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INTRODUCTIONS

A sexually transmitted disease (STD) or venereal disease (VD), is an illness that


has a significant probability of transmission between humans or animals by
means of sexual contact, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex.
Increasingly, the term sexually transmitted disease (STD) is used, as it has a
broader range of meaning; a person may be infected, and may potentially infect
others, without showing signs of disease. Some STD can also be transmitted via
use of an IV drug needle after its use by an infected person, as well as through
childbirth or breastfeeding.

Many STD are more easily transmitted through the mucous membranes of the
penis, vulva, and the mouth. The visible membrane covering the head of the
penis is a mucous membrane, though it produces no mucus (similar to the lips of
the mouth). Mucous membranes differ from skin in that they allow certain
pathogens into the body. According Sobeslovsky O et all said that a high
percentage of students knew AIDS was an STD. However, the rate fell rapidly to
unsatisfactory levels for other STD. The fact that more that one half of the
students never heard that hepatitis B was sexually transmitted raises a particular
concern, because Turkey is a moderately endemic area for the disease. A similar
comment can be made for Chlamydia infections which were not recognized by
students despite being much more prevalent than HIV and AIDS in the country.
In addition, young people are not sufficiently informed about transmission
routes, symptoms, and sings of STD and risk groups. Most participants did not
know STD could occur a symptomatically. This lack of knowledge may have
prevented them from noticing their disease and may be one of the main reasons
for the low prevalence of STD in this group of students.

This is one reason that the probability of transmitting many infections is far
higher from sex than by more casual means of transmission, such as non-sexual
contacttouching, hugging, shaking hands but it is not the only reason.
Although mucous membranes exist in the mouth as in the genitals, many STD
seem to be easier to transmit through oral sex than through deep kissing. Many
infections that are easily transmitted from the mouth to the genitals or from the
genitals to the mouth are much harder to transmit from one mouth to another.
With HIV, genital fluids happen to contain much more of the pathogen than
saliva. Some infections labeled as STD can be transmitted by direct skin contact.
Herpes simplex and HPV are both examples.

Depending on the STD, a person may still be able to spread the infection if no
signs of disease are present. For example, a person is much more likely to
spread herpes infection when blisters are present (STD) than when they are
absent (STD). However, a person can spread HIV infection (STD) at any time,
even if he/she has not developed symptoms of AIDS (STD).

All sexual behaviors that involve contact with the bodily fluids of another person
should be considered to contain some risk of transmission of sexually
transmitted diseases. Most attention has focused on controlling HIV, which
causes AIDS, but each STD presents a different situation.

As may be noted from the name, sexually transmitted diseases are transmitted
from one person to another by certain sexual activities rather than being actually
caused by those sexual activities. Bacteria, fungi, protozoa or viruses are still the
causative agents. It is not possible to catch any sexually transmitted disease
from a sexual activity with a person who is not carrying a disease; conversely, a
person who has an STD got it from contact (sexual or otherwise) with someone
who had it, or his/her bodily fluids. Some STDs such as HIV can be transmitted
from mother to child either during pregnancy or breastfeeding. Although the
likelihood of transmitting various diseases by various sexual activities varies a
great deal, in general, all sexual activities between two (or more) people should
be considered as being a two-way route for the transmission of STDs, "giving" or
"receiving" are both risky.

Healthcare professionals suggest safer sex, such as the use of condoms, as the
most reliable way of decreasing the risk of contracting sexually transmitted
diseases during sexual activity, but safer sex should by no means be considered
an absolute safeguard. The transfer of and exposure to bodily fluids, such as
blood transfusions and other blood products, sharing injection needles, needle-
stick injuries (when medical staff are inadvertently jabbed or pricked with
needles during medical procedures), sharing tattoo needles, and childbirth are
other avenues of transmission. These different means put certain groups, such
as doctors, haemophiliacs and drug users, particularly at risk.
Recent epidemiological studies have investigated the networks that are defined
by sexual relationships between individuals, and discovered that the properties
of sexual networks are crucial to the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. In
particular, assortative mixing between people with large numbers of sexual
partners seems to be an important factor.

According to Wellings K et all research, among sexually experience student


31.5% indicated they had sex with different partners at irregular intervals. 28.6%
had a regular partner and a regular sex life, 16.1% had a regular partner but had
sex at irregular intervals and 23.9% had no sexual activity currently. Males
(39.3%) were significantly more prone to have sex with different partners than
were females (3%). Similarly , while all students with alow SES indicated they
had a regular partner and a regular sex life almost one half (44.1%) of the
middle socioeconomic class who reported always using condoms was
significantly higher than for students in the low socioeconomic class.

TITLE
A STUDY TO ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE OF MUCH STUDENTS

ABOUT THE STDS.

AIM

To investigate and assess the knowledge of STDs among

Masterskill students and their attitude towards sexuality into

account the high prevalence of the AIDS pandemic

OBJECTIVES

To assess the knowledge of STDs and attitude towards sexual

behavior and STDs among Masterskill students.

To identify the knowledge about STDs of Masterskill students

from different causes.

To estimate the extent attitude towards sex behavior and STDs

among masterskill student.

To explore in the students their sources of information and

knowledge of STDs

HYPOTHESES

The will be a positive relationship between perceived social

support using condom when doing the sexual activity and the

teaching the method to prevent STDs disease.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


Student expose to the social problem because their hostel near to big city
(Kuala Lumpur).because in a big town that have more entertainment and
more social life will happen.

No guide line from parent 1 of the reasons can make students involves to
social problem. When stay far from parent especially student that is a main
problem causes they can go out anyone cannot stop them.

Lack of religion education and moral that causes a free sexually. This is will
show in teenager who involves in bad attitude like go to club night, wild party,
rock mental concert. Their live more too modern like West Country.

Students like to follow a life style and a new trend from their friends was a
modern from them and west artist style. Teenager will follow what they see if
that cool style they will say it trend like Paris Hilton sleep with many guy that
will say it trend.

LITERATURE REVIEW.

One research from Sarah L. Gurney etc. all (2005), California U.S.A.
Nurses practitioners in California show sexually transmitted Chlamydia infections
are common among young women, it is critical that provides screen and manage
these infections appropriately. Respondents included 708 physicians (94 %
response rate) and 895 nurses practitioners 63% respond rate. Nearly half of
physicians 47%,95% confidence interval [CI] ,42% to51% and majority of nurses
practitioner 79%,95% CI ,77% to 82% reported routine Chlamydia screening of
women under age 20; similar proportions reported routinely screening women
aged 20 to 25 years.
Conclusions the Chlamydia care of practices of many California primary care
providers are inconsistent with current guidelines. Targeted provider education
and improved reimbursements are potential strategies for improvement.

Richard J. Hayes (2001) in rural Tanzania to estimate the prevalence of HIV and
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) Infections amongst adolescents in rural Mwanza
region, Tanzania and their association with demographic variable. Responded all
15-19 years olds living in household selected by random cluster sampling were
invited to participate after interview, urine was tested for HIV and CT.

