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Promising Youth

Development Strategies

Technical and
Vocational Education
and Training

Lack of skills that are valued in


global and local economies constrains economic growth, jobs,
and income. Good, demanddriven technical and vocational
education and training is potentially one of the most important

A STUDY OF PROMISING MODELS IN

tools for developing young

INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

peoples skills.

Educational Quality
Improvement Program 3

Engaging and Preparing


Youth for Work, Civil Society,
and Family Life

PromisingYouthDevelopmentStrategies

TechnicalandVocational
EducationandTraining
AStudyofPromisingModelsin
InternationalDevelopment

PrimaryAuthor:
MonikaAring

DesignandProduction:
RebeccaDriscoll,EducationDevelopmentCenter,Inc.
PatriciaKonarski,EducationDevelopmentCenter,Inc.
NancyMeaker,EducationDevelopmentCenter,Inc.

PhotoCredits:
KarlGrobl

ProducedbyEducationDevelopmentCenter,Inc.
UndertheEQUIP3LeaderAgreementNo.GDGA000300010000

April2011|www.equip123.net

ThisreportismadepossiblebythegeneroussupportoftheAmericanpeoplethroughtheUnitedStates
AgencyforInternationalDevelopment(USAID).ThiscontentistheresponsibilityofEducation
DevelopmentCenter,Inc.(EDC),anddoesnotnecessarilyreflecttheviewsofUSAIDortheUnitedStates
Government.

Introduction

BriefBackgroundandHistoryof
TechnicalandVocational
Education

Thispaperexaminesfourapproachesto
technicalandvocationaleducationandtraining
(TVET)usedbyUSAIDinSouthAfrica,Indonesia,
Georgia,andMoroccobetween2007and2012
andisbasedona2010deskreview.Thisreview
examineshowthefourprogramsperform
accordingtonineelementsofhighlyeffective
workforcedevelopmentandTVETsystems.
Thesenineelementswerefoundtobeapartof
effectiveworkforcedevelopmentsystemsina
20countrystudyconductedbyUSAIDin1997 i .
Thispaperbeginswithabriefbackgroundand
historyofTVET,followedbyfourprojectbriefs
thatdescribeeachprogramspurpose,policy
framework,content,organization,staffing,
partnerships,impact,andsustainability.The
programsaresorecentthatthereislittle
evidenceofsustainabilityorimpacttodate.A
detailedcomparisonofalltheprogramsin
termsofthenineelementscanbefoundin
Annex1.TheConclusionsand
Recommendationssectionsprovideananalysis
ofwhatismissingandrecommendationson
howsustainabilitycouldbeimprovedsothat
USAIDinvestmentsinTVETaremorelikelytobe
sustained,replicated,andscaledup.Itappears
thateachoftheprogramsisdesigned,
organized,andmanagedsoastorespondto
challengingskillandcapacitygapsinitscountry.
However,itishardtoknowiftheinnovations
developedwithUSAIDfundingwillbesustained
onceUSAIDceasestoinvest.Attheendofthe
documentyouwillfindannexeslisting
recommendedresourcesand
references/bibliography.

WhyisTVETimportant?AccordingtotheWorld
Banks2007WorldDevelopmentReport, ii 1.3
billion15to30yearoldyoungpeoplenowlive
inthedevelopingworldthelargestyouth
populationinthehistoryoftheworld,inboth
absoluteandrelativenumbers.Youngpeople
makeupnearlyhalfoftheworlds
unemployed. iii Forexample,arecentstudyby
Silatech iv concludesthat100millionnewjobs
havetobecreatedintheMiddleEastandNorth
Africaby2020,justtokeeppacewithnew
entrantsintotheregionslabormarkets.Most
surveysofyoungpeopleinEastAsia,Eastern
Europe,andCentralAsiaindicatethataccessto
jobs,alongwithphysicalsecurityisyoung
peoplesbiggestconcern.Thereportgoesonto
say,developingcountrieshaveaveryshort
timetogetthisrightbeforetheyouthdividend
turnsintoagenerationofunemployedadults.

Lackofskillsthatarevaluedinglobalandlocal
economiesconstrainseconomicgrowth,jobs,
andincome.Good,demanddrivenTVETis
potentiallyoneofthemostimportanttoolsfor
skillingyoungpeople,bothinandoutofschool.
However,TVETlooksverydifferentinthe
OrganisationforEconomicCooperationand
Development(OECD)nationsascomparedto
thedevelopingnations.InthedevelopedOECD
countries,TVETplaysanimportantrolein
preparingpeopleforproductivelivelihoods.
EachoftheOECDcountriestakesadifferent
approachtoTVET;however,mostoftheir
systemsbenefitfromclosecommunicationand
linkageswiththeprivatesectorandwiththe
educationsystem,fromsubstantialprivate
sectorinvestment,industrywideskill


belowthatofteachersinacademiceducation.
Curriculaareoftennarroworoutofdate,and
therearenoskillstandardsthatreflecta
sectorscurrentandfutureskillneeds.Itisnot
surprisingthatbythe1980s,TVEThadfallen
outoffavorwhenrateofreturnstudies
showedthatreturnstogeneraleducationwere
higher.AndwhereTVETwasofahighquality,
thesestudiesshowedthatlowincomestudents
werecrowdedoutbyelitestudentswhowent
tothoseschoolsbecauseoftheirhighquality. vii
Sincethemid90s,TVETandtechnical
vocationalskilldevelopment(TVSD)havebeen
gainingmomentum,largelybecauseoftheir
roleinEastAsiaandtheircontinuing
importanceinOECDcountries. viii

standards,acollaborativeprocessofcurriculum
developmentforlearningatschoolsand
workplaces,highstakesexitexamsleadingto
wellpaidtechnicaljobsintheireconomies,and
deeplyrootedindustry,tradeassociations,and
otherintermediarieswhobringthevarious
stakeholderstogethertoholdoneanother
accountableandsharethecostsandbenefits.
Mostimportantly,withtheexceptionofthe
UnitedStates,mostoftheEuropeanandother
OECDeconomiestendtohaverelativelysmall
internalmarketsanduseTVETasoneofseveral
strategiestoensurehighqualityexportsto
growtheireconomies. v
Anunderlyingandhiddenissueisthe
perceptionofthetermvocationalindifferent
languagesandcultures.Thecountriesof
northernEuropeperceivethetermvocational
differentlyfromtheAngloSaxoncountries,
whereittendstohavenegativeconnotations. vi
Thispointofviewwasmostlikelytransferredto
theformerBritishcolonies,manyofwhich
makeupthedevelopingworld.

