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Universiti Teknologi Mara Sabah

Faculty of Applied Science


Diploma In Science
BIO 250
LAB 6
Structure of Seeds

Prepared By

Task

Prepared for

MOHAMAD TARMIZI TAHIR (2011978565)


MOHD AZRIN BIN ROSLAN (2011515235)
MAXVICKLEY RAYNER ABID (20116313571)
MOHD ALFAZZI JOHNDARRY (2011977251)
: To examine and compare the anatomy of the dry seeds and wet seeds
with the chemical characteristics.
: Mdm. Samsidar
Date of Submission
July 25, 2013

EXPERIMENT 5
1. OBJECTIVE
i.
ii.

To examine the anatomy of dry seeds and wet seeds.


To compare the chemical characteristics of dry seeds and wet seeds.

2. INTRODUCTION

In the seeds of most plants the embryo is surrounded by a variable amount of


endosperm tissue, which serves as a food supply during germination. In others, there is
little or no endosperm tissue, food being supplied by the enlarged cotyledons. Flowering
plants are divided into monocotyledon and dicotyledons: the former posses seeds with
only one cotyledon, the latter have two cotyledons.
Whatever other factors are required for germination, one essential factor is water: the
first clearly observable event in germination is the imbibing of water. As a result of this,
the embryonic tissues swell and rupture the seed coat.
The seed has lost most of its water and carries on metabolism at a very slow rate. This
dormancy is maintained by the hormone abscisic acid. Some seeds will be able to
germinate under the right conditions and are viable. It is easy to test for metabolic activity
in seeds by soaking them and observing the reduction of a dye by the living tissue. The
dye is tetrazolium, which is normally colourless, but turns pink when it is reduced by
living tissue.
These experiment study the different physical and chemical characteristics of two
different samples. First sample is considered not active where seeds are not mixed with
water. The second sample, seeds are soak with water as ready for germinations.
Comparing these two different samples can help students to understand the basis of seed
germination.

3. MATERIALS
i.
Balance
ii.
Forceps

iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
xi.
xii.

Test tube
Test tube rack
Water bath
Dish
Razor blade
Benedicts Reagent(Food reserves test)
Iodine solution(Food reserves test)
0.5% tetrazolium solution (Metabolic activity test)
Distilled water
Broad bean seed(dry) and Broad bean seed soaked for 24-48

xiii.

hours(dicotyledon)
Corn grain (dry) and Corn grain soaked for 24 hours(monocotyledon)

PROCEDURE
Seed Anatomy Test
i.

The dry sample was compared with one which has been soaked in water for 24

ii.

48 hours by weighing the two seeds.


The percentage of increase in mass was calculated. The result is recorded in Table

iii.

1.
The structure was examine closely by dissecting a seed that has been soaked to

iv.

loosen skin and soften it. The seed was examined using a dissecting microscope.
The seed was carefully split into two halves and the parts was identified as
cotyloden, plumule or epicotyls, hypocotyls, radical and foliage leaves. Refer

v.
vi.
vii.

figure 1 as guidelines.
The observation was recorded in Table 1.
A soaked corn kernel was cut in half as shown in Figure 2.
Identified : the single cotyledon, the endosperm, the hypocotyls, epicotyls and the

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foliage leaves (plumule) of the embryo. Referring to Figure 2 as guidelines.


The observation was recorded in Table 1.

Chemical Characteristic Test


i.

The test for food reserves is carried out. The whole cotyledon was stained whole
in iodine solution. Using a sharp razor blade we have cut a thin section of a
cotyloden

ii.

The section was mounted in iodine solution and examine them under the

iii.
iv.
v.

microscope. The starch of the grains is visible. The result was recorded in Table 2.
Using a blender, we prepare the sample for reducing sugar test.
The test tube was filled with 1 cm2 sample.
2 cm2 Benedicts reagent was added into the test tube and the initial colour was

vi.
vii.

recorded.
The test tube is then placed in a boiling water bath for 3 minutes.
The test tube was removed from the hot water bath with the test tubes holder and

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placed in the test tube rack. The colour changes was recorded in Table 2.
The contents of the test tube was discarded and rinse properly. We have shake out

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the excess water from the test tube.


The same procedure is carried out with the other sample.

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Metabolic activity test Option 2


Several of the soaked samples was cut in half and put into a test tube.
0.5% tetrazolium solution was added enough to cover the seed.
The cut surface was observed from time to time for a production of a pink colour.
After the pink colour is well developed, the part which the seed has the darkest
colour was examine and therefore the greatest metabolic activity.

4. RESULT

SAMPLE

BEAN

OBSERVATION

CORN

TABLE 2: Analysis of Seed Characteristic


Food reserve test
(Present or not present)
Sample

Treatment

Mass
(g)

Increase in mass
Starch

Reducing
sugar

Dry

0.4 g

Present

Not present

(%)

Soaked

1.0 g

Present

Not present
60%

Bean

Dry

0.2 g

Present

Present

Soaked

0.3 g

Present

Present

10%

Corn

5. DISCUSSION
The advantages of a seed hat dried out is it grow faster because a seed if wet or moist,
it can attract pathogen bacteria and fungi that can greedily devour it. A seed is necessary to
absorb water before germinated to active the enzyme, increases respiration and duplicating
itself. The more water it absorb, the faster the seed grow.
In our experiment, the seed increase in size by weighing the two seeds. It represents
the percentage in water. In the test of present starch, both dried seed and soaked seed are
contain starch. In the seed , the cotyledon contain more stored starch because when cotyledon
act as a food storage the endosperm totally disappear but if the endosperm act as a food
storage, the cotyledon never disappear.
The greatest metabolic activity in the seed occurs in hilum. The purpose of food
reserve test is to investigate the presence of starch and producing sugar in both soaked and
dry bean and corn kernel.

6. CONCLUSION
The anatomies of dry and soaked seed of bean and corn kernel provide the inner structure
of both seed.
The comparison of chemical characteristic of the bean and corn kernel was investigated
through the presence of starch and reducing sugar in it.
7. REFERENCE
Campbell N A. and Reece J.B. 2008. Biology.9th Edition. Pearson Benjamin
Cummings.

San Francisco