Result 9445 15-19 year old were enrolled. HIV prevalence was 0.6% (95 % CT:
0.4-0.8%) in males and 2.4 % (955 CI:2.0-2.8 %) in females, and increased
steeply with age ( trend:p < 0.006 and p<0.001, respectively). Reported current
symptoms of STD ( males OR =2.5, females OR=1.9) and positive leucocyte
esterase (LE) test(males OR=3.1,females OR=2.6).

Deniz Gokengin etc all this survey produced baseline information about student
knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases ( STDs ), their sexual attitudes and
their behavior to help establish control and education programs. The study was
conducted at Ege University, Izmir, Turkey, during the ( 1999-2000 ) academic
year. A total of 2,217 first and fourth year students determined by stratified
sampling constituted the study group. All students who volunteered to
participate completed a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic and
knowledge factors, sexual attitudes, behavior and history of STDs. The rate of
students having had sexual experience was 36.6%. Males were more sexually
active than females. Most students ( 71.4% ) began sexual activity at ages 15-19
without any difference by gender. Young people in Turkey are sexually active
and tend to engage in high risk behavior. Study results suggest a need for
implementation of
STD control programs and provision of school sexuality education for adolescents
and young adults.

B.S. Reddy etc all the study was conducted at India ( 2004 ) Chlamydia infection
can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, fallopian tube injury and infertility in
women. Although the growth of C. trachomatis is restricted to the mucosa, the
consequences of infection, namely tubal sterility, pelvic inflammatory disease
can be devastating. Persistent antigen synthesis and an ineffective immune
response largely contribute to chronic inflammation, tissue damage and
immunopathology associated with salpingitis/infertility. Earlier studies have also
reported an increase in endocervical lymphocytes among women with
nonulcerative sexually transmitted diseases. In response to C. trachomatis
infection, variation in detection of different cytokines was observed in cervix and
fallopian tube. Flow cytometry showed that, all the major cytokines analysed
were up-regulated in the cervical region of genital tract during C. trachomatis
infection. We also analysed secreted cytokines cervix and fallopian tube samples
by ELISA levels were significantly high in the cervix of Chlamydia positive
infertile women when compared to uninfected controls. Increased level of IFN
has been reported in the endocervical secretions of C. trachomatis positive
women. There was an increase in fallopian tube. Increased levels in cervical
secretions have been associated with pelvic inflammatory disease in women.

By S.-C.Chen etc all (2006) at department of Bioengineering and Tatung


University. Analysis of the influence of therapy and viral suppression on high-risk
sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections among patient infected with
human immunodeficiency virus in Taiwan. In total, 476 (52%) individuals had an
STD diagnosis before or after awareness of a positive HIV result. Diagnosis of an
STD after knowledge of a positive HIV test result was reported by 219 (24%)
patients, of whom 166 (18%) reported an STD diagnosis both before and after a
positive HIV test result. The most common STD was genital warts (25%), followed
by herpes simplex virus infection (19%), syphilis (17%) and gonorrhea (10%).
Among the patients who reported a diagnosis of an STD, 83(32%) of 257 patients
who were diagnosed with syphilis or genital ulcer disease (GUD) before knowing
of their positive HIV test result were HIV-positive, compared with eight (15%) of
53 patient who did not have syphilis or GUD before knowing of their HIV
seropositivity .

By V.Gopalkrishnan etc all (2000) at Division of Molecular Oncology. Chlamydia


trachomatis and human papillomavirus infection in Indian women with sexually
transmitted diseases and cervical precancerous and cancerous lesions. Objective
sexually transmitted disease (STDs) and anogenital cancers are the major health
problems in Indian women but no reliable estimate of the prevalence of either
genital Chlamydia infection or human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in STD
patient is available. The aim of this study was to detect the frequency of
Chlamydia trachomatis and the most prevalent high-risk HPV type 16 (HPV 16)
infection in Indian women, with STDs and precancerous and cancerous lesion of
the uterine cervix by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and their comparison
with those of conventional serology and antigen test used for C. trachomatis
detection. Result a Chlamydia plasmid based PCR assay detected 50% (25-50)
positivity of C.trachomatis in STD patients and HPV 16 DNA was found in 30%
(15-50) of these cases which are significantly higher than those found in healthy
controls. The EIA could detect Chlamydia antigen in only 13 cases (26%) while
serological ELISA revealed evidence of Chlamydia IgG-specific antibodies in 26
(52%) cases. Interestingly, in women with precancerous and cancerous lesion,
the rate of HPV 16 infection was very high (52% and 72%, respectively).
Conclusion this is first PCR estimate of genital Chlamydia (50%) and HPV 16
(30%) infection in STD patients women with precancerous and cancerous lesion
of the uterine cervix in India. The PCR method seems to be a good alternative to
tissue culture.

By J.Chalker etc.all (2002) at Management Sciences for Health. Private


pharmacies in Hanoi, Vietnam: a randomized trial of a 2 year multi-component
intervention on knowledge and stated practice regarding ARI, STD and antibiotic/
steroid request. Objective to assess the effectiveness of a multi-component
intervention on knowledge and reported practice amongst staff working in
private pharmacies in Hanoi regarding four conditions: urethral discharge
[sexually transmitted disease (STD)], acute respiratory infection (ARI), non-
prescription request for antibiotics and steroid. Result the intervention/ control-
pairs (22 after drop-outs) were analyses pre- and post intervention using the
Wilcoxon signed rank test. STD: More drug sellers stated they would ask about
the health of the partner (P= 0.03) and more said they would advise condom
used (P= 0.01) and partner notification (P= 0.04). ARI; More drug sellers stated
they would ask question regarding fever (P= 0.01), fewer would give antibiotics
(P=0.02) and more would give traditional medicines (P= 0.03). Antibiotics
request fewer said would sell a few capsules of cefalexin without prescription (P=
0.02). Steroid request: No statistical difference was seen in the numbers who
said they would sell steroids without a prescription as numbers declined in both
intervention and control groups (P= 0.12). Conclusion the three interventions in
series over 17 months wee effective in changing the knowledge and reported
practice of drug sellers in Hanoi.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

A STUDY TO ASSESS THE


KNOWLEDGE OF MUCH
STUDENT ABOUT

~ Unprotected Sex
~ Undesirable sexual
behavior
~ Have sex art of curiosity
~ Peer pressure because lack
of cash
Teenage pregnancy
Sexual harassment
Increasing prostitution
Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Candidiasis

~ Initiation of reproductive health


education in primary schools with
more emphasis on STDs

METHODOLOGY
Population
Researcher choose Masterskill student from intake 200801
different course because researcher want to assess the
knowledge student of Masterskill University College Of Health &
Sciences about the STD.
Simple Random Sampling
Student Masterskill Sampling student
(courses)
Diploma in Nursing 6 ( 1 male , 5 female )
Medical Imaging 8 ( 2 male , 6 female )
Pharmacy 9 ( 3 male , 6 female )
Health Care 7 ( 4 male, 3 female)
Total 30

Table: Knowledgeable about STD with student Masterskill

Regarding to data collection table 1, researcher randomly


choose 6 students from population Diploma in Nursing, 8
students from Medical Imaging course, 9 student from Pharmacy
course and 7 students from Health Care course from Masterskill
University College of Health & Sciences in our research.
Researcher choose different courses because to do distinction
among of student Masterskill.