AcloseexaminationoftheEastAsianapproach
totechnicalandvocationaleducationis
illuminating.InbothSingaporeandPenang,for
example,leadersluredforeignmultinational
corporationstotheircountries,offeringtheir
lowskilledworkforcetomultinational
corporationsforassemblywork,andbuilding
specialparkstohousethecompanies.Skill
developmenttrainingcentersweretypically
locatedinthecenterofthepark. ix This
placementreflectedadeliberatestrategy,as
countryleadersrecognizedthatthebestway
theycouldgrowtheireconomieswastolearn
howtomaketheproductstheywere
assembling.Theyinsistedthattheforeign
companiesprovidethemwiththetraining
manualsfortheirproducts.Thesamemanuals
werethenusedintheskilldevelopmentcenters
totraintheworkforce,transferringthe
knowledgetolocalcompanies. x Specialfunds
weresetasideforlocalcompaniesthatwanted
toupgradetheskillsoftheirworkforce. xi South
Koreafollowedadifferentstrategywithsimilar
results;afterwinningindependencefromJapan
thecountrypassedalawlimitinganyJapanese

Inadditiontothenegativesocialstatusimplied
byvocationaleducation,developingcountries
havefewifanyoftheconditionsfoundinthe
OECDnations.Instead,mostdeveloping
countrieshavelittle,ifany,historyof
collaborationamongemployersorbetween
employersandeducation.Indeed,few
developingcountrieshaveastrongand
organizedprivatesector.Thereareusuallyfew,
ifany,intermediarieswhocanconnectboth
educationandemployerseffectively,andfew
resourcesavailabletopurchaseandmaintain
expensivestateoftheartequipmentfor
learninggloballycompetitiveskills.Moreover,
thereisoftennoeconomicgrowthstrategy
linkedtovocationaleducation.Usuallyteachers
arepoorlypaidandtheirsocialstatusliesfar
3


topTVETsystemsintheUnitedStatesis
acampusofcareercollegesfoundin
Cincinnati,Ohio(GreatOaks).The
effectivenessofthisapproachdepends
ontheextenttowhichthecollegesare
linkedtotheskillneedsoftheprivate
sectorandtowhatextenttheskills
reflectinternationalqualitystandards
andportable.

firmoperatinginSouthKoreatonomorethan
49percentownership,whichensuredthatthe
intellectualcapitalremainedinSouthKorea,
whosecollegeswererequiredtoteachtodays
andtomorrowsskillsbasedonthecountrys
economicgrowthexportstrategy. xii
Thereareasignificantnumberofvariationsof
effectiveapproachestoTVET.Tobetter
understandwhatworks,USAIDcommissioned
EDCtoconductatwoyearstudy(19951997)
onbestpracticeinworkforcedevelopmentand
TVETin20developinganddeveloped
countries. xiii Thestudyconcludedthatthemost
effectiveprogramssharedninecommon
characteristics:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

2. Indonesia,whereUSAIDengagesa
GlobalDevelopmentAlliancewith
ChevronandtheGovernmentofthe
Acehregiontodevelopanexemplary,
stateofthearttechnicalcollegethe
AcehPoliteknik.Highquality,stand
alonetechnicalschoolsofferanother
effectivewaytodeliverTVET,provided
theyaretightlylinkedtotheprivate
sectorandtoanentireindustrysector,
notjustoneortwocompanies,sothat
theskillsareportableandnotcaptive
toaspecificfirmorsmallgroupof
firms.

Leadershipandaccountability
Demanddrivendesign
Openaccess
Portabilityofskills
Continuousimprovement
Publicprivatepartnerships
Sustainablefinancing
Replicability
Economicandsocialimpact

3. Georgia,whereUSAIDpartnerswith
governmentrunvocationalcentersto
rapidlytrainthousandsofyoung
Georgians,unemployedasaresultof
thecountrysconflictandeconomic
collapse.Vocationalcentersarefound
inmanycountries.Inthedeveloping
nations,theyareoftentheplacesoflast
resortbecausetheylackproper
equipment,curricula,teachers,
materials,andconnectionstothe
privatesector.Suchcentersareoften
governmentrun,whichcanbe
problematicinthatgovernment
bureaucratsseldomunderstandthe
needsoftheprivatesectoranddonot
seeitastheirjobtodoso.This

Tocomparetheprogramsintermsofhowthey
fulfilledtheninecriteriaforeffectiveworkforce
developmentandTVETprograms,seeAnnex1.

ProgramModelDescriptions
Thefollowingisacomparisonoffourcountries
withfourmodelsofTVET:

1. SouthAfrica,whereUSAIDhelpsSouth
AfricainsertbestpracticesinTVETinto
thecountrysfurthereducationand
trainingcollegesystem(FET)by
partneringwithhighlyeffectiveU.S.
communitycolleges.TVETcanbean
importantpartofatechnicaland
communitycollegesystem;oneofthe
4


NorthernCape.VirtuallyallofUSAIDfunding
goestosupportthetrainingofcollegestaff.
SouthAfricascontributionisforequipmentand
infrastructure.TheAmericanCouncilon
Educationmanagestheproject,whichincludes
severaladditionalpartnershipsbetweenU.S.
communitycollegesandnonprofit
organizations.Eachoftheparticipating
communitycollegesandparticipatingNGOsis
responsiblefordifferentgoals.

situationhasbeenachallengein
Georgia.
4. Morocco,whereUSAIDbringsan
employmentorientationtoimprove
retentionandqualityofthecountrys
middleschoolsandhelpsseveral
agriculturaltradecentersdeliverhigher
qualitylearningexperiences.Focusing
onbringingemployability(soft)skills
andemployerstomiddleschoolsseems
strategic,asmiddleschoolyearsarethe
timewhenstudentsandtheirparents
oftenchoosetodropoutoffurther
education,especiallyinthecaseof
girls. xivTheprojectsadditionalfocuson
improvingaselectnumberof
agriculturalinstitutesandcreating
teachingfarmsseemsalsostrategicas
Moroccosagriculturalunderpinnings
especiallyinwheatproductionare
abouttobechallengedbytheadventof
afreetradeagreementwiththeUnited
States

ProgramGoalsandPurpose
Theoverallgoalistoreduceunemploymentby
improvingthequalityofhumanresourcesinthe
country.Specificprogramgoalsincludefaculty
development;expansionofstudentsupport
services;provisionofacademicsupportforFET
studentstohelpthemmeetcorenational
qualifications;andimprovementsinstudent
placement,counseling,andorientationservices.
Othergoalsaretostrengthenentrepreneurship
andtouselabormarketinformationtodrive
careerguidanceandcareerfocusedactivities.
Thiswillbedoneviasustainableindustry
partnerships,workbasedlearning,andjob
placementinkeyindustries.

ProjectBriefs

PolicyFramework

SouthAfrica:PartnershipforSkills
DevelopmentFurtherEducationand
Training(March2009March2012)

TheFETprogramsupportsthegovernments
GrowthEmploymentandRedistribution
Strategy,whichstatesthattransformation
dependsonenhancedhumanresource
development.Thegoalistohalve
unemploymentandpovertyby2014.The
shortageofskilledlaborisseenasoneofthesix
bindingconstraintstoacceleratedgrowth.

