assumes spherical shape

5.24

5.25

i) Attractive forces between the molecules

ii) Temperature.

By Boyles law
P1 V1 = P2 V2

V2 = 1x175 = 228.75 d m3
0.8
5.26

Gay-Lussacs law

P1 =
P2

T1
T2

T2 = P2T1 , T2 = 14.9X300 = 372.8 K = 99.5O C.


P1
12
Cylinder will explode at 99.5oc.
5.27

P1V1 =
T1
1x1200

P2 V2
T2
=

0.5xV2

300

250

V2 = 2000 dm3
5.28

5.29

i)Temperature

ii) Molecular mass of a gas

PM = dRT or M = dRT/P

M = 1.56x 0.083 x 338/ 0.98

= 44.66g/mol

III. Answers for 3 Marks questions


Q. NO
5.1

Value point
Gay-Lussacss law
At constant volume, pressure of a fixed amount of a gas

Marks
1
1

varies directly with the temperature


P T Or P/T = Constant

at constant volume

5.2

A gas that follows Boyles law, Charles law & Avogadros

law strictly is called an ideal gas


At constant T
At constant P

V 1/P Boyles law

V T_ Charles Law

At constant P& T V n Avogadros Law


.. .

V n T/p
PV= nRT where R is constant called as gas

constant.
5.3

1) Gases consists of large number of

tiny

particles, of

negligible volume , identical particles called

as atoms or

molecules
2) There is no force of attraction between these particles

3) These particles are always in constant random motion


4) The particles of a gas move in all possible directions in a

straight line
5) Collisions of gas molecules are perfectly elastic
6) Different particles in the gas have different speeds & hence
different kinetic energies
7) The average kinetic energy of gas molecules is directly
proportional to the absolute temperature.
Note: Write any three- each carry 1 mark
5.4

i) critical temperature -It is the highest temperature at which

liquifaction of gas first occurs


ii)Aqueous tension

Pressure exerted by saturated water

vapour
iii) Critical volume - Volume of one mole of the gas at a
highest temperature where liquefaction of gas first occurs
or
volume of one mole of a gas at critical temperature

5.5

i) Density of liquid decreases with increase in temperature


ii) Surface tension decreases with increases in temperature
iii) vapour pressure of the liquid increases with increase in

1
1
1

temperature .
5.6

PV = nRT - ideal gas equation.


n = PV/RT.

n = 1x 0.5/ 0.083x300.
= 2x 10-2 mol.
n = m/M , M = m/n = 4x 10-2/2x 10-2

= 2g/mol
5.7

PV=n1 R T1=n2RT2
constant

since pressure and volume kept

n1T1 = n2T2

(m 1/M1)T1=(m2/M2)T2 Where m & M are mass &

molecular mass
M2 =M1m2 T2/m1T1
Substituting
1

M2= (2x 2.9x368)/(0.184x290)


M2=40g mol-1
5.8

n=m/M
No of moles of oxygen =8/32= 0.25mol
No of moles of Hydrogen=4/2=2mol

Partial pressure =nRT/V


PO2=0.25x0.083x300/1=6.225bar
1

PH2=2x0.083x300/1=49.8bar
Total pressure=PO2+PH2=6.225+49.8=56.025bar
5.9

No. of moles of CO2 (n) = Mass of CO2


Molar Mass
According to ideal gas equation

8.8

0.2 mol

44
1
1

V= nRT/P
= 0.2x 0.083 x304.1
1

= 5.048L

I PUC CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER - 06

Thermodynamics
One mark questions
1. Define System.
2. Define surroundings.
3. What is an open system? Give one example.
4. What is closed system? Give one example.
5. What is an isolated system? Give one example.
6. What is an extensive property? Give example.
7. What is an intensive property? Give example.
8. What is isothermal process?
9. What is an adiabatic process?
10. Write an expression for work done during an isothermal reversible expansion of an
ideal gas.
11. State I law of Thermodynamics.
12. Write mathematical expression to represent I law.
13. Define Enthalpy.
14. Write mathematical statement of enthalpy.
15. What is an exothermic reaction?
16. Give one example for exothermic reaction.
17. What is an endothermic reaction?
18. Give one example for endothermic reaction.
o

19. Define heat of a reaction ( H r)


20. Define standard enthalpy of formation.
21. State Hesss law of constant heat summation.
22. What is spontaneous process?
23. Give one example for spontaneous reaction.
24. Define entropy.
25. Write the S.I.Unit of entropy.
26. State second law of thermodynamics.
27. Define free energy.
28. Write mathematical statement of free energy.
29. Define standard free energy change for a reaction.
30. Out of Diamond and graphite which one has zero value of standard free energy of
formation.
31. What is the change in entropy when sugar is dissolved in water?
32. What happens to entropy when water freezes?
33. Give the mathematical form of Gibbs-Helmholtz equation.
34. What is the state of a chemical reaction when i) G = 0 ii) G > 0 iii) G <0
35. Mention the sign of H for the formation of explosives.
36. Write the thermochemical equation for combustion of Benzene( l )
37. Write the mathematical statement of II law of thermodynamics.

38. How is change in enthalpy related to change in internal energy?


39. What is meant by free expansion?
40. State III Law of thermodynamics.
41. Define reversible process.
42. Define irreversible process.
43. Define internal energy.
44. Give an expression for the work done during an adiabatic process.
45. Define the term state function.
46. What is state of a system?
47. What is standard state of a system?
48. Define Enthalpy of combustion.
49. How is standard free energy change of a reaction is related to equilibrium constant?
50. What is the change in internal energy of a system if 10 joules of heat is supplied to it
and 15 joules of work is done by it?
51. Give a chemical reaction for which H = U.
52. A closed thermos flask containing hot coffee represents what type of a system.
53. What is the relationship between H and U for the reaction.
PCl3(g) + Cl2(g)
PCl5(g)
54. Choose the correct answer:
a) A thermodynamic state function is a quantity
i) used to determine heat changes
ii) whose value is independent of path
iii) used to determine pressure, volume work
iv) whose value depends on temperature only
b) For the process to occur under adiabatic conditions, the correct condition is,
i) T = 0
ii) p = 0
iii) q = 0 iv) w = 0
c) The enthalpies of all elements in their standard states are
i) unity
ii) zero
iii) < 0 iv) different for each element
d) U of combustion of methane is XKJ mol-1. The value of H is
i) = U
ii) >U
iii) <U
iv) 0
e) The enthalpy of combustion of methane, graphite and dihydrogen at 298K are
-890.3 kJ mol-1 , - 393.5 k J mol-1 and - 285.8 kJ mol-1 respectively. Enthalpy
of formation of CH4(g) will be
i) -74.8 k J mol-1
ii) -52.27 k J mol-1
iii) +74.8 k J mol-1
iv) + 52.26 k J mol-1
f) A reaction , A + B C + D + q is found to have a positive entropy change.
The reaction will be
i ) possible at high temperature
ii) possible only at low temperature
iii) not possible at any temperature
iv) possible at any temperature

Two Marks questions


In a process, 701J of heat is absorbed by a system and 394J of work is done by the
system. What is the change in internal energy for the process?
2. For the reaction; 2Cl (g) Cl2(g) ; what will be the signs of H and S?
1.

Define standard Enthalpy of vapourisation.


Write thermochemical equation for the vaporization of Ethanol.
Calculate the Enthalpy of vapourisation of Ethanol, given enthalpies of formation of
liquid ethanol and gaseous Ethanol as -277.6kJ and -235.4kJ respectively.
6. Define standard enthalpy of fusion or molar enthalpy of fusion.
7. Define standard enthalpy of sublimation.

8. Define enthalpy of atomization (aH )


9. Define bond dissociation enthalpy.
10. For a equilibrium reaction.
A + 2B
C
H = + 400kJ and S is +200 J/K. Calculate the
temperature above which the reaction becomes spontaneous
11. For Cl2 2Cl . Assign the signs for H and S
(g)
(g)

12. Define enthalpy of a solution solH


13. For the reaction
4Fe(s) +3O2(g) 2Fe2O3(s) Entropy change and enthalpy change at 298K are
-549.4 J|K|mol and -1648 x 103 J | mol respectively. Calculate the free energy
change for the reaction.
14. For an isolated system U = 0; what will be S.
15. Comment on the thermodynamic stability of NO(g) and NO2(g) given
N2(g) + O2(g) NO(g) ; fH = 90 kJ mol-1
NO(g) + O2(g) NO2(g) ; fH = -74 kJ mol-1

-1
16. Given : N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) ; rH = -92.4 kJ mol
What is the standard enthalpy of formation of NH3 gas.
17. Explain the spontaineity of Exothermic reactions using Gibbs equation.
18. Explain the spontaineity of endothermic reactions using Gibbs equation.
19. Calculate the entropy change in surroundings when 1.0 mol of H2O( l ) is formed
under standard conditions. Given H = -286 kJ mol-1
20. Under what conditions H < U. Give an example.
21. For an isolated system U = 0; what will be S?
-1
-1
-1
22. For a reaction at 298 K 2A + B C H = 400 kJ mol and S = 0.2 kJ k mol .
At what temperature will the reaction become spontaneous considering H and S to
be constant over the temperature range?
23. Calculate the heat of formation of Carbon-monoxide from the following data.
i) C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g) ; fH = -393.5 kJ
ii) CO(g) + O2(g) CO2(g) ; fH = -282.8 kJ
24. Calculate the work done when a gas expands at a constant temperature from volume
2 x 10-3 m3 to 4 x 10-3 m3 against a constant pressure of 1.2 x 105 Nm-2.
25. Define : specific heat capacity, Molar heat capacity.
-1
26. Standard enthalpy of vapourisation of water at 373 K is 40.66 k J mol . Calculate
internal energy of vapourisation.
3.
4.
5.

3 and 4 marks questions.


1. The reaction of cyanamide, NH2CN(s) with oxygen was affected in a bomb
calorimeter and U was found to be -742.7 kJ mol-1 of cyanamide at 298K. Calculate
the enthalpy change for the reaction at 298 K.
NH2CN(s) + 3/2 O2 (g) N2(g) + CO2(g) +H2O( l )
2. Calculate the number of kJ necessary to raise the temperature of 60 g of aluminium
from 35o to 55o C. Molar heat capacity of Al is 24 J mol-1 K-1.
3. Calculate the enthalpy change on freezing of 1.0 mol of water at 10.0oC to ice at 10.0oC. fusH = 6.03 kJ mol-1 at 0oC. Cp [H2O( l )] = 75.3 J mol-1 k-1.
Cp[H2O(s)] = 36.8 J mol-1 k-1.
4. Enthalpy of combustion of carbon to carbon-di-oxide is -393.5 k J mol-1. Calculate
the heat released upon formation of 35.2g of CO2 from carbon and oxygen gas.
5. Calculate the enthalpy of the reaction
N2O4 (g) + 3CO(g) N2O(g) + 3CO2(g)
Given that : fH CO(g) = -11- k J mol-1
fH CO2(g) = -393 k J mol-1
fHN2O(g) = 81 k J mol-1
fH N2O4(g) = 9.7 k J mol-1
6. Calculate the standard enthalpy of formation of CH3OH( l ) from the following data.
i) CH3OH( l ) + 3 O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O( l ) ; fH = -726 kJ mol-1 (i)
2
(ii)
ii) C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g); cH = -393 kJ mol-1

-1
iii) H2(g) + O2(g) H2O( l ) ; fH = -286 kJ mol
(iii)
7. Calculate the enthalpy change for the process
CCl4(g) C(g) + 4 Cl(g) and calculate bond enthalpy of C Cl in CCl4(g)
Given : vapH (CCl4) = 30.5 kJ mol-1
fH (CCl4) = -135.5 kJ mol-1
aH ( C) = 715.0 kJ mol-1 where aH is enthalpy of atomisation
aH (Cl2) = 242 kJ mol-1
8. For a reaction ; 2A (g) + B(g) 2D(g)
U298 = -10.5 kJ and S = -44.1 J k-1.
Calculate U298 for the reaction and predict whether the reaction is spontaneous
or not.
9. The equilibrium constant for the reaction is 10. Calculate the value of G ; given
R = 8 J k-1 mol-1 ; T = 300 K
10. Explain the determination of U using bomb caloriemeter.
11. Explain the determination of H using caloriemeter.

*********

Thermodynamics
One mark Answers
1. It is the specific part of the universe in which energy changes are taking place.
2. Rest of the universe which surrounds the system.
3. A system is said to be open if both matter and energy can be exchanged with the
surroundings. Example: Water kept in an open beaker.
4. A system is said to be closed if it exchanges only energy with the surroundings.
Example. Water kept in a closed container.
5. A system is said to be isolated if it neither exchanges matter nor energy. Example:
Coffee taken in a thermos flask.
6. Extensive properties of a system are the properties which depend upon the quantity of
the matter present in the system. Example: Volume, internal energy, Enthalpy, heat
capacity etc.
7. Intensive properties of a system are the properties which do not depend upon the
quantity of the matter present in the system. Example: pressure, temperature, density,
specific heat, surface tension etc.
8. A process is said to be isothermal if the temperature of the system remains constant.
(dT = 0 )
9. A process is said to be adiabatic if no heat exchange between the system and
surroundings takes place. (dq = 0)
P
10. W = -2.303 nRT log 1
P2
V
W = - 2.303 nRT log 2
V1
11. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it can be transformed from one form to
another.
12. U = q + w,
U = change in internal energy
q = heat supplied
w = work done on the system
13. It is the sum of the internal energy and pressure volume energy.
14. H = U + PV

H = Enthalpy
U = Internal energy
PV = pressure volume energy
15. A reaction in which heat energy is evolved is an exothermic reaction.
16. C (s) + O2 (g)  CO2 (g) ; H = -393.5 k J.
17. A reaction in which heat energy is absorbed is an endothermic reaction.
18. N2(g) + O2 (g)  2 NO (g)
19. The change in heat that takes place in a chemical reaction represented by balanced
chemical equation.
20. The change in enthalpy that takes place when one mole of compound is formed from
its constituent elements, at standard conditions. [298 K, 101.3 k.Pa]

21. The heat change that takes place in a chemical reaction is independent of time taken
and number of intermediate steps involved.
22. A process that can take place on its own with or without initiation is called
spontaneous process.
23. Zn + H2SO4  Zn SO4 + H2
24. Entropy is a measure of randomness or disorder of a system.
25. Joule / Kelvin / mole or JK-1 mol-1
26. All spontaneous processes are thermodynamically irreversible
27. The amount of energy available for doing useful work under conditions of constant
temperature and pressure.
G = free energy
28. G = H TS.
H = Enthalpy
S = Entropy
T = Temperature on Kelvin scale
29. The change in free energy that takes place when the reactants in their standard states
are converted into product in their standard states at 298K and 101.3kPa.
30. Graphite.
31. Increases (or) positive
32. Decreases (or) negative
33. G = H - TS
34. i) Reaction attains equilibrium
ii) Reaction is non spontaneous
iii) Reaction is spontaneous
35. Positive
36. C6H6 ( l ) ) + 15 O2 ( g ) 6 CO2(g) + 3 H2O( l) H = - qkJ
2
37. S > 0 or S system + S surrounding > 0
38. H = U + (g)nRT
39. Expansion of a gas in vacuum is called free expansion.
40. Entropy of perfectly crystalline solid at absolute zero is zero.
41. A process which can be reversed at any instant of time by increasing the opposing
force by an infinitesimal amount.
42. A process which is carried out rapidly so that the system does not get a chance to
attain equilibrium.
43. The energy possessed by the system due to its nature, chemical composition and
thermodynamic state.
44. W = n Cv(T2 T1) for n moles of a gas.
45. The variables like temperature, pressure, volume etc, which define the state of a
system are called state functions.
46. Condition of the system expressed by giving definite values for its properties such as
temperature, pressure, volume.
47. The state of a system at 298K and 101.3 k.Pa is known as standard state of a system.
48. The change in enthalpy that takes place when one mole of a substance is completely
burnt in air or oxygen at a given temperature.
49. Go = - 2.303 RT log KP
50. U = q w

U = 10 15
U = - 5 joules

H2(g) + I2(g)
51. 2 HI(g)
Or any other suitable example.
52. Isolated system.
53. H = U + RT
ii) is the correct answer
54. a)
b) iii) is the correct answer
c) ii) is the correct answer
d) iii) is the correct answer
Explanation: CH4(g) + 202(g)  CO2(g) + 2H2O( l )
ng = 1 3 = -2
H = U + ngRT = U - 2RT
H < U
e) i) is the correct answer
Explanation :
According to available data:
i) CH4(g) + 202(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O( l ) ; H = - 890.3 k J mol-1
ii) C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g) ; cH = -393.5 k J mol-1
iii) H2(g) + O2(g) H2O( l ) ; cH = -285.8 k J mol-1
The equation we aim at
C(s) + 2H2(g) CH4(g) ; fH = ?
Equation (ii) + 2 equation (iii) equation (i) and the correct fH
Value is
= (-393.5) + 2 (-285.8) (-890.3) = -74.8 k J mol-1
f) (iv) is the correct answer.

Two Marks Answers


1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

Heat absorbed by the system, q = 701J


Work done by the system, w = -394J
Change in internal energy (U) = q + w = 701 394
= 307J
H: negative (-ve) because energy is released in bond formation.
S : negative (-ve) because entropy decreases when atoms combine to form
molecules.
Amount of heat required to vapourise one mole of a liquid at constant temperature
and under standard pressure (1 bar) is called its standard enthalpy of vapourisation or
molar enthalpy of vapourisation, vapH
C2H5OH( l ) C2H5OH(g) ; H = +..kJ
Hvap = Hp HR
= (-235.4 + 277.6)kJ
= + 42.2kJ

The enthalpy change that accompanies melting of one mole of a solid substance in
standard state is called standard enthalpy of fusion or molar enthalpy of fusion.
fus H

7. Standard enthalpy of sublimation, subH is the change in enthalpy when one mole of
a solid substance sublimes at a constant temperature and under standard pressure.
(1 bar)
8. It is the enthalpy change on breaking one mole of bonds completely to obtain atoms
in the gas phase.
9. It is the change in enthalpy when one mole of covalent bonds of the gaseous covalent
compound is broken to form products in the gaseous phase.
10. G = H T S
At equilibrium G = 0, H = T S
H 400 10 3
T=
=
S
200
T = 2000 K
11. H = + ve , S = + ve
12. It is the change in enthalpy when one mole of a substance is dissolved in a specified
amount of a solvent.
13. G = H - TS
G = -1648 X 103 [(298) (-549.4)]
= -1648000 + 163721.2
= -1484278.8 J/mol = -1484.27 kJ/mol
14. Change in internal energy (U) for an isolated system is zero because it does not
exchange any energy with the surroundings. But entropy tends to increase in case of
spontaneous reaction. Therefore, S > 0 or positive.

15. for NO(g) ; fH = +ve : unstable in nature


For NO2(g) ; fH = -ve : stable in nature.

-1
16. fH NH3(g) = -(92.4) / 2 = -46.2 kJ mol
17. Gibbs equation is G = H T S  (1)
For exothermic reaction H is ve
i) If S is +ve according to equation (1)
G is ve, reaction is spontaneous at all temperature.
ii) If S is ve, according to equation (1)
G is ve at low temperature such that
T S < H. Reaction is spontaneous.
18. Gibbs equation is G = H T S  (1)
For endothermic reaction, H is +ve
i) If S is +ve according to equation (1)
G is ve, at high temperature
such that T S > H. Reaction is spontaneous
ii) If S is ve, according to equation (1)
G is always +ve. Reaction is nonspontaneous at all temperature.
6.

19.

qrev = (-H) = -286 kJ mol-1 = 286000 J mol-1

q rev (286000 Jmol 1 )


=
T
298K
= 959 J k-1 mol-1
ng
20. H < U ; if is negative
Example: N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)
ng = 2 4 = -2
21. Change in internal energy (U) for an isolated system is zero because it does not
exchange any energy with the surroundings. But entropy tends to increase in case of
spontaneous reaction. Therefore, S > 0 or positive.
22. According to Gibbs Helmholtz equation;
G = H T S
H
For G = O ; H = TS or T =
S
1
(400kJmol )
T=
= 2000 k
(0.2kJk 1 mol 1 )
Thus, reaction will be in a state of equilibrium at 2000K and will be spontaneous
above this temperature.
23. Required equation
C(s) + O2(g) CO(g) ; fH = ?
Subtract equation (ii) from (i)
C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g) ; H = - 393.5 kJ
CO(g) + O2(g) CO2(g) ; H = - 282.8 kJ
(Subtract) C(s) + O2(g) - CO(g) H = (-393.5 + 282.8)
Or
C(s) + O2(g) CO(g); fH = -110.7kJ
24. W = -PV
P = 1.2 105 Nm-2
V = V2 V1 = (4 10-3) (2 10-3) 2 10-3 m3 W = ?
= - 1.2 105 Nm-2 2 10-3 m3
= -2.4 102 Nm
= - 2.4 102 J (since Nm = J)
Work done by the system = -2.4 102 J
25. Specific heat capacity : It is defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the
temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1oC or 1 K.
Molar heat capacity: It is defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the
temperature of 1 mol of a substance by one degree celsius or one Kelvin.
26. H2O( l )
H2O(g)
n = gp - gR
=10
=1
H = U + gRT
U = H - gRT
= 40.66 (1) 8.314 10-3 373
= 40.66 3.1011
= 37.5589 k J mol-1

S(surroundings) =

3 and 4 marks Answers


1
mol
2
R= 8.314 x 10-3 kJ k-1 mol-1 ; T = 298 K
According to the relation, H = U + ng RT
H = (-742.7 kJ) + ( mol) x (8.314 x 10-3 kJ k-1 mol-1) x 298K
= - 742.7 kJ + 1.239 kJ = -741.5 kJ
60 g
2. No. of moles of Al(m) =
= 2.22 mol
(27 gmol 1 )
Molar heat capacity (c ) = 24 J mol-1 k-1
Rise in temperature (T) = 55 35 = 20oC = 20 K
Heat evolved (q) = c m T
= (24 J mol-1 k-1) (2.22 mol) 20 K
= 1065.6 J = 1.067 kJ

1. U 742.7 kJ mol-1 ; ng = 2 3/2 = +

3. Ans: The change may be represented as


H
H2O (s) (-10oC)
H2O ( l ) (10oC)
H1
H3
H2
H2O( l ) (0oC)

H2O (s) (0oC)


According to Hesss law;
H = H1 + H2 + H3
H1 = 75.3 J mol-1 k-1 (10K) = 753 J mol-1
H2 (solidification) = - 6.03 k J mol-1 = -6030 J mol-1
(sign changed)
H3 = 36.8 J mol-1 k-1 (-10K) 36.8 J mol-1
H = (753 6030 368) J mol-1 = -5645 J mol-1
= -5.645 k J mol-1
4. Ans: The combustion equation is
C(s) + O2 (g) CO2 (g) ; cH = -393.5 k J mol-1
(44g)
Heat released in the formation of 44 g of
CO2 = 393.5 k J
Heat released in the formation of 35.2 g of
(393.5kJ ) (35.2 g )
CO2 =
= 314.8 kJ
(44 g )
5. Enthalpy of reaction (rH)
= [81 + 3(-393)] [9.7 + 3(-110)]
= (81 1179) (9.7 330)
= - 778 k J mol-1
6. The equation we aim at;

10

C(s) + 2H2(g) + O2(g) CH3OH( l ) ; fH = ?


Multiply equation (iii) by 2 and add to equation (ii)
C(s) + 2H2(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O( l )
H = -(393 + 522) = - 965 kJ mol-1
Subtract equation (i) from equation (iv)
CH3OH( l ) + 3 O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O( l ) ; H = -726 kJ mol-1
2
Subtract C(s) +2H2(g) + O2(g) CH3OH( l ) ; fH = -239 kJ mol-1
7. The available data is
i) CCl4( l ) CCl4(g) vapH = 30.5 kJ mol-1
ii) C(s) + 2Cl2(g) CCl4 ( l ), fH = - 135.5 kJ mol-1
iii)C(s) C(g), aH = 715.0 kJ mol-1
iv) Cl2(g) 2Cl(g) , aH = 242 kJ mol-1
The equation we aim at is
CCl4(g) C(g) + 4Cl(g); H = ?
Equation (iii) + 2 x equation (iv) equation (i) equation (ii) gives the required
equation with
H = 715.0 + 2(242) 30.5 (-135.5) kJ mol-1
= 1304 kJ mol-1
Bond enthalpy of C-Cl in CCl4 (average value)
1304
= 326 kJ mol-1
=
4
8. H = U + ngRT
U = -10.5 kJ ; ng = 2 3 = -1 mol
R = 8.314 x 10-3 kJ mol-1 ; T = 298 K
H = (-10.5 kJ ) + [(-1mol) x 8.314 x 10-3 kJ k-1mol-1 x (298K)]
= - 10.5 kJ 2.478 kJ = -12.978 kJ
According to Gibbs Hemholtz equation
G = H - TS
G = (-12.978 kJ ) (298K) x (-0.0441 kJ k-1)
= - 12.978 + 13.142
= - 12.978 + 13.142
= 0.164 kJ
Since G is positive, the reaction is non spontaneous in nature.
9. G = - RT in K = -2.303 RT log K
R = 8.0 J k-1 mol-1 ; T = 300 K ; k = 10
G = - 2.303 x ( 8 J k-1 mol-1) x (300K) x log 10
= - 5527 J mol-1 = - 5.527 kJ mol-1 .
10. Refer page 163 and 164 of the prescribed text book
11. Refer page 164 of the prescribed text book
***********

11

CHAPTER-7
EQUILIBRIUM
ONE MARK QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS.