Respondent
Researcher chooses 30 students from different courses to
research respondent.

RESEARCH DESIGN

Research design chosen by our group is a quantitative and qualitative


description to find out respondent perception for the level of knowledge
regarding STD (sexual transmitted disease) among student. Research instrument
is an investigation to build by researcher based on hypotheses and responded
view point. The investigations have 2 section consist part A and B. Part A consist
of responded information such age, gender, race and program. Part B consist
items that will measure respondent perception for the research.

For some items showed, consist 8 variables, which are representing those items.
The variables are showed refer to factor, causes, opinion, process, source,
effects, sign and symptom.
Researcher have to distribute research from 30 responded as sample. The
responded take 15 minutes to answer the question from the research result
showed a positive response from the responded and they give a good
cooperation.

INSTRUMENT

By using survey questionnaire we collect the data for this research. To get the
data collection 15 survey question was develop. The some survey question was
taken from a qualitative study of Nursing, Medical Imaging, Pharmacy and Health
Care intake 200801 about level knowledge STD (sexual transmitted disease). The
question includes a mix of forced choice (yes / no), 7 and 8 multiple choice
questions and 1 qualitative question. The survey questionnaire include to section
A and B. This survey distributed to 30 students Masterskill that they choose
randomly.
This section A researcher chosen questionnaire about background of the
respondent like researcher ask gender, , age and course of student and for the
section B question includes about the research. Topic.
Types Of Question Total
Open ended 6
Multiple choice 8
Qualitative 1

9
8
7 open - ended
6 question
5 multiple choice
4
3 Qualitative
2
1
0
Types of question

Figure 1
DATA COLLECTION

The data collection taken from student Nursing, Medical Imaging Pharmacy and
Health Care Intake 200801 was use to investigate about the level of knowledge
STD (sexual transmitted disease) among student. 1 male and 5 female student of
Nursing, 2 male and 6 female from Medical Imaging, 3 male and 6 female from
Pharmacy, 4 male and 3 female from health care course use as a data collection.

Before administer the questionnaire to the sample the researcher ask opinion of
lecturer which question is suitable or not to respondent and make sure the
questionnaire is valid and reliability. After approve by lecturer and find that no
changes were mode, regarding to questionnaire researcher distributed question
to 6 of Nursing, 8 Medical Imaging, and 9 Pharmacy and 7 for Health Care
courses intakes from 200801. When the administer questionnaire, the researcher
explain the questionnaire to the sample before they agree and volunteer to
answer the questionnaire. Researcher interview the sample, explain to the
sample what the sample do not understands about the questionnaire.

Researchers explain to the sample how to answer the questionnaire. The


questionnaire consist 15 questionnaires. The entire questionnaire is related to
journal.1 questionnaires is a questionnaire define, 6 questionnaires are close
ended questionnaires and 8 is a multiple choices questionnaire. The sample
takes 15 minute to answer the questionnaire. Researcher fined the sample at the
nurses cafe. Researcher started give the question to sample from at 4.00 pm to
5.00 pm to student Pharmacy, Medical Imaging Nursing, and Health Care. Before
given the question, the researcher explain the purpose to the students answer
the questions.
DATA ANALYSIS

DATA DEMOGRAPIC (SECTION A)

1) GENDER.

TABLE 1
CHOICE A B
GENDER MALE FEMALE
n 10 20
PERCENT % 33% 67%
GRAF 1

MALE
FEM ALE

33%

GENDER
67%

Graf 1.1 showing the gender from research at Masterskill college female more
than male because female is majority student at Masterskill College
2) AGE

TABLE 2

CHOICE A B C
AGE 18-21 22-25 26-30
n 23 6 1
PERCENT% 77% 20% 3%

GRAFT 2

3%

AGE

6%

A 18-21
B 22-25
C 26-30
77%

Base on graft 2.2 show age respondent most of student Masterskill age between
18-21 that was a popular age and the graft is show that 77% percent. The age
group from 22-25 show 6% and 3% from the 26-30 age group.
3)QUALIFICATION BEFORE JOINING
MASTERSKILL?

TABLE 3

QUALIFICATION NURSING MEDICAL PHARMACY HEALTH CARE


IMAGING
SPM 14% 20% 23% 17%
STPM 7% 3% 7% 3%
DIPLOMA 0 3% 0 3%

GRAF 3

25

20

15 SPM

10 STPM
DIPLOMA
5

0
NURSING MI PHARMACY H.CARE
Graf 3 shows that students qualification before joining at Masterskill.14%
Students from nursing course, 20% from medical imaging, 23% from pharmacy
and 17% from health care course have SPM qualification .7% from nursing
course, 3% from medical imaging,7% from pharmacy course and 3% from health
care course have STPM qualification. 3% from medical imaging course and 3%
from health care course have DIPLOMA qualification.

4) COURSE.

TABLE 4.4

COURSE NUMBER OF %
STUENT
NURSING 6 20%
MEDICAL IMAGING 8 27%
PHARMACY 9 30%
HEALTH CARE 7 23%
TOTAL 30 100%

GRAF 4
NURSING
MI
PHARMACY
H.CARE

23% 20%

30% 27%

Graf 4 show that percentage of have different courses. The responder from
Nursing course is 20%.The responder from Medical Imaging is 27%.The
responder from Pharmacy course is 30% and lastly is 23% responder are from
Health care course.

PART B

1) Understand about Sexually Transmitted


Diseases (STD)

From 30 student, we want to assess their knowledge regarding the STD. They
answer in many meaning, 1) STD is a disease transmitted by sexual
intercourse. 2) STD can be spread by unprotected sex intercourse. 3) STD is a
disease such as HIV disease. Most of the pharmacy course, nursing course
and medical imaging course students know than STD can be spread by
unprotected sex intercourse and can be involved in sex intercourse activity.
Overall 19 of the respondents know about. The STD and 11 of the
respondents dont know about the STD. Most of the nursing course students
know about it because their subject have this module and the pharmacy
course student also expose to this subject. It help researcher can get more
correct answer but the health care course and medical imaging course
student are not familiar about the STD because their do not expose the STD
topic widely as nursing course students.