ProgramOverview
TheFurtherEducationandTraining(FET)
programisathreeyear,skilldevelopment
partnershipbetweentheAmericanCouncilon
Educationand12ofthe50collegeswhoarea
partoftheFETcollegesysteminSouthAfrica.
USAIDisinvesting$6.7millionwithmatching
fundsfromtheGovernmentofSouthAfrica
(GoSA)toimprovethequalityoftechnicaland
vocationaltrainingin12collegeswithinthree
provinces:Limpopo,Mpumalanga,andthe

ProgramContent
SeveralfactorsdistinguishtheUSAIDSouth
AfricaFETprogram:(1)tuningprogramsto
respondtoactuallabormarketneeds;(2)


participatingU.S.colleges.Whilearesults
frameworkhasbeendeveloped,datato
determineimpactarenotyetavailable.

improvingthequalityofinstruction;and(3)
providingdirectservicestostudents,suchas
careercounseling,HIV/AIDScounseling,
individualizedlearningplans,coachingor
mentoringbasedonstudentprogress,and
tailoringtheprogramstofitintostudentswork
schedules.Organization,Staffing,and
Partnerships

Sustainability
BeyondtheevidentcommitmentoflocalUSAID
staffandfundingonthepartofGoSA,itis
difficulttodetermineiftheleadershipofthe
variousstakeholdersiswelldeveloped.For
example,thecollegeleadershiplackscapacity
andrequirestraininginthemanagementof
finances,time,andprojects.Thelinkswith
employersarenotyetforged;theywilltake
timetodevelop.Anindustryassociation
supportseachcluster,whichcanmakeit
possibleforleadershiptoemergefromvarious
industryassociationsiftheyaremanaged
appropriately.AndwhiletheMinistryofHigher
Educationdidinvestsignificantresourcesin
equipmentandinkindservicesforthecolleges,
itisdifficulttotellifthetermsoftheir
economicgrowthgoalsarespecificenoughto
determinewhichindustryclusterskillsare
neededtoaccelerategrowth.Itisnotclear
whetherthereareintermediaryorganizations
thatbridgeemployerskillneedswiththeFET
system.

The12USAID/FETcollegesaresupportedby
multiplepartnershipswithU.S.collegesand
nonprofits.Eachofthepartnershipsfocuseson
differentaspects.Forexample,Bronx
CommunityCollegeandYouthBuild
Internationalworkedwithcollegesonactivities
leadingtomasteryofbasicskills,retention,
throughput,andlecturer/professional
development.SpringfieldCommunityCollege
andAnneArundelCommunityCollegeledthe
teamonentrepreneurshipandsmallbusiness
creationandtheroleofcollegesinpromoting
localworkforcedevelopmentandengaging
employers,developingpartnerships,and
expandingworkbasedlearning.TheNational
CenterforEducationandtheEconomynow
affiliatedwiththeNGOJobsfortheFutureis
designinglabormarketandcareerinformation
andguidanceactivitiesandtrackingofformer
FETcollegestudentsexperiences.Publichealth
expertsfromVirginiasCommunityCollege
systemareprovidingtechnicalassistancefor
theprovisionofHIV/AIDSstudentservices,such
asprevention,treatment,andcounseling.Their
workisbeingdoneinpartnershipwithRightto
Care,aSouthAfricabasednonprofit.South
Africansviewthisinitiativeasthebeginningof
anFETcollegenetworkthatwilllastbeyondthe
lifeofthisprogram.

Indonesia:PoliteknikAceh(20072010,
withatwoyearextension)
ProgramOverview
ThePoliteknikAceh(PA)istheproductofa$16
million,threewayGlobalDevelopmentAlliance
(GDA)betweenUSAID,ChevronCorporation,
andtheGovernmentofAceh.Twodecadesof
violentconflictandthe2004tsunamileft
AcehIndonesiaswesternmostprovince
withouttheeducationalinfrastructureand
competitivelaborforceneededtoattract
investmentandsupportlongterm

Impact
Thisprojectisbuildinginstitutionalnetworks
withinthe12USAID/FETcollegesandwiththe
6


portoperations,andrelatedshippingandtrade
industries.Theyrecommendedapolytechnic
thatwoulddeveloptheprocessengineering
skillsneededforproducingtheseservices.The
purposeoftheUSAIDinvestmentwastoassist
thePoliteknikAcehtoachieveprogrammatic
andfinancialsustainabilitybySeptember2010,
whentheSwisscontactimplementing
agreementwasscheduledtoend.

development.ThePoliteknikwasestablishedas
aprivateinstitutiontoequipyouthandadults
(aged1630)withpostsecondary,technical
educationthatmeetslocalandeventually
internationallabordemand,generates
employmentopportunities,andcontributesto
posttsunamireconstructionandlongterm
economicdevelopment.USAIDfundedthe
technicalassistancetodevelopthePoliteknik
curriculum,trainandhirestaff,andestablish
linkageswithindustryandgovernmentthrough
a$4.9millioncontractwithSwisscontact,a
SwissbasedNGOwithapositivetrackrecordin
establishingsomeofthemostsuccessful
polytechnicinstitutionsinIndonesia.Parallel
investmentsweremadebythetwootherGDA
partners:(1)landandroadbridgeconstruction
bytheGovernmentofAceh,and(2)thedesign
andconstructionofalandmarkthreestory
buildingbyChevronCorporation.USAIDis
providinganadditionaltwoyearsfinancingof
approximately$500,000tohelpPAbridgethe
gapbetweenitscurrentabilitytogenerate
revenuesandwhatitneedstobefully
financiallysustainablebytheendofFY2012.
ThecontractcallsforSwisscontactto
methodicallyshiftcontrolofoperations
includingfinancialandacademic
managementfromtheUSAIDfundedproject
stafftothePolitekniksownstaff.Governance
oftheinstitutionissimilarlyshiftingfromthe
threedonorGDAmodeltoanindependent
foundation(YayasanPoliteknikAceh)that
legallyownstheinstitutionandisresponsible
foroversight.

PolicyFramework
AcehProvinceisoneof33provincesin
Indonesia;ithas23districts,withatotalpost
tsunamipopulationestimatedtobeabout4
million.ThroughUSAID,theU.S.Government
hasbeenoneofthelargestcontributorsto
posttsunamireconstructionandpostconflict
developmentinAcehProvince.TheGDAwith
ChevronCorporationgeneratedanallianceto
developastateofthearttechnicaleducation
polytechnictoprepareAcehnesegraduatesfor
entrepreneurialandtechnicalemployment
opportunities.

ProgramContent
Theprogramincludesademandleddiploma
programandshortcourseofferings,aswellas
thefollowing:

Productionofallteachingandlearning
materialsandplansformeeting
Indonesianaccreditationstandards

Recruitmentofqualifiedfacultyandthe
establishmentoflinkages,asneeded,
withothereducationalinstitutions

Studentrecruitmentstrategytoattract
awidevarietyofstudents,including
outreachactivitiestoattractwomen

ProgramGoalsandPurpose
TwopriorUSAID/Indonesiaassessments
determinedthatAcehhaslongterm
sustainablegrowthpotentialinvalueadded
processingofagriculturalandfisheryproducts,

andpeoplefromremotedistrictsof
Aceh

oncetheprogramhasbeenfullyaccredited,
fromtheGovernmentofIndonesia.