CHAPTER WEIGHTAGE: 13

1.What is a reversible reaction?


Ans. The reaction in which both forward and backward reaction takes place simultaneously is
called as reversible reaction.
2. Give an example for a reversible process.
Ans. H2O(s)  H2O(l)
3.What is an irreversible process?
Ans. It is a process in which the products obtained does not give back the reactants.
4. Give an example for an irreversible process.
Ans. NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq)  AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)
5. Define equilibrium state.
Ans. It is a state in a reversible reaction at which both forward and backward reaction takes
place in same rate.
6.What is the freezing point of water?
Ans. 273K or 0oC
7. Give the boiling point of water at sea level.

Ans.

373K or 100oC

8. Write an example for solid-liquid equilibrium

Ans.

H2O(s)  H2O(l)

9. Give an example for liquid-gas equilibrium.


Ans. H2O (l)  H2O (g)
10. Give an example for solid-gas equilibrium.
Ans. I2 (s)  I2 (g)
11. State law of mass action.
Ans. It states that rate of a reaction is directly proportional to active masses of the reactants
at constant temperature.
12.What is equilibrium constant Kc?
Ans.
Kc = Product of concentration of product at equilibrium
Product of concentration of reactants at equilibrium
13. Write the relationship between Kp and Kc.
Ans. Kp = Kc(RT)n
14. Given an example for a reaction in which Kp = Kc
Ans. H2(g) + I2(g)  2HI (g)

15. Write the relationship between Kp and Kc for the reaction


CS2(g) + 4H2(g)  CH4 (g) + 2H2S (g)
Ans. np= 1 + 2 = 3, nR = 1 + 4 = 5, n = np nR = 3-5 = -2
Kp = Kc (RT)n , Kp = Kc(RT) -2
Kp = Kc Kc > Kp
(RT)2
16. Write Kc expression for the reaction N2(g) + 3H2(g)  2NH3 (g)
Ans. Kc = [NH3]2
[N2] [H2]3
17. The equilibrium constant for the reaction A+B  C + D is 10. If the initial concentration
of A and B is doubled then what is the value of equilibrium constant?
Ans. It remains same.
18. Write KP expression for the reaction 2S03(g)  2S02(g) + 02 (g).
Ans.
P2 x PO
KP =

SO
2
2
______________

P2
SO
3

19. What is the effect of catalyst on the equilibrium in a reversible reaction?


Ans. Catalyst has no effect.
20. What is reaction quotient?
Ans. Qc = Product of concentration of products
Product of concentration of reactants
21. In a reversible reaction K = Qc, what does it signify?
Ans. The reaction is at equilibrium.
22. In a reversible reaction Qc > K, predict the direction in which the reaction proceeds?
Ans. Net reaction goes from right to left i.e., towards backward direction.
23. Give the relationship Gibbs free energy change and equilibrium constant
Ans. Go = - 2.303 RTlogK
24. What happens to the rate of forward reaction when the pressure increases
COCl2(g)  CO(g) + Cl2 (g) ?
Ans. Increase in pressure decreases the rate of forward reaction.
25. The rate constant values of a certain reaction is 7.2 x 10-10 and 3.9 x 10-7 at 600K and
800K. predict whether reaction is exothermic or endothermic?
Ans. Since rate constant values are increasing with temperature, the reaction is endothermic.
26. In a certain chemical reaction change in pressure does not influence the equilibrium
state. What does it signify?
Ans.The number of moles of gaseous products and reactants are same in the reaction.
27. For the reaction 2SO2 (g) + O2(g)  2SO2(g) H = -qkJ. State whether rate of forward
reaction increases or decreases when temperature is decreased.
Ans. Rate of forward reaction increases.

28. What happens to rate of forward reaction


N2(g) + O2(g)  2NO(g) H = +qkJ, when pressure is increased?
Ans. Rate of the reaction remains same.
29. What is a strong electrolyte?
Ans. It is an electrolyte which ionizes almost completely in aqueous solution.
30. What is a weak electrolyte?
Ans. It is an electrolyte which ionizes partially in an aqueous solution.
31. Give two examples for a strong electrolyte.
Ans. NaCl, HCl.
32. Write two examples for a weak electrolyte.
Ans. CH3COOH, NH4OH.
33. What is hydronium ion?
Ans. Hydrated proton or H+3O.
34. Give the conjugate acid of H2O, CO32-, HSO-4, O2- and CH3COO-.
Ans. a) H2O ---- H3+O.
b) CO32- ---- HCO3c) HSO-4 ---- H2SO4
d) O2- ---- OHe) CH3COO- ---- CH3COOH.
35. Write the conjugate base of H2O, NH+4, H2CO3, HS-, HCl.
Ans. a) H2O --- OHb) NH+4 --- NH3
c) H2CO3 --- HCO-3
d) HS - --- S2e) HCl --- Cl36. OH is a Lewis base. Why?
Ans. Since it can donate a pair of electrons.
37. What is the value of ionic product of water at 298K?
Ans. 10-14(mol/dm3)2.
38. What is the PH of 10-2 M HCl solution?
Ans. PH = 2.
39. The pKa values of acids x, y and z are 4.2, 9.8 and 6.1 respectively. Which among the
above acid is strongest?
Ans. X
40.An aqueous solution of NH4Cl is acidic. Why?
Ans. NH4Cl upon hydrolysis gives ammonium hydroxide, a weak base and strong acid HCl.
41. A small amount of NH4Cl is added to NH4OH, what happens to ionization of NH4OH?
Ans. Ionisation of NH4OH decreases.

42. Write solubility product expression of Ag2CrO4.


Ans. Ag2CrO4  2Ag+(aq) + CrO42- (aq)
Ksp =4s3.
Ksp= (2s)2 x s
43. What is the effect of addition of noble gas on equilibrium?
Ans. Equilibrium remains undisturbed.
44. Define pH.
Ans. It is defined as negative logarithm to the base 10 of molarity of hydrogen ion.
i.e., pH = -log[H+]
45. what is the significance of Ka/Kb?
Ans. At given temperature Ka/Kb is a measure of strength of acid/base. Larger the value of
Ka/Kb, stronger is the acid/base.
TWO MARKS QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS.
1. Write any two characteristics of equilibrium?

Ans.

a) Equilibrium is possible only in a closed system at constant temperature.


b) All measurable properties of the system remain constant.

2. Explain solid liquid equilibrium with an example?


Ans. Solid liquid equilibrium is a stage in a reversible reaction at which the rate of transfer
of molecules from solid state to liquid state and rate of transfer of molecules from liquid state
to solid state are equal at atmospheric pressure and at freezing point / melting point of the
substance.
Example: H20(s) H2O (l)
3)
Explain liquid-vapour equilibrium with an example?
Ans. Liquid vapour equilibrium is a stage in a reversible reaction which rate of evaporation
is equal to rate of condensation at the boiling point of liquid and at atmospheric pressure.
Example:
H2O (l) H2O (vap)
4)
Explain solid vapour equilibrium with an example?
Ans. It is a stage at which rate of sublimation is equal to rate of condensation of a solid at
given temperature
Example:
I2 (solid) I2 (vap)
5)
Explain solid solution equilibrium with an example?
Ans. It is a stage at which rate of dissolution of solid is equal to rate of crystallization of solid
in a saturated solution at given temperature.
Example:
NaCl(s)  NaCl (in solution)
6)
Explain gas solution equilibrium with an example?
Ans. It is a stage of equilibrium between the gas dissolved in solution and vapours of the gas
above the liquid surface at given temperature.
Example:
CO2(g)  CO2(in solution)
7)

Sate Henrys law?


Ans.
It states that the mass of a gas dissolved in a given mass of solvent is proportional to
pressure of the gas above the solvent at given temperature.

8) What is homogeneous equilibrium? given an example


Ans. It is an equilibrium in which all the reactants and products are in same phase.
Example:
H2(g)+I2(g)  2HI(g)
9) What is heterogeneous equilibrium? given an example
Ans. It is an equilibrium in which reactants and products are in different phases.
Example:
CaCO3(s)  CaO(s) +CO2 (g)
10) State law of chemical equilibrium
Ans. The ratio of product of concentration of products to the product of concentration of
reactants all the concentration terms are raised to respective stoichiometric co-efficient in the
balanced chemical equation is a constant at given temperature is called law of chemical
equilibrium.
11) Chemical equilibrium is dynamic. Explain
Ans. At equilibrium the concentration of reactants and products remains constant, but rates
of forward and backward reactions are equal. Hence the equilibrium said to be dynamic.
12) Given an example for the reaction in which a) Kp>Kc
b)
Kp<Kc
Ans. a) PCl5(g)  PCl3(g)+Cl2(g)
b) N2(g)+3H2(g)  2NH3(g)
13) Write the significance of reaction quotient?
Ans. 1.If Qc<Kc net reaction goes from left to right (towards forward direction)
2. If Qc>Kc net reaction goes from right to left (towards backward direction)
3. If Qc=Kc no net reaction occurs (reaction is at equilibrium)
14) State le Chateliers principle?
Ans. If a system under equilibrium is subjected to change in temperature, pressure or
concentration then the equilibrium shifts itself in such a way so as to neutralize the effect of
the change.
15) Discuss the effect of increase in temperature on the rate an exothermic reversible
reaction.
Ans. Increase in temperature decrease the rate of forward reaction which is exothermic. The
rate of backward reaction increases on increasing temperature since the reverse reaction is
endothermic.
16) What is the effect of a)addition of NH3 b) addition of H2 on the reaction
N2(g) +3H2(g)  2NH3(g)?
Ans: a) The increase in concentration of ammonia increases the rate of backward reaction.
b)The increase in concentration of hydrogen increases the rate of forward reaction.
17)
Discuss the effect of pressure on the reaction PCl5(g) PCl3(g)+Cl2(g)
Ans. Increase in pressure increases rate of backward reaction in which there is decrease in
no. of gaseous components. Decrease in pressure increases rate of forward reaction in which
there is increase in no. of moles of gaseous components.
18)
Explain Arrhenius concept of acid and base with an example?
Ans. According to Arrhenius, acid is a substance that dissociates in water to give H+ ions and
base is substance that produce OH- (hydroxyl) ions.
Example:
HCl

H+ + Cl
(acid)
NaOH 
Na+ + OH(Base)

19)
Ans.

With an example explain Bronsted Lowry concept of acid and base?


Consider a reaction CH3COOH + H2O  CH3COO- + H3+O
In the above example acetic acid donates a proton hence it is an acid and water
accepts a proton and it is a base.
20)
Ans.

Explain Lewis concept of acid and base with an example?


According to Lewis acid is an electron pair acceptor and base is electron pair donor.
F3B + :NH3 ------------- F3B :NH3
Acid
base
In the above example boron trifluoride is an acid and ammonia is a base

21)
Ans.

What are conjugate acid-base pairs? Explain with an example.


A pair of acid and base which differ by a proton is called conjugate acid-base pairs.
Example:
CH3COOH + H2O CH3COO- + H3+O
In the Above example acetic acid and acetate ion act as a pair of conjugate acid-base.

22)
Explain amphoteric substance with an example?
Ans. Substance which act as acid in presence of a base and base in presence of an acid is
called amphoteric substance.
Example:
CH3COOH + H2O  CH3COO- + H3+O
Base
NH3 + H2O  NH4+ + OHAcid
23)
What is ionic product of water?
Ans. It is the product of molar concentration of H+ and OH- ions in water or in any aqueous
solution is a constant at constant temperature. i.e., Kw = [H+] [OH-]
24)
Ans.

Show that pH + pOH = 14 at 298K


WKT, [H+][OH-] = 10- 14 at 298K
Taking negative logarithm on both sides
-log [H+] log[OH-] = -log 10-14
pH +pOH = -(-14)log10
Therefore pH+ pOH = 14

25)
Explain common ion effect with an example.
Ans. The suppression in degree of dissociation of a weak electrolyte by the addition of
strong electrolyte having common ion is called common ion effect.
Example:
the ionization of acetic acid [weak electrolyte] is suppressed by addition
of sodium acetate [strong electrolyte] containing common acetate ion.
26)
Define solubility product.
Ans. The product of molar concentrations of constituent ions, each raised to the power of its
stoichiometric co-efficient in the equilibrium equation of the electrolyte at given temperature,
is called as solubility product.
27)
What is a buffer solution? Give an Example.
Ans. It is a solution that has ability to resist change in pHupon addition of small amount of
acid or base.
Example:
Mixture of acetic acid and sodium acetate.
28)
Ans.

Is Cl- a strong base or weak base of conjugate acid HCl? Why?


It is a weak base because HCl is a strong Bronsted acid its conjugate base is weak.

29)
What is hydrolysis of salt? Give an Example.
Ans. The interaction of cations and anions of salt with water to give acidic or basic or neutral
solution is called hydrolysis.
Example:
when sodium acetate undergoes hydrolysis in water it gives basic
solution due to formation of strong base NaOH and weak acid CH3COOH.
30)
The aqueous solution of K2CO3 is it acidic or basic or neutral? Explain.
Ans. K2CO3 is a salt obtained by neutralization of weak acid H2CO3 and strong base KOH.
Hence the aqueous solution of the salt has more OH- than H+ ions and resultant solution is
basic.
31)
An aqueous solution of NH4Cl is acidic. Why?
Ans. NH4Cl is a salt obtained by neutralization of strong acid HCl and weak base NH4OH. The
aqueous solution of the salt has more H+ ions than OH-- hence the solution is acidic.
32) Write applications of equilibrium constant .
Ans. 1) If the value of Kc is very large [>103] the reaction proceeds nearly to completion.
2) If the value of Kc is small [<10-3] the reaction proceeds rarely.
3) If the value of Kc is in range of 10-3 to 103, the appreciable concentrations of both
reactants and products are present.
33) Explain ionic equilibrium with an example.
Ans. It is the equilibrium established betweens ions and unionized molecules in an aqueous
solution of the weak electrolyte.
Ex. CH3COOH(aq)  CH3COO- (aq) + H+(aq)
34) Ka1 of polyprotic acid is higher than Ka2. Why?
Ans. Ka1 of polyprotic acid is higher than Ka2 because it difficult to remove an H+ ion from a
negative ion due to electrostatic forces of attraction.
4 Marks questions with answers
1)

Explain the Effect of pressure concentration and temperature on reaction


N2 (g) + 3H2 (g)  2NH3(g) H = -xkJ using Le Chateliers principle?
Ans. a) Effect of pressure: increase in pressure increases rate of forward reaction since it is
accompanied by decrease in no. of gaseous moles; hence equilibrium shifts to right side
decrease in pressure increases rate of backward reaction.
b) Effect of concentration: Increase in concentration of reactants increase rate of
forward reaction. Addition of ammonia or decrease in concentration of reactants increase rate
of backward reaction.
c) Effect of temperature: Increase in temperature increases rate of endothermic
reaction that is backward reaction. Decrease in temperature increases rate of exothermic
reaction that is forward reaction.
For the equilibrium 4NH3 (g) +5O2 (g)  4NO (g) +6H2O (g) Discuss the effect of
a) Addition of NH3
b) Addition of oxygen
c) Addition of H2O
d) Removal of H2O
Ans. a) Addition of NH3: Addition of ammonia (reactant) increases the concentration of
product that is rate of forward reaction increases.
b) Addition of oxygen: Addition of oxygen increases the concentration of product that
is rate of forward reaction increases.
2)

c) Addition of water: Addition of water (product) increases the concentration of


reactant that is rate of backward reaction increases.
d) Removal of water: Removal of water (product) decreases the concentration of
reactant i.e. rate of forward reaction increases.
3)
Mention four conditions by which the concentration of sulphur trioxide can be
increased in the following reaction. 2SO2 (g) +O2 (g) 2SO3 (g) +heat.
Ans. a) Addition of any of the reactants SO2or O2 increases the concentration of products
b) Removal of sulphur trioxide increases the rate of forward reaction. i .e. Product
concentration increases.
c) Increase of pressure increases concentration of SO3, because forward reaction is
accompanied by decrease in no. of moles.
d) Decrease of temperature increases the rate of forward reaction hence the product
concentration.
4)
Which of the following reactions is affected by increase in pressure? Also mention the
change in direction of equilibrium.
a) CO2 (g) +C(s)  2CO (g)
b) C2H4 (g) +H2 (g)C2H6 (g)
c) COCl2 (g)  CO (g) +Cl2 (g)
d) H2(g) +Br2 (g) 2HBr (g)
Ans. a) Increase in pressure increases rate of backward reaction because nP(2) >nR(1)
b) Increase in pressure increases rate of forward reaction because nR(2) >nP(1)
c) Increase in pressure increases rate of backward reaction because nP(2) <nR(1)
d) Increase in pressure has no effect on effect on the reaction because nP(2) = nR(2)
5)

Write conjugate acid and base for following amphoteric species


a) H2O
b) NH3
c) HSO4d) HCO3-

Ans.
Conjugate acid

Species

H3+O

+H+

NH4+

+H+

H2SO4
H2CO3

Conjugate base
 -H+

OH-

NH3

 -H+

H2N-

+H+

HSO4-

 -H+

SO42-

+H+

HCO3-

 -H+

CO32-

H2O

6) Write any four characteristics of equilibrium constants Kc/Kp.


Ans. a) The value of equilibrium constant is independent of initial concentrations of
reactants and products
b) Equilibrium constant depends on temperature. It is constant for a given reaction at
constant temperature.
c) The equilibrium constant for the reverse reaction is equal to inverse of equilibrium
constant for the forward reaction is Krev = 1/Kc
d) Equilibrium constant is applicable only when concentrations of reactants and
products have attained equilibrium.

7) Explain the factors affecting acidic strength of acids.


Ans. The important factors affecting acidic strengths are
1)The bond strength of H-A: The strength of H-A bond is weak in case of strong acids
hence cleavage of bond becomes easier, whereas the strength of H-A bond is high in
case of weak acids.
2) Polarity of H-A bond: In case of strong acids the electronegativity difference between
H and A is large, hence H-A bond become more polar therefore cleavage of bond
becomes easier ,where as polarity of H-A bond is less in case of weak acids.
8) Derive an expression for ionization constant Ka of weak acid.
Ans. Consider a weak acid HX which partially ionizes in aqueous solution as
HX(aq)  H+(aq) + X-(aq)
Initial concentration
C
0
0
Equilibrium concentration C-C
C
C
Where C is the initial concentration in mol/L of the acid, is the extent of ionization. The
ionization constant of the acid is given by
=
C . C / C C
Ka = [H+] [X-]/[HX]
Ka = C2 / 1
The above expression is called as mathematical form of Ostwalds dilution law.

2 Marks Problems
1) The Kc for a certain reaction is 4.5 x 107 at 750K, what is Kc for the reverse reaction?
Ans. Kc1
=
1/Kc =
1/4.5x107
=
0.2222x10-7
=
Kc 1
2.222x10-8
2) For a reversible reaction PCl3(g) + Cl2(g)  PCl5(g) Kc is 3.0 at 2700 C find the value of Kp?
Ans. Given
t=2700C
For the above reaction
T= t+273
nP=1 , nR=2
=270+273=543K
n = nP nR = 1 2 = -1
R=0.0831barlitre/mol K
W.K.T
KP = Kc(RT)n
Kc=3.0
KP = 3.0x(0.0831x543)-1
KP = 3.0/0.0831x543 = 0.06648
3)
For the synthesis of ammonia N2(g) + 3H2(g)  2NH3(g) the KP value is 41 at 400K.
Calculate KC for the reaction?
Ans. Given
For the above reaction
KP = 41
nP=2 , nR=4
T = 400K
n = nP nR = 2 4 = -2
R = 0.0831bar litre / mol K
W.K.T KP = Kc(RT)n
Kc = Kp/(RT)n
=
41/(0.0831x400)-2
KC = 41x(0.0831x400)2 =
45300.8
4)
For the reaction 2NOCl(g)  2NO(g) + Cl2(g), The equilibrium constant is 3.75 X 10-6
at 1069K. What is equilibrium constant for the reaction 2NO(g) + Cl2(g)  2NOCl(g)?
Ans. Given Kc = 3.75x10-6
W.K.T
KC1 =1/Kc = 1/3.75x10-6
= 0.2666x106 = 2.666x10+5

5)
The equilibrium concentrations of ammonia, hydrogen and Nitrogen for synthesis of
ammonia are 1.2x10-2M, 3x10-2 M and 1.5x10-2M respectively, at given temperature
calculate equilibrium constant Kc.
Ans. Given [NH3] = 1.2x10-2M
N2 + 3H2  2NH3(g)
-2
[H2] = 3x10 M
Kc = [NH3]2/[N2][H2]3
[N2] = 1.5x10-2M
= (1.2x10-2)2/(1.5x10-2)x(3x10-2)3
= 0.03556x104+2+6
= 0.03556x10+4 = 3.556x102
6)
The equilibrium concentrations of hydrogen iodide and hydrogen for the reaction
H2(g) + I2(g)  2HI(g) are 5.86x10-2M and 0.86x10-2M respectively. At given temperature
calculate equilibrium constant Kc.
Ans. Given [HI] = 5.86x10-2
Kc = [HI]2/[H2][I2]
=
[H2] = [I2] = 0.86x10-2
(5.86x10-2)2/0.86x10-2 x 0.86x10-2
=
42.43x10-4+2+2
= 42.43
7)
For the reaction 2NO(g) + Br2(g)  2NOBr(g) the equilibrium concentrations of Nitric
oxide, bromine and nitrosyl bromide are 0.0352M, 0.0178M and 0.0518M respectively at
constant temperature, calculate equilibrium constant KC.
Ans. Given [NO] = 0.0352
KC = [NOBr]2/[NO]2[Br2]
[Br2] = 0.0178
KC = (0.0518)2/(0.0352)2(0.0178)
[NOBr] = 0.0518
=
121.66
8) The equillibricum partial pressure of HI , H2 and I2 for the reaction 2HI(g)  I2(g) + H2(g)
are 0.04 atm , 0.08atm and 0.08 atm respectively, Calculate equilibrium constant KP for the
reaction.
Ans. Given PHI = 0.04atm
KP = PH2xPI2/P2HI
PI2 = 0.08atm

0.08x0.08/(0.04)2

PH2 = 0.08atm

0.16

9)
For the reaction A+3B  4C,the partial pressure of B and C are 0.8atm and 0.4 atm
respectively. The equilibrium constant KP for the reaction is 24, what is the partial pressure
of A at equilibrium?
KP = Pc4/PA.PB3
Ans. Given KP = 24
PB = 0.8tm
PA = Pc4/KP.PB3
Pc = 0.4atm
= (0.4)4/24x(0.8)3
PA = ?
PA = 0.00208atm

10)
The equilibrium constant KC for a reaction is 1.3x102 at 300K. Calculate standard free
energy change for the reaction. State whether the reaction is spontaneous or nonspontaneous.
Ans. Given R = 8.314J mol-1 K-1
G0 = -2.303RT log KC
T = 300K
= -2.302x8.314JK-1mol-1x300Klog 1.3x102
Kc=1.3 x 102
= -5744.14(2 + log 1.3)
0
G = -12142.54 Jmol-1
Since G0 is negative the reaction is spontaneous

11)
standard free energy change for a reaction is 12 KJ at 300K. Calculate equilibrium
constant for the reaction at same temperature.
G0 =-2.303RT log KC
Ans. Given G0 = 12KJ = 12x103J
T = 300K
log KC =- G0/2.303RT
R = 8.314Jmol-1K-1
log KC =-12000J/2.303x8.314JK-1mol-1x300K
log KC = -2.0891
KC
= antilog[+1-1-2.0891]
__

Kc

= antilog[ 3. 9109]
= 8.145x10-3

12)
Ans.

Calculate the pH of 10-3M NaOH solution at 298K


[OH-] =
10-3M
pOH =
-log[OH-]
pOH =
-log 10-3 = -(-3log10) = 3
W.K.T pH + pOH = 14 at 298K
pH = 14-3 = 11

13)
Ans.

Find the pH of 0.025M HCl solution.


[H+] =
0.025 =25x10-3
pH
=
-log[H+]
pH
=
-log[25 x 10-3]
=
-[log25 - 3log10] = +3-1.3979
=
1.6021
pH

14)
Ans.