2) STD is not transmitted through the

TABLE 2

CHOICE NURSING MEDICAL PHARMACY HEALTH


IMAGING CARE
UNPROTECTED 2 (29%) 2 (29%) 0 3 (42%)
SEX
HUGGING 4 (19%) 6 (28%) 9 (43%) 2 (10%)
MASSAGE 3 (15%) 4 (20%) 9 (45%) 4 (20%)
GRAF 2

100%
90%
80%
70%
60% Massage
50% Hugging
40%
Unprotected Sex
30%
20%
10%
0%
NURSING MI PHARMACY H.CARE

This chart bar show that 7 of the students from different courses choose that
STD is not transmitted through the unprotected sex. 21 of the students choose
STD is not transmitted through the hugging and 20 of them choose massage
would not transmitted the STD.

3) From where you get


the information about the STD?

TABLE 3

COURSE MAGAZINE INTERNET LECTURER PARENTS RADIO


S
NURSING 22% 21% 26% 0% 10%
MI 22% 25% 32% 0% 40%
PHARMACY 39% 33% 16% 100% 10%
17% 21% 36% 0% 40%
H.CARE

GRAF 3

INFORMATION ABOUT THE STD

RADIO
PARENTS
LECTURER
INTERNET
MAGAZINES

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%


H.CARE
PHARMACY
MI
NURSING

These chart bar shows that majority of the student get the information regarding
STD from internet. They 33% students choose the answer internet, 26% of
students choose answer lecturer were they gain knowledge regarding STD 24%
students said that there gain knowledge about STD from magazine by
themselves. 14% students choose the radio one of the sources to get
information about the STDs. 3% of students only said that their gain STD
knowledge from their parents.
4) What kind of major
disease will get if STD occur?

TABLE 4

CHOICE GONNORRHE SYPHILIS (S) ECTOPIC POLIOMYELITIS


A (G) PREGNANCY (P.M)
(E.P)
NURSING 31% 21% 0 0
MI 23% 25% 25% 0
PHARMACY 23% 37% 75% 0
H.CARE 23% 17% 0 100%

GRAF 4

120

100

80 NURSING
MI
60
PHARMACY
40 H.CARE

20
MAJOR
0 DISEAS
E
G S E.P P.M

This chart bar about major disease we will get it STD occurs from 30 number. 13
answer gonorrhea, 24 answer syphilis, 4 answer Ectopic pregnancy follow by in
choose poliomyelitis. Most of nursing student choose answer gonorrhea and
syphilis. Syphilis is one a familiar name to STD cases and this show that our
respondent know about this disease.

5) Did you agree that


STD is commonly happen to women?
TABLE 5

CHOICE A B
ANSWER YES NO
N 15 15
PERCENT% 50% 50%

GRAF 5

STD IS COMMONLY HAPPEN TO THE WOMAN

50% 50%
YES
NO

These chart bar shows that half our respondent are understand the diseases can
easily spread to woman or girl teenager. 15 student answer yes to the question
that including all nursing student agree about it. 2 student of medical imaging
say yes, 6 say no for STD and can easily happened to the woman. From
pharmacy respondent. Choose 4 yes and 5 no. Half of our respondent answer yes
because young woman especially can easily get STD because infection from
toilet is one of the reason.

6) IS it true that the


teenager easily prone to get STD?
TABLE 6

CHOICE A B
ANSWER YES NO
N 23 7
PERCENT% 77% 23%

GRAF 6
EASILY PRONE TO GET STD?

23%

77% YES
NO

The percentage answer, the question about the teenager is more prone to get
STD in many ways is higher 77% only 23% disagree than teenager are more
prone to get STD. 100% of nursing student answer yes. They choose this answer
because a lot of expose cases in newspapers, magazine and internet. A lot of
teenager agrees with this problem now.

7) STD is happen
because lack of knowledge?
TABLE 7

CHOICE A B
ANSWER YES NO
N 26 4
PERCENT% 87% 13%
GRAF 7

13%

YES
NO

87%

LACK OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT STD

This chart pie show that the percentage of the student agree or disagree that
STD will happen to acknowledgeable student. 87% of respondent agree about it
and 13% of respondent disagree about it. Most of the respondent agree about
people who lack of knowledge will easily get the STD. This show that all people
more alert about this issues now.

8) Micro-organism causes
syphilis are
TABLE 8

CHOICE TREPONOMA NEISSERIA SARCOPTES VIBRIO


PALLIDUM GONORHEA SCABIES CHOLARAE
(TP) (NG) (SS) (VC)
% 31% 38% 25% 6%

GRAF 8

40%
35% 38%
CAUSES
ORGANIS

30% M

25% 31%
TP
20% 25%

15% NG
10%
SS
5% 6%

0%
TP NG SS VC

Based on this chart bar, it show the types of microorganism causes syphilis. The
higher score are 37.5% choose Neissenia gonorrhea causes syphilis. 31%
respondent choose Treponema pallidum will causes syphilis 25% of respondent
choose Sarcoptes scabies. Follow by 6% of respondent choose Vibro cholarea is
one of the microorganism causes syphilis.
9) STD is more happened
to IPTA and IPTS students?
TABLE 9

CHOICE NURSING MI PHARMACY H.CARE TOTAL %


YES 4 (21%) 5 6 (32%) 4 (21%) 19 63%
(26%)
NO 2 (19%) 3 3 (27%) 3 (27%) 11 37%
(27%)

GRAF 9

70%

60%

50%
37 %
40% NO
YES
30%

20%
63 %
10%

0%
NURSING MI PHARMACY H.CARE

This chart bar showing that 63% of student agree that STD can easily happened
to the student who study at IPTA and IPTS. But 37% of student disagree about it.
Most of the students agree about it because how a day most of teenager are
curiosity about the thing which they are acknowledgeable and they are easily
influence from their friends.
10) Effect of STD if not treated?

TABLE 10

Effects of Pelvic Ectopic Infertility Chronic


STD Inflammato Pregnancy Pelvic pain
ry
% 40% 17% 31% 11%

GRAF 10
EFFECTS OF STD

11%
Pelvic
Inflammatory
40%
Ectopic
Pregnancy
31%
Infertility

17% Chronic Pelvic


pain

This question is a multiple choice answer and it question about what are the
effects of STD if not treated. It got four multiple choice answer which is pelvic
inflammatory disease. Ectopic pregnancy, infertility and chronic pelvic pain 40%
of respondent answer pelvic inflammatory disease. 17% answer ectopic
pregnancy, 31% answer infertility follow by 11% of them answer the chronic
pelvic pain.

11) Did you agree if college arranged campaign


about
STD?

TABLE 11
CHOICE A B
ANSWER YES NO
N 27 3
PERCENT% 90% 10%

GRAF 11

This
ARRANGED
CAMPAIGN pie
90 chart
YES
% is
NO 10
%

showing 90% of student agree college arranged a campaign regarding STD but
that have 10% disagree about it. This amount is bigger again agree 27 from 30
student. Respondent agree about this suggestion because collage must be head
of the leader to give the knowledge to the young teenager to let them gain more
knowledge about STD.