Enrollmentofapproximately500youth
andadultstudents(aged1630)inthe
D3diplomaprogram,ofwhom35
percentarewomen

Impact

Enrollmentofapproximately500
studentsinshorttermcourses

Actionplanforcareerplanningandjob
placementservices,withthegoalof
having75percentofgraduates
employedwithinthreemonthsof
graduationinindustryoras
entrepreneursinAcehornearby
regionsofIndonesiaandSoutheastAsia

Itistooearlytotellwhatimpactthisprogram
hashadsincethefirststudentsarescheduledto
graduateinlatesummer2011.TheAguirre
evaluationoftheprogramindicatesthatresults
instudentenrollment,industryparticipation,
andinvestmenthavefallenshortofprojected
goals,butthatappropriateactionsarebeing
takentoachievetargets.
Sustainability
TheAguirrereportforUSAIDmeasures
sustainabilitybythefollowingfourcriteria:
1. Highqualityacademicprograms:The
academicprogramsappeartohavehigh
quality.

Transferofallfinancialandacademic
managementfromtheUSAIDfunded
projecttothePoliteknikspermanent
staff

2. Effectiveinternalandexternal
governance:Internalandexternal
governanceneedtobestrengthened,
butthisappearstobehappening.

Transferofthegovernanceofthe
institutionfromfoundingdonorstoan
independentfoundation(Yayasan
PoliteknikAceh)thatlegallyownsthe
institutionandisresponsibleforits
oversight

3. Supportiveindustry
linkages/partnerships:TheGDAisa
partnership,andtheprogramhas
establishedlinkageswith35companies
forstudentonthejobandinternship
training.Employersacceptanceof
studentsintheprogramindicatesits
value.

Organization,Staffing,andPartnerships
TheUSAID/Indonesiacontractisimplemented
bySwisscontact,whoisdevelopingthe
academicprogramandbusinessoperationsof
theAcehPolytechnic,includingtheprovisionof
laboratoryequipmentandfurnitureforthe
buildings.Chevronistocontributeupto$5
millionforthedesignandconstructionofthe
AcehPolytechnicphysicalfacilities.Operating
costswillcomefromthesaleofproductsand
services,fromthegoverningfoundations
fundraisingeffortsthroughitscontacts,and,

4. Sufficientrevenuegeneration
programs:Afiveyearbusinessplan
includesannualprojectedrevenuefrom
shortcourses,productionunits,
services,sponsorships,andlocal
government.Bythefinalyear(2010
2011),thetotalrevenuefromthese
activitiesisprojectedtobe35.7percent


PolicyFramework

oftheoperationalcosts,belowthe
targetofatleast50percent.

The project represents a partnership with the


MinistryofVocationalTrainingandseveralofits
vocational centers and colleges. As of
November 2009, the implementers and USAID
were negotiating to transfer the costs of the
program to the Government of Georgia (GoG)
atthecompletionoftheproject.

Georgia:VocationalEducationProject
(20082011)
ProgramOverview
USAIDsVocationalEducationProject(VEP)in
Georgiaisatwoyearworkforcedevelopment
projectdesignedtodevelopandexpand
vocationaleducationandtrainingtomeetlabor
marketdemandintourismandconstruction.
TheinitiallocationsofTbilisi,Spectri,andIcarus
wereselectedwithinthefirst18monthsofthe
project.InJune2009,acostedextension
expandedtheprojecttoKibistabi,Gori,and
Kutaisa.USAIDthenextendedtheprojectto
Kobaleti,neartheBlackSea.Theprojectseeks
toshiftawayfromtourism,astheeconomyhas
sufferedseverelyfromtherecentconflict.This
programhasmanagedtooperateandproduce
resultsduringveryturbulenttimes,includingan
almostcompleteshutdownofthecountrys
economy.ThewarwithRussialeftbehindsome
30,000Georgians(internallydisplacedpersons)
whocannotgobacktotheirhomesunlessthey
becomeRussiancitizens.

ProgramContent
Theprogramcontentconsistsofonemonth
andthreemonthtrainingcoursesdesignedto
leadtoimmediateemploymentinthe
constructionandtourismsectors.Theproject
teamuseslocalandinternationalfaculty;for
example,threeoftheprojectspermanentstaff
areinvolvedinconstructioninGeorgia.The
programteachessoftskillsthroughapproaches
suchaspaidinternshipsandinviting
entrepreneurstocomeandspeaktostudents.
Teachingsoftskillsisalsoemphasizedbyjob
placementteamsandapointpersonwhosejob
itistohelpinstructorsandgraduateswithsoft
skills.Thecapacitytoteachsoftskillsisnot
isolatedtothevocationalcenters.Instead,a
subgrantwiththeCaucasusSchoolofBusiness
hasfundedanemployabilitychecklisttobe
usedindailyclasses.

ProgramGoalsandPurpose

Theprogramhasdevelopedanational
certificationsystemsothattraineesinboth
constructionandtourismareawarded
nationallyrecognizedcertificatesupon
completionoftheirtrainingassignment.The
weldingtrainingiscertifiedbyanindependent
institution.Skillstandardsfortheconstruction
industrywerebeingdeveloped,andtheprivate
sectorhasaskedthattrainingbeexpandedto
threemonths.Eachcoursewillinclude
theoreticalcoursework,practicalworkstation
trainingatthevocationalcenter,andoneto
twomonthonthejobtraining.Workbased

TheGeorgiaVEPspurposeisto:

Increasethenumberoftourismand
constructiontradegraduatestrainedto
internationalstandardsfromfive
vocationaleducationcenters

Improvethesustainabilityofthefive
centersthroughpublicprivatesector
partnershipsandestablishedbusiness
managementanddevelopmentmodels


factorinenhancingthereputationofthe
program.Withinthreeyears,despiteawarand
economiccollapse,thecentershavegraduated
atotalof4,368fromtheconstructioncourses
and476fromthetourismcourses.AsofMarch
2010,1,884graduatesoftheconstructiontrade
and308graduatesofthetourismtradehave
securedemployment,foratotalof2,267(52%)
employedgraduates.GraduatesofVEPcourses
haveobtainedemploymentwithGeorgian
TechnicalUniversity,AcademyO.Gudushauri
NationalMedicalCentre,andseveralpublic
schools.

learningisintegratedintothecurriculum.For
example,todemonstratetheirskills,students
buildasimulatedbathroom,fromtheinitialdry
wallingtothefinishedproduct.Eachofthe
tradesgetsthechancetodemonstrateits
technicalexpertise.
Guidanceandcareerplanningarebeing
providedbytheCaucasusSchoolofBusiness,
whichhasconductedtrainingsincareersoft
skillsfortwocenters,includingjobsearch
methods,preparingCVs,developingnetworking
skills,performanceappraisal,andusing
databases.