Calculate pH of 0.02M H2SO4 solution.


Since H2SO4 is a dibasic acid [H+] =2 x 0.02 = 0.04 = 4 x 10-2
pH
=
-log[H+]
pH
=
-log[4 x 10-2]
=
-[log4 - 2log10] = +2 0.6021
pH
=
1.3979

15)
Ans.

Calculate the hydrogen ion concentration of a sample of milk of pH 6.4.


pH
= -log[H+]
6.4
= -log[H+]
[H+] = Antilog[-6.4 ]
[H+] = Antilog[-6.4 +1 -1]
__

16)
Ans.

[H+] = Antilog [7.6]


[H+] = 3.982 x 10-7 M
Calculate the hydroxyl ion concentration of a sample of soft drink of pH 3.2 at 298K.
pOH =
14 - pH = 14 3.2 = 11.8
pOH =
-log[OH]
11.8 =
-log[OH]
[OH ] = Antilog[-11.8]
[OH-] = Antilog[+1 -1 -11.8]
__

[OH-] = Antilog[12.2]
[OH-] = 1.585 x 10-12

17)
The ionization constant 0.05M propanoic acid is 1.3 x 10-5 . Calculate degree of
ionization.
Ans. Given Ka=1.3 x 10-5
C =0.05M

= 1.61 x 10-2 =0.0161


18) calculate the percentage of ionization of 0.05M ammonia solution if ionization
constant is 1.75 x 10-5
Ans.

Given Kb =

1.75 x 10-5

C =0.05M

= 1.87x10-2

Percentage of ionization is 1.87 x 10-2 x 100 = 1.87


19)
Hydrogen ion concentration of a solution is 4.5 x 10-6 mol/L, what is the hydroxyl ion
concentration at 298K.
Ans. W.K.T [H+][OH-] = 10-14 at 298K
[OH-] = 10-14/[H+] =
10-14/4.5 x 10-6
[OH-] = 0.2222 x 10-14+6 = 0.2222 x 10-8mol/L
20)
The pKa of acetic acid and pKb of ammonium hydroxide are 5.75 and 5.70
respectively. Calculate the pH of ammonium acetate solution.
Ans. pH = 7 + [pKa + pKb] =
7 + [5.75 5.70]
=
7 + X 0.05 = 7 + 0.025 = 7.025
21)
The solubility of A2X in water is 1.1 x 10-5 mol/L calculate the solubility product of the
electrolyte.
A 2X

2A+ + X2Ans. S = 1.1 x 10-5
Ksp = [A+]2[X2-] = (2s)2 . s = 4s3
= 4 x (1.1 x 10-5)3
= 5.324 x 10-15(mol/L)3
22)
Ans.

The solubility product of silver bromide is 5.0 x 10-13 at 298K. find its solubility.
Ksp
=
5 x 10-13
AgBr 
Ag+ + BrKsp
=
[Ag+][Br-]
Ksp
=
s.s
-13
5 x 10 =
s2
s =
= 0.7071 x 10-6mol/L

3 Marks Problems
1)
For the reaction N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g), The partial pressures of N2 and H2 are 0.8
and 0.4 atmosphere respectively at equilibrium. The total pressure of the system is 2.80
atmospheres. What is KP for the above reaction?
Ans.

Given PN2 = 0.8atm

PN2 + PH2 + PNH3 = P

PH2 = 0.4atm

0.8 + 0.4 +PNH3 = 2.8

P = 2.8atm

PNH3 = 2.8 1.2 = 1.6atm


KP = P2NH3/PN2 .P3H2 = (1.6)2/0.8 x (0.4)3 = 50

2) The equilibrium constant at 298K for the reaction Cu(s) + 2Ag+(aq) Cu2(aq) + 2Ag(s)
is 2.0 x 1015. The concentration of Cu2+ and Ag+ in solution are 1.8 x 10-2 mol/L and
3.0 x 10-9mol/L respectively. Predict the direction in which reaction proceed.
Ans. Given[Cu2+] = 1.8 x 10-2 mol/L
Qc = [Cu2+(aq)][Ag(s)] / [Cu(s)][Ag+(aq)]2
[Ag+] = 3.0 x 10-9 mol/L
= 1.8 x 10-2/(3.0 x10-9)2
Kp = 2.0 x 1015
= 0.2 x 10-2+18 = 2 x 1015
By convention [Ag(s)] = 1 and [Cu(s)] = 1
Qc = KP = 2 x 1015 , hence reaction is at equilibrium
3)
2 moles of N2O4 taken in a flask of 10L capacity is heated to 350K. At equilibrium 50%
of N2O4 was found to be dissociated to give NO2. Find the equilibrium constant for the
reaction.
Ans. Initial concentration of N2O4 = 2/10 mol/L
50% of 2N2O4 is dissociated implies, x = 50/100 = 0.5
N2O4
 2NO2
Initial concentration
2/10
0
Equilibrium concentration
2(1-x) /10
2(2x)/10
2(1-0.5) /10 = 0.1
2(2x0.5)/10 = 0.2
2
Kc = [NO4] /[N2O4]
=(0.2)2/0.1 = 0.4
4)
Calculate the pKa value of 0.1M weak mono basic acid whose degree of ionisation
1.52 x 10-2
Ans. Given = 1.52 x 10-2
Ka = C2
C = 0.1M
=0.1 x (1.52 x 10-2)2= 0.2310 x 10-4
= 2.310 x 10-5
pKa = -log Ka
= - log[2.310 x 10-5] = -[log2.310 (5)log10]
= +5 log2.310 = +5 0.3636 = 4.6364
5)
Calculate the hydrogen ion concentration of 0.1M weak mono basic acid whose
dissociation constant is 4 x 10-10 at 298K.
Ans.

Given C = 0.1M

Ka = 4 x 10-10
Wkt [H+] = C = 0.1 x 6.324 x 10-5 =

= 6.324 x 10-5

0.6324x10-5M

6)
Ans.

Find the pH of 0.05M acid which is 10% ionised at 298K.


Given c = 0.05
= 10% = 10/100 = 0.1
wkt
[H+] = C = 0.05 x 0.1 = 0.005 = 5 x 10-3M
pH = - log [H+]
= - log 5 x 10-3
= - [log5 3log10] = [3 0.6990]
pH = 2.301

4 Marks Problems
1)
The initial molar concentration of reactants A and B are 0.1 M and 0.2M respectively
in the reaction A +B 2C at equilibrium. The concentration of A in the mixture was found to
be 0.06m. Calculate the equilibrium constant.
Ans. Initial concentration of A = 0.1M
Concentration of A at equilibrium = 0.06M
Concentration of A reacted = 0.1 0.06m = 0.04M
A + B  2C
Initial concentration
0.1
0.2
0
Equilibrium concentration 0.1 0.04 0.2 0.04 2 x 0.04 = 0.08
=0.06 =0.16
2
Kc = [C] /[A][B] = (0.08)2/0.06 x 0.16 = 0.6667
2)
2 moles of HI when heated in a closed container, at equilibrium 20% of HI found to be
dissociated. Calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction 2HI(g) H2(g) + I2(g)
Ans. Initial concentration of HI = 2 moles
20 moles of HI are dissociated out of 100 moles at equilibrium
 ? moles of HI are dissociated out of 2 moles
Concentration of dissociated HI = 2 x 20 /100 = 4/10 = 0.4 moles
2HI 
H2
+ I2
Initial concentration
2
0
0
Equilibrium concentration 2 0.4 =1.6
1.6/2 = 0.8 1.6/2 = 0.8
2
= 0.8 x 0.8/(1.6)2 = 0.25
KC = [H2][I2]/[HI]
3)
What is the equilibrium concentration of each of the substances in equilibrium when
the initial concentration of ICl was 0.78M for the reaction 2ICl  I2 + Cl2 , KC = 0.14.
Ans. Let x mol be the equilibrium concentration of I2 and Cl2
2ICl
 I2 + Cl2
Initial concentration 0.78
0 0
Equilibrium concentration 0.78 2x
x x
2
KC = [I2][Cl2]/[ICl]
0.14 = X . X/(0.78 2X)2
0.14[0.78 2X]2 = X2
Taking the square root both sides
[0.14]1/2[0.78-2X] = X
0.374 x 0.78 - 0.374 x 2X = X

0.2917 = X + 0.748X
0.2917=1.748X
X = 0.2917/1.748 = 0.1668
[Cl2] = [I2] = X = 0.1668M
[ICl] = 0.78-2X=0.78-2 x 0.1668
[ICl] = 0.78-0.3336 = 0.446M
4)
Calculate the degree of ionisation and Ka of 0.025M ammonia solution, if the
ionisation constant of ammonia is 1.77 x 10-5 at 298K.
Ans.

Given Kb= 1.77 x 10-5

=
= 2.66 x 10-2
WKT, Ka X Kb = Kw
Ka= Kw/Kb = 10-14/1.77 x 10-5 = 0.5649 x 10-9

C = 0.025

5)
The Ksp values of BaSO4 and PbSO4 are 1.1 x 10-10 and 1.6 x 10-8 respectively. Which
salt is more soluble?
Ans. Let solubility of BaSO4 is s1 and solubility of PbSO4 is s2
BaSO4 Ba2+ + SO42Ksp = [Ba2+] [SO42-]
1.1 x 10-10 = s1.s1
S1 =
= 1.0489 x 10-5mol/L
PbSO4  Pb2++ SO42Ksp = [Pb2+][SO42-]
1.6 x 10-8 = s2 . s2
S2 =
= 1.2649 x 10-4mol/L
S2 > s1 hence PbSO4 is more soluble than BaSO4

SUBJECT : CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER-08 : REDOX REACTIONS
QUESTIONS CARRYING ONE MARK:

1. Define oxidation in terms of electron transfer.


2. Give the electronic interpretation of reduction.
3. What is an oxidizing agent (or oxidant)?
4. Which is the most powerful oxidizing agent?
5. What is a reducing agent (or reductant)?
6. Which is the most powerful reducing agent?
7. Complete the following equation: 2Fe 2+ + 2H+ + H2O2 .

....... +2H2O .

8. Define oxidation number. (or oxidation state).


9. Calculate the oxidation number of Cr in Cr2O7 2- .
10. Calculate the oxidation number of Mn in KMnO4 .
11. What is the oxidation number (or oxidation state) of an element?
12. What happens to the oxidation number (O.N.) of an element during oxidation?
13. What happens to the oxidation number of an element during reduction?
14. What is the oxidation state of hydrogen in hydrides?
15. What is the oxidation state of oxygen in peroxides?
16. What is the oxidation state of P4 ?.
17. What is an electrode?
18. What is electrode potential?
18. What is standard electrode potential?
19. Name the cell obtained by coupling a zinc electrode with a copper electrode.
20. Identify the oxidant in the following reaction: H2O2 + O3
21. What is the oxidation state of oxygen in OF2?.

H2O + 2O2

QUESTIONS CARRYING TWO MARKS:

1. What is a redox reaction? Give an example.


2. Justify the reaction: H2S + Cl2

2HCl + S is a redox reaction.

3. Define oxidation and reduction in terms of oxygen and hydrogen. Give one example
for each.
4. What is oxidation number? What is the oxidation number(O.N) of Cl in KClO3?
5. Define oxidation and reduction in terms of oxidation number.
6. How are the oxidizing agent and reducing agents defined in terms if oxidation number?
7. Write separate equations for the oxidation and reduction reactions occurring in the
following redox reaction: 2Fe + 2HCl
FeCl2 + H2
2H2O + O2
8. For 2H2O2
(1)
(2)
(3)
i) What is the oxidation number of Oxygen in (2)?
ii) What type of Redox reaction is it?
9. Explain whether the following reaction is a redox reaction or not:
CaCO3(s)

CaO(s) + CO2(g)

10 Calculate the oxidation number of: (i) S in H2SO4

(ii) P in H3PO4.

11. What is a redox couple? Identify the redox couples in the reaction:
Zn(s) + 2Ag+(aq)

Zn2+(aq) +2Ag(s)

12 What is an electrochemical series?


13. What is a spectator ion? Give an example of a reaction involving such an ion.
14. Write the formula for the following compounds represented using Stock notation:
(a) Nickel (II) sulphate

(b) Tin (IV) oxide

(c) Thallium (I) sulphate

(d) Iron (III) sulphate

15. Using Stock notation, represent the following compounds: Fe2O3, CuO, MnO and
MnO2
16. Calculate the oxidation number of phosphorus in the following species:

(a) HPO3 2

and

(b)PO43-

17. Balance the Redox reaction using oxidation number method :


SO2 + H2S

S + H2O

18. Assign oxidation number to the underlined elements in each of the following
species:(a) NaH2PO4 (b) NaHSO4 (c) H4P2O7 (d) K2MnO4
19. Justify that the following reactions are redox reactions:
(a) CuO(s) + H2(g)
(b) Fe2O3(s) + 3CO(g)

Cu(s) + H2O(g)
2 Fe(s) + 3CO2(g)

19. Give an example of a redox combination reaction. Mention the species that undergo
oxidation and reduction.
20. Give an example of a redox decomposition reaction. Mention the species that
undergo oxidation and reduction.
21. Give an example of a redox displacement reaction. Mention the species that undergo
oxidation and reduction.
22. Give an example of a redox disproportionation reaction. Mention the species that
undergo oxidation and reduction.
23. F2 does not undergo disproportionation. Why?
24. What type of redox reactions are the following?
(a) 3Mg(s) + N2(g) Mg3N2(s)
(b) 2KClO3(s) 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g)
(c) Cr2O3 (s) + 2 Al (s) Al2O3 (s) + 2Cr(s)
(d) (d) 2NO2(g) + 2OH(aq) NO2(aq) +NO3 (aq)+H2O(l)
25. Name the redox indicator used in the titration of
(i). KMnO4 v/s FAS.(or H2C2O4).
(ii) Na2S2O3 v/s I2.

QUESTIONS CARRYING THREE MARKS:

1. When blue coloured solution of copper sulphate is stirred with a zinc rod, the blue
colour of the solution fades off and the zinc rod is coated with reddish copper metal.
Write the chemical reaction taking place in the above observation and identify the
species undergoing oxidation and reduction.
2. A solution of silver nitrate turns blue slowly on stirring with a copper rod which in turn
gets coated with a white deposit of silver. Write a chemical reaction for this observation
and identify the oxidizing and reducing agents in it.
3. Balance the following equations by the oxidation number method.(3marks each)
(i) Fe2+ + H+ + Cr2O7 2 Cr3+ + Fe3+ + H2O
(ii)MnO4 (aq) + I (aq)

MnO2 (s) + I2(s) (in basic medium)

(iii) MnO4 (aq) + SO2 (g) Mn2+ (aq) + HSO4 (aq) (in acidic solution)
(iv) H2O2 (aq) + Fe2+ (aq) Fe3+ (aq) + H2O (l) (in acidic solution)
(v) Cr2O7 2 + SO2(g) Cr3+ (aq) + SO42 (aq) (in acidic solution)
4. Balance the following equations by half reaction method (ion-electron method). (3
marks each)
(a) MnO4 (aq) + SO2 (g) Mn2+ (aq) + HSO4 (aq) (in acidic solution)
(b) MnO4 (aq) + I (aq) MnO2 (s) + I2(s) (in basic medium)
(c) H2O2 (aq) + Fe2+ (aq) Fe3+ (aq) + H2O (l) (in acidic solution)
(d) Cr2O7 2 + SO2(g) Cr3+ (aq) + SO42 (aq) (in acidic solution)
5. In the reactions given below, identify the species undergoing oxidation and reduction:
(i) H2S (g) + Cl2 (g
(ii) 2 Na (s) + H2 (g)
(iii) 2Fe(s) + 2HCl(aq)

2 HCl (g) + S (s)


2 NaH (s)
FeCl2(aq) + H2(g)

\
6. Justify that the reaction: 2Cu2O(s) + Cu2S(s)
6Cu(s) + SO2(g) is a redox
reaction. Identify the species oxidized/reduced, which acts as an oxidant and which acts
as a reductant.
CHAPTER-08 : REDOX REACTIONS

ANSWERS:
QUESTIONS CARRYING ONE MARK:

1. Loss of electron(s) by any species is called oxidation.


2. Gain of electron(s) by any species is called reduction.
3. An oxidizing agent (or an oxidant) is an acceptor of electron(s).
4. Fluorine (F2).
5. A reducing agent(or a reductant) is a donor of electron(s).
6. Lithium (Li).
7. 2Fe 2+ + 2H+ + H2O2 .

2Fe3+ + 2H2O .

8. The term Oxidation number denotes the oxidation state of an element in a compound
ascertained according to a set of rules formulated on the basis that electron pair in a
covalent bond belongs entirely to more electronegative element.
9. Oxidation number of oxygen = -2.
Hence, oxidation number of Cr, (x) in Cr2O72- = 2x + 7x(-2) = 0, x = +6
10. Oxidation number of K = +1, oxygen, O = -2.
Hence, oxidation number of Mn, (x) in KMnO4 = (+1) + x + 4(-2) = 0, x = +7
11. Zero.
12. It increases.
13. It decreases
14. In Hydrides, hydrogen has an oxidation state of -1.
15. In peroxides, oxygen has an oxidation state of -1.
16. Zero.
17. A setup consisting of a metal in contact with its salt solution is called an electrode.

18. The potential attained by a metal in contact with a solution containing its own ions is
called electrode potential.

19. The potential attained by a metal in contact with its salt solution of concentration 1
moldm-3 at 298 K.
20. The oxidant is O3.
21. +2

QUESTIONS CARRYING TWO MARKS:


ANSWERS:

1. A chemical reaction in which both oxidation and reduction are taking place
simultaneously is called a redox reaction.
reduction
Ex: Zn(s) + Cu2+ -- Zn2+ + Cu.
Oxidation
2. :

H2S(-2) + Cl2(0) - 2HCl(-1) + S(0)


The O.N. of S increases from -2 to 0. So it is undergoing oxidation.
The O.N. of Cl2 decreases from 0 to -1. So it is undergoing reduction.
Therefore it is a redox reaction.

3. Oxidation: Addition of oxygen or removal of hydrogen.


Ex: 2 Mg + O2  2 MgO (Addition of oxygen to Mg)
,

2 H2S + O2  2 S + 2 H2O (Removal of hydrogen from H2S)


Reduction: Addition of hydrogen or removal of oxygen.
Ex: H2C = CH2 + H2  H3C CH3 . (Addition of hydrogen to ethene)
2 HgO  2 Hg + O2 (Removal of oxygen from HgO)

4. Oxidation number denotes the oxidation state of an element in a compound


ascertained according to a set of rules formulated on the basis that electron pair in a
covalent bond belongs entirely to more electronegative element.
Let the O.N of Cl in KClO3 be x.
O.N. of K = +1, O = -2 . O.N of Cl in KClO3 = 1+ x + 3(-2) = +5.

5. In terms of oxidation number,


Oxidation:
Oxidation An increase in the oxidation number of an element in a given substance.
Reduction:
Reduction A decrease in the oxidation number of an element in a given substance.
6. Oxidising agent:
agent: A reagent which can increase the oxidation number of an element
in a given substance. These reagents are also called as oxidants.
oxidants
Reducing agent: A reagent which lowers the oxidation number of an element in a given
substance. These reagents are also called as reductants.
7. 2Fe + 2HCl  FeCl2 + H2
Oxidation reaction:

Fe  Fe2++2e-

Reduction reaction:
reaction: 2HCl +2e-  H2
8.

2H2O2 (-1) 
(1)

2H2O (-2) + O2(0)


(2)
(3)

(i) The O.N. of oxygen in (2) is -2.


(ii) It is a disproportionation redox reaction ( oxygen undergoes both oxidation and
reduction. )

9.

+2 + 4 2
+2 2
+4 2
CaCO3 (s)  CaO(s) + CO2(g)
It is not a redox reaction because the oxidation number of no element changes.

10.
10 (i) Let the O.N. of S be x
O.N. of H = +1, O = -2 O.N. of S in H2SO4 = 2(+1) + x + 4(-2) = +6.
(ii) Let the O.N. of P be x.
O.N. of H = +1, O = -2

O.N. of P in H3PO4 = 3(+1)+x+4(-2) = +5.

11.
11 A redox couple is defined as having together the oxidized and reduced forms of a
substance taking part in an oxidation or reduction half reaction.
The redox couples in the reaction are, Zn2+/ Zn(s)
Zn(s) and Ag+/Ag.
/Ag.

12.
12 A series of electrode potential values arranged in the increasing or decreasing order
constitute an electrochemical series.
13.
13 An ion which is present in a redox reaction, but does not take part in a reaction during
electron transfer is called a spectator ion.
Ex: SO42- ion in the reaction: Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq)  ZnSO4(aq) + Cu.
14. (a) Ni(II)SO4
(c) Tl2(I)SO4

(b) Sn(IV)O2
(d) Fe2(III)(SO4)3

15.
15 Fe2O3 - Fe2(III)O3 ,
MnO - Mn(II)O,

CuO Cu(II)O
MnO2 Mn(IV)O2.

16.
16 (a) Let the O.N of P in HPO3 2 be x.
(+1) + x + 3(-2) = -2
x = +3
(b)Let the O.N of P in PO43- be x.
X + 4(-2) = -3
x = +5
17.
17

Step 1: Write skeletal equation with O.N of each element.

4+
20
SO2 + H2S  S + H2O.
Step 2: Multiply H2S by 2 to equalize the oxidation numbers on either side of the
equation.
4+ 2 x (2-)
0
SO2 +2 H2S  S + H2O.
Step 3: Now, balance S atoms on RHS.
SO2 + 2H2S  3 S + H2O.

Step 4: Finally balance H and O atoms to get a balanced equation.


SO2 + 2H2S  3S + 2H2O
18.
18 (a) NaH2PO4 : O.N. of P = (+1)+2(+1)+x+4(-2);

x = +5.

(b) NaHSO4: O.N of S = (+1) + (+1) + x + 4(-2);

x = +6

(c) H4P2O7: O.N. of P = 4(+1) + 2x + 7(-2) ; x = +5


(d) K2MnO4: O.N. of Mn = 2(+1) + X + 4(-2): x = + 7
(Taking O.N. of H=+1, Na = +1, K = +1, O = -2.).
19.
19 Example for Redox combination reaction:
0
0
+4 2
C(s) + O2 (g)  CO2(g)
In this reaction, the O.N. of C increases from 0 to +4. So it is undergoing oxidation.
the O.N. of O decreases from 0 to -2. So it is undergoing reduction.
20.
20 Example for Redox decomposition reaction:
-1+1
0
0
2NaH(s)  2Na(s) + H2(g)
In this reaction, the O.N. of Na increases from -1 to 0. So it is undergoing oxidation.
the O.N. of H decreases from +1 to 0. So it is undergoing reduction.
21.
21 Example for Redox displacement reaction:
+2 +6 -2
0
0
+2 +6 2
CuSO4(aq) + Zn (s)  Cu(s) + ZnSO4 (aq)
In this reaction, the O.N. of Zn increases from 0 to +2. So it is undergoing oxidation.
the O.N. of Cu decreases from +2 to 0. So it is undergoing reduction.
22.
22 Example for Redox disproportionation reaction:
+1 1
+1 2
0
2H2O2 (aq)  2H2O(l) + O2(g)
In this reaction, the O.N. of O increases from -1 to 0 as well as decreases from -1 to -2.
So oxygen is undergoing both oxidation and reduction(disproportionation).

23.
23 Among halogens, fluorine (F2) is the most electronegative element; it cannot exhibit any
positive oxidation state. Hence it does not show a disproportionation tendency.
24.
24 (a) 3Mg(s) + N2(g) Mg3N2(s) - Redox combination reaction
(b) 2KClO3(s) 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g) - Redox decomposition reaction
(c) Cr2O3 (s) + 2 Al (s) Al2O3 (s) + 2Cr(s) - Redox displacement reaction

(d) 2NO2(g) + 2OH(aq) NO2(aq) +NO3 (aq)+H2O(l) - Redox disproportionation


reaction.
25.
25 (i) MnO4- ion itself act as a self indicator
(ii) Starch.
QUESTIONS CARRYING THREE MARKS:

Answers:
reduction
1.

Zn(s) + Cu2+  Zn2+ + Cu.

Oxidation
Oxidation
In this reaction, Zn loses 2e - to Cu and hence is undergoing oxidation; Cu2+ is
undergoing reduction to Cu.

2.

reduction
Cu(s) + 2Ag+(aq)
Oxidation

Cu2+(aq) +2Ag(s)

In this reaction, Cu is giving two electrons to Ag+ and so it is a reducing agent.


Ag+, in turn, is accepting the electrons from Cu to undergo reduction and so it is an
oxidizing agent.

