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Section I
Ans 1: The state is the most powerful of all social institutions. It has become one of the important
factors in our social life today. When we take birth in our family, the government takes notice of
our birth and it registers it. State has framed regulations regarding health and sanitation in order
to save us during childhood.
It has made arrangement for our education. Some portion of our income is paid in form of taxes
to the state through the government. It is the state which controls the prices of different
commodities. It protects us from our enemies. It provides us medical facilities.

Meaning or Definition of State:

The term state may means condition of health or economic condition. The term is sometimes
loosely used by people to mean estates of India, or the United States of America. Sometimes
mean nation or society or government or country.
These uses of the term are not correct at all from the scientific point of view. It has in fact, a
specific meaning which is completely different m its various uses noted above.
Different scholars have defined state differently according to their individual view point. Some
of the important definitions of the state are mentioned below.
Woodrow Wilson defines state as a group of people organised law within a definite territory.
Burgess defines state as a particular portion of mankind viewed as organised unity.
Bluntschil says that, the state is a combination or association men in the form of Government
and governed, on a. definite territory, united together into a moral organised masculine tonality,
more shortly person of definite territory. Prof. Laski defines state as a territorial society
divided into Government and subjects claiming with its allotted physical area of supremacy over
all other institutions.
It can be summed up as the state is a collection of human beings occupying a definite territory
under an organised government d is subject to no outside control.
The above mentioned definitions of a state reveal four characteristics or elements. They are- (a)
population, (b) territory, (c) rganisation or government and (d) sovereignty. A state cannot be
formed at all in the absence to any one of these characteristics.
(1) Population
The most basic characteristic of the state is population. As a human organisation the state cannot
be formed without some people. A desert in which human beings do not live cannot be regarded
as a state. However, there is no limit prescribed as to the size of population.
(2) Territory

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The second characteristic of the state is territory or a fixed geographical area, on the earth. In the
absence of a fixed territory a state cannot be constituted. As for example, the nomadic tribes like
Gipsies and others cannot form a state of their own owing to the absence of a fixed territory, to
reside in.
In the modern world today, small states as well as big states exist. From the administrative point
of view small states are always better than big states but from the point of view of defense, they
are not good all.
(3) Government
The state must possess an organized Government. It is the machinery through which the state
must exercise its supreme power. It constitutes the brain of the state. A state cannot be thought of
without some sort of Government.
(4) Sovereignty
The fourth and the most important element, or characteristic of the state is sovereignty.
Sovereignty means supreme power or ultimate authority against which there can be no appeal.
Externally, the state claims final and absolute authority. It is independent of any foreign control.
Ans 4: During the period when Gandhis freedom movement acquired its mass base, he again
and again defined and explained the concept of Swaraj as the goal of freedom struggle, in terms
of political, economic, social and moral rights of the downtrodden and exploited Indian masses.
While still in South Africa, in 1909 itself he had expressed his basic idea of Swarj in his very
first Book, Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule. Following are the some of the thoughts
expressed in the book, which define his concept of Swaraj:

A country is one Nation only when such a condition obtains in it. That country must have
faculty for assimilation, India has ever been such a country.

Civilization is that mode of conduct which points out to man the path of duty.
Performance of duty and observance of morality are convertible terms.

It is Swaraj when we learn to rule ourselves .But such Swaraj has to be experienced by
each one for himself.

I believe that you want the millions of India to be happy not that you want the reins of
Government.. We have to consider only on thing: How can the millions obtain self rule

Mahatma Gandhis profuse writing speeches and talks cover every conceivable aspects of Indian
Political, economic, and social life relevant to India of his time as well as to India after
independence. Unfortunately his ideas of what sort of country and society free India should be,
which define his concept of Swaraj; have been largely ignored. Out of the enormous Gandhian
literature, a few selected references highlighting his understanding of Swaraj are being described

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During the earlier years of his leadership of Indians Freedom Movement he emphasized that
Swaraj was meant for everyone, and it particularly meant freedom from poverty:

Swaraj is a state of being of individuals and nations. - Navajiban (15.05.1921)

Swaraj has but one meaning : the eradication of the poverty of India and freedom for
every man and women. Ask the starving men and women of India : they say Swaraj is
their bread (Navajiban, 4,05,1924)

Then during the halycon years of 1930-31, he defined the Swaraj of his dream in more
specific term :

. Inalienable right of the Indian people.. to have freedom and to enjoy the fruits of
their toil and have the necessities of life, so that they may have full opportunities of
growth. If any government deprives a people of these rights and oppresses them,
the people have a further right to abolish to alter it of to abolish it..(Draft
Declaration for National Independence for 26the jan 1930 and 10.01.1930)

In order to end the exploitation of the masses political freedom must include real
economic freedom of the starving millions. The congress, therefore declare that any
constitution. Agreed to should provide. For the following : (20 points agenda
including free primary education a living wage, Progressive taxation and reduction in
military expenditure) (Resolution on Fundamental Rights and Economic Changes
(Drafted by Gandhiji 31.03.1931)

..future government of India would be constantly obliged in order to equalize

conditions.. continually to discriminate in favour of the famishing Indian against those
who have been blessed by nature or by the Govt. themselves with riches and other
privileges. it will be therefore, a battle between the haves and have nots (Speech,
London 19.11.1931)

Ans 3: Public administration basic concepts with political science flavour.