12) STD can be treated or no?


TABLE 12

CHOICE A B
ANSWER YES NO
N 18 12
PERCENT% 60% 40%

GRAF 12

45%
40%
35%
30%
25% YES
20% NO
15%
10%
5%
0%
NURSING MI PHARMACY H.CARE

40 60 YES

NO

This pie chart show that 18 number of the student choose the STD can be
treated and 12 of them choose that STD cannot be treated. Actually it is true we
cannot treat the STD but we can prevent it.

13) Factor are list below can lead to some one


get the
STD?
TABLE 13

CHOICE NURSING MI PHARMACY H.CARE


VAGINAL,ORAL 1 4 6 3
& ANAL SEX
UNPROTECTED 5 5 9 5
SEX
FREE SEX 3 5 9 3

GRAF 13

30 VAGINAL,
ORAL&ANAL
SEX
25

20
UNPROTECTE
15 D

10

5 FREE SEX

0
NURSING MI PHARMACY H.CARE
This pie chart show that the factors contribute person to get STD. 41% of the
student answer that unprotected sex activity would get the STD, 35% of
respondent answer, free sex will get the STD follow by 24% answer that vaginal,
oral and anal sex will get STD.
14) What are the sign & symptoms of STD?

TABLE 14

CHOICE ITCHING GENITAL VAGINAL DYSURIA


ULCER DISCHARGE
n 15 14 20 10
% 25% 24% 34% 17%

GRAF 14

SIGN & SYMPTOMS OF


17 % STD
25 %

ITCHING
GENITAL ULCER
VAGINAL DISCHARGE
DYSURIA
34 % 24 %

This chart show the result about the knowledge among of the student regarding
the sign and symptoms of STD. they can choose more than one answer. Most of
the student choose vaginal discharge and it take the 34% from the 100%. 25% of
the student choose itching, 24% of respondent choose genital ulcer and 17%
choose dysuria. All of the answer are corrected but a lot of respondent choose
vaginal discharge as a sign and symptoms of STD because it commonly happen
to the STD patient.
15. What health education can be given to the pt
who
Discharge home?

3% 10%
5% 14%

68%

separate,plate,fork& spoons
safe sex practice
can have free sexual
10% use toilet sepatately
% use gloves when touch patient

GRAF 15

TABLE 15
CHOICE Use Safe sex Can have Use the Family
separate practice free sexual toilet members
plate, fork, separatel use
and spoons y gloves
when
touch the
patient
n 5 25 1 4 2
% 14% 68% 3% 10% 5%

This chart show the result about when the patient with STDs discharged to
home. What is the health education we need to give to the patient. Most of the
respondent know that we to advise them must use the sex practice. 25 students
choose this answer, 6 of them which they have free sexual, 4 of them choose
the answer which they have to use separate plate, for and spoons. 3 of them
choose the answer must use the toilet separately and 2 of them answer that
family members have to use the gloves when touch the patient.

RESULT AND FINDING

30 students were choosing to be a sample. From the demographic data 2 male


and 6 female students from Medical Imaging course, 3 male and 6 female
students from Pharmacy course with 1 male and 5female from Nursing and 4
male and 3 female from Health Care course were choosing by researcher to be a
sample for investigate. To identify level knowledgeable of Masterskill about
STD (sexual transmitted disease).

From the research 77% students under group between 18 21 years old it is 6
students from Medical Imaging, 8 students from pharmacy course, 3 students
from nursing course and 6 students from Health Care course. Otherwise 20%
students under group age between 22 25 years it is 1 student from Medical
Imaging, 1students from pharmacy course, 1 student from Health Care course
and 3 students from nursing course were being sample. The balance 3% is from
students under group age between 26-30 years it is 1 student from medical
imaging course.

From the research 73% students have SPM qualification. That is 6 students From
Medical Imaging course, 7 students from pharmacy course, 5 students from
Health Care course and 4 students from nursing course .Otherwise 20% student
have STPM qualification. That is 1 student from Medical Imaging, 2 students from
Pharmacy course,1 student from Health Care course and 2 students from nursing
course is under STPM group.2 students from Medical Imaging and Health Care
course have DIPLOMA qualification. The percentage shows 3%.
Related to quantitative data, researcher find that 19 from 30 students or 63%
know about the STD. 11 from 30 students or 37% do not know what is STD. The 5
from 8 students of Medical Imaging course , 6 from 9 students of pharmacy
course, 3 from 7 students of Health Care course and 5 from 6 students of nursing
course they know about the STD.

The research shows that 7 of the students or 14% from different courses choose
that STD is not transmitted through the unprotected sex. 44% of the students
said that STD is not transmitted through the hugging and 42% of them choose
massage because STD would not transmitted through that way.
Majority of the student get the information regarding STD from internet. They are
33% students choose the answer internet, 26% of students choose answer
lecturer were they gain knowledge regarding STDs, 24% students said that
there gain knowledge about STD from magazine by themselves. 14% students
choose the radio one of the sources to get information about the STDs. 3% of
students only said that their gain STDs knowledge from their parents

From the quantitative data, researcher fined that 57% students know that major
disease of STDs is syphilis. Second major disease is gonorrhea is showing that
about 31%.10% of students choose the ectopic pregnancy is one of the major
disease of STDs. Only 1 of student from 30 students choose the Poliomyelitis as
a major disease of STDs. Only 88% of students know about the major disease
and 12% of students do not know about the major disease of STDs. Most of
nursing students choose the answer gonorrhea and syphilis.

15 respondent or 50% from different courses such as ( 6 students from nursing,2


from medical imaging, 4 from pharmacy, and 3 from health care course AGREE
that STDs commonly happen to the woman. Another 50% of students DISAGREE
that STDs is not commonly happen to the women.

From the research, researcher fined that 23 from 30 student or 77% trust that
now days among teenager easily prone to get STD (5 students from Medical
Imaging, 7 students from Pharmacy course, 6 from Nursing course and 5 from
Health Care course). Otherwise 7 from 30 student or 23% do not agree. It was
(3students from Medical Imaging, 2 students from Pharmacy course and 2
students from health care course). Most of the responder give opinion like, they
said that the teenager want to try new things.

5 students from nursing course, 6 students from medical imaging course, 9


students from pharmacy course and 6 students from health care course are
agree that STDs happen because of lack of knowledge. 26 from 30 students or
87% answer YES.1 student from nursing course ,2 from medical imaging course
and 1 from health care course are disagree that STDs is did not happen because
of lack of knowledge. 4 from 30 students or 13% answer no.