BALANCING EQUATIONS BY OXIDATION NUMBER METHOD


3. (i) Fe2+ + H+ + Cr2O7 2 Cr3+ + Fe3+ + H2O
. Step 1: Write skeletal equation with O.N of each element.

oxidation
2+
6+
3+
3+
2
2+
+
3+
Fe + H + Cr2O7 Cr + Fe3+ + H2O
reduction
Step 2: Multiply Cr3+ by 2 and Fe2+ and Fe3+ by 6 to equalize the oxidation numbers on
either side of the equation.
2+
1+
6+
2x3+ 3+
2+
+
2
6Fe + H + Cr2O7 2 Cr3+ +6 Fe3+ + H2O

Step 3: Now, balance O atoms on RHS by adding 7H2O


6Fe2+ + H+ + Cr2O7 2 2 Cr3+ + 6Fe3+ + 7H2O.

Step 4: Finally balance H atoms by adding 14H+ on LHS to get a balanced equation as:
6 Fe2+ + 14H+ + Cr2O7 2 2 Cr3+ + 6Fe3+ + 7H2O

3. (ii) MnO4 (aq) + I (aq)

MnO2 (s) + I2(s) (in basic medium)

.
Step 1: Write skeletal equation with O.N of each element Undergoing change in
oxidation number.
Oxidation
7+
1
MnO4 (aq) + I (aq)
reduction

6+
0
MnO2 (s) + I2(s)

Step 2: Multiply I- by 6 and MnO4- by 2 to equalize the oxidation numbers on either side
of the equation.

2 x (7+)
6 x (1- )
2 x (4+)
0

2MnO4 (aq) +6 I (aq) 2MnO2 (s) + 3I2(s)

Step 3: Now, add 8 OH- on RHS to balance ve charges on either side.

2MnO4 (aq) + 6I (aq)

2MnO2 (s) +3 I2(s) +8OH-

Step 4: Finally balance H and O atoms by adding 4H2O on LHS to get a balanced
equation as:
2MnO4 (aq) + 6I (aq) + 4H2O

2MnO2 (s) +3 I2(s) +8OH-

3. (iii) MnO4 (aq) + SO2 (g) Mn2+ (aq) + HSO4 (aq) (in acidic solution)
.
Step 1: Write skeletal equation with O.N of each element undergoing change in
oxidation number.
Oxidation-2e7+
4+
2+
6+
MnO4 (aq) + SO2 (g) Mn2+ (aq) + HSO4 (aq)
reduction-5eStep 2: Multiply SO2 by 5 and MnO4- by 2 to balance +ve charges on both sides.
2 x (7+)

5 x (4+ )

2 x (2+)

5 x (6+)

2MnO4 (aq) + 5SO2 (g) 2Mn2+ (aq) + 5HSO4 (aq)


Step 3: Now, add 2H2O and H+ on LHS to balance oxygen atoms
2 MnO4 (aq) +5 SO2 (g) +2H2O 2Mn2+ (aq) +5 HSO4 (aq)
Step 4: Finally add H+ on LHS to get a balanced equation as:
2 MnO4 (aq) + 5SO2 (g) +2H2O +H+ 2Mn2+ (aq) + 5HSO4 (aq)

3. (iv) H2O2 (aq) + Fe2+ (aq) Fe3+ (aq) + H2O (l) (in acidic solution)
.
Step 1: Write skeletal equation with O.N of each element undergoing change in
oxidation number
Oxidation-1e-

12+
3+
22+
3+
H2O2 (aq) + Fe (aq) Fe (aq) + H2O (l))
reduction-2 x 1e-

Step 2: Since the number of charges on both sides are not equal, 2Fe2+ on LHS and
2Fe3+ on RHS
2 x (1-)
2x(2+)
2x (3+)
(2-)
2+
3+
H2O2 (aq) +2 Fe (aq) 2Fe (aq) + H2O (l))
Step 3: Now, put 2H2O to balance O atoms.
H2O2 (aq) + Fe2+ (aq) Fe3+ (aq) +2 H2O (l))
Step 4: Finally add2 H+ on LHS to get a balanced equation as:
H2O2 (aq) +2 Fe2+ (aq) +2H+(aq) 2Fe3+ (aq) +2 H2O (l))

3.(v)
3.(v) Cr2O7 2 + SO2(g) Cr3+ (aq) + SO42 (aq) (in acidic solution)
solution)
Step 1: Write skeletal equation with O.N of each element Undergoing change in
oxidation number.
Oxidation-2e2 x (6+)
4+
3+
6+
2
2
3+
Cr2O7 + SO2(g) Cr (aq) + SO4 (aq)
reduction-3eStep 2: Multiply SO2 by 3 and Cr3+ by 2 on RHS .
Cr2O7 2 +3 SO2(g) 2Cr3+ (aq) + 3 SO42 (aq)

Step 3: Balance charges by adding 2H+ on LHS


Cr2O7 2 +3 SO2(g) +2H+ 2Cr3+ (aq) + 3 SO42 (aq)
Step 4: Finally add H2O on RHS to get a balanced equation as:

Cr2O7 2 + SO2(g) 2Cr3+ (aq) + SO42 (aq)+ H2O(l)

BALANCING EQUATIONS BY IONION-ELECTRON METHOD


4. (a) MnO4 (aq) + SO2 (g) Mn2+ (aq) + HSO4 (aq) (in acidic solution)
Step1: Assign O.N. to the atoms undergoing oxidation / reduction.
oxidation-2eMnO4 (aq) + SO2 (g) Mn2+ (aq) + HSO4-(aq)
reduction-5eStep2: Write out oxidation and reduction separately and balance the atoms other than H
and O.
Oxidation half reaction: SO2 HSO4Reduction half reaction: MnO4 Mn2+
Step3: Multiply the oxidation reaction with the extent of reduction and reduction reaction
by the extent of oxidation and add.
Oxidation half reaction: [SO2 HSO4-] x5
Reduction half reaction: [MnO4 Mn2+] x2
2MnO4- + 5SO2 2Mn2+ +5HSO4Step4: Add H+ and 2H2O on LHS to balance H and O atoms in the acid medium to get a
balanced equation.
2MnO4- + 5SO2 + H+ + 2 H2O 2Mn2+ +5HSO4- .

4.. (b)
(b) MnO4 (aq) + I (aq) MnO2 (s) + I2(s) (in basic medium)
Step1: Assign O.N. to the atoms undergoing oxidation / reduction.

oxidation-2eMnO4 (aq) + I (aq) MnO2 (s) + I2(s)


Step2: Write out oxidation and reduction separately and balance the
atoms other than H and O.
Oxidation half reaction: 2 I I2
Reduction half reaction: MnO4 MnO2
Step3: Multiply the oxidation reaction with the extent of reduction and reduction reaction
by the extent of oxidation and add.
Oxidation half reaction: [2 I I2] x3
Reduction half reaction: [ MnO4 MnO2] x2
2MnO4- + 6I- MnO2 + 3I2
Step4: Add 4OH- on RHS and 2H2O on LHS to balance H and O atoms in the basic medium to
get a balanced equation.
2 MnO4- + 6I- + 4H2O 2 MnO2 +3 I2+ 8 OH-

4. (c) H2O2 (aq) + Fe2+ (aq) Fe3+ (aq) + H2O (l) (in acidic solution)
Step1: Assign O.N. to the atoms undergoing oxidation / reduction.
oxidation-1eH2O2 (aq) + Fe2+ (aq) Fe3+ (aq) + H2O (l)
reduction-2e-

Step2: Write out oxidation and reduction separately and balance the atoms other than H
and O.
Oxidation half reaction: Fe2+ Fe3+
Reduction half reaction: H2O2 H2O

Step3: Multiply the oxidation reaction with the extent of reduction and reduction reaction
by the extent of oxidation and add.
Oxidation half reaction: [Fe2+ Fe3+ ] x 2
Reduction half reaction: [H2O2 H2O] x 1
2Fe2+ + H2O2 2Fe3+ + H2O

Step4: Add 2H+ on LHS and H2O on RHS to balance H and O atoms in the acid medium to get
a balanced equation.
2Fe2+ + H2O2 + 2H+ 2Fe3+ +2 H2O.

4..(d) Cr2O7 2 (aq)+


(aq)+ SO2(g) Cr3+ (aq) + SO42 (aq) (in acidic solution)
Step1: Assign O.N. to the atoms undergoing oxidation / reduction.
oxidation-2eCr2O7 2 + SO2(g) Cr3+ (aq) + SO42 (aq)
reduction-2x3eStep2: Write out oxidation and reduction separately and balance the atoms other than H
and O.
Oxidation half reaction: SO2 SO42
Reduction half reaction: Cr2O7 2 2 Cr3+
Step3: Multiply the oxidation reaction with the extent of reduction and reduction reaction
by the extent of oxidation and add.
Oxidation half reaction: [SO2 SO42-] x6
Reduction half reaction: [Cr2O7 2 2 Cr3+] x2
2Cr2O7 2 +6 SO2 4Cr3+ + 6SO42
Step4: Add H+ and 2H2O on LHS to balance H and O atoms in the acid medium to get a

balanced equation.
2Cr2O7 2(aq) + 6 SO2(g) +4H+ 4 Cr3+ (aq) +6 SO42 (aq)+2H2O.
OR,

Cr2O7 2(aq) + 3 SO2(g) +2H+ 2 Cr3+ (aq) +3SO42 (aq)+H2O.

4.(e) MnO4- + C2O42- Mn2+ + CO2 in acid medium


Step1: Assign O.N. to the atoms undergoing oxidation / reduction.
oxidation-2x1eMnO4 + C2O42- Mn2+ + CO2
reduction-5eStep2: Write out oxidation and reduction separately and balance the atoms other than H
and O.
Oxidation half reaction: C2O42- 2CO2
Reduction half reaction: MnO4 Mn2+
Step3: Multiply the oxidation reaction with the extent of reduction and reduction reaction
by the extent of oxidation and add.
Oxidation half reaction: [C2O42- 2CO2] x5
Reduction half reaction: [ MnO4 Mn2+] x2
2MnO4 + 5C2O42- 2Mn2+ + 10CO2
Step4: Add required number H+ on LHS and H2O on RHS to balance H and O atoms in the
acid medium to get a balanced equation.
2MnO4 + 5C2O42- +16H+ 2Mn2+ + 10CO2+ 8H2O
5. (i) H2S (g) + Cl2 (g

2 HCl (g) + S (s)

In this reaction, the species undergoing oxidation is: H2S


( the O.N. of S in H2S increases from -2 to 0)
The species undergoing reduction is: Cl2 ( the O.N. of Cl decreases from 0 to -1)

5.(ii) 2 Na (s) + H2 (g)

2 NaH (s)

In this reaction, the species undergoing oxidation is: Na ( the O.N. of Na increases
from 0 to +1).
The species undergoing reduction is: H2 ( the O.N. of H2 decreases from 0 to -1)

5.(iii) 2Fe(s) + 2HCl(aq)

FeCl2(aq) + H2(g)

In this reaction, the species undergoing oxidation is: Fe ( the O.N. of Fe increases
from 0 to +2)
The species undergoing reduction is: HCl ( the O.N. of H in HCl decreases from +1 to 0 )

6. The reaction: 2Cu2O(s) + Cu2S(s)

6Cu(s) + SO2(g) is a redox reaction because, in

Cu2O, Cu is in +1 oxidation state. It is reduced to Cu in which the oxidation state is 0.


In Cu2S, S is in -2 oxidation state, which is oxidized to +4 oxidation state in SO2.
The oxidizing agent(oxidant) is Cu(I) in Cu2O
The reducing agent( reductant) is sulphur of Cu2S.

*******************

I P U C QUESTION BANK
SUBJECT:- CHEMISTRY, UNIT 9 : HYDROGEN
Questions carrying one mark:
1. Which is the most abundant element in the universe?
2. Name the isotope of hydrogen that do not contain neutron.
3. What is the composition of water gas?
4. What is the chemical used in clarkes process to remove the temporary hardness of
water?
5. What volume of oxygen is produced by one litre of 10 volume H2O2 at STP?
6. Name the isotope of hydrogen containing two neutrons.
7. What is the role of heavy water in a nuclear reactor?
8. What is a syn gas?
9. Give an example of an ionic hydride.
10. Give an example of a covalent hydride.
11. What is demineralised water ?
12. Arrange LiH, NaH, and CsH in the increasing order of ionic character.
13. Arrange H2, D2, T2 in the increasing order of their boiling points.
14. Which isotope of hydrogen is radioactive?
15. What causes temporary hardness of water?
16. What causes permanent hardness of water?
17. Why H2O has higher boiling point compared to H2S?
18. What are Non-stoichiometric hydrides?
19. Why is H2O2 not stored in glass containers?
20. What is calgon?
21. What is the chemical name of zeolite used in softening of hard water?
22. Out of ice and water, which has low density?
1

23. What is the bond angle in H2O molecule?


24. Name the gas liberated by the reaction of zinc with aqueous NaOH solution.
25. Complete the following reaction
Mg(HCO3)2 (aq)

Boil

____________ + 2 CO2.

Questions carrying Two / Three marks:


26. Justify the position of hydrogen in the periodic table.
27. Write the names of isotopes of hydrogen. What is the mass ratio of these isotopes?
28. Why does hydrogen occur in a diatomic form rather than in a monoatomic form
under normal conditions?
29. How can the production of dihydrogen obtained from coal gasification be
increased?
30. Describe the bulk preparation of dihydrogen by electrolytic method. What is the role
of electrolyte in this process?
31. Complete the following reactions:

i)

H2(g) + MmOo(s)

ii)

CO(g) + H2(g)

Catalyst

iii)

C3H8(g) + 3 H2O(g)

Catalyst

iv)

Zn(s)

Heat

+ NaOH (aq)

32. Discuss the consequences of high enthalpy of H-H bond in terms of chemical
reactivity of dihydrogen.
33. What do you understand by (i) electron- deficient

(ii) electron-precise

(iii)

electron-rich compounds of hydrogen? Provide justification with suitable examples.

34. How do you expect the metallic hydrides to be useful for hydrogen storage?
Explain.
35. How does the atomic hydrogen or oxy hydrogen torch function for cutting and
welding purposes? Explain.
36. Among NH3, H2O, and HF, which has highest magnitude of hydrogen bonding and
why?
37. What is auto-protolysis of water? Mention its significance.
38. Consider the reaction of water with F2 and suggest, in terms of oxidation and
reduction, which species are oxidized/reduced?
39. Complete the following chemical reactions:
i)

PbS (s) +

H2O2 (aq) 

ii)

Mn O4 (aq)

+ H2O(aq)

iii)

CaO (s) + H2O (g)

iv)

AlCl3(s) + H2O (l)

v)

Ca3N2 (s) + H2O

40. Write the chemical reactions to show amphoteric nature of water.


41. Discuss the principle and method of softening of hard water by synthetic ion
exchange resins.
42. Write chemical reactions to justify that H2O2 can function as an oxidizing as well as
reducing agent?
43. What properties of water make it useful as a solvent? What type of compounds can
it (i) dissolve

and (ii) hydrolyse?

44. How can saline hydrides remove traces of water from organic compounds?
45. What is the difference between the terms hydrolysis and hydration?
46. Mention any two uses of dihydrogen.
47. Calculate the strength of 10 volume solution of hydrogen peroxide.
3

48. With an example explain the oxidizing property of water.


49. Explain the reducing property of water with an example.
50. With equations explain the action of washing soda on hard water in removing its
permanent hardness.

UNIT-9.

HYDROGEN.

Model answers.

Questions carrying one mark


1. Hydrogen
2. Protium1H1
3. A mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen or CO + H2
4. Lime or Ca(OH)2 or Calcium hydroxide.
5. 10 litres.
6. Tritium1T3
7. As a moderator or to slow down fast moving neutrons.
8. A mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (CO+H2)
9. LiH, BeH2, or MgH2
10. CH4, NH3, H2O, HF etc.
11. Water which does not contain cations and anions is called demineralised water.
12. LiH < NaH < CsH.
13. H2 < D2 < T2.
14. Tritium.
15. Temporary hardness is due to the presence of bicarbonates of calcium and
magnesium in water.
16. Permanent hardness is due to the presence of chlorides and sulphates of calcium
and magnesium.
17. H2O molecules associate due to intermolecular hydrogen bonding.
18. Non-stoichiometric hydrides are hydrogen deficient compounds formed by the
reaction of dihydrogen with d and f block elements.
19. Alkali metal oxides present in glass catalyse the decomposition of H2O2.
20. Sodium hexa metaphosphate or Na6P6O18.
21. Sodium Aluminium silicate-(NaAlSiO4)

22. Ice has low density.


23. 104.50
24. Hydrogen gas
25. Mg(OH)2

Model answers for questions carrying two or three marks.


26. Resemblance of hydrogen with alkali metals:
Hydrogen has 1S1 configuration in its valence shell and has a tendency to

i)

lose electron to form H+ ion.


ii)

Similar to alkali metals hydrogen forms oxides, halides, and sulphides.


Resemblance of hydrogen with halogens:

i)

Similar to halogens it can gain one electron and form hydride (H--) ion.

ii)

It also forms covalent compounds and exists as a diatomic molecule H2

27. I) Protium- 1H1

ii) Deuterium- 1D2 iii) Tritium- 1T3.

28. Hydrogen molecule has a very high bond dissociation enthalpy . It forms a covalent
bond with another H-atom and exists as a diatomic molecule.

29. By reacting CO with steam in presence of iron chromate catalyst.


673
H2O (g) Catalyst
CO2 (g) + H2(g)
This is called water gas-shift reaction.

CO(g) +

30. Hydrogen is prepared by the electrolysis of acidified water using platinum.


2H2O

lectrolysis
Traces of acid/base

2H2(g) + O2(g)electrodes.

Pure water is not an electrolyte. Addition of electrolyte makes the ions available for
electrolysis.
31. I) H2(g) + MmOo(s)

mM(s) + 0 H2O(l).

ii)CO(g)

+ H2(g)

CH3OH(l)

Catalyst

iii)C3H8(g) + 3 H2O(g)

3CO(g) + 7 H2(g)

Catalyst

Heat

iv)Zn(s) + 2 NaOH (aq) Na2znO2(aq) + H2(g).


32.Dihydrogen is chemically inert at room temperature due to its high H-H bond
dissociation enthalpy. At high temperature it accomplishes the reactions in which it is
converted to H+ or OHions and formation of covalent bond by sharing electrons.
33.I) An electron deficient hydride has less number of electrons for writing its
conventional lewis structure. Example: diborane-B2H6.
ii)An electron precise hydride has the required number of electrons to write the
conventional lewis structure. Example: methane-CH4.
iii)Electron rich hydrides have excess of electrons which are present as lone
pairs.Example: ammonia-NH3.
34. Metallic hydrides of Ni, Pd, Ce, Ac etc. have the property of absorption of
dihydrogen. The property of absorption of large volume of hydrogen on transition
metals like Pd and Pt is widely used in catalytic reduction / hydrogenation. This
property has high potential for hydrogen storage and as source of energy.
35. Atomic hydrogen produced by the dissociation of dihydrogen with the help of an
electric arc is made is made to combine on the surface to be welded which produces a
very high temperature of 4000k.
Oxy-hydrogen flame generates a high temperature used for cutting and welding
purposes.
36. Fluorine is the most electronegative atom and H-F bond is highly polar leading to
strong intermolecular bonding in H-F.
37. H2O(l) + H2O(l)  H3O+(aq) + OH(aq)
Auto-protolysis or self ionization of water is a chemical reaction in which two water
molecules react to produce

a hydroxide ion(OH--) and hydronium ion.(H3O+). This

indicates the amphoteric nature or acid base behavior of water.


38. 2F2(g) + 2H2O(l)  4H+(aq) + 4 F(aq) + O2(g).
H2O is oxidized to O2. (oxidation number of oxygen increases from 2 to 0)
F2 is reduced to For HF.( oxidation number of fluorine decreases from 0 to 1)
6

39. I) PbS(s) + 4H2O2(l)

4H2O(l) + PbSO4 (Redox reaction)

ii)2MnO4(aq) + 5 H2O2(aq) + 6 H+(aq)  2 Mn2+(aq) + 5O2(g) + 8 H2O(l)(Redox


reaction)
iii)CaO(s) + H2O(l)  Ca(OH)2 (Hydration reaction)
iv)AlCl3(s) + 3 H2O(i)  Al(OH)3(aq) + 3HCl(aq). (Hydrolysis)
v)Ca3N2(s) + 6 H2O (l)  3 Ca(OH)2(s) + 2 NH3(g) (Hydrolysis)
40 i) H2O(l) + NH3(aq)

NH4+(aq) + OH(aq)

In this reaction water acts as Bronsted acid.


ii)H2O(l) + H2S(aq)

H3O+(aq) + HS(aq)

In this reaction H2O acts as a Bronsted base. Hence H2O is amphoteric.


41.Cation exchange resins contain large organic molecules like RSO3H which are
water soluble. Ion exchange resin ( RSO3H) is changed to RNa by treating with
NaCl. The resin exchanges

Na+ ions with Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions present in hard water

and make it soft. Here R is anion.


2RNa(s) + M2+(aq)  R2M(s)

+ 2Na+(aq)

The resin can be regenerated by adding aqueous NaCl solution.


42.H2O2 oxidises PbS to PbSO4
PbS(s) + 4 H2O2(l)  PbSO4(s) + 4 H2O(l)
Example of a reaction for reducing action of H2O2 in acidic medium
2MnO4-- + 6 H+ + 5 H2O2  2Mn2+ + 8 H2O + 5O2.
43. Water is a universal solvent due to high value of dielectric constant and dipole
moment.
i) water can dissolve many ionic compounds because of iondipole interaction.
Ii) water can hydrolyse metallic and non-metallic oxides , hydrides ,carbides etc.

44. Saline hydrides are ionic and contain Hion which react with water liberating H2
gas.
For example: NaH + H2O  NaOH + H2.
45. Hydrolysis is reaction in which H+ and OHions of water react with a compound to
form products.Hydration is association of one or more molecules of water to form
hydrated compounds.
46.Dihydrogen is used i) in the synthesis of ammonia

ii) in the manufacture of

vanaspathi by hydrogenation of oils. Iii) as a rocket fuel iv) in the manufacture of


metal hydrides, methanol etc. v) in metallurgical reduction of metal oxides vi) in fuel
cells for generating electrical energy.
47.2H2O2(l)  H2O(l) + O2(g)
2x34=68g

22.7 L at STP

22.7 litres of O2is produced from 68 g of H2O2 at STP


10 litres of O2 is produced from 68x10/22.7=29.9g or 30 g of H2O2
Strength of H2O2 in 10volume solution= 30 g/litre= 3% H2O2 solution.
48. Highly electropositive metals like Na reacts with H2O and reduces H2O to
dihydrogen.
2Na (s) + 2H2O(l)  2NaOH (aq) + H2(g)
49. Water is oxidized to O2 during photosynthesis.
6CO2(g) + 12 H2O(i) - C6H12O6(aq) + 6H2O(l) + 6 O2(g).
50.Washing soda converts soluble chlorides and sulphates of Ca/Mg to insoluble
carbonates and reduces the permanent hardness of water.
MCl2 +Na2CO3  MCO3

+ 2NaCl

MSO4 + Na2CO3  MCO3 + Na2SO4. ( where M= Ca/Mg)

*******************
8

Chapter 10
S -BLOCK ELEMENTS
Question and answers carrying 1 mark
1. What are s- block elements?
s-block elements are those in which the last electron enters the
outermost s-orbital.
As the s-orbital can accommodate only two electrons, two groups (1 & 2) belong
to the s-block of the Periodic Table.
2. Name the elements present in the 1st Group of the Periodic Table
lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium and francium. They are
collectively known as the alkali metals.
3. Why I group elements are called alkali metals ?
These are called so because they form hydroxides on reaction with water which are
strongly alkaline in nature.
4. Name the elements present in the 2nd Group of the Periodic Table:
beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium and radium. These elements
with the exception of beryllium are commonly known as the alkaline earth
metals.
5. Why II group elements are called alkaline earth metals ?
These are called so because their oxides and hydroxides are alkaline in nature and
these metal oxides are found in the earths crust.
6. What is the reason for the diagonal relationship ?
Diagonal relationship is due to the similarity in ionic sizes and /or charge/radius
ratio of the elements.

7. Which is smaller in size between a metal ion and its parent atom?
The monovalent ions (M+) are smaller than the parent atom.
8. Which group elements show very low ionization enthalpy in the periodic
table?
First group elements (alkali metals)
9. How the ionization enthalpy varies in alkali metals
Ionization enthalpy decrease down the group from Li to Cs.
10. Arrange the first group elements in the decreasing order of Hydration
Enthalpy
The hydration enthalpies of alkali metal ions decrease with increase in ionic sizes.
Li+> Na+ > K+ > Rb+ > Cs+
11. why Li salts are hydrated?
Li+ has maximum degree of hydration and for this reason lithium salts are mostly
hydrated, e.g., LiCl 2H2O
12. Write the chemical composition of washing soda.
Na2CO310H2O.
13. Give reason for the higher melting point and boiling point of alkali earth
metals than alkali metals.
The melting and boiling points of these metals are higher than the corresponding
alkali metals due to smaller sizes.
14. Why Be and Mg do not impart colour to the flame ?
The electrons in beryllium and magnesium are too strongly bound to get excited by
flame. Hence, these elements do not impart any colour to the flame.