Sustainability

Organization,Staffing,andPartnerships

Asinternationalcompaniesbegintoparticipate
morefullyonvariousadvisoryboards,quality
controlandmonitoringshouldimprove.One
measureofqualitycontrolistheabsorptionof
graduatesintothelabormarket.This52
percenthiringratioisanindicatorofquality.
Onestrongfeatureofthisprogram(anda
lessonlearned)isthefocusonjobplacement
teamsineachcenter.Theirproductionofhighly
publicizedjobfairshasbeenextremely
successfulinpromotingvocationaltrainingand
providingvenueswhereemployersand
prospectiveemployeescanmeet.

TheGovernmentsrolewasworkedoutin2010,
astheprogrammovedtofullcostsharing;after
ayear,thosecostswouldbetotallyborneby
theGovernment.Theprogramrecentlyhelda
workshoponpublicprivatepartnershipstohelp
vocationalcenterpersonneltodesign,
negotiate,andimplementpartnershipswith
businesstobenefitthecenters.

Theprojectisorganizedandmanagedbythe
AmericanInstitutesforResearch(AIR),in
partnershipwiththeMinistryofEducationand
Science,andwithsupportfromlocalmayors.
USAIDfundinghasmadeitpossibleforAIRto
putajobplacementteam,tools,and
equipmentintoeverycenter.Instructorswho
comefromtheindustryarekeytoensuringthat
thecontentoftrainingiscurrent.AIRwasable
togetacostsharingagreementwiththe
governmentandhasdevelopedvarious
schemesforcostsharingwithindustry.AIR
trainscentermanagersandgovernment
policymakersonpublicprivatepartnershipsvia
workshops.
Impact
Demandforcoursesinsomecentersishigher
thananticipated,andarecentgraduateofthe
electricianstrainingcoursefoundajobasan
electricianinPresidentSaakashvilisresidence,
aprestigiousappointmentconsidereda
testamenttothequalityofthetraining.
EmployersatajobfairinKutaisimade25
requestsfortraineestofilljobvacancies.The
successandpromotionofjobfairsisakey
10


Morocco:AdvancingLearningand
EmployabilityforaBetterFuture(January
2005September2009)

PolicyFramework
A2003USAIDsponsoredassessmentofthe
potentialimpactofthefreetradeagreement
withtheUnitedStatesindicatedthatcertain
sectors,especiallytheagriculturalsector,would
benegativelyaffected.Forexample,while
agricultureaccountsforonly14percentofGDP,
itprovideslivelihoodsforsome45percentof
thepopulation.Inanopenfreetrademarket,
smallMoroccanfarmerscouldnothopeto
competewiththewheatproducedatlowercost
byU.S.megafarms.Raisingagricultural
productivity,diversifyingcrops,andthe
improvingqualityofenterprises,wouldhelp
mitigateanynegativeeffectofthefreetrade
agreementonagriculturalproduction.ALEF
usedamultistakeholderapproach,including
relevantMoroccanministries,national
associations,agriculturalinstitutes,leadersin
thecountryspublichighschools,employers,
andNGOs.TheALEFprogramwasapartof
Moroccoseconomicgrowthstrategydesigned
tomitigateanyadverseimpactsofthefree
tradeagreement.ALEFalsohelpedMorocco
implementthecountrysnewGreenPlan,which
requirednewqualificationsandskillsbasedon
competencymodels.

ProgramOverview
AdvancingLearningandEmployabilityfora
BetterFuture(ALEF)beganinJanuary2005and
endedinSeptember2009,coveringaspanof
fiveacademicyears.Totalfundingwas
approximately$28million.TheALEFprogram
workedinbothbasicandvocationaleducation.
Inbasiceducation,ALEFhelpedpromote
initiativeandcreativityinschoolteachersand
studentstoachievegreaterqualityand
relevanceofclassroomeducation.Theproject
includesagirlsdormitoriescomponent
implementedwithkeypartners,l'Entraide
NationaleandtheNationalFederationof
CharityAssociations,aswellasaliteracy
programforwomen.Invocationaleducation
theprojectworkedwithagriculturalinstitutes
toprovideworkbasedlearningexperiencesand
vocationalcompetencies.
ProgramGoalsandPurpose
Theprogramspurposewastocreateadeep
andlastingpartnershipwiththeMinistriesof
Education,Agriculture,SocialProtection,and
Trade.TwoofALEFsthreeobjectivesare
coveredunderthisreview:(1)Inmiddle
schools,ALEFstrengthenedtherelevanceof
basiceducationandworkforcepreparedness
andschoolplanning,and(2)Inthecountrys
agriculturaltrainingcenters,ALEFimprovedthe
capacitytopreparegraduatesforemployment
orselfemploymentinagribusiness.TheALEF
programtargeted15agriculturalinstitutes,
focusingon6ofthem.

ProgramContent
ALEFfocusedonindustryskillneedsandon
instructorskillneedsinmiddleschoolsand
agriculturalinstitutes.Theprogramdeveloped
nationalcertificationsforteachingthe
competencybasedapproach;workbased
learningexperienceswereintroducedinto
teachingfarmsandforprofessionalinternships
atvariousemployers.Guidanceandcareer
planningareprovidedateveryagricultural
institute.TheUSAIDteamhelpedtheMinistry
finalizeasurveyinstrument,aprotocol,andan
analyticsoftwareprogramtogatherdataonjob
11


Impact

entryandexperienceofnewgraduates.
Competencenetworksweresetuptoprovidea
seriesofrelationshipswithschoolsinwhich
feedbackaboutqualityandrelevanceis
embedded.

Onthebasiceducationside,theALEFmodel
cannowbefoundinover2,000primaryschools
andalmost700juniorsecondaryschools,
reaching1.25millionstudents.PartsoftheALEF
programhavehadnationalimpact.Duringa
June2009speech,MoroccosMinisterof
EducationannouncedthatmanyofALEFs
approachesarebeingadoptedthroughoutthe
country.Thereisanecdotaldatathatmore
graduatesfromthepilotagricultureinstitutes
havefoundsatisfactoryemploymentinthe
agriculturesector,andmorequickly,thaninthe
restoftheDERDsinstitutes.Thisincludesa
greaternumberofgraduatesoptingtolaunch
theirownagriculturalenterprises.Apreliminary
evaluationconductedthreemonthsafterthe
graduationofthefirstclass(20062007)shows
that62percentofthegraduatesreportedbeing
activelyemployedorhavinglaunchedanew
business,andanother30percentwerestill
lookingforemployment

Organization,Staffing,andPartnerships
Differentprojectteamsworkedondifferent
programobjectives.Tostrengthenmiddle
schooleducation,schoolplanningcapacity,and
competenciesforemploymentreadiness,one
oftheALEFteamsworkedwiththeMinistryof
Educationsdecentralizedauthorities.To
improvethecapacityofthecountrys
agriculturaltrainingcenters,adifferentALEF
teamworkedincollaborationwiththeMinistry
ofAgriculture,itsR&Dinstitute(DERD),andits
professionaltraininginstitutetoprepare
graduatesforemploymentorselfemployment
inagribusiness.Atitsinception,theALEF
programtargeted15agriculturalinstitutes,
focusingon6.InthelastyeartheDERDworked
tobringtheALEFtrainingmodelsfor
entrepreneurship,employability,andcareer
guidanceto17additionalcenters.ALEFandthe
DERDbroughttogetherinstitutesandthe
privatesectortoresuscitatetwopedagogic
farms,oneinMeknsandtheotherinZraib.At
theprojectscompletion,athirdteachingfarm
wasonthevergeofinaugurationatAin
Taoujdate.Thefarms,whichwerealready
connectedtothetraininginstitutesbuthad
longlainfallow,weresupportedbyallthe
stakeholderstocreatealivingclassroomto
supportinstruction,researchanddevelopment,
demonstration,andextensiontooperating
farmersandlivestocktechnicians.TheDERD
wasinvestigatinghowtoextendthemtoother
schoolsandtraininginstitutesacrossthe
country.

