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Radiation Heat Transfer

MEL 725
Power-Plant Steam Generators (3-0-0)
Dr. Prabal Talukdar
Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
IIT Delhi

Basic definitions and laws with radiation
1 class
Concept of View factor, radiation
exchange between surfaces 1 class
Radiation from flame 1-2 class

Thermal Radiation
Radiation heat transfer can take place in a vacuum. It
does not need a medium unlike conduction/convection
Thermal radiation is the stream of electromagnetic
radiation emitted by a material entity on account of its
finite absolute temperature
Infrared radiation from a common household radiator or
electric heater is an example of thermal radiation, as is
the light emitted by a glowing incandescent light bulb.
Thermal radiation is generated when heat from the
movement of charged particles within atoms is converted
to electromagnetic radiation
Dominant in high temperature applications

Spectrum of Electro-magnetic

Thermal radiation falls in the range of 10-1-102 m of the

Electro-magnetic spectrum.

Emission Process

Emission by a surface



Solid angle

Solid angle
d= dAn/r2 = (r2 sin d d)/r2 =sin d d

Solid Angle for a Hemisphere

2 / 2

/ 2

dw = sin dd = 2 sin d = 2 sr

Spectral Intensity
I,e(,,)=dq/(dA1cos .d.d)

I,e is the rate at which radiant energy is emitted at the wave length
in the (, ) direction, per unit area of emitting surface normal to this
direction, per unit solid angle about this direction and per unit
wavelength interval d about .

Heat Flux

dq=dq/drate at which radiation of wavelength leaves dA1 and

passes through dAn (unit: W/m)
dq= I,e(,, ) dA1cos d d
Spectral radiation flux associated with dA1is

dq " = I ,e (, , ) cos sin dd

Spectral heat flux associated with emission into hypothetical
hemisphere above dA1 is
2 / 2

q " ( ) =



(, , ) cos sin dd

Total heat flux associated with emissions in all directions and

at all wavelengths is then

q " = q " ()d


Emissive Power
Emissive power is the amount of radiation
emitted per unit surface area
Spectral , hemispherical emissive power
2 / 2



(, , ) cos sin dd

E based on actual surface area

I,e based on projected surface area

Total hemispherical Emissive power:

( ) d

Relation between Emissive Power

and Intensity
2 / 2




( , , ) cos sin dd

For a diffuse surface, I(,,)= I()

E =


I ,e ( )

cos sin d d

E= I,e()

Spectral basis


Total basis

Intensity of incident radiation: It can be defined as
the rate which radiant energy of wavelength is
incident from the (,) direction, per unit area of
the intercepting surface normal to the direction,
per unit solid angle about this direction, and per
unit wavelength interval d about
Radiation incident from all directions gives the
2 / 2
Spectral irradiation G() = I,i (, , ) cos sin dd

Total irradiation G = G ()d W / m 2


Radiosity accounts for all the radiant energy
leaving a surface
Emitted and reflected part


2 / 2


= I e + r

,e + r

(, , ) cos sin ddd

For a surface which is diffuse emitter

and diffuse reflector

Blackbody Radiation
A blackbody absorbs all incident radiation,
regardless of wavelength and direction
For a prescribed temperature and
wavelength, no surface can emit more
energy than a black body
Although the radiation emitted by a
blackbody is a function of wavelength and
temperature, it is independent of direction.
That is blackbody is a diffuse emitter

Planck Distribution
The spectral distribution of blackbody emission is
given by Planck as
2hc 02
I , b (, T ) = 5
[exp(hc 0 / kT) 1]
where, Planck constant h = 6.6256x10-34J.s and
Boltzmann constants k = 1.3805x10-23 J/K
speed of light in vacuum c0=2.998x108 m/s

E ,b (, T ) = I ,b (, T ) = 5
[exp(C 2 / T ) 1]

Planck Distribution
The emitted radiation varies continuously
with wavelength
At any wavelength the magnitude of the
emitted radiation increases
with increasing temperature
A significant fraction of the radiation emitted
by the sun, which may be
approximated as a blackbody at 5800K, is
in the visible region of the spectrum.
In contrast, for T<800K, emission is
predominantly in the infrared region
of the spectrum and is not visible to the eye

The spectral radiation in which the radiation

is concentrated depends on temperature,
with comparatively more radiation appearing
at shorter wavelengths as the temperature

The emitted radiation varies continuously
with wavelength

Wiens Displacement Law

E ,b (, T ) = I ,b (, T ) = 5
[exp(C 2 / T) 1]

Differentiating the above equation with respect to and

setting the result equal to zero, we get
maxT = 2897.8 m.K
According to this law, the maximum spectral emissive
power is displaced to shorter wavelengths with increasing
The emission is in the middle of the visible spectrum ( =
0.5 m) for solar radiation, since the sun emits
approximately as a blackbody as 5800K

Stefan-Boltzmann Law
E , b ( , T ) = 5
[exp(C 2 / T) 1]

Total Emissive power

Eb = 5
[exp(C 2 / T) 1]
E b = T 4

= 5.67x10-8 W/m2K4
Since this emission is diffuse, the total intensity
associated with blackbody emission Ib=Eb/

Surface Emission
Emissivity is the ratio of radiation emitted by the
surface to the radiation emitted by a blackbody
at the same temperature
Spectral directional emissivity ,(,,,T) of a
surface at the temperature T is the ratio of the
intensity of the radiation emitted at the
wavelength and in the direction of and to
the intensity of the radiation emitted by a
blackbody at the same values of T and .
I ,e (, , , T)
, (, , , T)

I , b ( , T )

Blackbody and Real Emission

Total directional emissivity (, , T)

Spectral hemispherical

I ,e (, , T)
I b (T )

E (, T )
( , T )
E , b ( , T )
2 / 2


(, , , T) cos sin dd

0 0
2 / 2


(, T ) cos sin dd

0 0

/ 2

= 2 , (, , T) cos sin d

Total Hemispherical Emissivity

distributions of
total diretctional

E (T )
(T ) =
E b (T )

Absorption, Reflection and

G = G,ref+ G ,abs+ G,tr
When a surface is opaque, G,tr = 0
There is no net effect of the reflection
process on the medium, while absorption
has the effect of increasing the internal
energy of the medium
Surface absorption and reflection are
responsible for our perception of color

The absorptivity is a property that determines the
fraction of the irradiation absorbed by a surface

G abs
Surface exhibits selective absorption with
respect to the wavelength and direction of the
incident radiation
Does not depend much on surface temperature

It is a property that determines the fraction of the
incident radiation reflected by a surface
G abs
This property is inherently bi-directional
In addition to depending on the direction of the
incident radiation, it also depends on the
direction of the reflected radiation
Surface may be idealized as diffuse or specular

Total hemispherical transmissivity

G tr

For a semitransparent medium, ++ = 1

Kirchoffs law
Consider a large isothermal surface of
surface temperature Ts within which
several small bodies are cofined




Kirchoffs Law (contd)

Regardless of its radiative properties, such a
surface forms a blackbody cavity
Accordingly, regardless of its orientation, the
irradiation experienced by any body in the cavity
is diffuse and equal to emission from a
blackbody at Ts i.e. G = Eb(Ts)
Under steady-state conditions,
T1 = T2 = T3 =---- = Ts
and net energy transfer to each surface is zero

Kirchoffs Law (contd)

Applying an energy balance to a control surface
about body 1,
1GA1 E1(Ts)A1 = 0
E1(Ts)/ 1= Eb(Ts)
Applying to all bodies,
E1(Ts)/ 1 = E1(Ts)/ 1= ------- = Eb(Ts)

1 2
= = 1
1 2