15. Name the gas liberated when alkali metals react with dil acid?
The alkaline earth metals readily react with acids liberating dihydrogen gas .
M + 2HCl MCl2 + H2
16. Name the alkaline earth metal used in radio therapy.
Radium salts are used in radiotherapy, for example, in the treatment of cancer.
17. Give reason .the compounds of alkaline earth metals are less ionic than
alkali metals
This is due to increased nuclear charge and smaller size.
18. How is Calcium Hydroxide (Slaked lime), Ca(OH)2 Prepared?
Calcium hydroxide is prepared by adding water to quick lime, CaO.
19. How milk of lime reacts with chlorine?
Milk of lime reacts with chlorine to form hypochlorite, a constituent of
bleaching powder.

20. What happens when Calcium carbonate is heated to 1200 K?


When heated to 1200 K, it decomposes to evolve carbon dioxide.

Question and answers carrying 2 mark


1. Write the general electronic configuration of s-block elements.
[noble gas]ns1 for alkali metals and
[noble gas] ns2 for alkaline earth metals.

2. Lithium and beryllium, shows similarity with which elements .


Lithium shows similarities to magnesium and beryllium to aluminium in many of
their properties. This type of diagonal similarity is commonly referred to as
diagonal relationship in the periodic table.
3. Which elements of s- block are largely found in biological fluids & what is
its importance?
Mono valent sodium and potassium ions and divalent magnesium and calcium ions
are found in large proportions in biological fluids. These ions perform important
biological functions such as maintenance of ion balance and nerve impulse
conduction.
4. Why alkali metals are highly electro positive & they are not found in free
state ?
The loosely held s-electron in the outermost valence shell of these
elements makes them the most electropositive metals. They readily lose electron to
give monovalent M+ ions. Hence they are never found in free state in nature.
5. How the atomic and ionic radii varies in alkali metals
The atomic and ionic radii of alkali metals increase on moving down the group i.e.,
they increase in size while going from Li to Cs.
6. Why the ionization enthalpy decreases down the group ?
This is because, the Increase in atomic size is more predominant over increasing
nuclear charge and the outer most electrons are very well screened from the
nuclear charge by the inner shell electrons
7. Give reason .the melting point and boiling point of alkali metals are low
The melting and boiling points of the alkali metals are low indicating
weak metallic bonding due to the presence of only a single valence electron in
them.

8. Give reason for the colour imparted to the flame by alkali metals
The alkali metals and their salts impart characteristic colour to an
oxidizing flame. This is because the heat from the flame excites the outermost
orbital electron to a higher energy level. When the excited electron comes back to
the ground state, there is emission of radiation in the visible region.
9. Why are Cs and K used as electrodes in photoelectric cells?
The alkali metal atoms have the largest sizes in a particular period of the
periodic table. With This property makes caesium and potassium useful as
electrodes in photoelectric cells.
10. What happens when alkali metals react with dihydrogen?
The alkali metals react with dihydrogen at about 673K (lithium at
1073K) to form hydrides. All the alkali metal hydrides are ionic solids with
high melting points.

11. Name the most power full reducing agent & give reason for it .
The alkali metals are strong reducing agents, lithium being the
most and sodium the least powerful reducing agent.
Note--- With the small size of its ion, lithium has the highest hydration enthalpy
which accounts for its high
negative E0 value and its high reducing power.
12.Give reason for the low solubility of LiF & CsI in water.
The low solubility of LiF in water is due to its high lattice enthalpy
whereas the low solubility of CsI is due to smaller hydration enthalpy of its two
ions. Other halides of lithium are soluble in ethanol, acetone and ethylacetate; LiCl
is soluble in pyridine also.

13. What are Oxo-Acids?give ex .


Oxo-acids are those in which the acidic proton is on a hydroxyl
group with an oxo group attached to the same atom e.g., carbonic acid, H2CO3
(OC(OH)2; sulphuric acid, H2SO4 (O2S(OH)2).
14. Why does Li show anomalous behaviour
This is due to the :
(i) Exceptionally small size of its atom and ion, and
(ii) High polarising power (i.e., charge/ radius ratio).
As a result, there is increased covalent character of lithium compounds which is
responsible for their solubility in organic solvents. And lithium shows diagonal
relationship to magnesium .
15. Why Solvay process cannot be extended for the manufacture of potassium
carbonate?
Solvay process cannot be extended to the manufacture of potassium carbonate
because potassium hydrogencarbonate is too soluble to be precipitated by the
addition of ammonium hydrogencarbonate to a saturated solution of potassium
chloride.
16.Write any four Uses of washing soda.
i) It is used in water softening, laundering and cleaning.
(ii) It is used in the manufacture of glass, soap, borax and caustic soda.
(iii) It is used in paper, paints and textile industries.
(iv) It is an important laboratory reagent both in qualitative and quantitative
analysis.
17.How is pure NaCl obtained from crude Nacl?
To obtain pure sodium chloride, the crude salt is dissolved in minimum
amount of water and filtered to remove insoluble impurities. The solution is then
saturated with hydrogen chloride gas. Crystals of pure sodium chloride separate
out.
Calcium and magnesium chloride, being more soluble than sodium chloride,
remain in solution.

18.Mention any two Uses of NaCl :


(i) It is used as a common salt or table salt for domestic purpose.
(ii) It is used for the preparation of Na2O2, NaOH and Na2CO3.
19.Write anote on the Physical Properties of Sodium hydroxide
Sodium hydroxide is a white, translucent solid. It melts at 591 K. It is
readily soluble in water to give a strong alkaline solution. Crystals of sodium
hydroxide are deliquescent. The sodium hydroxide solution at the surface reacts
with the CO2 in the atmosphere to form Na2CO3.
20. Mention the uses of NaOH.
It is used in
(i) The manufacture of soap, paper, artificial silk and a number of chemicals,
(ii) In petroleum refining,
(iii) In the purification of bauxite,
(iv) In the textile industries for mercerising cotton fabrics,
(v) For the preparation of pure fats and oils, and
(vi) As a laboratory reagent.
21.Mention the uses of Sodium hydrogencarbonate
i) Sodium hydrogencarbonate is a mild antiseptic for skin infections.
ii) It is used in fire extinguishers.
22. How does the atomic and Ionic Radii of alkaline earth metals vary in
comparison to alkali metals
The atomic and ionic radii of the alkaline earth metals are smaller than
those of the corresponding alkali metals in the same periods. This is due to the
increased nuclear charge in these elements. Within the group, the atomic and ionic
radii increase with increase in atomic number.
23. How does the of Ionization Enthalpy of alkaline earth metals vary in
comparison to alkali metals
The alkaline earth metals have low ionization enthalpies due to fairly
large size of the atoms. Since the atomic size increases down the group, their

ionization enthalpy decreases The first ionisation enthalpies of the alkaline earth
metals are higher than those of the corresponding Group 1 metals. This is due to
their small size as compared to the corresponding alkali metals. It is interesting to
note that the second ionisation enthalpies of the alkaline earth metals are smaller
than those of the corresponding alkali metals.
24. How does the of Hydration Enthalpy of alkaline earth metals vary &
compare it with alkali metals
The hydration enthalpies of alkaline earth metal ions decrease with increase
in ionic size down the group. Be2+> Mg2+ > Ca2+ > Sr2+ > Ba2+ The hydration
enthalpies of alkaline earth metal ions are larger than those of alkali metal ions.
Thus, compounds of alkaline earth metals are more extensively hydrated than those
of alkali metals, e.g., MgCl2 and CaCl2 exist as MgCl2.6H2O and CaCl2 6H2O
while NaCl and KCl do not form such hydrates.
25.What is the colour imparted to the flame by Ca,Sr and Ba?
Calcium, strontium and barium impart characteristic brick red, crimson and apple
green colours respectively to the flame. In flame the electrons are excited to higher
energy levels and when they drop back to the ground state, energy is emitted in the
form of visible light.

26. Why are Be & Mg inert to O2& H2O?


Beryllium and magnesium are kinetically inert to oxygen and water
because of the formation of an oxide film on their surface. However, powdered
beryllium burns brilliantly on ignition in air to give BeO and Be3N2.
Magnesium is more electropositive and burns with dazzling brilliance in air to give
MgO and Mg3N2. Calcium, strontium and barium are readily attacked by air to
form the oxide and nitride. They also react with water with increasing vigour even
in cold to form hydroxides.
27. How can BeF2, and BeCl2 be prepared conveniently ?
Thermal decomposition of (NH4)2BeF4 is the best route for the
preparation of BeF2, and BeCl2 is conveniently made from the oxide.

28. Account for the reducing nature of Be even though it has less negative
value of reduction potential .
Like alkali metals, the alkaline earth metals are strong reducing agents. This
is indicated by large negative values of their reduction potentials However their
reducing power is less than those of their corresponding alkali metals. Beryllium
has less negative value compared to other alkaline earth metals. However, its
reducing nature is due to large hydration energy associated with the small size of
Be2+ ion and relatively large value of the atomization enthalpy of the metal.
29. write the general equation for the reaction of alkali earth metals with NH3.
Alkaline earth metals dissolve in liquid ammonia to give deep blue black
solutions forming ammoniated ions.

From these solutions, the ammoniates, [M(NH3)6]2+ can be recovered.


30.Give reason . the sulphate of Be & Mg are soluble in water .
The sulphates of the alkaline earth metals are all white solids and stable to
heat. BeSO4, and MgSO4 are readily soluble in water; the solubility decreases from
CaSO4 to BaSO4. The greater hydration enthalpies of Be2+ and Mg2+ ions overcome
the lattice enthalpy factor and therefore their sulphates are soluble in water.
31.What happens when nitrates of alkalin earth metal is heated?
The nitrates are made by dissolution of the carbonates in dilute nitric acid.
Magnesium nitrate crystallises with six molecules of water, whereas barium nitrate
crystallises as the anhydrous salt. This again shows a decreasing tendency to form
hydrates with increasing size and decreasing hydration enthalpy. All of them
decompose on heating to give the oxide like lithium nitrate.

(M = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba)


32.How is Calcium oxide (quick lime), CaO Prepared?
It is prepared on a commercial scale by heating limestone(CaCO3) in a
rotary kiln at 1070-1270K.

The carbon dioxide is removed as soon as it is produced to enable the reaction to


proceed to completion.
33.What happens when CaO is exposed to atmospheric air?
On exposure to atmosphere, it absorbs moisture and carbon dioxideto
form Calcium hydroxide and Calcium carbonate.
Note; The addition of limited amount of water breaks the lump of lime. This
process is called slaking of lime.
34.Write few uses of quick lime.
(i) It is an important primary material for manufacturing cement and is the cheapest
form of alkali.
(ii) It is used in the manufacture of sodium carbonate from caustic soda.
(iii) It is employed in the purification of sugar and in the manufacture of dye stuffs.

35.Write a note on the Physical Properties of Calcium Hydroxide (Slaked


lime), Ca(OH)2
It is a white amorphous powder. It is sparingly soluble in water. The
aqueous solution is known as lime water and a suspension of slaked lime in water
is known as milk of lime.
36.How lime water reacts with limited CO2 and excess CO2 ?
When carbon dioxide is passed through lime water it turns milky due to the
formation of calcium carbonate.

On passing excess of carbon dioxide, the precipitate dissolves to form calcium


hydrogen carbonate.

37. write any three uses of Calcium Hydroxide (Slaked lime)


i) It is used in the preparation of mortar, a building material.

(ii) It is used in white wash due to its disinfectant nature.


(iii) It is used in glass making, in tanning industry, for the preparation of bleaching
powder and for purification of sugar.

38.How do you prepare Calcium carbonate?


It can be prepared by passing carbon dioxide through slaked lime

or by the addition of sodium carbonate to calcium chloride.


Note--Excess of carbon dioxide should be avoided since this leads to the formation
of water soluble calcium hydrogencarbonate.

39.Which gas is liberated when Calcium carbonate is reacted with dil acid ?
It reacts with dilute acid to liberate carbon dioxide.

40. Mention the Uses of Calcium carbonate?


It is used as a building material in the form of marble and in the
manufacture of quick lime. Calcium carbonate along with magnesium carbonate is
used as a flux in the extraction of metals such as iron. Specially precipitated
CaCO3 is extensively used in the manufacture of high quality paper. It is also used
as an antacid, mild abrasive in tooth paste, a constituent of chewing gum, and a
filler in cosmetics.
41.How is Calcium Sulphate (Plaster of Paris), CaSO4 H2O (hemihydrate of
calcium sulphate)
prepared from gypsum?
It is obtained when gypsum, CaSO42H2O, is heated to 393 K.

Above 393 K, no water of crystallisation is left and anhydrous calcium sulphate,


CaSO4 is formed. This is known as dead burnt plaster. It has a remarkable

property of setting with water. On mixing with an adequate quantity of water it


forms a plastic mass that gets into a hard solid in 5 to 15 minutes.
42. What are the uses of Plaster of Paris?
The largest use of Plaster of Paris is in the building industry as well as
plasters. It is used for immoblising the affected part of organ where there is a bone
fracture or sprain. It is also employed in dentistry, in ornamental work and for
making casts of statues and busts.
43.What are the Uses of cement? Cement has become a commodity of national
necessity for any country next to iron and steel. It is used in concrete and
reinforced concrete, in plastering and in the construction of bridges, dams and
buildings.
Question and answers carrying 3&4 mark
1. write a note on the abundance of first and second group elements.
Among the alkali metals sodium and potassium are abundant and
lithium, rubidium and
caesium have much lower abundances. Francium is highly radioactive; its
longest-lived isotope 223-Fr has a half-life of only 21 minutes.
Among the alkaline earth metals calcium and magnesium rank fifth and
sixth in abundance respectively in the earths crust. Strontium and barium have
much lower abundances. Beryllium is rare and radium is the rarest of all
comprising only 1010 per cent of igneous rocks.
2.Why do the alkali metals tarnish in dry air ?
The alkali metals tarnish in dry air due to the formation of their oxides
which in turn react with moisture to form hydroxides. They burn vigorously in
oxygen forming oxides.
Lithium forms monoxide,
sodium forms peroxide,
the other metals form superoxides.
The superoxide O2 ion is stable only in the presence of large cations such as
K, Rb, Cs.

(M = K,
Rb, Cs)
In all these oxides the oxidation state of the alkali metal is +1. Lithium shows
exceptional behaviour in reacting directly with nitrogen of air to form the nitride,
Li3N as well. Because of their high reactivity towards air and water, they are
normally kept in kerosene oil.
3. Explain the reactivity of alkali metals towards water.
The alkali metals react with water to form hydroxide and dihydrogen.
(M = an alkali metal)
It may be noted that although lithium has most negative E0 value, its reaction with
water is less vigorous than that of sodium which has the least negative E0 value
among the alkali metals. This behaviour of lithium is attributed to its small size and
very high hydration energy. Other metals of the group react explosively with
water.
They also react with proton donors such as alcohol, gaseous ammonia and
alkynes.

4. How does alkali metals react with halogens?


The alkali metals readily react vigorously with halogens to form ionic
halides, M+X. However, lithium halides are somewhat covalent. It is because of
the high polarisation capability of lithium ion (The distortion of electron cloud of
the anion by the cation is called polarisation). The Li+ ion is very small in size and
has high tendency to distort electron cloud around the negative halide ion. Since
anion with large size can be easily distorted, among halides, lithium iodide is the
most covalent in nature.
5.Why do the the alkali metals give blue solution ,when treated with liq NH3?
The alkali metals dissolve in liquid ammonia giving deep blue
solutions which are conducting in nature.

The blue colour of the solution is due to the ammoniated electron which absorbs
energy in the visible region of light and thus imparts blue colour to the solution.
The solutions are paramagnetic and on standing slowly liberate hydrogen resulting
in the formation of amide.
(where am denotes solution in ammonia.) In concentrated solution, the blue
colour changes to bronze colour and becomes diamagnetic.
6.What are the uses of alkali metals ?
Lithium metal is used to make useful alloys, for example with lead to
make white metal bearings for motor engines, with aluminium to make aircraft
parts, and with magnesium to make armour plates. It is used in thermonuclear
reactions. Lithium is also used to make electrochemical cells. Sodium is used to
make a Na/Pb alloy needed to make PbEt4 and PbMe4. These organolead
compounds were earlier used as anti-knock additives to petrol, but nowadays
vehicles use lead-free petrol. Liquid sodium metal is used as a coolant in fast
breeder nuclear reactors. Potassium has a vital role in biological systems.
Potassium chloride is used as a fertilizer. Potassium hydroxide is used in the
manufacture of soft soap. It is also used as an excellent absorbent of carbon
dioxide. Caesium is used in devising photoelectric cells.
7.What is the reason for the increasing stability of peroxide & superoxide of
alkali metals down the group?
On combustion in excess of air, lithium forms mainly the oxide, Li2O (plus
some peroxide Li2O2), sodium forms the peroxide, Na2O2 (and some superoxide
NaO2) whilst potassium, rubidium and caesium form the superoxides, MO2. Under
appropriate conditions pure compounds M2O, M2O2 and MO2 may be prepared.
The increasing stability of the peroxide or superoxide, as the size of the metal ion
increases, is due to the stabilisation of large anions by larger cations through lattice
energy effects. These oxides are easily hydrolysed by water to form the hydroxides
according to the following reactions :

The oxides and the peroxides are colourless when pure, but the superoxides are
yellow or orange in colour. The superoxides are also paramagnetic. Sodium
peroxide is widely used as an oxidising agent in inorganic chemistry.

8. Explain the stability of carbonates & bicarbonates of alkali metals .


The alkali metals form salts with all the oxo-acids. They are generally
soluble in water and thermally stable. Their carbonates (M2CO3) and in most cases
the hydrogencarbonates (MHCO3) also are highly stable to heat. As the
electropositive character increases down the group, the stability of the carbonates
and hydorgencarbonates increases. Lithium carbonate is not so stable to heat;
lithium being very small in size polarises a large CO3 2 ion leading to the
formation of more stable Li2O and CO2. Its hydrogencarbonate does not exist as a
solid.

9. Mention the Points of Difference between Lithium and other Alkali


Metals
(i) Lithium is much harder. Its m.p. and b.p. are higher than the other alkali metals.
(ii) Lithium is least reactive but the strongest reducing agent among all the alkali
metals. On combustion in
air it forms mainly monoxide, Li2O and the nitride, Li3N unlike other alkali
metals.
(iii) LiCl is deliquescent and crystallises as a hydrate, LiCl.2H2O whereas other
alkali metal chlorides do not
form hydrates.
(iv) Lithium hydrogencarbonate is not obtained in the solid form while all other
elements form solid
hydrogen carbonates.
(v) Lithium unlike other alkali metals forms no ethynide on reaction with ethyne.
(vi) Lithium nitrate when heated gives lithium oxide, Li2O, whereas other alkali
metal nitrates decompose to
give the corresponding nitrite.

(vii) LiF and Li2O are comparatively much less soluble in water than the
corresponding compounds of other
alkali metals.
10. Mention the Points of Similarities between Lithium and Magnesium

The similarity between lithium and magnesium is particularly striking and arises
because of their similar sizes : (atomic radii, Li = 152 pm, Mg = 160 pm; ionic
radii : Li+ = 76 pm, Mg2+= 72 pm. )
The main points of similarity are:
(i) Both lithium and magnesium are harder and lighter than other elements in the
respective groups.
(ii) Lithium and magnesium react slowly with water. Their oxides and hydroxides
are much less soluble and
their hydroxides decompose on heating. Both form a nitride, Li3N and Mg3N2,
by direct combination
with nitrogen.
(iii) The oxides, Li2O and MgO do not combine with excess oxygen to give any
superoxide.
(iv) The carbonates of lithium and magnesium decompose easily on heating to
form the oxides and CO2.
Solid hydrogencarbonates are not formed by lithium and magnesium.
(v) Both LiCl and MgCl2 are soluble in ethanol.
(vi) Both LiCl and MgCl2 are deliquescent and crystallise from aqueous solution as
hydrates, LiCl2H2O
and MgCl28H2O.
11. How is Sodium Carbonate (Washing Soda), Na2CO310H2O manufactured
by Solvay Process
Principle-- In this process, advantage is taken of the low solubility of sodium
hydrogencarbonate whereby it gets precipitated in the reaction of sodium chloride
with ammonium hydrogencarbonate. The latter is prepared by passing CO2 to a
concentrated solution of sodium chloride saturated with ammonia, where
ammonium carbonate followed by ammonium hydrogencarbonate are formed.
The equations for the complete process may be written as :

Sodium hydrogencarbonate crystal separates. These are heated to give sodium


carbonate.
Recovery of some raw material--In this process NH3 is recovered when the
solution containing NH4Cl is treated with Ca(OH)2. Calcium chloride is obtained
as a by-product.

12.What happens ,when washing soda is heated ?


On heating, the decahydrate loses its water of crystallization to form
monohydrate. Above 373K, the monohydrate becomes completely anhydrous and
changes to a white powder called soda ash.

Carbonate part of sodium carbonate gets hydrolysed by water to form an alkaline


solution.

13.Explain the extraction of Sodium Chloride, NaCl


The most abundant source of sodium chloride is sea water which contains
2.7 to 2.9% by mass of the salt. In tropical countries like India, common salt is
generally obtained by evaporation of sea water. Approximately 50 lakh tons of salt
are produced annually in India by solar evaporation. Crude sodium chloride,
generally obtained by crystallization of brine solution, contains sodium sulphate,
calcium sulphate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride as impurities.
Calcium chloride, CaCl2, and magnesium chloride, MgCl2 are deliquescent
impurities (because they absorb moisture easily from the atmosphere).

14.Explain the manufacture of Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic Soda), NaOH by


castner kellner cell
Preperation--Sodium hydroxide is generally prepared commercially by the
electrolysis of sodium chloride in Castner-Kellner cell. A brine solution is
electrolysed using a mercury cathode and a carbon anode. Sodium metal
discharged at the cathode combines with mercury to form sodium amalgam.
Chlorine gas is evolved at the anode.

The amalgam is treated with water to give sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas.

15.How is Sodium Hydrogencarbonate (Baking Soda), NaHCO3 prepared ?


Sodium hydrogencarbonate is known as baking soda because it
decomposes on heating to generate bubbles of carbon dioxide (leaving holes in
cakes or pastries and making them light and fluffy).
Preparation--Sodium hydrogencarbonate is made by saturating a solution of
sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide. The white crystalline powder of sodium
hydrogencarbonate, being less soluble, gets separated out.

16.Write a note on biological importance of sodium and potassium


Sodium ions are found primarily on the outside of cells, being
located in blood plasma and in the interstitial fluid which surrounds the cells.
These ions participate in the transmission of nerve signals, in regulating the flow
of water across cell membranes and in the transport of sugars and amino acids
into cells. Sodium and potassium, although so similar chemically, differ
quantitatively in their ability to penetrate cell membranes, in their transport
mechanisms and in their efficiency to activate enzymes. Thus, potassium ions
are the most abundant cations within cell fluids, where they activate many
enzymes, participate in the oxidation of glucose to produce ATP and, with sodium,
are responsible for the transmission of nerve signals.

17. What are the uses of alkaline earth metals ?


Beryllium is used in the manufacture of alloys. Copper-beryllium alloys
are used in the preparation of high strength springs. Metallic beryllium is used for
making windows of X-ray tubes. Magnesium forms alloys with aluminium, zinc,
manganese and tin. Magnesium-aluminium alloys being light in mass are used in
air-craft construction.
Magnesium (powder and ribbon) is used in flash powders and bulbs, incendiary
bombs and signals. A suspension of magnesium hydroxide in water (called milk of
magnesia) is used as antacid in medicine. Magnesium carbonate is an ingredient of
toothpaste. Calcium is used in the extraction of metals from oxides which are
difficult to reduce with

carbon. Calcium and barium metals, owing to their reactivity with oxygen and
nitrogen at elevated temperatures, have often been used to remove air from vacuum
tubes. Radium salts are used in radiotherapy, for example, in the treatment of
cancer.

18.Explain the structure of BeCl2?


Except for beryllium halides, all other halides of alkaline earth metals
are ionic in nature. Beryllium halides are essentially covalent and soluble in
organic solvents. Beryllium chloride has a chain structure in the solid state as
shown below:

In the vapour phase BeCl2 tends to form a chloro-bridged dimer which dissociates
into the linear monomer at high temperatures of the order of 1200 K.