The researcher find that 31% students choose the answer treponema pallidum as
a microorganism that causes syphilis, majority of students answer that neisseria
gonorrhea is microorganism that causes syphilis.25% of students choose the
sarcobtes scabies and 6% of students answer vibrio cholarae as a microorganism
that causes syphilis. Only 31% know that microorganism that causes syphilis is
TREPONEMA PALLIDUM. 69% of students did know the microorganism that
causes syphilis.

Researcher find 19 from 30 students or 63% agree that STD (sexual transmitted
disease) 5 student from Medical Imaging course, 6 student from Pharmacy
course ,4 from health care course and 4 from nursing course. Otherwise 11 from
30 students or 37% did not agree that STD is more happened to the students
who study at IPTA & IPTS.

Multiple choice questions show that, 40% of students know that pelvic
inflammatory disease is one of the side effect to the STD (sexual transmitted
disease). Otherwise 17% of students choose ectopic pregnancy as a effects of
STD if not treated.31% of students choose the infertility one of the effect of STD
and 11% of students know that chronic pelvic pain is one of the side effect of
STD (sexual transmitted disease.
The researchers also find that 27 from 30 students or 90% agree if college
arranged some campaign about STD, shows that 6 students from Medical
Imaging course , 9 students from Pharmacy course ,6 students from Nursing and
6 students from health care course are agree to do campaign. Otherwise 10%
students did not agree that college arranged campaign about the STD. is 2
students from Medical Imaging course, and 1 from health care students.

From the quantitative data shows that 60% students think that STD (sexual
transmitted disease) can be treated (2 students from Nursing course,7 students
from Medical Imaging course, 5student from Pharmacy course and 4 students
from health care course). Otherwise 40% students think that STD cannot be
treated. Only 40% of students know that STD cannot be treated but we can
prevent it.

41% of students said that factor that can lead some one to get the STD is
unprotected sex.
24% of students choose vaginal, oral and anal sex is one of the factors that can
lead to some one to get STD and 35% of students said that because of free sex
can get STD.

From the research, researcher find that 25% of students choose itching, 24% of
students answer that genital ulcer is one of the sign & symptoms of STD.
Majority of students 34% choose vaginal discharge and 17% of students choose
dysuria is sign &symptoms of std.

Majority of students 68% choose the answer of must use safe practice as a
health education to be given to the patient who is discharged to home. The
students know that we should advise them must use safe practice.14% of
students use the answer of use separate plate, fork and spoons.3% of students
said that can have free sexual.10% of students choose the answer use the toilet
separately and 5% of students only choose the answer that family members
have to use the gloves when touch the patient.

From this research we able to identify that only 63% of students understand
about the STD. Another 37% of students do not know about STD. The 5 from 8
students of Medical Imaging course, 6 from 9 students of pharmacy course, 3
from 7 students of Health Care course and 5 from 6 students of nursing course
they know about the STD.

DISCUSSION

The result of students view that most of respondent student of nursing, medical
imaging pharmacy and health care course from intake 200801 was give
cooperation to us to completed our research regarding the knowledge of sexual
transmitted disease among student college. They also understand that
knowledge of sexual transmitted disease give them a new information.

According to data collection, around 30 student nursing, medical imaging and


pharmacy intake 200801 are selected as a sampling. All of the sampling has to
unsure the close ended and multiple choice questions and all over the sampling
understand what sexual transmitted disease.

The objective of this research regarding to identify about student knowledge of


sexual transmitted disease. The result from our questionnaire are supported our
hypothesis. According to graph, most of sampling are agree the student
understand what is sexual transmitted disease.

This study intended to explore in the students their sources of information on


and knowledge of STDs. These studies show that only 3% of the students get
information from their parents. The information offered through the radio or TV is
not detailed enough because of cultural and religious reason. From this research
we can found that most students learn about sexuality on their own from books,
magazines, films and internet. Because of existing barrier between parents and
children ,particularly discussing on matters related to sexual relationship, the
majority of students could not correctly describe the symptoms associated with
STDs on the opposite sex partner.

STDs can prevent if despite the good intention of introducing reproductive


health education in schools. Some believed that talking to children about
sexuality will encourage youth sexual activity. There is pressing need for parents
and teachers to change this attitude, and on other hand the government should
think of an earlier initiation of reproductive health education in schools with more
emphasis on STDs.
CONCLUSION

The finding of this study and the literature support need to rethink about the
sexual
Transmitted disease. The purpose for this study is to identify the knowledgeable
of
Student Masterskill about sexual transmitted disease. The aim for this study to
determine level of the knowledge student masterskill in different courses about
sexual transmitted disease.

The finding from this study 19 from 30 respondent (63%) understand about
sexual
Transmitted disease in different courses. The finding from this study 11 from 30
respondents (37%) that did not understand about the STDs. Based on graph
student Masterskill from nursing courses understand about sexual transmitted
disease compare another courses Medical Imaging, Pharmacy and Health Care.
The students from health care course did not know well about the STD than other
courses student.

Students knowledge about sexual transmitted disease can be improve if


masterskill
College arranged campaign regarding sexual transmitted disease at college
College can give pamphlet regarding STDs for all students in college.

The mass media is still the major effective means of educating the society,
including students, on STDs. Abstinence and faithful promotion activities should
be encouraged as the only means preventing and protecting the youth from
acquiring STDs. Parents and teachers should collaborate in educating the child
or students on the reproductive health. Government policy on STDs education
should be reviewed so as to come up with more concrete ways of fighting STDs
including HIV/AIDS.
RESEARCH TOPIC:

A STUDY TO ASSESS THE


KNOWLEDGE OF MUCH STUDENTS
ABOUT THE SEXUALY
TRANSMITTED DISEASE (STD)
We hope that you will cooperate
with us to answer the 15
questions that given to you. You
can choose more than one
answer. THANK YOU

PART A
DEMOGRAPHIC DATA.

1. GENDER

Male
Female
2. AGE

18-21 years old


22-25 years old
26-30 years old
3. What is your qualification before join Masterskill University Health
Sciences

SPM
STPM
DIPLOMA.
4. COURSE

Nursing
Medical imaging
Pharmacy

PART B
1. What you understand about Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)?

2. STD is not transmitted through the

Unprotected Sex
Hugging
Massage

3. From where you get the information regarding STD?

Magazines
Internet
From the lecturer
Parents
Radio and Television

4. What kind of major disease we will get if STD occurs?

Gonorrhea
Syphilis
Ectopic pregnancy
Poliomyelitis

5. Did you agree that STD is commonly happened to the women?

Yes
No

6. In your opinion, is it true that the teenager is easily prone to get


STD?

Yes: ..
No:

7. STD is happen because lack of knowledge about it. Did u agree?

Yes
No
8. The micro organism that causes syphilis are

Treponema Pallidum
Neisseria gonorrhea
Sarcoptes scabies
Vibrio Cholarae

9. Did you agree that if STD is more happened to the students who
study at
IPTA and IPTS?

Yes
No

10. What are the effects of STD if not treated?

Pelvic inflammatory disease


Ectopic pregnancy
Infertility
Chronic pelvic pain

11. Did you agree that if college arranged a campaign regarding


STD?