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it may rule which tells us what we ought to do
its more normative view

moral law
natural &
scientific law

certain regularities in nature & society

its more positivistic view
state law , code .....etc
all law derived through tradition ,constitution ,
authority , court ..........its true for moral & natural as


Note acceptability of all law depends on acceptability by society or we can say that
law are more applicable which has validity& value(moral) -------- but Rowllot act also
there so think
Law and liberty both interrelated --- liberty only arise or sustain there where is
law applicable with moral value
Equality and justice other factor which has great consequences
From above things so many que can make so u improve your ability to think
about such thing ..
Concept of state and society - The State is a difficult concept to define. It has had a chequered
evolution. State which, as pointed out by many scholars, is enmeshed into the political and
cultural institutions of society, caste, class and institutions, formal as well as informal.
Basic concepts of State, society, and public administration, and their inter-relationships.
The interconnections between society and public administration, particularly between
societal culture and have been discussed. The three most important conceptualizations of
society-administration relationships by Karl Marx, Max Weber, and Fred Riggs have
also been clearly brought out.
Administration, particularly the emergence of the two paradigms of
New Public Management and
Governancethe two broad-gauge ideas that have exerted considerable influence on the scope and contents of
Public Administration in recent times. The other point covered in this Unit has been the growing
trend in recent times to forge a much closer relationship between State and society in larger
public interest and for the enrichment of democracy.

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Liberal and Marxist perspectives differ in their view on the nature, composition and functions of
the State. The key difference concerns the composition of the State. They understand the State to
be penetrated by classes or groups and, therefore, fundamentally reducible to forces that emanate
from society. In the classical Liberal view or tradition, the power of a State is very closely related
to its wealth, and State strategies often seek to maximise the latter to gain the former. The classic
doctrine expressing this position was Mercantilism, which enjoyed great success in the late 17 th
and 18th centuries, but it could not fulfil Liberal hopes that the Hidden hand of economic
growth would bring in social well-being and political harmony. Nor could the Marxian view
about class-based capitalist State leading to withering away of State via Dictatorship of
Proletariat and resultant genuine freedom and democracy be realised anywhere in the world. Yet,
these perspectives (along with relative autonomy approach, Anti-dependency Marxism and the
Neo-liberal) help us in understanding the role of State in contemporary times. Therefore, the
debate and the search for a comprehensive perspective on the State continue, which may be able
to associate the need for a capable State and the desire for perfect freedom for individuals and
The Neo-liberal perspective or New Liberalism, as it is generally called is currently the
reigning deity of social science discourse. Other perspectives including the fairly popular one of
State welfarism have retreated in the face of consistent and persistent assault of the Neo-liberals.
Public Choice Theory --It stresses on methodological individualism,decentralisation, democratic
administration and organizational competitiveness.
The achievement of the Indian State operating democratically in a very poor society is almost
unprecedented The strength of Indian State lies in its overall democratic framework, civil
liberties, the federal structure, the independent judiciary, some form of economic planning,
graduated liberalisation, the mixed economy, and the luxuriant organisational diversity of public,
private, cooperative, voluntary, associational, institutional, and other non-governmental actors,
which have not only stood the test of time, but also Provide continuity with the past and a sound
platform for future revitalisation. The impact of globalisation on the Indian State assumes
significance in the contemporary context.
Public Interest Litigation--It means litigation filed in a Court of Law, for the protection of
a) Redefining the respective spheres of State and non-state actors, building mechanisms for
better interaction, and cooperation
b) Framing suitable laws and regulations that provide necessary stability, confidence,
enforcement; and

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c) Building a professionalized civil service possessing necessary competence, skills, public
service, participatory, and a pro-citizen ethic
The public administrative organizations have always taken recourse to administrative
reforms to meet their goals of efficiency and productivity with the advent of market as
a major player in governance; the administration has gone in for NPM and BPR type
of managerial reforms to put its house in order.
Problem with this type of reform model is that it is not new and indigenous. In
developing countries where more than half the population is poor, where institutions are
not equipped to handle change and where social and legal network is wanting, these NPM
and BPR initiatives are not sustainable.
Despite the embeddedness of these principles in the New Right agenda and their leanings
towards the business-like State, they supposedly have the potential to work better with changes
in other legal parameters protecting the poor in developing and transitional countries. However,
most governments with unstable political regimes have failed to undertake the desired changes.
Thus, NPM and BPR have turned out to be more forced and coerced administrative reforms
rather than a home-made and situation-specific sustainable change model for attending to the
authentic and need based requirements of the developing countries including their capacity to
compete with the developed world.