19. Mention the anomalous behaviour of beryllium


Beryllium, the first member of the Group 2 metals, shows anomalous
behaviour as compared to magnesium and rest of the members. Further, it shows
diagonal relationship to aluminium
(i) Beryllium has exceptionally small atomic and ionic sizes and thus does not
compare well with other
members of the group. Because of high ionisation enthalpy and small size it
forms compounds which are
largely covalent and get easily hydrolysed.
(ii) Beryllium does not exhibit coordination number more than four as in its
valence shell there are only four
orbitals. The remaining members of the group can have a coordination number
of six by making use of
d-orbitals.
(iii) The oxide and hydroxide of beryllium, unlike the hydroxides of other elements
in the group, are
amphoteric in nature.
20. Mention the Diagonal Relationship between Beryllium and Aluminium

The ionic radius of Be2+ is estimated to be 31 pm; the charge/radius ratio is nearly
the same as that of the Al3+ ion. Hence beryllium resembles aluminium in some
ways. Some of the similarities are:
(i) Like aluminium, beryllium is not readily attacked by acids because of the
presence of an oxide film on
the surface of the metal.
(ii) Beryllium hydroxide dissolves in excess of alkali to give a beryllate ion,
[Be(OH)4]2 just as aluminium
hydroxide gives aluminate ion, [Al(OH)4].
(iii) The chlorides of both beryllium and aluminium have Cl bridged chloride
structure in vapour phase.
Both the chlorides are soluble in organic solvents and are strong Lewis acids.
They are used as Friedel
Craft catalysts.
(iv) Beryllium and aluminium ions have strong tendency to form complexes,
BeF42, AlF63.
21. Write a note on the manufacture of Cement:
Cement is an important building material. It was first introduced in
England in 1824 by Joseph Aspdin. It is also called Portland cement because it
resembles with the natural limestone quarried in the Isle of Portland, England.
Cement is a product obtained by combining a material rich in lime, CaO with
other material such as clay which contains silica, SiO2 along with the oxides of
aluminium, iron and magnesium. The average composition of Portland cement is :
CaO, 50- 60%; SiO2, 20-25%; Al2O3, 5-10%; MgO, 2- 3%; Fe2O3, 1-2% and SO3,
1-2%. For a good quality cement, the ratio of silica (SiO2) to alumina (Al2O3)
should be between 2.5 and 4 and the ratio of lime (CaO) to the total of the oxides
of silicon (SiO2) aluminium (Al2O3) and iron (Fe2O3) should be as close as possible
to 2.
The raw materials for the manufacture of cement are limestone and clay. When
clay and lime are strongly heated together they fuse and react to form cement
clinker. This clinker is mixed with 2-3% by weight of gypsum (CaSO42H2O) to
form cement. Thus important ingredients present in Portland cement are dicalcium
silicate (Ca2SiO4) 26%, tricalcium silicate (Ca3SiO5) 51% and tricalcium aluminate
(Ca3Al2O6) 11%.

22. How does the setting of cement takes place & what is the role of gypsum in
setting of cement ?
When mixed with water, the setting of cement takes place to give a hard mass.
This is due to the hydration of the molecules of the constituents and their
rearrangement. The purpose of adding gypsum is only to slow down the process of
setting of the cement so that it gets sufficiently hardened.
23.Write a note on biological importance of magnesium and calcium
An adult body contains about 25 g of Mg and 1200 g of Ca compared with
only 5 g of iron and 0.06 g of copper. The daily requirement in the human body has
been estimated to be 200 300 mg. All enzymes that utilise ATP in phosphate
transfer require magnesium as the cofactor. The main pigment for the absorption of
light in plants is chlorophyll which contains magnesium. About 99 % of body
calcium is present in bones and teeth. It also plays important roles in
neuromuscular function, interneuronal transmission, cell membrane integrity and
blood coagulation. The calcium concentration in plasma is regulated at about 100
mgL1. It is maintained by two hormones: calcitonin and parathyroid hormone. Do
you know that bone is not an inert and unchanging substance but is continuously
being solubilised and redeposited to the extent of 400 mg per day in man? All this
calcium passes through the plasma.

Subject: Chemistry
Chapter 11: P-Block Element

One mark questions


1. What are p-block Elements?
p-block elements are those in which the lost electron enters
the p orbital of the outermost shell.
2. Is an aqueous solution of borax is basic or acidic?
Basic.
3. What is the type of hybridization of boran in diborabe?
Sp3.
4. Which is the thermodynamically most stable form of
carbon?
Graphite.
5. Why boric acid is polymeric?
Due to the presence of hydrogen bonds.
6. What happens when
a)Borax is heated strongly
loses water molecule to form sodium metaborate on further
heating boric anhydride is formed.
b) Boric acid is added to water.

It accepts electrons from OH ion.


c) Aluminium is treated with dilute NaOH.
Sodium tetrahydroxoaluminate(III) and hydrogen gas is
liberated.
d) Boron trifluoride is reacted with ammonia.
Form an adduct and results in complete octet around boron.
7. Classify the following oxides as neutral,acidic ,basic or
amphoteric.
CO,B2O3 ,SiO2,CO2.Al2O3,PbO2,Tl2O3.
Acidic-B2O3,SiO2,CO2
Basic-Ti2O3
Neutral-CO
Amphoteric-Al2O3,PbO2.
8. What are allotropes? Name the allotropes of carbon?
Elements having different physical properties and same
chemical properties are known as Allotropes.
Allotropes of carbon Graphite, Diamond, Fullerene .
9. Write the oxidation states exhibited by elements of group
14?
+2 and +4 .

10. What is the nature of hybridization in diamond and


graphite?
SP3 and SP2 respectively.
11. write the valence shell electronic configuration of p-block
elements
ns2 np1-6 (except helium )
12. write the chemical composition of borax.
Na2 B4 O7 . 10H2O
13. Which is the catalyst used to convert alcohols directly into
gasoline?
ZSM-5
14. Which is the basic structural unit of silicates?
Sio4415. Which is the repeating unit of organosillicon polymer?
R2SiO
16. Name the important oxides of carbon?
CO,CO2
17. Why carbon shows allotropic forms?
Due to property of catenation and P - P bond formation.
18. What happens atomic and ionic radii of p-block elements
along a period?

Decreases.

19. What happens to ionization enthalphy of p-block elements


of down a group?
Decreases.
20. Name the solid metalloid of p-block elements?
Boron.
21. Which is the most abundant metal in the earth crust?
Aluminium.
22. Which is the simplest boron hydride?
Di borane.
23. Which compound is known as inorganic benzene?
Borazine.
24. Who discovered fullerenes?
H.W.Kroto, E.Smalley and R.F.Curl.
25. What type of hybridization does carbon undergo in
diamond?
Sp3.
26. What type of hybridization does carbon undergo in
Graphite?
Sp2.
27. What is water gas ?
CO+H2.

28. What is producer gas?


CO +N2.
29. What is dry ice?
Solid CO2.
30. What is the type of hybridization of boron in diborane?
Sp3.
31. Which gas is used in fizzy drinks and fire extinguisher?
CO2.
32. Why diamond donot conduct electricity?
Because it has no free electrons.
33. Name the allotropic form of carbon whose structure
resembles soccer ball?
Fullerene,
34. Why CH4 is more stable than SiH4?
Due to small size of carbon.
35. Mention one use of dry ice?
As a refrigerant for ice cream.
36. Write the equation for the decomposition of steam by tin?

Sn+2H2O

SnO2+2H2.

Two marks questions:37. Write balanced equations for


a) B2H6+O2
B2H6+3O2
b) BF3+NaH
2BF3+6NaH

B2O3+3H2O
450 K.

450 K

B2H6+NaF

c) SiCl4+H2O
SiCl4+2H2O

Si(OH)4 + 4HCl

d) C+O2+N2

1273K

2C+O2+4N2

1273K 2CO+4N2

38. Diamond is covalent, yet it has high melting point. why?


Diamond has a three dimensional network involving strong c-c
bonds, which are very difficult to break and in turn has high
melting point.
39. Write the uses of boron.
In making bullet proof vest and light composite material for
aircraft
40. Name the allotropes of carbon.
Diamond, graphite, fullerene.
41. Boron is unable to form BF63- ion, explain.
Due to non-availability of d-orbitals boron is unable to expand
its octet therefore,maximum covalence of boron exceed 4

42. Write the uses of the aluminium.


In making utensils,aeroplane and transportation industry etc.
43. Why Carbon monoxide is poisonous? Explain.
Because its ability to form a complex with heamoglobin.The COHb complex is more stable than O2-Hb complex and prevents
Hb to bind with oxygen, thus person dies due to lack of oxygen
44. Distinguish between diamond and graphite.
Diamond each carbon atom is sp3 hybridised and bonded to 4
other carbon atoms. C-C bond length is 154 pm
Graphite-each carbon atom is sp2 hybridised and is bonded to 3
other carbon atoms. C-C bond length is 141.5 pm
45. Why does boron trifluoride behave as a lewis acid?
Octet remains incomplete hence electron deficient and acts as
a lewis acid
46. What is the action of borax on heating?
It first loses water molecules to form sodium metaborate. On
further heating forms glass like material known as borax bead
47. How is orthoboric acid is prepared from borax?
It can be prepared by acidifying an aqueous solution of borax
Na2B4O7+2HCl +5H2O 2Nacl+4H3BO3

48. Why is boric acid considered as a weak acid?


Because it is not able to relese H+ ions on its own. It
receives OH- ions from water molecule to complete its
octet in turn releases H+ ions.
49. How to prepare diborane on industrial scale?
Boran trifluride reacts with sodium hydride at 450k forms
diborane.
2BF3+6NaH 450K

B2H6 +6NaF

50. Write the structure of diborane


Reffer text book.
51. What is catenation?
Carbon atoms have the tendency to link with one another
through covalent bonds to form chains and rings this property
is called catenation.
52. Why boric acid is considered as a weak acid?
Boric acid is considered as a weak acid because it is not able to
release H+ ions on its own. It receives OH- ions from water
molecules to complete its octet and in turn releases H+ ions.
53. Give one method for industrial preparation of CO.
C+H2O

CO+H2

54. Give one method for laboratory preparation of co.


HCOOH

H2O+CO

55. Explain why is there a phenomenal decrease in ionization


enthalpy from carbon to silicon?
As carbon is very small in size its ionization energy is high .
however on moving down the group the size of silicon increases
and its ionization enthalpy decreases sharply.
56. How would explain the lower atomic radius of Ga as
compared to Al?
Although Ga has one extra shell than Al , atomic radius is less
than Al this is because the presence of additional 10d-electrons
offer poor screening effect for the outer electrons in Ga ,
hence atomic radius of Ga is less than that of Al
57. Why carbon differs from rest of the members of its family.?
Due to its smaller size, higher electronegetivity, higher
ionization enthalpy and unavailability of d orbitals.
58. Diamond is covalent yet it has high melting point. Why.?
Diamond has a three dimensional network involving strong
C-C bonds, which are very difficult to break and in turn has high
melting point.
59. Why graphite is used as a dry lubricant in machines running
at high temperature.?
Graphite cleaves easily between the layers and therefore, it is
very soft and slippery for this reason it is used as dry lubricant.

60. How to obtain carbon dioxide in laboratory?


By the action of dilute HCl on calcium carbonate.
CaCO3+2HCl Ca Cl2+CO2+H2O
61. Write the equation for the chemical change during
photosynthesis?
6CO2+12H2O

C6H12O6+6O2+6H2O

62. Write the resonance structures of carbon dioxide?


Reffer text book.
63. What are the crystalline forms of silica? Are they
interconvertable?
Quartz,Cristobalite and trydymite.Yes
64. What are silicons.?
Group of organosilicon polymers, which have (R2SiO) as a
repeating unit.
65. Name the important man made silicates.
Glass and cement

Three/four marks questions


66. Discuss the pattern of variation in the oxidation states of
(1) B to Tl (2) C to Pb
(1)Due to small size of boron, the sum of its first 3 ionization
enthalpies is very high, this prevents it to form +3 ions and

forces it to form only covalent compounds Al shows +3


oxidation state,on moving down the group, due to poor
shielding effect of intervening d and f orbitals and inert pair
effct,the two electrons present in the s-shell are stongly
attracted by the nucleus and not participating in bonding .
hence +1 state becomes more stable down the group. In Ga, In
and Tl, both +1 and +3 oxidation states are observed.
(2) the common oxidation state +4 and +2,down the group +2
oxidation statebecomes common.C and Si shows the +4
state.down the group higher oxidation state less stable because
of inert pair effct.
67. Explain the structure of diborane .
The four terminal hydrogen atoms and the boron atoms lie in
one plane .Above and below this plane ,there are two bridging
hydrogen atoms. The four terminal B-H bonds are regular two
centre two electron bonds while the two bridge(B-H-B)bonds
are different and can be described in terms of three centre-two
electron bonds as in the figure(refer text book).
68. Explain the anomalus behavior of carbon.
Due to its smaller size ,higher electronegetivity,higher
ionization enthalpy and unavailability of d-orbitals only s and p
orbitals are available for bonding so maximum covalence is 4
and due to catenation it shows allotropic forms.
69. How can you explain higher stability of BCl3 as compared to
TlCl3.?

Outer electronic configuration- ns2np1.


Bcl3 is more stable than TlCl3 because +3 oxidation state of B is
more stable than +3 oxidation state of Tl,+3 state is highly
oxidizing.
70. Explain the structure of diamond ?
It has a crystalline lattice.
Carbon atom undergoes sp3 hybridasation.
Linked to other 4 carbon atoms using hybridized orbitals in
tetrahedral fashion.
C-C bond length is 154 pm.
Presence of covalent bonds.
71.Discuss the layered structure of graphite?
Vanderwaals forces between layers,distance between layers
340pm,each layer is composed of planar hexagonal rings of
carbon atoms,C-C bond length 141.5 pm-sp2 hybridisation
3sigma bonds and a pi bond.
72. Explain the structure of fullerenes?
These are cage like molecules contains 26 membered rings and
12 five mebered rings.All carbon atoms are equal and
undergoes sp2 hybridisation. Each carbon atom forms 3 sigma
bonds with other 3 carbon atoms. The remaining electron at
each carbon is delocalized in molecular orbitals. Both cabon
carbon single and double with distance 143.5pm and 138.3pm
respectively.

73. How to synthesis organo silicon polymers?


Methyl chloride reacts with silicon in the presence of copper at
573 K methyl substituted chlorosilane are formed,hydralisis of
dimethyldichlorosilane followed by condensation
polymerization yields organo silicon polymers.
2CH3 Cl + Si

Cu/570 K

(CH3)2SiCl2

+2H2O
-2HCl

(CH3)2Si(OH)2

74. A. Diamond is a bad conductor of electricity but graphite is


good conductor,justify.
Due to sp3 hybridisation in diamond no free electron. In
graphite due sp2 hybridisation there free to conduct electricity.
B. Diamond is hardest substance while graphite is very soft,
give reasons.
It is difficult to break extended covalent bonds in diamonds so
it is hard. Graphite cleaves easily between the layers therefore
it is very soft

***************************************

Chapter -12
Organic Chemistry-Some Basic Principles and Technique

One Mark questions


1. What is the type of hybridization of each carbon in the following.
a) CH3CHO b) CH3CN
c) CH2 = CHCl
d) CH3-C CH
2. Give the bond line format of the compound 2-methyl-1-pentene
3. What is a functional group?
4. Write the IUPAC name of the compound CH3- CH2 CH2 CH2- CHO
5. Write the structural formula of 4-chloro-2-hexene.
6. What is Inductive effect?
7. What is +I effect?
8. What is I effect?
9. Given an example of a groups which exerts I effect.
10.Give an example of a groups which exerts +I effect
11. Define mesomeric (Resonance) effect.
12. What is +R effect?
13. What is R(-M) effect?
14. Give an example of a groups which exerts +R(+M) effect.
15. Give an example of a group which exerts R(-M) effect
16. What is electromeric effect?
17. What is +E effect ? Give example
18. What is E effect? Give example
19. What is homologous series?
20. During estimation of nitrogen by kjeldahls method, copper sulphate is added to sulphuric
acid. Why?
21. Name two classes of compounds in which kjeldahls method cannot be used for
estimation of nitrogen.
22. Which type of E effect operates during the attack of proton on ethene molecule?
23. What is the formula of Ferric ferrocyanide?
24. Which is the suitable absorbent in the process of Column chromathography?
25. Write the resonance structure of Benzene
26. Why is fusion of organic compound with sodium required?
27. What is steam distillation?
28. What is hyperconjugation?
29. Which gas is liberated in kjeldahls method?
30. Which gas is liberated in Dumas method?
31. What type of solids are separated by fractional crystallization?
32. Name the compound which is formed during carius method for the estimation of
phosphorous.
33. Name the process used to separate sugar & salt.
34. Which effect involves the displacement of electron pair under the influence of an
attacking reagent

TWO MARKS QUESTIONS


1. How nitrogen is detected by lassaignes filterate?
2. How sulphur is detected by lassaignes filterate?
3. How can carbon & hydrogen detected by copper oxide method?
4. Give the preparation of Lanaignes filterate.
5. Explain the test for detection of halogens by sodium fusion extract.
6. What is Resonance energy? Mention the resonance energy of Benzene.
7. Explain the test for the detection of phosphorous in an organic compound.
8. Give the difference between Inductive effect & Mesomeric effect
9. Give the difference between Inductive effect & Electromeric effect
10. What are the characteristics of Homologous series?
11. What is Electrophile? Give example
12. What are nucleophiles? Give example.
13. What is Homolytic fission? Give example
14. What is Heterolytic fission? Give example
15. What are free radical? Give example?
16. What are Carbocations? Give example
17. What are Carbanions? Give example?
18. What are Alicyclic compounds? Give example?
19. What are aromatic compounds? Give example?
20. What are Heterocyclic compounds? Give example?
21. Why is nitric acid added to sodium extraction before adding silver nitrate for testing
halogens?
22. Write the IUPAC names of the following compounds
CH3
CH3
|
|
a) CH3 C CH2 CH CH2 CH3
b) CH3 CO CH CH2 CH2 CH2-Cl
|
|
CH3
CH3
23. Write the structural formulae of the following
a) 2, 2, 3-trimethyl pentane b) 4-chloro-3-methyl-but-2-en-1-01
24. What is a Functional group? Give example.
25. What is position isomerism? Give an example.
26. What is Functional isomerism? Give example.
27. What is substitution reaction? Give example.
28. What is addition reaction? Give example.
29. What are hybridization states of each carbon atom in the following compounds?
a) CH2 = C = O
b) CH3 CH = CH2

FIVE MARKS QUESTIONS


1. How can carbon and hydrogen be estimated in the organic compound by Liebigs process?
2. How is the percentage of nitrogen determined in an organic compound by kjeldahls
process?
3. How is the estimation of Nitrogen in organic compound by Dumas method.
4. How is the estimation of halogens by Carius method?

ANSWERS TO ONE MARK QUESTIONS


1. a) sp3sp2

b) sp3sp

c) sp2sp2

d) sp3sp sp

2.
3. Functional group may be defined as an atom (or) group of atoms which determine the
properties of an organic compound.
4. 1 Pentanal
5. H3C CH = CH CH CH2 CH3
|
Cl
6. The polarization of one bond caused by polarization. of adjacent bond due to
difference in electronegativity.
7. Partial displacement of sigma bond pair of electrons away from the substituent is called +I
effect.
8. Partial displacement of bond pair of electrons towards substituent is called -I effect.
9. NO2, - CN, -F, -COOH, -Cl, -Br, -I, -OCH3 etc. are electron with drawing groups
10. Alkyl groups like methyl (-CH3) & ethyl (-CH2 CH3) are usually considered as electron
donating groups.
11. The permanent polarity is produced by the interaction of lone pair & Pi electrons in
conjugate system of an organic molecule.
12. Shifting of electron pair away from substituent in a conjugate system.
13. Shifting of electron pair towards the substituent in a conjugate system.
14. Cl, -Br, -I, -NH2, -NHR, -OH, -OR, -SH, -OCH3 etc.
15. NO2,-CN, -CHO, - COOH, - COOR etc.
16. It is the complete transfer of Pi electrons of a multiple bond to one of the atom in the
presence of attacking reagent.
17. When the transfer of electrons take place towards the attacking reagent, the effect is
called +E effect attacking reagent, the effect is called +effect
Ex. Addition of H+ to ethene, H+ + CH2 = CH2 CH3 CH2
18. When the transfer of electron takes place away from the attacking reagent, the effect is
called effect.
Ex. The addition of cyanide ion (CN-) to carbonyl group
CN

+C=O

CO

|
CN
19. A series of organic compounds which can be represented by a general formula is called
Homologous series.
20. Copper sulphate acts as catalyst
21. Nitro compounds, Azo compounds & compounds containing nitrogen in ring
Ex. Pyridine.

22. +E effect.
23. Fe2 [Fe(CN)6]3
24. Al2O3(alumina)
25.

26. It is done so as to convert organic compound into inorganic compound


27. The method used to separate organic compounds from non-volatile organic or inorganic
impurities by distillation with steam.
28. It is due to overlapping of - bonding orbital with adjacent -orbital or p-orbital. It is
also known as no bond resonance or Baker-Nathan effect.
29. Ammonia gas.
30. Nitrogen gas
31. Those solids which are soluble in same solvent but to different extent i.e. differ in their
solubility.
32. Mg(NH4)PO4 which on heating gives Mg2P2O7(Magnesium pyrophosphate)
33. Fractional crystallization using ethanol as a solvent.
34. Electromeric effect

ANSWERS TO TWO MARKS QUESTIONS

1.Ans:FreshlypreparedferroussulphatesolutionisaddedtosmallportionofSFE&
warmed.Thenabout2to3dropsofFecl3solutionareadded&acidifiedwith
concentratedHcl.Theappearanceofaprussainbluecolourindicatesthepresence
ofnitrogen.
Fuse
C,N+Na NaCN
Organiccompound
Feso4+2NaOH Fe(OH)2+Na2SO4
6NaCN+Fe(OH)2 Na4[Fe(CN)6]

SodiumFerocyanide.
3Na4[Fe(CN)6]+4Fecl3 Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3+12Nacl

Ferricferrocyanide(Prussianblue)

2.Ans:a)LeadAcetatetat:FewdropsofsodiumnitroprusideisaddedtoSFE.The
appearanceofadeepvioletcolourindicatesthepresenceofSulphur

S2+[Fe(CN)5NO]2 [Fe(CN)5NOs]4
Nitroprussideionvioletcolour
b)SulphurcanalsobedetectedbyaddingleadacetatetoSFE,acidifiedwithacetic
acid.Theformationofablackprecipitate(pbs)indicatesthepresenceofsulphur.
Pb(CH3COO)2+S2 pbs +2CH3COO
3.Ans:Carbon&hydrogenpresentinanorganiccompoundcanbedetectedtogetherby
copperoxidemethod.
Thecompoundismixedwithdrycupricoxide&istakeninahardglasstesttube.
Thehardglasstesttubeisfittedtooneendofdeliverytubecontainingbulb
(containinganhydrousCuSO4)&otherendofthedeliverytubeisdippedinatest
tubecontainerlimewater.
Themixtureisstronglyheated.
CarbonpresentincompoundisoxidizedtoCO2&turnslimewatermilky.
Hydrogenpresentincompoundisoxidizedtowater&turnswhiteanhydrous
CUSO4tobluehydratedsalt.