ALEFsucceededinflatteningmanyofthe
traditionallyhighlyhierarchicalrelationships
betweenofficialauthoritiesandthefrontline
implementers(teachers,trainers,directors,
associations,etc.)andinstillingattitudesof
collaborationandcollegialitytoaccomplish
manyconventionallytopdownactivities,such
asprogramdesign,training,andassessment.
Sustainability
ALEFsclosecollaborationwiththevarious
stakeholdershasmadeitpossibleforthe
ministriestoimplementeightnewapproaches,
includingapprenticeships,socialmobilization,
entrepreneurialeducation,clubsandactivities,
improvingthequalityofinternships,integration
ofICTintoeducation,literacyskillsofwomen.
Thesenewapproacheswereputinplace
successfullyinfourregionalpilotacademiesand
12


thattheinitiativescanbesustainedafterUSAID
stopsinvesting.Alloftheprogramsappearto
berunbyimplementerteamsthatarehighly
competentanddeeplycommitted.Itisnotatall
clearthatthiscommitmentismatchedbythe
countrysgovernmentalandotherinstitutions.

expandedtofiveotherregionsin2009.Inthe
lastyeartheDERDworkedtobringtheALEF
trainingmodelsforentrepreneurship,
employability,andcareerguidanceto17
additionalcenters.ALEFsupportedtheDERDin
revivingthesecenterswithtraining,validation
ofmodels,andcareerdevelopmenttools,such
astheportalthatstudentscanuseforcareer
guidancetraining.Thecompetencynetworks
ALEFdevelopedformawebofprivatesector
professionalswhopartnerwiththecentersand
schools,contributingtimeandexpertise.A
partnershiphasbeendevelopedwiththe
AgencyforSocialDevelopment,the
InternationalAssociationforBusinessStudents,
andCasablancasTechnopark.Thepartnersare
formingawebsitetocontinuetomobilize
additionalpartners.Atprojectend,itappeared
thattheministriesinvolvedwereadopting
manyoftheALEFapproaches.

Someofthecriteriatrumpedothersdepending
onthenatureofthechallenge;theneedto
produceresultsandnumbersdriveswhatthe
programsimplementingpartnerspayattention
to.Forexample,inMorocco,theneedtotrain
teacherstrumpedtheneedtobuildstronger
allianceswithinthevariousministriesearlyon.
InwartornGeorgia,theneedtoproducequick
resultsontrainingpeopleforjobstrumped
longertermstrategicthinkingaboutfuture
occupationsandtheirskillrequirements.In
Aceh,theneedtotrainteacherstrumpedthe
needtoplacegraduatesinindustrytogenerate
revenueforthecollege.InSouthAfrica,the
needtotrainstudentswithrealmarketablejob
skillstrumpstheneedtobuildpartnerships
withemployers.

Conclusions
TheConclusionssectionincludes(1)technical
themesandlessonsand(2)contextualthemes
andlessons,sincehumanbehaviorisso
stronglyinfluencedbyitsenvironment.

Despiteafocusonmetrics(studentoutcomes,
jobsgained,numberofemployers
participating),mostoftheprograms(exceptfor
Georgia)fellshortinthisarea,largelybecause
governmentaccountabilitysystemswerenot
welldeveloped.Thisraisesseriousconcerns
aboutlongtermsustainability.Forexample,the
ALEFprogramteaminMoroccoworkedforfour
yearswiththegovernmenttocreatearesults
trackingsystem,whichbeganinthefifthyear,
atthetimetheprogramended.

TechnicalThemesandLessons
Theprogramsappeartomeet,invarying
degreesofsuccess,allthecriteriaofeffective
workforcedevelopmentorTVETprograms,
exceptforcharacteristic#7,sustainable
financing.Theyallfocusonlabormarketneeds,
theyworkhardonestablishinglinkageswith
employers,theybuildinstructionalcapacity,
theyspendmostoftheresources(exceptinthe
caseofACEH)oncurriculumandinstructional
quality,andtheyappeartobeverywell
managedbythecontractors.However,it
appearsdoubtful(exceptforACEHandFET)

Eachprogramusedinnovativeapproaches.The
projectinGeorgiadevelopedabrigade
approachtotrainstudentsinteamstomanage
facilitiesandhiredtrainersfromindustryto

13


Insufficientbuildingonthecapacityof
intermediatingorganizations.An
intermediatingorganizationisalocal
organization(ChamberofCommerce,tradeor
businessassociation,NGOcommittedto
economicgrowth)thatisabletoconnectthe
differentstakeholdergroups.Intermediating
organizationsplayaveryimportantrolein
sustainingsuccessfulTVETsystems.Exceptfor
ALEF,whobuiltemployercouncils,the
programsdidnotappeartofocusonthiscritical
linkage.

workonjobplacementteams.TheSouth
AfricanFETprogramlinksU.S.NGOsand
collegeswiththeirSouthAfricancounterparts.
InMorocco,thedevelopmentofteachingfarms
andcompetencynetworkslinkedemployers
withmiddleschoolteachersandpromotedthe
developmentofsoftskills.InAceh,the
Politeknikwasameanstoachieveregional
growthobjectives.
ContextualThemesandLessons
Treatingsymptomsvs.underlyingcauses.
Despitethebrillianceoftheprogramsandthe
peoplewhomanagethem,itappearsthatthe
USAIDTVETprogramsreviewedhereresemble
thoseofaphysicianwhotreatssymptoms
ratherthantheunderlyingcauses.Ifthe
underlyingcausesarelackofincentivesfor
connectivitybetweenindustryandgovernment,
lackofleadership,lackofaccountability,lackof
ownershipandlackofresources,itmightmake
moresensetoremedytheselacks.Forexample,
theSouthAfricaprogramisactivelybuilding
connectionsbetweentheSouthAfricanVET
collegesandU.S.institutions.Iftheselinkages
aresustainedovertime,theirconnectivitymay
inthelongrunbefarmoreproductivethanany
specificprogram.