Concepts=scope...nature & importance why increase ww2 rapid development require

-positivistic role , welfare state
n element

LD white






to serve

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Section II
Ans 8: In the second half of the twentieth century the trioliberalisation, privatisation and
globalisationbecame so much popular that both the printing and electronic media began to
discuss the various aspects of the trio. First we shall discuss the definition of globalisation. The
scholars have defined it variously. Deepak Nayyar edited Governing Globalisation. Issues
and Institutions (Oxford, 2002) discusses almost all the major aspects of globalisation, but its
chief emphasis is on economic aspects. In one article it has been said that there are three
manifestations of the phenomenon. These areinternational trade, international investment, and
international finance. But we are of opinion that globalisations concern is not confined within
these three. Before discussing them, I would like to define the issue.
One author defines it in the following way:
It refers to the expansion of economic transactions and organisation of economic activities
across the political boundaries of nation-states. More precisely it can be defined as a process
associated with increasing economic openness, growing economic interdependence and
deepening integration between countries of the world economy. Globalisation means openness.
Globalisation can generally be defined as a process in which the bonds or interactions among
societies and issue areas increase in such a way that events in one area of the world touch
societies and issue areas on the other parts of the world to an ever greater degree Garies and
Varwick in this definition have emphasised the interdependence among societies and issue areas.
This definition, I think, is comparatively wide. The interdependence can also be called a type of
interaction among nation-states or issue areas.
Noam Chomsky (internationally acclaimed bio-linguist) explains the term in the following
If we use the term neutrally, globalisation just means international integration In Western
doctrinal systems.the term has a somewhat different and narrower meaning. It refers to a
specific form of international integration that has been pursued with particular intensity.
When a state comes to be a part of international system and especially of globalisation, its public
administration or the general administrative system cannot keep itself away from the rest of the
globe. The consequences of globalisation fall upon all nations, big and small. But every nation
must be prepared to cope with the pressures created by globalisation.
Whenever a state takes a decision in response to the demand of globalisation the public
administration of the state must make necessary arrangements. This means that m the era of
globalisation the role of the state in general and public administration m particular is bound to
change. Some people call it the linking-pin role of state.
Hence there is a difference between public administration without globalisation or outside
globalisation and public administration within the scope and influence of globalisation. Even the
private organisations or enterprises come under the overwhelming influence of globalisation. In

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our definition we noted that globalisation is primarily an economic issue. But in the present-day
world system or structure the economic issues and problems cannot be effectively separated from
political and other issues and for this reason the administrative structure of a state (particularly a
Third World state) is closely linked with the economic problems. Any attempt to effect a
separation between economic and political matters will result in undesirable consequences.
Ans 9: Good governance is about the processes for making and implementing decisions. Its not
about making correct decisions, but about the best possible process for making those decisions.
Good decision-making processes, and therefore good governance, share several characteristics.
All have a positive effect on various aspects of local government including consultation policies
and practices, meeting procedures, service quality protocols, councillor and officer conduct, role
clarification and good working relationships.






Good governance is accountable

Accountability is a fundamental requirement of good governance. Local government has an

obligation to report, explain and be answerable for the consequences of decisions it has made on
behalf of the community it represents.
Good governance is transparent

People should be able to follow and understand the decision-making process. This means that
they will be able to clearly see how and why a decision was made what information, advice
and consultation council considered, and which legislative requirements (when relevant) council
Good governance follows the rule of law

This means that decisions are consistent with relevant legislation or common law and are
within the powers of council.
Good governance is responsive

Local government should always try to serve the needs of the entire community while
balancing competing interests in a timely, appropriate and responsive manner.
Good governance is equitable and inclusive

A communitys wellbeing results from all of its members feeling their interests have
been considered by council in the decision-making process. This means that all groups,
particularly the most vulnerable, should have opportunities to participate in the process.

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Good governance is effective and efficient

Local government should implement decisions and follow processes that make the best use of
the available people, resources and time to ensure the best possible results for their community.
Good governance is participatory

Anyone affected by or interested in a decision should have the opportunity to participate in

the process for making that decision. This can happen in several ways community members
may be provided with information, asked for their opinion, given the opportunity to make
recommendations or, in some cases, be part of the actual decision-making process.
It is important to remember that under the Local Government Act 1989 the council is required to
either make decisions or delegate the decision-making power to officers or Special Committees.