NOTE:

C+2CUO CO2+CU
(organiccompound)
CO2+Ca(OH)2 CaCO3+H2O
Limewater(milky)

2H+CUO H2O+Cu
(organiccompound)
CuSO4+5H2O CUSO4.5H2O
Whiteblue
4.Ans:Apieceofdrysodiumistakenintoafusiontube&heatedtillitmelts.Adropoffew
crystalsoftheorganiccompoundisaddedtothefusiontube.Themixtureisheated
gently&stronglyuntilthetubebecomeredhot&plunged(added)intoamortar

containingdistilledwater.Thecontentsarecrushed&filtered.Thefilterateis
knownassodiumfusionextract.
5.Ans:Silvernitratetest:AsmallportionofSFEisboiledwithdilHNO3,cooled&silver
nitrateisadded.Awhiteprecipitatesolubleinammoniumhydroxide,showsthe
presenceofchlorine.
Apaleyellowprecipitateslightlysolubleinammoniumhydroxideinsolublein
ammoniumhydroxideshowsthepresenceofbromine&yellowprecipitate
insolubleinammoniumhydroxideshowsthepresenceofiodine
Note:Nacl+AgNO3 Agcl +NaNO3
White
NaBr+AgNO3 AgBr +NaNO3
Paleyellow
NaI+AgNO3 AgI +NaNO3
Yellow
6.Ans:Theenergydifferencebetweenconnonicalstructure&Resonancehybridisknownas
Resonanceenergy.TheResonanceenergyofbenzeneis36kcaloriesor150kJ/mol
7.Ans:Organiccompoundcontainingphosphorousisfusedwithsodiumperoxide.The
phosphorouspresentintheorganiccompoundisoxidisedtophosphate.Thefused
massisextractedwithwater&filterate.Thefilteratecontainingsodiumphosphate
isboiledwithnitricacid&thentreatedwithammoniummolybdate.Ayellow
solutionofprecipitateindicatesthepresenceofphosphorous.
8.Ans:

Inductiveeffect

Mesomericeffect

1)Itoperatesinsaturatedcompound

1)Itoperatesinconjugated
doublebondSystem

2)Itinvolvesdisplacementofsigmaelectrons
2)Itinvolvesdisplacementofpi
electrons

3)Itlastsonlyforashortdistance
3)Itlastoverlongdistance
4)Partialchargesaredeveloped

4)Complete+ve&vecharges
aredeveloped
9.Ans:

Inductiveeffect

Electromericeffect
1)ItInvolvespartialdisplacementofsigma 1)Involvescompletetransferofpi
electronselectrons

2)Permanenteffect

2)Temporaryeffect

3)Presenceofattackingreagentisnot
3)Attackingreagentisrequired
required
4)Partialchargesaredevelopedonatoms 4)Completechargeseparationtakes
place
10.Ans:1)Allthememberscanberepresentedbyageneralformula
2)EverysuccessivemembersoftheseriesdifferbyCH2group.
3)Allthememberscanbepreparedbysimilarmethods
4)Allthememberswillhavesimilarchemicalproperties
11.Ans:Theelectrondeficientspeciesorpositivelychargedionswhicharecapableof
acceptinganelectronfromsubstratemoleculearecalledelectrophiles.
Ex:Positiveelectrophiles:H+,Cl+,Br+,NO2etc.
Neutralelectrophiles:SO3,BF3,AlCl3etc.
12.Ans:theanegativelychargedionswhicharecapableofdonatinganelectronpair

Eg.Cl,Br,OHetc

13.Ans:Symmetricalbreakingofacovalentbond,inwhicheachofthetwospeciescontain
oneelectronofsharedelectronpairiscalledhemolyticfissionorhomolysis.
Exclcl . +cl.
Chlorinefreeradicals
14.Ans:Unsymmetricalbreakingofacovalentbond,inwhichonethespeciescarrybonded
electronpairiscalledheterolyticfissionorheterolysis.
15.Ans:Freeradicalscanbedefinedasanatomorgroupofatomshavinganunpaired
electron.
homolysis
Ex.clcl
cl.+cl.(Chlorinefreeradicals)
16.Ans:Areactionintermediateformedbyheterolyticfissionofacovalentbondwhich
containsonepositivelychargedcarboniscalledcarbocation.
Ex.CH3Br +CH3+

17.Ans:Areactionintermediateformedbyheterolyticfissionofacovalentbondwhich
containsonenegativelychargedcarboniscalledcarbonion.
Ex.CH3MgI
+
I
18.Ans:Thesearesaturatedhydrocarbonsjoinedbycovalentbondtoformringstructure.

Ex.,etc.
19.Ans:Thesearethecompoundscontainingonebenzenering
Ex.Benzene,Napthaleneetc.
20.Ans:Thesearethecompoundscontainingringstructureinwhichoneormorecarbon
atomsarereplacedbyheteroatomssuchasN,S,Oetc.
21.Ans:ItisdonesoastodecomposeNaCNtoHCN&Na2StoH2S
22.Ans:a)2,2,4trimethylhexane
b)6chloro3methyl2hexanone

CH3

|
23.Ans:a)H3CCCHCH2CH3b)clH2CC=CHCH2OH

||

CH3CH3

CH3
24.Ans:Afunctionalgroupisanatomorgroupofatomspresentinamoleculewhich
determinesthepropertiesoftheorganiccompounds.
Ex:C2H5OH,OHisF.Gpresentinethylalcohol
CH3COOH,COOHisF.G.presentinAceticacid.
25.Ans:Twoormorecompoundshavingsamemolecularformulabutdifferinpositionof
thesamefunctionalgroup
Ex:CH3CH2CH2OH&CH3CHCH3

1propanolOH

2propanol
26.Ans:Twoormorecompoundshavingsamemolecularformulabutdifferinthe
functionalgroup
Ex.Alcoholandether

CH3OCH3

CH3OC3H7
Dimethylethermethylpropylether.

27.Ans:Thereactioninwhichonegroupreplacesanother.
Uv
CH4+Cl2 CH3cl+Hcl
28.Ans:Thereactioninwhichthereagentaddsuptothesubstratemoleculewithout
eliminationofanymoleculeiscalledadditionreaction
Ni
Ex.CH2=CH2+H2 CH3CH3

29.Ans:Sp2,Sp2Sp3,Sp2,Sp2

ANSWERS TO FIVE MARKS QUESTIONS


1. Ans: Principle : A known mass of Organic substance is heated with excess oxygen. The
Carbon and Hydrogen present in the substance are oxidized to Carbon dioxide and water. The
masses fo CO2 and H2O are determined. From which the percentage of Carbon and Hydrogen
can be determined.

Method:
1. The apparatus is arranged as shown in the diagram.
2. It contains a combustion tube connected to a U shaped tube containing anhydrous
calcium chloride and a glass bottle containing Potassium hydroxide solution in series [Which
is then connected to guard tube containing anhydrous Calcium chloride to avoid the entry of
moisture and CO2 into the apparatus.]
3. A known mass of organic compound is mixed with cupric oxide and placed in the
combustion tube which is heated strongly.
4. Carbon present in organic compound is oxidized to carbon dioxide and absorbed in
potassium hydroxide solution.
5. Hydrogen present in the organic compound is oxidized to water and absorbed in anhydrous
calcium chloride.
6. The U tube and glass bottle are weighted before and after the experiment.
Calculation:
I. Estimation of hydrogen :
a) Mass of organic compound = Wg
b) Mass of U tube before experiment = m1g.
c) Mass of U tube after experiment = m2g
d) Increase in mass of CaCl2 = Mass of water = (m2-m1g)
e) 18 grams of water contains 2 grams of hydrogen
(m2 m1)g of water contains
= 0.1111(m2-m1)grams
f) W grams of organic compound contains 0.1111(m2-m1)g of hydrogen
.
100 grams of organic compound contains
percentage of hydrogen =

II. Estimation of Carbon:


a) Mass of organic Compound = Wg
b) Mass of glass bottle before experiment = m1g
c) Mass of glass bottle after experiment = m2g
d) Increase in mass of KOH = Mass CO2 = (m2-m1) grams.
e) 44g of CO2 contains 12g of Carbon.
g of carbon
(m2-m1)g of CO2 contains =

= 0.2727(m2-m1)g of carbon
f) W grams of organic compound contains 0.2727(m2-m1)grams of carbon
.
100 grams of organic compound contains
.

percentage of Carbon=
2. Ans: Principle: A known mass of organic compound is heated with concentrated sulphuric
acid. Nitrogen is converted into ammonium sulphate. Which is treated with sodium hydroxide
solution to liberate ammonia. This ammonia is absorbed in excess of standard sulphuric acid.
The unreacted acid is estimated by titration with standard alkali. From which the amount of
ammonia is determined and the percentage of nitrogen in the compound is calculated.

Method: A known mass of organic compound is taken in a Kjeldahls flask concentrated


sulphuric acid, anhydrous potassium sulphate and copper sulphate are added (K2SO4 rises the
boiling point and CuSO4 acts as catalyst). The flask is heated, so that all Nitrogen is
converted into ammonium sulphate. The flask is cooled and the contents are diluted with
distilled water. This mixture is taken in a round bottomed flask and sodium hydroxide
solution is added. The flask is fitted to one end of water condenser and the other end of
condenser is placed in a flask containing a known volume of standard sulphuric acid. The
flask is heated. Ammonia gas liberated is absorbed in sulphuric acid solution. The excess acid
left is determined by titrating against standard NaOH using phenolphthalein indicator.
Calculation:
Weight of organic substance
=
Wg
Volume of standard acid taken
=
V1cm3
Volume of standard acid left over
=
V2cm3
Volume of standard acid
Neutralised with ammonia
=
(V1 V2)cm3 = Vcm3
Now, Vcm3 of N acid = Vcm3 of N ammonia.
1000 cm3 of 1 N ammonia contains 17g of NH3 = 14g of nitrogen
Vcm3 of N ammonia =
g of nitrogen
= a grams (say)
i.e., Wg of organic compound contains a grams of nitrogen
100g of organic compound contains

Percentage of Nitrogen =
3. Ans: Principle: The organic compound containing nitrogen when heated with excess of
copper oxide in the atmosphere of carbon dioxide, gives nitrogen in addition to carbon
dioxide and water.
Traces of nitrogen oxides formed during combustion of organic compound are reduced to
nitrogen by passing the gaseous mixture over a heated copper gauze. The percentage of
nitrogen present in a given organic compound is calculated from the volume of nitrogen
collected over potassium hydroxide solution from a known mass of organic compound.
Procedure: The apparatus used for the estimation of nitrogen by this method is shown in the
figure.

A known mass of organic compound is mixed with copper oxide and placed in the
combustion tube. The carbon dioxide gas is passed through the combustion tube to displace
air present in the tube. The combustion tube is now heated in the furnace. The nitrogen
evolved collects in the nitrometer. The volume of the nitrogen collected is recorded after
adjusting the levels of potassium hydroxide solution in the two limbs are equal. Room
temperature and atmosphere pressure are recoded.
Calculation: Mass of organic Compound
=
mg
3
Volume of nitrogen in nitrometer
=
V cm
Room temperature
= toC = (273 + t)K
Atmosphere pressure = P1mm
'
Aqueous tension at room temperature = P mm
Pressure of dry nitrogen gas formed = P = (P-P')mm .
cm3
Volume of nitrogen at STP (V0) =
22,400 cm3 of nitrogen of STP = 28g of nitrogen
Mass of V0 cm3 of nitrogen =
g
,

Percentage of Nitrogen =

4. Ans: When an organic compound containing halogen (Cl, Br or l ) is heated in a sealed


tube with fuming nitric acid and excess of sliver chloride, silver halide is formed from the
mass of silver halide obtained, the percentage of the halogen can be calculated.
Procedure: In a hard glass tube (Carius tube), 5ml of fuming HNO3 and 2 to 2.5 g AgNO3 are
taken. A small narrow weighing tube, containing a small amount (nearly 0.15 0.2g) of
accurately weighed organic compound, is introduced in the Carius tube in such a way that

nitric acid does not enter the weighing tube. The Carius tube is now sealed and heated in a
furnace at 3000 C for about six hours.

The tube is than cooled and its narrow end is cut off and the contents are completely
transferred to a beaker by washing with water. The precipitate of silver halide formed is
filtered through a weighed sintered glass crucible. It is washed, dried and weighed.
Observation and calcualteion:
i) Mass of organic compound taken =
W 1g
ii) Mass of silver halide obtained
=
W2g
a) For chlorine: AgCl Cl
143.5g 35.5g
143.5g of AgCl contains 35.5g of chlorine
.

w2g of AgCl will contain

g of chlorine

= a grams (say)
This amount of chlorine was present in w1g of the compound.
%Cl2 =

b) For bromine: AgBr Br


188g
80g
188g of AgBr contains 80 g of bromine
g of AgBr will contain
%Br2 =

g of bromine.

c) For Iodine: Agl


I
235g
127g
235g of Agl contains 127g of iodine
w2g of Agl will contain
%I2 =

g of Iodine

***************************************************************************

CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER- HYDROCARBONS (I PUC)
One mark questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

What type of structural isomerism is shown by alkanes?


Which metal is used in Wurtz reaction?
What happens when isopropyl bromide is subjected to Wurtz reaction?
What is the nature of mechanism of halogenation of alkanes?
Which conformation of ethane is most stable?
Can propane show chain isomerism?
Why are alkenes reactive in nature?
What is the state of hybridization of carbon atoms in ethene?
Which of the following show geometrical isomerism?
CHCl = CHCl; CH2 = CCl2 ; CCl2 = CHCl
10. Name the halogen used o test unsaturation in a hydrocarbon?
11. Is peroxide effect applicable addition of HCl to propene? Give reason.
12. What is Bayers reagent?
13. What is Lindlars catalyst?
14. Name the reaction which locates the position of the double bond?
15. Give the tests to show that the given compound is an unsaturated compound.
16. Why alkynes does not show geometrical isomerism?
17. What happens when ethyne is hydrated with dilute solution of HgSO4 and H2SO4?
18. Name the product formed when vapours of ethyne are passed through HCl
solution?
19. Name the product when ethyne is reduced with Na in liquid ammonia?
20. What happens when vapours of ethyne are passed into red hot iron?
21. What is the nature of structure of benzene?
22. Why does benzene resist addition reactions?
23. Which catalyst is used in Friedel,s craft reaction?
24. Name two ortho and two meta directing groups in benzene?
25. What is the nature of substitution in benzene?
26. Who gave the present cyclic structure of benzene?
27. Which electrophile is formed during nitration of benzene?
28. What does LNG stand for?
29. Which hydrocarbon is main constitutent of CNG?

Two mark questions


1. What is cracking / pyrolysis?
2. Write a short note on isomerization of alkanes?
3. Identify the products X and Y of the following reactions:
Y
Na +NH3, heat
but-2-yne H2/ Pd/BaSO4, Heat

4. How will you prepare benzene from sodium benzoate?


5. What happens when benzene reacts with acetyl chloride in presence of AlCl3.
Represent in form of chemical reaction
.

6. Write the conditions necessary for geometrical isomerism


7. Which one is more polar, cis-but-2-ene or trans-but-2-ene and why?
8. Write the name of ozonolysis products of but-1-ene.
9. What happens when alk.KMnO4 is added to ethene? Write the reaction and the use of
this reaction.
10. How is acetylene prepared on commercial scale?
11. Name the functional group of the compound prepared by reaction of propyne with
water in presence of mercuric salt and sulphuric acid.
12. State Markovnikov's rule.
13. Name the acid whose sodium salt is required for the preparation of propane? Write
chemical equation for the reaction.
14. Explain Wurtz reaction with an example. Where is it used?
15. Define decarboxylation with an example.
16. Name the type of reactions which alkanes undergo. Give one example also.
17. Define conformation.
18. What happens when ethanol is heated with conc.H2SO4?
19. Define hydrogenation.
20. Draw the Newmans projection of ethane.
21. Benzene despite having 3 double bonds is exceptionally stable. Explain.
22. Benzene undergoes electrophilic substitution reactions easily and nucleophilic
substitutions with difficulty. Explain.
23. List the names of Lewis acid other than anhydrous aluminium chloride which can
be used during ethylation of benzene.
24. Define hydrocarbons.
25. What do you understand by torsional angle? Which of the conformations of ethane
has the maximum and the minimum torsional strain?
26. What are the drawbacks of kekules structure of benzene?
27. Draw the sawhorse projections of ethane
28. Which is more acidic among the following compounds, benzene, n-hexane and
ethyne Arrange them in the decreasing order of acidic behaviour. Also give reason for
this behaviour.

Three or four mark questions


1) An alkene A on ozonlysis gives a mixture of ethanal and pentan-3-one. Write
the structureand IUPAC name of alkene A.
2) Out of benzene, mdinitrobenzene and toluene which will undergo nitration
most easily and why?

3) Why is Wurtz reaction not preferred for the preparation of alkanes containing
odd number of carbon atoms? Illustrate your answer by taking one example.
4) State Huckels rule. Draw the structure of Pyridine and Furan. Are these
aromatic?
5) Explain the mechanism involved in the chlorination of methane.

6) Explain whether the following systems are aromatic or not?

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

7) Write IUPAC names of the following compounds:


(i)
(ii)
(iii)

(iv)
8) Addition of HBr to propene yields 2-bromopropane, while in the presence of
benzoyl peroxide, the same reaction yields 1-bromopropane. Explain and give
mechanism.
9) Write chemical reactions for the following conversions:
(i) Phenol to benzene
(ii) Benzene to ethyl benzene
10) How do you convert the following?
(i) Benzene to p-nitrotoulene
(ii) Benzene to acetophenone
(iii) Benzene to m-chloronitrobenzene
11) Discuss the orbital structure of benzene.

CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER- HYDROCARBONS (I PUC)

Answers : One mark questions:


1) Chain isomerism
2) Sodium
3) 2,3-dimethyl butane
4) Free radical mechanism
5) Staggered conformation
6) No
7) Due to the presence of pi bond in carbon to carbon double bond
8) sp2 hybridisation
9) CHCl = CHCl
10) Bromine
11) No. Free radical is not formed due to high bond dissociation energy of HCl
12) Dilute alkaline potassium permanganate solution.
13) Pd supported over barium sulphate or calcium carbonate poisoned with
quinoline or sulphur.
14) Ozonolysis
15)

a. Bayers test
b. Bromination

16) As they are linear in nature.


17) Ethanal is formed.
18) 1,1-dichloroethane
19) Trans-2-butene
20) Benzene.
21) Planar
22) Due to delocalization of pi electron charge.
23) Anhydrous aluminium chloride
24) Ortho directing groups -- OH, NH2

Meta directing groups --- CHO, NO2


25) Electrophilic substitution
26) Kekule
27) Nitronium ion
28) Liquefied natural gas
29) Methane.

Answers: Two mark questions


1) The decomposition of higher alkane into a mixture of lower alkanes , alkenes etc
by the application of heat is called pyrolysis / cracking.
2) When unbranched alkanes are heated with anhydrous aluminium chloride and
hydrogen chloride isomeric branched alkanes are formed. This process is called
isomerization
n-butane

AlCl3 / HCl, 570 K

2-methyl-propane

3) X is Cis-but-2-ene ; Y is trans-but-2-ene
4)

5)

6) Conditions necessary for geometrical isomerism:


All compounds containing carbon-carbon double bonds do not show geometrical
isomerism.
The molecules must contain a double bond.
Each of the two carbon atoms of the double bond must have different substituents
which may be same or different.
7)

Due to the occurrence of both methyl groups on the same side of the C=C
bond, the combined effect of the two polar bonds makes cis-but-2-ene
much more polar than trans-but-2-ene.
8)

9)

It is used to test for unsaturation.


10) On commercial scale, acetylene is prepared by reaction of calcium carbide with
water.
CaC2 + H2O

Ca(OH)2 + C2H2

11) Ketone

12) Markovnikov's rule states that, negative part of the addendum (adding molecule)
gets attached to that carbon atom which possesses lesser number of hydrogen
atoms.
13) Sodium salt of butanoic acid is required for the preparation of propane.
CH3CH2CH2 COO-Na+ + NaOH

CH3CH2CH3 + Na2CO3

14) Alkyl halides on treatment with sodium metal in dry ether solution give
higher alkanes. This reaction is known as Wurtz reaction.

This reaction is used for the preparation of higher alkanes containing even number
of carbon atoms.
15) Sodium salts of carboxylic acids on heating with soda lime (mixture of sodium
hydroxide and calcium oxide) give alkanes containing one carbon atom less than
the carboxylic acid. This elimination of carbon dioxide from a carboxylic acid is
known as decarboxylation.
CH3COO-Na+ + NaOH

CH4 + Na2CO3

16) Alkanes undergo free radical substitution. The examples of this category are
halogenation, nitration and sulphonation.
17) The spatial arrangements, which are obtained by free rotation around sigma
bonds, are called conformation or conformational isomers.
18) Ethene is obtained.

C2H5OH

CH2 = CH2 + H2O

19) Hydrogenation is a process of adding hydrogen to unsaturated compounds, e.g.,


vegetable oils are unsaturated compounds which are converted into ghee by
hydrogenation.

20)

21) Benzene is exceptionally stable due to resonance. The delocalised electrons


cause resonance which in turn makes it stable.
22) Benzene is a planar molecule having delocalized electrons above and below the
plane of ring. Hence, it is electron-rich. As a result, it is highly attractive to electron
deficient species i.e., electrophiles. Therefore, it undergoes electrophilic substitution
reactions very easily. Nucleophiles are electron-rich. Hence, they are repelled by
benzene. Hence, benzene undergoes nucleophilic substitutions with difficulty.

23) Any Lewis acid like anhydrous FeCl3, SnCl4, BF3 etc. can be used during the
ethylation of benzene.
24)

Organic compounds containing only hydrogen and carbons are called


hydrocarbons.

25) The repulsive interaction between the electron clouds, which affects stability of a
conformation, is called torsional strain. Magnitude of torsional strain depends upon
the angle of rotation about C-C bond. This angle is called dihedral angle or torsional
angle. Of all the conformations of ethane, the staggered form has the least torsional
strain and the eclipsed form has the maximum torsional strain.
26)
a) Unusual stability of benzene.
b) According to Kekule, two ortho disubstituted products are possible. But in
practice only one ortho disubstituted product is known.
c) Heat of hydrogenation of benzene is 49.8 kcal/mole, whereas theoretical value of
heat of hydrogenation of benzene is 85.8 kcal/mole. It means resonance energy is
36 kcal/mole.
d) C - C bond length in benzene are equal, (although it contains 3 double bonds and
3 single bonds) and are 1.39 .
27)
H
H

H
H

H
H

H
H

Eclipsed

H
H

Staggered

28)

As the scharacter increases, the electronegativity of carbon increases and the


electrons of CH bond pair lie closer to the carbon atom. As a result, partial
positive charge of Hatom increases and H+ ions are set free. The scharacter
increases in the order: sp3 < sp2 < sp. Hence, the decreasing order of acidic
behaviour is Ethyne > Benzene > Hexane.
Answers: Three marks / four marks questions
1) An alkene A on ozonolysis gives a mixture of ethanal and pentan-3-one. Write
structure and IUPAC name of A.

During ozonolysis, an ozonide having a cyclic structure is formed as an intermediate


which undergoes cleavage to give the final products. Ethanal and pentan-3-one are
obtained from the intermediate ozonide. Hence, the expected structure of the ozonide is:

This ozonide is formed as an addition of ozone to A. The desired structure of A can be


obtained by the removal of ozone from the ozonide. Hence, the structural formula of A
is:

The IUPAC name of A is 3-Ethylpent-2-ene.


2) Nitration reactions are examples of electrophilic substitution reactions

10

where an electron-rich species is attacked by a nitronium ion (NO2+). Now, CH3


group is electron donating and NO2 is electron withdrawing. Therefore, toluene will
have the maximum electron density among the three compounds followed by
benzene. On the other hand, m dinitrobenzene will have the least electron density.
Hence, it will undergo nitration with difficulty.
3) Wurtz reaction cannot be used for the preparation of unsymmetrical alkanes because if
two dissimilar alkyl halides are taken as the reactants, then a mixture of alkanes is
obtained as the products. Since the reaction involves free radical species, a side reaction
also occurs to produce an alkene. For example, the reaction of bromomethane and
iodoethane gives a mixture of alkanes.

The boiling points of alkanes (obtained in the mixture) are very close. Hence, it becomes
difficult to separate them.
4) Huckels rule states that, compounds that have (4n + 2)
be Aromatic compounds, where n = 1,2,3,4.etc.

-electrons, are said to

Pyridine is aromatic because it folllows Huckel's rule and has 6 pi electrons where n=1.
Furan is also aromatic compound because one of the lone pair of electrons at the oxygen
delocalise towards benzene ring and then it follows Huckel's rule where n=1.
5) Chlorination of methane proceeds via a free radical chain mechanism. The whole
reaction takes place in the given three steps.

11

Step 1: Initiation:
The reaction begins with the homolytic cleavage of Cl Cl bond as:

Step 2: Propagation:
In the second step, chlorine free radicals attack methane molecules and break down the
CH bond to generate methyl radicals as:

These methyl radicals react with other chlorine free radicals to form methyl chloride
along with the liberation of a chlorine free radical.

Hence, methyl free radicals and chlorine free radicals set up a chain reaction. While HCl
and CH3Cl are the major products formed, other higher halogenated compounds are also
formed as:

Step 3: Termination:
Formation of ethane is a result of the termination of chain reactions taking place as a
result of the consumption of reactants as:

12

6) (i)

For the given compound, the number of -electrons is 6.By Huckels rule,
4n + 2 = 6; 4n = 4; n = 1
For a compound to be aromatic, the value of n must be an integer (n = 0, 1, 2). Since
the value of n is an integer, the given compound is aromatic in nature.

(ii)

For the given compound, the number of -electrons is 4.

By Huckels rule,

4n + 2 = 4; 4n = 2 ;

For a compound to be aromatic, the value of n must be an integer (n = 0, 1, 2), which is


not true for the given compound. Hence, it is not aromatic in nature.

(iii)
For the given compound, the number of -electrons is 8.