Insufficienttimetoproduceresults.IfUSAID
createstechnicalvocationprogramsthatby
theirnaturerequiredeeplinkagesamong
industry,government,andeducation,USAID
mustconsiderthatinstitutionalizingthe
changestakesfarmoretimethanfiveyears.No
countrysgovernancestructure,eventhatof
theUnitedStates,couldabsorbthatmany
changesinfiveyears.
Tighterfocus.Insteadofspreadingfew
resourcesacrossalargeprogramscope,asin
thecaseofSouthAfricasFETcolleges,itmight
makemoresensetodevelopsmall,verytightly
focusedprograms(asinACEH),toserveasthe
lighthouseoftheregionorcountry.

Lackofstrongconnectionbetweenthe
countriesshortandlongtermeconomic
growthprioritiesandtheTVETprograms.
ExceptforAcehandMoroccosmiddleschool
program,theprogramsmeetimmediate,short
termneeds.Buttheprogramsdonotappearto
bedeeplyintegratedintothecountrysown
growthstrategyorinstitutionalcapacity.Access
tothetoplevelsofministriesiscriticalfora
successfulpartnership;itwaslackinginthecase
ofMorocco.

Recommendations
Focusongenuinesustainability.Insteadof
focusingongettingthetechnicalapproach
right,itwouldmakesenseforUSAIDand
contractorstostartwiththequestionofwhat
willittakeforaprogramtobesustainable,
giventhisparticularenvironment,setof
institutions,culturalcontext?Designingthe
programfromthisquestionisatleastas
importantasbuildingthetechnicalprogram.If
oneisdonewithouttheother,theresultsare
14


maintainlinkagesaroundemployerneeds,and
maintainstronglinkageswithkeyU.S.partner
organizations.Thistypeofapproachmightbe
amenabletoasustained,longtermpublic
privatepartnership.

Useamorerealistictimehorizon.Fiveyears
appearstobetooshortatimeforanycountrys
institutionsandgovernancestructuretoabsorb
thenewwayofseeinganddoingthings.Evenin
theUnitedStates,fiveyearsareinsufficientto
bringaboutagenuinechange,asnew
expectations,habits,conversations,and
relationshipsbetweenpreviouslydisconnected
stakeholdershavetobebuilt,nourished,and
resourced,apartfromthetechnicalchallenges
ofmaintainingasuccessfulTVETprogram.The
fiveyeartimehorizonontheprograms
reviewedforthisstudymaybepreventinga
longtermrateofinvestmentforUSAID.

notlikelytobesustainable.Buildingalliances
withtheprivatesectortosolveproblemsthat
intersecttheprivatesectorsneedsfortalent
withthegovernmentsneedsforeconomic
growthandUSAIDsdesiretohelpcould
provideamoresustainablesolution.

Buildalighthouseinsteadofhandingout
flashlights.Ifresourcesarelimited,wouldit
makemoresensetosupportanorganizationin
thecountrythatdemonstratescommitmentto
skilldevelopment,thathasenergyandvision,
andthenusethatorganizationasalighthouse
toinspiretherestofthecountry?Alternatively,
tohelptransformanexistinginstitution,suchas
apartofauniversity,tobeateachingcollege
thatinspiresandinstructsothervocational
programsinthecountry.Alighthouseapproach
couldtrainfacultyandstaffofvocational
programsaroundthecountry,buildand

15

Annex1:ComparisonofFourUSAIDInvestmentsinTVETAcrossthe
NineCriteriaofEffectiveWorkforceDevelopmentandTVETPrograms
Description/9Criteria xv
USAIDInvestment

SouthAfrica
$6.7million

PeriodofPerformance
PrimaryApproach

3/093/12
InsertingTVET
intothefurther
education
system

1. Leadershipand
accountability

Stated
intention,but
unclearasto
degreeoflocal
ownershipand
leadership
Industrynot
consultedahead
oftimeexcept
inonecollege

2. Demanddriven
design

Indonesia
$5.4million

3. Openaccess

Veryflexible
andorientedto
meetstudents
wheretheyare

4. Portabilityofskills

Focusison
teachertraining
andspecific
industryskills
viapartnerships
withU.S.
community
collegesandin
atleastone
casewithlocal
industry

Georgia
$4.1million+
$1.4million
2/072/12
5/087/11
Technicalcollege Using
approach
governmentrun
vocational
centersforrapid
skillbuilding
Highlyeffective
Statedintention,
asevidencedby butunclearasto
localgovernance howeffective
structure

Industryastrong
localand
regionalpartner,
notclearifthere
isastrongfocus
onsoftskills

1/059/09
EmbeddingTVET
intothemiddle
schoolsandagri
institutes
Statedintention,
butunclearasto
degreeoflocal
ownershipand
leadership

Localemployers
councilspartner
withschoolsand
agriinstitutes
focusedonskills
indemandand
strongoverall
focusonsoft
skills
Unclear,21%of Appearstobe
Opento
studentsto
opentoanyone, studentsin
receive
dataon
middleschool
scholarships
recruitment
andthosein
unclear
agricultural
programs
Highlyportable
Highlyportable Portabledueto
skillsand
skillsin
participationof
curriculumbased constructionand employer
onanalysisof
tourismbutnot councilsat
masterworkers
athigherlevels. middleschool
invarious
Softskillsare
level.Portableat
sectors.Notclear learnedin
agricultural
ifthereisa
teamworkand
institutesas
strongfocuson
asstudentsform studentslearn
softskills
owncontracting onlearning
companies
farms

16

Morocco
$28million

Verytightly
focusedonlocal
employment
opportunities


Description/9Criteria xv
5. Continuous
improvement

SouthAfrica
Criteriafor
measuring
performance
arebeingputin
place

Indonesia
Criteriafor
measuring
performanceare
inplaceand
beingusedto
trackpast
performanceand
guideplanning

Georgia
Criteriafor
measuring
performanceare
inplaceand
beingusedto
trackpast
performance
andguide
planning

6. Publicprivate
partnershipswith
industryor
companies

Desiredbut
unclearwhether
thesearein
place

AGDAwith
Chevronplus
partnerships
withover30
localemployers

Noemployer
partnershipsto
datealthoughit
appears
employersare
willingtostart
toengage

7. Sustainablefinancing

Intended,but
unclearasto
whatwill
happenafter
USAIDleaves
Highlyreplicable
andreplicates
bestpracticesin
theU.S.