Yes
No

12. In your own opinion the STD can be treated or not?

Yes
No

13. Did you know that the factors are list below is can lead to someone
to get the
STD?

Unprotected sex
Vaginal, oral, anal sex
Free sex

14. Did you know about the sign & symptoms of STD?

Itching
Genital ulcer
Vaginal discharge
Dysuria
15. A patient with the STD is discharged to home. What health
education can be
given to the patient?

They have to use separate plate, fork and spoons


Must use the safe sex practice
Can have free sexual
Use the toilet separately
Family members have to use the gloves when touch the patient

REFRENCES

Kapinga, SH; Hunter, DJ; Nachtigal, G. Reproductive knowledge and


contraceptive awareness and practice among secondary school pupils in
Bagamoyo and Dar es Salaam. Central Africa Journal of Medicine.
1992;38(9):375380.

Ministry of Health (MOH), author. National Policy Guidelines and Standards for
Family Planning Service Delivery and Training. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 1994.

Kessy, A. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV and other STDs among youth in
Moshi Rural District. Dar es Salaam: University of Dar es Salaam; 1996. Master of
Medicine Dissertation. 86pp.
Deniz Gokengin, Tansu Yamazhan, Deniz ozkaya, Sebnem Aytung, Ekin Ertem,
Bilgin Arda and Demir Serter (2003).Sexual knowledge, Attitudes, and risk
behaviors of students in turkey.Journal science Health;73:258-263.

Wellings k, Wadaswort j, Johnsan AM (1995). Provision of sex education and early


sexual experience. The relation examined,311:417-420.

Deniz Gokengin, Tansu Yamazhan, Deniz ozkaya, Sebnem Aytung, Ekin Ertem,
Bilgin Arda and Demir Serter (2003).Sexual knowledge, Attitudes, and risk
behaviors of students in turkey.Journal science Health;73:258-263.

Abstract

Background
In Tanzania, it is considered a taboo for teachers and parents to talk with
children about sexual matters including sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in
schools and at home because of cultural and religious barriers. Political pressure
also keeps sexual education and thus education on STDs out of classrooms.
Generally, there is disagreement over STDs education on what to teach, by
whom, and to what extent.
Objectives
To assess the knowledge of STDs, and attitude towards sexual behavior and
STDs among secondary school students.
Methods
This was a cross- sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire. A
sample size of 635 students was determined by simple random sampling.
Results
Majority of the students (98%) said have heard about STDs; however their
knowledge of the symptoms associated with STDs was poor. Similarly 147 (23%)
students did not know other means of STDs transmission rather than sexual
intercourse. A number of students who were capable of identifying all tracer
STDs was comparable between the ordinary (10.5%) and advanced (10.6%) level
students (p<0.001). Thirty-two students (8%) were completely unable to identify
even a single tracer STD. About 96% respondents said were capable of
preventing themselves from contracting STDs, however 38% of them admitted
that they were at risk of contracting STDs. Majority (99%) described more than
one source of information on STDs, television and radio were the most commonly
mentioned sources, whilst none of them cited parents as source of information
(p<0.001). Regarding vulnerability to STDs, 503 (79%) students said female
students were more vulnerable to STDs compared to males.
Conclusions
The level of knowledge about STDs (ability to identify tracer STDs, to describe
symptoms associated with STDs and their mode of transmission) is poor with
regard to the students' levels of education. Female students are more vulnerable
to STDs compared to male counterparts. Mass media is still the more effective
means of educating the students on STDs.

Introduction

Several studies on STDs have been evaluating sexual behaviour for quite a while. Following
HIV pandemic from 19801990s, the focus on sexual evaluation intensified1 4. The
researchers have been investigating sexual behaviour in a variety of contexts often asking the
same questions for various purposes. Some authors evaluated sexual behaviour in relation
with STDs and family planning programmes in order to assess individuals' risk to STDs2. In
both cases infected as well as uninfected populations were involved and behaviour risk
factors to STDs were identified15. Others concentrated on specific groups to describe and
identify high and low risk subpopulations69. However, statistics on STDs show no sign of
abating; the ever-increasing number of STDs and deaths due to HIV/AIDS are common now,
particularly in developing countries. As the time goes on the trend of STDs is becoming a big
problem among the youth10.

The situation in Tanzania is even worse; where about 2.2million adults and children were
estimated that have been infected with STDs including HIV/AIDS11. The crisis is noted to be
severe particularly for the youth. Approximately 17% of children under 15 years of age in
Tanzania had been infected by STDs, and about 50% of the STDs occur before the age of 29
years1112. In a previous survey on youth sexuality and behavior for primary school pupils in
Dar es Salaam, it was observed that 62% males and 35% of females were at risk of acquiring
STDs13 , whilst others1 found that over 80% of male and 25% of female secondary school
students were predisposed to STDs.

In 1996 a similar survey was conducted on primary schools in Dar es Salaam, which showed
that 54% of the interviewed students aged between 1119 years, were at the risk of
contracting STDs. Many of the pupils were involved in unprotected sex, thus many had been
exposed to STDs4. The reasons put forward for the youth sexuality included youths being
sexually active because they wanted to have sex out of curiosity and some had been pushed
into early sex by peer pressure. Other given reasons were examples set by parents and
siblings, mass media as well as lack of cash and employment opportunities8.

Moreover, in Tanzania, it is considered a taboo for teachers and parents to talk with
pupils/children about sexual matters, such as sexual relationships, and STDs in schools as
well as at home because of cultural and religious barriers14. Political pressure, on the other
hand, often keeps sexual education and thus education on STDs out of the classrooms15. The
sensitivity of sexuality and youth behavior obstructs education on STDs despite the fact that
there is now a stronger commitment to address STDs in schools. Therefore, this survey was
conducted in order to investigate and assess the knowledge of STDs among secondary school
students and their attitude towards sexuality taking into account the high prevalence of the
AIDS pandemic.

Method
Study design: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in 14 randomly selected
secondary schools involving all 3 districts of Dar-es-Salaam region within a 3-month period
in the year 2005. A well-designed, semi-structured and self-administered questionnaire with
both closed and open-ended questions was used for data collection. At least 4 secondary
schools from each district were selected in which 45 students were randomly selected
(irrespective of their gender, education levels and ages) and voluntarily involved in the study,
under verbal and written consent.

Sample size: A sample size of 635 students was determined by using recommended
statistical methods 16, 17 and preliminary data obtained in a pilot survey.

Data collection: A questionnaire was used to collect information from the student. The
questionnaire elicited if the student had knowledge of STDs (ability to identify tracer STDs,
to describe some symptoms associated with STDs, and to describe means of transmission,
and preventive measures); and what his /her sources of information on STDs were. Similarly,
the student was asked on whether she/he was felt vulnerable to STDs and on which gender
was more prone to STDs giving reasons to the response.

