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MEL 725

Power-Plant Steam Generators (3-0-0)

Dr. Prabal Talukdar

Assistant Professor

Department of Mechanical Engineering

IIT Delhi

Contents

Basic definitions and laws with radiation

1 class

Concept of View factor, radiation

exchange between surfaces 1 class

Radiation from flame 1-2 class

Thermal Radiation

Radiation heat transfer can take place in a vacuum. It

does not need a medium unlike conduction/convection

Thermal radiation is the stream of electromagnetic

radiation emitted by a material entity on account of its

finite absolute temperature

Infrared radiation from a common household radiator or

electric heater is an example of thermal radiation, as is

the light emitted by a glowing incandescent light bulb.

Thermal radiation is generated when heat from the

movement of charged particles within atoms is converted

to electromagnetic radiation

Dominant in high temperature applications

Spectrum of Electro-magnetic

Radiation

Electro-magnetic spectrum.

Emission Process

Emission by a surface

Gray

Diffuse

Solid angle

Solid angle

d= dAn/r2 = (r2 sin d d)/r2 =sin d d

2 / 2

/ 2

dw = sin dd = 2 sin d = 2 sr

h

Spectral Intensity

I,e(,,)=dq/(dA1cos .d.d)

I,e is the rate at which radiant energy is emitted at the wave length

in the (, ) direction, per unit area of emitting surface normal to this

direction, per unit solid angle about this direction and per unit

wavelength interval d about .

Heat Flux

passes through dAn (unit: W/m)

dq= I,e(,, ) dA1cos d d

Spectral radiation flux associated with dA1is

Spectral heat flux associated with emission into hypothetical

hemisphere above dA1 is

2 / 2

q " ( ) =

I

0

,e

(, , ) cos sin dd

at all wavelengths is then

0

Emissive Power

Emissive power is the amount of radiation

emitted per unit surface area

Spectral , hemispherical emissive power

2 / 2

E()(W/m2.m)=

,e

(, , ) cos sin dd

I,e based on projected surface area

( ) d

and Intensity

2 / 2

E=

I

0

,e

( , , ) cos sin dd

E =

/2

I ,e ( )

cos sin d d

E= I,e()

Spectral basis

E=Ie

Total basis

Irradiation

Intensity of incident radiation: It can be defined as

the rate which radiant energy of wavelength is

incident from the (,) direction, per unit area of

the intercepting surface normal to the direction,

per unit solid angle about this direction, and per

unit wavelength interval d about

Radiation incident from all directions gives the

irradiation

2 / 2

Spectral irradiation G() = I,i (, , ) cos sin dd

0

Radiosity

Radiosity accounts for all the radiant energy

leaving a surface

Emitted and reflected part

J=

0

2 / 2

I

0

= I e + r

,e + r

and diffuse reflector

Blackbody Radiation

A blackbody absorbs all incident radiation,

regardless of wavelength and direction

For a prescribed temperature and

wavelength, no surface can emit more

energy than a black body

Although the radiation emitted by a

blackbody is a function of wavelength and

temperature, it is independent of direction.

That is blackbody is a diffuse emitter

Planck Distribution

The spectral distribution of blackbody emission is

given by Planck as

2hc 02

I , b (, T ) = 5

[exp(hc 0 / kT) 1]

where, Planck constant h = 6.6256x10-34J.s and

Boltzmann constants k = 1.3805x10-23 J/K

speed of light in vacuum c0=2.998x108 m/s

C1

E ,b (, T ) = I ,b (, T ) = 5

[exp(C 2 / T ) 1]

Planck Distribution

The emitted radiation varies continuously

with wavelength

At any wavelength the magnitude of the

emitted radiation increases

with increasing temperature

A significant fraction of the radiation emitted

by the sun, which may be

approximated as a blackbody at 5800K, is

in the visible region of the spectrum.

In contrast, for T<800K, emission is

predominantly in the infrared region

of the spectrum and is not visible to the eye

is concentrated depends on temperature,

with comparatively more radiation appearing

at shorter wavelengths as the temperature

increases

Discussion

The emitted radiation varies continuously

with wavelength

C1

E ,b (, T ) = I ,b (, T ) = 5

[exp(C 2 / T) 1]

setting the result equal to zero, we get

maxT = 2897.8 m.K

According to this law, the maximum spectral emissive

power is displaced to shorter wavelengths with increasing

temperature

The emission is in the middle of the visible spectrum ( =

0.5 m) for solar radiation, since the sun emits

approximately as a blackbody as 5800K

Stefan-Boltzmann Law

C1

E , b ( , T ) = 5

[exp(C 2 / T) 1]

C1

Eb = 5

d

[exp(C 2 / T) 1]

0

E b = T 4

= 5.67x10-8 W/m2K4

Since this emission is diffuse, the total intensity

associated with blackbody emission Ib=Eb/

Surface Emission

Emissivity is the ratio of radiation emitted by the

surface to the radiation emitted by a blackbody

at the same temperature

Spectral directional emissivity ,(,,,T) of a

surface at the temperature T is the ratio of the

intensity of the radiation emitted at the

wavelength and in the direction of and to

the intensity of the radiation emitted by a

blackbody at the same values of T and .

I ,e (, , , T)

Hence

, (, , , T)

I , b ( , T )

Emissivity

Total directional emissivity (, , T)

Spectral hemispherical

emissivity

I ,e (, , T)

I b (T )

E (, T )

( , T )

E , b ( , T )

2 / 2

,e

(, , , T) cos sin dd

0 0

2 / 2

,b

(, T ) cos sin dd

0 0

/ 2

= 2 , (, , T) cos sin d

0

Total

hemispherical

emissivity

Directional

distributions of

total diretctional

Emisivity

E (T )

(T ) =

E b (T )

Transmission

G = G,ref+ G ,abs+ G,tr

When a surface is opaque, G,tr = 0

There is no net effect of the reflection

process on the medium, while absorption

has the effect of increasing the internal

energy of the medium

Surface absorption and reflection are

responsible for our perception of color

Absorptivity

The absorptivity is a property that determines the

fraction of the irradiation absorbed by a surface

G abs

=

G

Surface exhibits selective absorption with

respect to the wavelength and direction of the

incident radiation

Does not depend much on surface temperature

Reflectivity

It is a property that determines the fraction of the

incident radiation reflected by a surface

G abs

=

G

This property is inherently bi-directional

In addition to depending on the direction of the

incident radiation, it also depends on the

direction of the reflected radiation

Surface may be idealized as diffuse or specular

Transmissivity

Total hemispherical transmissivity

G tr

=

G

Kirchoffs law

Consider a large isothermal surface of

surface temperature Ts within which

several small bodies are cofined

Ts

G

A1

A2

E1

E2

A3

E3

Regardless of its radiative properties, such a

surface forms a blackbody cavity

Accordingly, regardless of its orientation, the

irradiation experienced by any body in the cavity

is diffuse and equal to emission from a

blackbody at Ts i.e. G = Eb(Ts)

Under steady-state conditions,

T1 = T2 = T3 =---- = Ts

and net energy transfer to each surface is zero

Applying an energy balance to a control surface

about body 1,

1GA1 E1(Ts)A1 = 0

E1(Ts)/ 1= Eb(Ts)

Applying to all bodies,

E1(Ts)/ 1 = E1(Ts)/ 1= ------- = Eb(Ts)

1 2

=

= = 1

1 2

=

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