Appearstobe
sustainable

Transferring
coststoGoG,
alsoinstituting
publicprivate
partnerships
Highlyreplicable, Highly
however
replicable,
dependson
focusingon
strongfounding immediatejob
partnersuchas
andskillneeds
Chevron
anddeliver
quickly

Nodataasyet

Nodataasyet

8. Replicability

9. Socialandeconomic
impact

Elementsof
programare
replicable,such
asemployer
councils,
learningfarms,
formingtwinning
arrangements
withMinistryof
Education
Ministerof
Educationstates
thatALEF
reformsare
beingintegrated
intothenational
system,no
furtherdata

17

Significant
numbersof
graduates,52%
jobplacement
ratesdespite
economic
turmoilandwar

Morocco
Criteriafor
measuring
performance
postponedby
Ministry,
developedin
finalyear,
unclearasto
whetherthey
arebeingused
Nopartnerships
perse,employer
councilswere
established,no
dataasto
whetherthese
arebeing
maintained
Thereappearsto
benoevidence
ofsustainable
financing

Annex2:RecommendedResources
1. TVETPortalacommunityofpractice
http://www.tvetportal.net/index.php?id=20&L=0
2. TechnicalEducation.UNESCO
http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/educationbuildingblocks/tvet/
3. MonikaAring,CathleenCorbitt.(1996).Compassforworkforcedevelopment.Newton,MA:
EducationDevelopmentCenter.
http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_Searc
hValue_0=ED461767&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED461767
4. JohnMiddleton,AdrianZiderman,ArvilAdams,(1993).Skillsforproductivity:Vocationaleducation
andtrainingindevelopingcountries.NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress.
http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=DeI0cyTKV1EC&dq=UNESCO+Vocational+Education&lr=&sourc
e=gbs_navlinks_s
5. JohnLauglo,RupertMaclean.(2005).VocationalisationofSecondaryEducationRevisited.Bonn,
Germany:UNESCOUNEVOC.
http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=UZWwBbxaOqcC&pg=PR2&lpg=PR2&dq=John+Middleton+on+
Vocational+Education&source=bl&ots=HmJfPNsH1O&sig=Nkj4HKODRionx_7NI3_xAZGGA9c&hl=en
&ei=LiqpTeHaDYuisQPTifX5DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CEQQ6AEwBw#v
=onepage&q=John%20Middleton%20on%20Vocational%20Education&f=false

18

Annex3:ReferencesandBibliography

MonikaAringetal.(1997).CompassforWorkforceDevelopment(forUSAID).Newton,MA:Education
DevelopmentCenter.
ii
WorldBank.WorldDevelopmentReport,2007.
iii
WorldBank.WorldDevelopmentReport,2007.
iv
Silatech.2008.http://www.silatech.com/arabic/media/pdf/Silatech%20Brief.pdf
v
MonikaAring.(1998).ComparingentrancerequirementsintoTVETinDenmark,Switzerland,Austria,Germany,
andtheNetherlands.UnpublishedpaperforGermanMarshallFund.
vi
InGerman,forexample,vocationalmeansBerufsausbildung,whichmeanscompletingyoureducationforyour
profession.InFrenchandSpanish,thetermisformationorformacion,whichimpliesformingtheindividualsskills.
vii
ConversationofauthorwithJohnMiddletonin1995,authoroftheleadingstudyonvocationaleducation.World
Bank.
viii
Middleton,Ziderman,andAdams:Skillsforproductivity:Vocationaleducationandtrainingindeveloping
countries.
http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=DeI0cyTKV1EC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=Middleton+Vocational+Educ
ation&ots=4UPsGqhsYz&sig=a6uMUjCMMszHjNcycUNa5wqAdmo#v=onepage&q=history%20of%20vocational%20
education&f=false
ix
ThePenangSkillDevelopmentCenterstillexiststoday.http://www.psdc.org.my/Extensiveconversationswith
thefounderofPSDCandBillWiggenhorn,thenheadofMotorolaPenang.MonikaAringetal..,Compassfor
WorkforceDevelopment.PengangSkillDevelopmentCenterCaseStudy.EDC1997
x
ConversationbyauthorwithBillWiggenhorn,whowasheadofMotorolaAsiawhenthePenangSkill
DevelopmentCenterwascreated.
xi
MonikaAringetal.(1997).CompassforWorkforceDevelopment.SingaporeCaseStudyandPenangCaseStudy.
Newton,MA:EducationDevelopmentCenter.
xii
MarkHanson.(2004).TransnationalCorporationsasEducationalInstitutionsforNationalDevelopment:
TheContrastingCasesofMexicoandSouthKorea[abstract].Riverside,CA:UniversityofCalifornia
xiii
MonikaAringetal.(1997).CompassforWorkforceDevelopment(forUSAID).Newton,MA:Education
DevelopmentCenter.
xiv
LynnSalingerandMonikaAring.(2003).Moroccoworkforceassessment.Newton,MA:EducationDevelopment
Center.
xiv
ThissummaryisbasedonafinalevaluationreportpreparedbyAguirreforUSAIDIndonesiaMarch17,2011
xiv
LynnSalingerandMonikaAring.(2003).AssessmentforEDC.Newton,MA:EducationDevelopmentCenter
xv
MonikaAring(mainauthor).(1997).CompassforWorkforceDevelopment.BestPracticeCriteriaofeffective
WFDprogramsin20countries.Newton,MA:EducationDevelopmentCenter.

CASEREFERENCES

SouthAfricaFET
LetabaFETCollegePSKDBaselineInformationFactsheet
AmericanCouncilOnEducation(ACE),WashingtonD.C.,withsupportfromUSAID/SouthernAfricaPSKDYear
OneAnnualWorkPlan20092010
EmailswithEdgarThorntonatACE
PhoneinterviewwithElikanaMaroge,S.A.ISAOD
PhoneinterviewwithEdThornton,ACE
PhoneconversationwithRayUhalde,NationalCenterforEducationandtheEconomy

ACEHPoliteknik
2010FinalEvaluationreportproducedforUSAID/Indonesia,preparedbyAguirreDivisionofJBSInternational,
Inc.

19

MoroccoALEF
DanWagner,ILI/PennYouthandadultliteracypoliciesandprogramsinMorocco:AbriefsynopsisMay2009
USAIDFinalReport/USAID/MarocFETProject,15November2009
SKYPEinterviewwithJoshuaMuskin,ALEFProjectDirector,AED
GeorgiaVEP
AmericanInstitutesforResearch(AIR)
VocationalEducationProjectinGeorgia(VEP)JuneNovember2009miAnnualReport#3March2010
MonthlyReportU.S.AgencyforInternationalDevelopmentContractNo.EDHI050002700
EmailfromMedikoKakachiainresponsetomyquestions
InterviewwithJeromeMindes,AIR
Projectwebsite:www.vep.org.ge

20

About EQUIP3
The Educational Quality Improvement Program 3
(EQUIP3) is designed to improve earning, learning,
and skill development opportunities for out-of-school
youth in developing countries. We work to help
countries meet the needs and draw on the assets of
young women and men by improving policies and
programs that affect them across a variety of
sectors. We also provide technical assistance to
USAID and other organizations in order to build the
capacity of youth and youth-serving organizations.
EQUIP3 is a consortium of 13 organizations with
diverse areas of expertise. Together, these organizations work with out-of-school youth in more than
100 countries.
To learn more about EQUIP3 please see the website
at www.equip123.net/equip3/index_new.html.

EQUIP3 CONSORTIUM: Education Development Center, Inc. Academy for Educational Development Catholic Relief Services
International Council on National Youth Policy International Youth Foundation National Youth Employment Coalition
National Youth Leadership Council Opportunities Industrialization Centers International Partners of the Americas Plan
International Childreach Sesame Workshop Street Kids International World Learning