Ethical issues: These were addressed by requesting permission to conduct the study, which
was obtained from the respective District Administrative Secretary (DAS), school authorities
with additional personal consent from the student, and from parents/guardians for the case of
the under 18 year-old students. The students also were assured of confidentiality of
volunteered information.

Data analysis: All questionnaires were assigned numbers, coded and analyzed by Statistical
Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 10) computer software. Differences on knowledge
of STDs among various groups categorized by age, form/education level and gender were
analyzed and the significance level was set at p<0.01.

Results
Study population and knowledge of STDs
In this study 635 students were interviewed, out of these 264 (42%) were
females and 371 (58%) were males (Table 1). Their ages ranged from 13 to 25
years, however most of them (60%) had age between 17 and 19 years. All
completed the questionnaires. About 99% of the students said they have had
heard of STDs, while the rest said they have had never heard of them. Out of the
635 students, only of 67 (11%) students (29 females and 38 males) were capable
of identifying the entire tracer STDs, as depicted in Table 2. A number of
students who were capable of identifying correctly all the STDs was comparable
between the ordinary (10.5%) and advanced (10.6%) level students (p<0.01).
Gonorrhea, syphilis, candidiasis and AIDS were mentioned by 10% of the
respondents. A total of 304 (48%) students were capable of mentioning only
three tracer STDs (Table 2). Of the 304 students who managed to mention at
least three STDs, 123 (40%) of them mentioned AIDS, candidiasis and gonorrhea.
Amazingly 32 (5%) students (22 males and 10 females), who could not identify
even a single tracer STD were all ordinary level students. It was also revealed
that most students had poor knowledge on the symptoms associated with STDs.
Seventy-three (11.5%) female and 92 (14.5%) male students accurately
described some symptoms associated with STDs. Two hundred and fifty-five
(39%) were completely unable to describe the symptoms compared with 165
(26%) who were able to describe the STD-associated symptoms correctly (p<
0.001) as shown in Table 3.

Knowledge of means of STDs transmission and


prevention
With respect to the knowledge on other means through which STDs could be
transmitted other than sexual intercourse, 488 (77%) students responded
positively while 147 (23%) were unable to respond. Six hundred and thirteen
(96%) students said they were able to protect themselves from contracting STDs,
16 (2.5%) said can not protect themselves and 6(1%) were not sure. Only 294
(46%) of the students said they were not at risk of contracting STDs, while 243
(38%) said were at risk. The responses given by the 46% of students, who felt
that were not predisposed to STDs, they said that could be achieved through
faithfulness (8%), abstinence (33%) and 6% said by use of condom. Ninety-eight
(15%) students were not sure or did not know whether they were at risk or not.
On the other hand, the main reason given by the majority of the respondents
(12%) who feared that were at risk of contracting STDs said it was due to
statistics, implying that it was due to the prevalence of HIV/AIDS pandemic
(Table 4). Therefore, they also were automatically at risk, because of the high
prevalence of STDs amongst the population.

Vulnerability to STDs between female and male


students

Regarding vulnerability to STDs, 503 (79%) students stated that females were
more vulnerable to STDs compared to their male counter parts, while only 132
(21%) said males were more vulnerable. The main reasons mentioned included
anatomical structure 238 (37.5%), sexual abuse 103 (16%) and 16 (2.5%) said
differences in careers was the reason for vulnerability. Table 4 also summarizes
other reasons given by the students for being prone to STDs: 6% sexual abuse
and blood transfusion, 10% temptation, 2% financial constrains and 1%
accidents.
Sources of information on STDs
Majority of students 629 (99%) were capable of mentioning multiple sources of
information about knowledge of STDs, and this did not match with neither age
nor education level of the students. However, none of them mentioned parents
or teachers as source of information or knowledge about STDs. Radio and
television were cited by 590 (93%) students as the source of information on
STDs while the rest 45 (7%) students had sought information on their own from
internet and books (p<0.001).

Discussion

This study intended to explore in the students their sources of information on and knowledge
of STDs. The study revealed that majority of the students had heard about STDs, though none
of them mentioned parents or relatives as a source of information, coinciding with previous
findings5, 8. Certainly, this is due to the fact that the information offered through radio or TV
is not detailed enough because of cultural and religious reasons11. For that matter, most of
them could not describe the symptoms associated with STDs. Also because of the existing
barrier between parents and children, particularly discussing on matters related to sexual
relationship, the majority of the students could not correctly describe symptoms associated
with STDs on the opposite sex partner. Other researchers5 found that most adolescents learn
about sexuality on their own from books, magazines and films. This may somehow be rather
more detrimental to them than educative, since the exploration is unguided.

The results further showed that most of the students were confident that they could protect
themselves from acquiring STDs. However, very few believed that faithfulness, abstinence
and condom use could be the ideal means of protection. The findings of this study showed
that females were more vulnerable to STDs, parallel with the findings15 and contrary to those1,
5
, who found that males were more sexually active and therefore more likely to contract STDs
than their female counterparts. Regarding the knowledge on other means of STDs
transmission apart from sexual intercourse, 147 (23%) students were unable to respond. This
result was unexpected bearing in mind that the respondents are secondary school students.
Therefore, this study finding calls for a review of the current curricula for secondary schools.

In the last two decades sexual behavior exhibited by school adolescents and youth between
19 to 24 years has led to the emergence of several health and developmental problems among
students11. Among the key issues associated with these problems were unprotected sex and
undesirable sexual behavior, teenage pregnancy, sexual harassment and increasing cases of
prostitution. Despite the good intention of introducing reproductive health education in
schools, obstacles have been observed14. There is a considerable disagreement over school
STDs education including what to teach, at what setting, by whom, and to what extent. It is
still believed that talking to children about sexuality will encourage youth sexual activity7.
Nevertheless, there is a pressing need for both parents and teachers to change this attitude,
and on the other hand the government should think of an earlier initiation of reproductive
health education in primary schools with more emphasis on STDs.

Conclusion

Our study showed that, symptoms associated with STDs in both males and females were not
well known by a significant number (39%) of the students. The study also revealed that
approximately 10% of the studied population could not identify a single tracer STD, however
at least every student knew one way through which one could protect from acquiring STDs.
The mass media is still the major effective means of educating the society, including students,
on STDs. Abstinence and faithful promotion activities should be encouraged as the only
means of preventing and protecting the youth from acquiring STDs. Therefore it is
recommended that parents and teachers should collaborate in educating the students/children
on the reproductive health affairs particularly STDs, in more open and comprehensive way.
Special efforts such as regular counseling and more amicably talks between parents/teachers
and female students should be conducted and intentionally be directed at this group of
students since seems to be more vulnerable to STDs. Government policy on STDs education
should be reviewed so as to come up with more concrete ways of fighting STDs including
HIV/AIDS.