By Huckels rule, 4n + 2 = 8; 4n = 6;
For a compound to be aromatic, the value of n must be an integer (n = 0, 1, 2). Since
the value of n is not an integer, the given compound is not aromatic in nature.
7) (i) Pen-1-ene-3-yne
(ii) Buta-1,3-diene
(iii) 4-Phenyl but-1-ene

13

(iv) 2-Methyl phenol

8)

This reaction follows Markovnikovs rule where the negative part of the addendum is
attached to the carbon atom having a lesser number of hydrogen atoms.
In the presence of benzoyl peroxide, an addition reaction takes place anti to
Markovnikovs rule. The reaction follows a free radical chain mechanism as:

14

Secondary free radicals are more stable than primary radicals. Hence, the former
predominates since it forms at a faster rate. Thus, 1 bromopropane is obtained as the
major product.

In the presence of peroxide, Br free radical acts as an electrophile. Hence, two different
products are obtained on addition of HBr to propene in the absence and presence of
peroxide.
9) (i) Phenol into benzene.
(ii)Benzene into ethyl benzene.

10) (i)Benzene to p-nitro toluene

15

(ii) Benzene to acetophenone

(iii) Benzene to m-chloronitrobenzene

16

11) The structure of benzene molecule is best described in terms of molecular orbital
treatment theory. According to this theory, all the C-atoms in benzene are sp2hybridized. Two sp2-hybrid orbitals of each C-atom overlap with two sp2-hybrid orbital
of two other C-atoms to form sigma bonds. In this way there are six sigma bonds are
formed between six C-atoms which are 120o apart. Remaining six sp2-orbital of six Catoms overlap with 1s orbital of six H-atoms individually to form six sigma bonds. Since
sigma bond results from the overlap of above said planar orbital, all H and C atoms are in
the same plane and their generate a hexagonal ring of C-atoms.

Each C-atom in benzene also has an unhybrid 2pz-orbital containing one electron. These
2pz-orbital are perpendicular to the plane of sigma bonds.

These 2pz-orbitals by lateral overlapping form three alternate pi-bonds in benzene


ring.There are two possibilities of pi-bond formation in benzene.
17

OR
Actually these 2pz-orbital produce a pi-molecular orbital containing six electrons. One
half of this pi- molecular orbital lies above the plane of hexagonal ring and remaining
half below the ring like a sandwich.

18

CHAPTER14
ENVIRONMENTALCHEMISTRY
I)Onemarkquestionsandanswers:
1.Nameoneinsecticide?
A. DDT
2.Whichacidisnotpresentinacidrain?
HNO3,H2SO4,CH3COOH,H2CO3?
A. CH3COOH
3.Definethetermpollution?
A. Itisasubstancepresentintheenvironmentingreat
proportionthanitsnaturalabundanceandresultingin
harmfuldamageeffect.
4.Nametwogaseswhichareresponsibleforgreenhouse
effect?
A. CO2andCH4gases.
5.Whichpartoftheatmospherecontainsozone
layers?
A. Stratospherecontainsozonelayers.

6.WhatisfullformBODandDDT?
A. BODBiochemicaloxygenDemandandDDTDichchloro
DiphenylTrichloroethane.
7.WhatarePCBs?
A. Polychlorinatedbiphenyls(PCBs)areusedascleansing
solvent,detergentsandfertilizerscausewaterpollution
anditiscarcinogeniccompound.
8.WhatisPAN?
A. Peroxyacetylnitrate(PAN)isoneofthecomponentsof
photochemicalsmoganditispowerfuleyeirritant.

9.WhatisdesirableconcentrationofF ionsandPHof
drinkingwater?

A. DesirableconcentrationofF ionsis1ppmor1mgdm3
andPHis5.5to9.5
10.Nametheoxidesofnitrogen?
A. Nitricoxide(NO)andNitrogendioxide(NO2).
11.WhichgascausedBhopalgastragedy?Giveitsformula.
A.Methylisocyanate(MIC)anditsmolecularformula
CH3N=C=0

12.Writeanytwocommonchemicalsofphotochemicalsmog?
A.Acroleinandformaldehyde
13.Whichcandamagethegreathistoricalmonument
Tajmahal?
A.Acidrain
(CaCO3(marble)+H2SO4CaSO4+H2O+CO2)
14.WhatiseffectofexcessofSO42ionindrinkingwater?
A.ExcessofSO42ionindrinkingwatercauseslaxativeeffect
(>500ppm)
15.Whatisthecauseofmethemeglobinemia?
A.Excessofnitrateion(>50ppm)indrinkingwatercause
methemeglobinemia(bluebabysyndrome).
16.Whatistroposphere?
A.Thelowerregionsofatmosphereinwhichthehumanbeings
along with other organisms live are called troposphere. It
extendsuptothehighof~10KMfromsealevel
17.Whatisstratosphere?
A. Above the troposphere, between 10 and 50km above sea
levelliesiscalledstratosphere.

18.Nametheharmfulradiationemittedfromsun?
A.UVradiation
19. Which type of harmful radiations absorbed in ozone
layers?
A.UVradiation
20.Namethetypesofpollutantscausetropospherepollution?
A.1.Gaseousairpollutants
2.Particulatepollutants

21.Whatarethesourcesofdissolvedoxygenin
water?
A. In water, the source of oxygen is either atmospheric
oxygenorphotosynthesiscarriedinplantsduringdaylight.
22.Whichofthefollowinggasesisnotagreenhousegas?
CO,CO3,CH4,H2Ovapours
A. COisnotagreenhousegas.

23. What type of radiation are absorbed by CO2 in the


atmosphere
A.IRradiations
24.Nametheoxideofcarbon?
A.CO&CO2
25.Whatisgreenhouseeffect?
A. The increase in temperature of atmosphere due to
presence of gases like CH4 , CO2 and water vapours, which
absorbinfraredradiationiscalledgreenhouseeffect.

II)Twomarksquestionsandanswers:
1.Nametwoherbicides?
A.NaClO3(sodiumchlorate)and
Na3AsO3(SodiumArsenite)
2.Listanytwoharmfuleffectsofsmog?
A.1.OzonePANActaspowerfuleyeirritants
2.Ozoneandnitricirritatethenoseandthroatandtheir
highconcentrationcausesheadache,chestpain,anddrynessof
thethroat,coughanddifficultyinbreathing.

3.Writeanytwoachievementofgreenchemistry?
A.1.Developmentofpolystyrenefoamsheetpackaging
materialthisTechnologyallowseliminationsCFCSwhich
contributetoozonedepletion,globalwarmingandground
levelsmog.
2.Catalytichydrogenationofdiethanolamineinwhich
environmentalfriendlyherbicideisproducedinlessdangerous
ways.
4.Defineenvironmentalchemistry?
A.Itisthestudyofchemicalandbiochemicalprocessoccurring
innature
(OR)
Itdealswiththestudyoforigin,transportrelation,effectsand
fatesofvariouschemicalspeciesintheenvironment
5. Whatdoyoumeanbyozonehole?Whatareits
Consequences
A. Ozone hole implies distribution of the ozone layer by the
HarmfulUVradiationsthedepletionwillvirtuallyresult
Increatingsomesortofholesintheblanketofozonewhich
surround us. As a result, the harmful radiations cause skin
cancer,lossofsightandalsoaffectourimmunesystem

6.WhatdoyoumeanbyBiochemicaloxygendemand?
A. Biochemical oxygen demand is the amount of oxygen
requiredbybacteriatodecomposeorganicmatterinacertain
volumeofsampleofwater.CleanwaterwouldhaveBODvalue
oflessthan5ppm,whereashighlypollutedwaterhasaBODof
17ppmormore
7.Howdoesdetergentcausewaterpollution?
A. Tetrachlorothene (Cl2C=CCl2) was used as solvents for dry
cleaningofclothes.Thiscompoundissuspectedtocarcinogenic
and contaminated the suspected to carcinogens for bleaching
cloths in the laundry, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)is being used
whichgivesbetterresultandisnotharmfuldetergentsproduce
pathogens which are diseases causing bacteria and result in
gastrointestinaldiseases.
8.Writethemethodsformanagementofwastematerial?
1.Recycling:materialsarerecycledwhichsavesthecastofraw
materialandwastedisposal.
2.Sewagetreatment
3.BurningandIncineration
4.Digesting
5.Dumping


9. Write the chemical reaction take place during acid rain in
theatmosphere?
A.1.H2O+CO2>H2CO3
+

2.H2CO3>H +HCO3
3.2SO2+O2+2H2O>2H2SO4
10.Foryouragriculturefieldorgardenyouhavedevelopeda
compostproducingpit.Discusstheprocessinthelightofbad
odour,filesandrecyclingaswastesforagoodproduce.
A.Itisessentialtotakepropercareofthecompostproducing
pit in order to protect ourselves from bad odour and files. It
should be kept covered to minimize bad odour and prevent
filesfromenteringit.
The recyclable waste should not be dumped in the compost
producing pit. It should be sent to the industries through
vendorsforrecycling.
11.Alargenumberoffisharesuddenlyfoundfloatingdeadon
a lake. There is no evidence of toxic dumping by you find an
abundanceofphytoplankton,suggestareasonforthefishkill.
A.Theamountofdissolvedoxygenpresentinwaterislimited.
The abundance of phytoplankton causes depletion of this

dissolvedoxygen.Thisisbecausephytoplanktonsaredegraded
by bacteria present in water. For their decomposition, they
require a large amount of oxygen. hence, they consume the
oxygen dissolved in water. As a result, the BOD level of water
drops below 6ppm, inhibiting the growth of fish and causing
excessivefishkill.
12.Whatareharmfuleffectsasdepletionofozonelayer?
A. 1) The ozone layer protects the earth from the harmful UV
radiation of the sun, with the depletion of the layer, more
radiation will enter the earths atmosphere. UV radiations are
harmfulbecausetheyleadtotheskincancerandsunburns.
2) They cause death of many phytoplanktons which lead to a
decreaseoffishproductivity.
3)IncreaseinUVradiation,decreasesthemoisturecontentof
thesoilanddamagesbothplantsandfibres.
13.Whatarepathogens?Mentionitsharmfuleffect?
A. Pathogens are water pollutants include bacteria and other
organism.Theyenterwaterfromanimalexcretaanddomestic
sewage.
14.Whatareharmfuleffectsofacidrain?
A.1.Itisharmfulforcrops
2.Itdamagesbuildingsmadeupofmarble.

14.Writebytwoharmfuleffectsofoxidesofnitrogen?
1. Damage the leaves of plants and retard the rate of
photosynthesis.
2. Nitrogen dioxide is a lung irritant that can lead to an acute
respiratorydiseaseinchildren.
15.Writeanytwoharmfuleffectsofoxideofsulphur?
1. It causes respiratory diseases e.g. Asthama bronchitis in
humanbeings
2.Itcausesirritationtotheeyes,resultingintearsandredness.
16. Write the harmful effects of hydrocarbons pollutants?
Mentionitssources?
Harmfuleffects:
1.Hydrocarbonsarecarcinogenici.e.theycausecancer
2.Theyharmplantsandsheddingofleavesflowers&twinges
Sources:Incompletecombustionoffuelusedinautomobiles.
17.WhataretheharmfuleffectsofCO?Mentionitssources?
Harmfuleffects:
1. Itishighpoisonoustolivingbeings
2. It causes, headache, weak eyesight, nervousness and
cardiovasculardisorder

Sources:1.incomplete combustionof coal,firewood, petrol


etc.
2.byautomobileexhaust
18.WritetheharmfuleffectofCO2?mentionitssources.
A.Harmfuleffect:
Itcausesglobalwarming
Sources:1.Respiration
2.Burningoffossilfuelsforenergy
3. Byvolcaniceruptions
4. Deforestation
5. Bydecompositionoflimestoneduringthemanufactureof
cements.
19.Givingexampledifferentiateb\wviableandnonviable
particulatepollutants.
A.1.viableparticulate:Theyareminutelivingorganismsthat
aredispersedinatmosphere.
Ex:Bacteria,fungi,moulds,algaeetc.
Itmaybenotedthathumanbeingareallergictosomeofthe
fungifoundinair.Fungicanalsocauseplantdiseases

2. Non viable particulate: They are formed by the


breakdownoflargermaterialsorbycondensationofminute
particlesanddroplets.
Ex.mists,smoke,fumesanddust.
20. During ward war II DDT, was found to be of great use
for which purpose was is used? Why has its use been
bannedinIndianow?
A. It is used to control of malaria and other insect borne
diseases.
After the war, DDT is used in Agriculture to control the
damagescausedbyinsects,weedsandvariouscropdiseases
However, due to adverse effects, its use has been banned
Indiaanditisnonbiodegradableandcarcinogenic.
21. Acid rain is known to contain some acids. Name these
acidsandwherefromtheycomeinrain?
A. The acids commonly present in acid rain are nitric acid,
sulphuric acid and carbonic acid. Nitric acid is formed by
oxidation of nitric oxide present in air to NO2 & NO3, which
dissolveinwateralsopresentinair.
SulphuricacidisformedbytheoxidationofSO2resultinair
toSO3followedbydissolutioninwater.

CO2presentintheaciddissolvesinwatertogivecarbonic
acid.
III)Threemarksquestionsandanswers
1.Explaintroposphericpollution?
A. Troposphere pollution occurs due to the presence of
undesirable gases and the solid particles in the air the major
gaseous and the Particulate pollutants presents in the
troposphereasfollows.
1. Gaseous air pollutants: These include mainly oxides of
sulphur (SO2&SO3), oxide of nitrogen (NO&NO2) and oxides of
carbon (CO&CO2) in addition to hydrogen sulphide (H2S),
hydrocarbonsandotheroxidants.
2. Particulate pollutions: These include dust, mist, fumes,
smoke,smogetc..

2. What is smog? How is classical smog different from photo


chemicalsmog?
A.Smogisamixtureofsmoke,dustpartialsandsmalldropsoffog.

Classicalsmogphotochemicalsmog
ItoccursincoolhumidItoccursinwarmdryand
Climatesunnyclimate
ItiscalledreducingsmogItiscalledoxidizing
smog

Itisamixtureofsmoke,Itisamixtureof
Fogandsulphurdioxideunsaturated
hydrocarbonsand
Oxidesofnitrogen
3.StatuesandmonumentsinIndiaareaffectedbyacidrain,
how?
A.TheairaroundthestatuesandmonumentsinIndiacontains
fairlyhighlevelsoftheoxidesofsulphurandnitrogen.
Thisisduetoalargenumberofindustriesandpowerplantsin
thenearbyareas.
Theproblemhasbeenfurtheraggravatedduetouseofpoor
qualityofcoal,keroseneandfirewoodasfuelfordomestic
purposes.
Thestatesacidrainaffectsformarbleofthesestatuesand
monuments.
CaCO3+H2SO4>CaSO4+H2O+CO2
Asaresult,thisawayandmarbleisgettingdiscoloredand
lusterless.

4. Carbon monoxide gas is more dangerous than carbon


dioxidegas.Why?Explain
A.Itishighlypoisonoustolivingbeingsbecauseofitsabilityto
blockthedeliveryofoxygentotheorgansandtissues.Itbinds
tohaemoglobincomplextoformcarboxylhaemoglobin(COHb)
which is about 300 times more stable than oxyhemoglobin
complex. In the blood when the concentration of carbon
haemoglobin reaches about 34 percent, the oxygen carrying
capacity blood is greatly reduced. This oxygen deficiency,
results in to headache, weak eyesight, nervousness and
cardiovascular disorder CO2 does not combine with
haemoglobinandhenceislessharmfulaspollutantbutitisthe
main contributor forwards green house effect & global
warming.
5.Whatarepesticidesandherbicides?Giveexamples
A.Pesticides:Theseareamixtureof twoor moresubstances.
They are used for killing pests. Pests include insects, plants
pathogens,weeds,mollusksetc.,thatdestroystheplantcrop
andspreaddiseases
ex:AldrinandDieldrin
Herbicides: These are chemicals specially meant for killing
weeds.Ex:Sodiumchlorate(NaClO3)
SodiumArsenite(Na3AsO3)

6.Defineenvironmentalpollution?Nameitstypes?
A. The addition of any undesirable material to air, water and
soilbyanaturesource
or
Due to human activity to such a level of concentration warm
adversely affects the quality of environment is called
environmentalpollution.
Types
1.Waterpollution
2.Soilpollution
3.Airpollution
8.Howcandomesticwastebeusedasmanure?
A.Dependinguponthenatureofthewastedomesticwastecan
besegregatedintotwocategories.i.e.biodegradableandnon
biodegradables. Biodegradables waste such as leaves, rotten
food etc. should be deposited in land hills, where they get
decomposed aerobically and anaerobically in to manure. Non
biodegradable waste (Which cannot be degraded) such as
plastic,glass,metalscrapesetc.shouldbesentforrecycling.

9. Write short note on a).BOD b). Photo chemical smog c).


Ozonehole.
A.BOD:Biochemicaloxygendemandisdefinedastheamount
ofoxygenrequiredtooxidisethepollutantspresentsinwater.
Water having BOD less than 5ppm is clean water and greater
than17ppmispollutedwater
Photo chemical smog: It consists of oxides of nitrogen which
absorblightandformfreeradicals.
Itisextremelyharmfulandisoxidizinginnature.
Ozone hole: ozone layer is depleted near Antarctica and it is
calledozonehole.
10.Definegreenchemistry?Explainwithoneexample.
Chemistry and chemical process involving the minimum use
andgenerationofharmfulsubstancesiscalledgreenchemistry
Ex:Earliertetrachloroethenethemeswasusedassolventsfor
dry cleaning. This compound is carcinogenic; therefore it has
beenreplacedbyliquefiedCO2alongwithasuitabledetergent
whichislessharmful.

11.Whatarethereactionsinvolvesforozonelayerdepletion
inthestratosphere?
A. CFCS (chlorofluorocarbons) that are released in the
atmosphere mix with the other atmospheric gases and when
eventually reach the stratosphere, gets broken down by UV
radiationsasfallows

CF2Cl2>Cl +CF2Cl
Thechlorineradicalreactswithozoneandbreaksdownozone
moleculeasfollows

Cl +O3>ClO +O2

ClO radicalfurtherreactswithatomicoxygenandproduces
morechlorineradicalsasfollows

ClO +O>Cl +O2


12. Write the chemical reactions formation of oxides of
nitrogen?Mentionitssources?
ANS.
1. N2(g)+O2(g)>2NO(g)
2. 2NO(g+O2(g>2NO2(g)

3. NO(g)+O3(g)>NO2(g)+O2(g)
Sources: 1. At high attitude when lightning strokes, dinitrogen
anddioxygencombinetoformoxidesofnitrogen.
2. Burning of fossil fuels in an automobile engine at high
temperature, dinitrogen and dioxygen combine to yield
significantquantitiesofnitricoxideandnitrogendioxide.

13.Writethechemicalreactionsfortheformationofoxidesof
sulphur?Mentionitssources?
A.1.2SO2+O2>2SO3
2.SO2+O3>SO3+O2
3.SO2+H2O2>2H2SO4
Sources:Burningoffossilfuelscontainingsulphur
14.Writedownthechemicalequationofreactionsinvolved
duringtheformationofphotochemicalsmog.Howcanitbe
controlled?
A. Photochemical smog is formed by absorption of sunlight
by oxides of nitrogen to form free radicals which are highly
reactive

a)NO2>NO +O

b)O +O2>O3

c)NO +O3>NO2+O2
d)3CH4+2O3>3HCHO+3H2O
Itcanbepreventedbysprayingchemicalswhichwilldestroy
freeradicalsintheatmosphere.
IV)Fourmarksquestionsandanswers
1. Explain the reactions involved during the formation of
photochemicalsmog?
A. Photochemicalsmogisformedasaresultofthereaction
ofsunlightwithhydrocarbonsandnitrogenoxides.
Ozone, nitricoxide, Acrolein, formaldehyde and
peroxyacetyl nitrate are common compounds as
photochemicalsmog.
Theformationofphotochemicalsmogcanbeburningasfossil
fuelsleadstotheemissionofhydrocarbonandnitrogendioxide
in atmosphere .High concentration of these pollutants in air
resultsintheirinteractionwithsunlightasfallows.
1. NO2(g)>NO

(g)+O (g)

2. O

(g)+O2(g)>O3(g)

3. O3(g)+NO

(g)>NO2(g)+O (g)

While ozone is toxic in nature, both NO2& O3 are oxidizing


agents. They react with the unburnt hydrocarbons in air to
produceformaldehyde,PANandAcrolein.
4. 3CH4+2O3>3HCHO+3H2O
PAN(CH2=CHCH=O)and
Acrolein(CH3COOONO2)
2.Whatareharmfuleffectsofphotochemicalsmogandhow
cantheybecontrolled.
A.1.OzoneandPANactsaspowerfuleyeirritants
2. Ozone and nitric oxide irritate the nose and throat, and
then high concentration cause headache, chest pain, and
drynessofthethroat,coughanddifficultyinbreathing
a.Italsocauseandcorrosionandpaintedsurfaces
B.It leads to cracking of rubber and extensive damage to
plantslife.

Controlofphotochemicalsmog
1. Use of catalysts converters in automobiles Which prevents
the release of oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons to the
atmosphere
2.Certainplantse.g.pines,Juniparus,quercuspyrusandvitis
can metabolize oxides of nitrogen and therefore, their
plantationcouldhelpinthismatter.
3.Whatarethemajorcausesofwaterpollution?Explain
A. 1. Pathogens: These are water pollutants include bacteria
and other organisms.They enter water from animal excreta
and domestic Sewage. Bacteria presents in human excreta
causes gastrointestinal diseases (Excreta contains, escherichia
Coilandstreptococcusfaecalis)
2.Organicwastes:Thesearebiodegradablewaterthatpollutes
water as a result run off. The presence of excess of organic
wastesinwaterdecreasestheamountofoxygenheldbywater.
This decrease in the amount of dissolved oxygen inhibits
aquaticlife.
3.Chemicalpollutants:Thesearethewatersolublechemicals
likeheavymetalssuchascadmium,mercury,nickeletc
The presence of these chemicals (above the tolerance
limit) can damage the kidneys, central nervous system
andliver.


4.Whatdoyoumeanbygreenchemistry?Howwillithelpin
decreasingenvironmentalpollution?
A. It is a production process that aims at using the existing
knowledge and principles of chemistry for developing and
implentingchemicalproductsandprocessestoreducetheuse
andgenerationifsubstanceshazardoustotheenvironment.
Thereleaseofdifferentharmfulchemicals(particulates,gases,
organic and inorganic wastes) causes environmental pollution.
In green chemistry, the reactants to be used in chemical
reactions are chosen in such way that the yield of the end
products is up to 100%. This prevents or limits chemical
pollutantsfrombeingintroducedintotheenvironment
For example, through the efforts of green chemists, H2O2 has
replaced tetrachloromethene and chlorine gas in drying and
bleachingofpaper.
CO2 has replaced CFCs as blowing agents in manufacture of
polystyrenefoamsheet.
5.Namethepollutantswhichcausesoilpollution?
A.1.Pesticides
2.Insecticides
3.Herbicides

4.Fungicides
5.Industrialwastes
6.Urbanwastes
7.Agriculturepollutants
8.Fertilizers
6. What is green house effect? How does it affect the global
climate?
A.Itisthephenomenoninwhichearthsatmospheretrapthe
heatfromthesunandpreventitformescapingintotheouter
space.
GreenhousegasessuchasCO2,CH4,ozone,chlorofluorocarbon
compounds and water vapour in the atmosphere result in
climate changes sunlight intense a green house through. The
transparent glass or plastic panes and heats the plants by the
heat emitted by the plants in the form of infrared radiation
cannot puss through the glass or plastic panes. As a result of
inside temperature increases. Increased CO2 levels in the
atmospherecanalsocauseplants,undergoingphotosynthesis,
to take use the gas at a greater rate so that plants in warmer
climatewithadequaterainfallwouldgrowfaster.Anincreasein
average global temperature to increase the incidence of
infectious diseases like malaria, sleeping sickness, dengue and
yellow fever CFCs are also damaging ozone layer. The average

globaltemperatureincreasetoalevelwhichmayleadmelting
polar ice caps and flooding of lying areas all over the earth.
Theremaybelessrainfallintemperaturezonesandmorerain
fallinthedrierareasoftheworld.(CO2inthemajorcontribute
toglobalwarming)
7.Whatisacidrain?Howisitharmfultotheenvironment?
A. When the PH of the rain water below 5.6 due to the
presenceofoxidesofsulphur&nitrogenandcarbondioxidein
theatmosphereiscalledacidrain.
Harmfuleffectsofacidrain
1. Itistoxictovegetationandaquaticlife
2. Itdamagesbuildingandstatesanddissolvesheavymetals
from soils, rocks and sedimentals. Tajmahal has been
damagedbyacidrain.
3. Theheavymetalionssuchascopper,leadandaluminum,
leached from the soil, enter well water and produced
varietyoftoxiceffects.
4. Acid rain also corrodes water pipes resulting in the
leachingasheavymetalssuchasiron,leadandcopperin
todrinkingwater.
**********************************************