The need for the study is to choose and design reinforced concrete retaining wall that will facilitate easy drainage of runoff and
retain mass of earth between river bank bordering University of agriculture Makurdi water works and river Benue in Makurdi local
government area of Benue state. This design is carried out to retain top soil which is good for vegetation during river overflow

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The need for the study is to choose and design reinforced concrete retaining wall that will facilitate easy drainage of runoff and
retain mass of earth between river bank bordering University of agriculture Makurdi water works and river Benue in Makurdi local
government area of Benue state. This design is carried out to retain top soil which is good for vegetation during river overflow

© All Rights Reserved

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928

ISSN 2321 3361 2016 IJESC

Research Article

Bordering University of Agriculture Makurdi Water Works

TIZA Michael

PG Scholar

Aff.M. ASCE, Career Point University, India

Abstract:

The need for the study is to choose and design reinforced concrete retaining wall that will facilitate easy drainage of runoff and

retain mass of earth between river bank bordering University of agriculture Makurdi water works and river Benue in Makurdi local

government area of Benue state. This design is carried out to retain top soil which is good for vegetation during river overflow.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

The second largest river in Nigeria which is also a source of

income for many of those living around it through fishing posses

a major treath to structures,agricultural land and the lives around

during raining seasons .This study is projected at averting this

plague.

forward and down slope due to gravity. This creates lateral

earth pressure behind the wall which depends on the angle

of internal friction () and the cohesive strength (c) of the

retained material, as well as the direction and magnitude of

movement the retaining structure undergoes. (Terzaghi,

1934)

The aim and objectives of the study is to avert the effect of

erosion through flooding and over flow of small rivers by using a

properly accepted engineering standard through design a

reinforced concrete retaining wall to Engineering standard that

will be suitable for the type soil to be retained and be able to

drain sufficiently the amount of water that will flow into it after

rainfall or flood.

have proper drainage behind the wall in order to limit the

pressure to the walls design value. Drainage materials will

reduce or eliminate the hydrostatic pressure and improve the

stability of the materials behind the wall. Dry stone retaining

walls are normally self-drainage.

LOCATION

The river is found in Benue state of Nigeria, approximately 1,400

kilometers long. It is located latitude and longitude of 7.8003 N,

6.7748 E.

be designed to ensure stability against over-turning, sliding

excessive foundation pressure

And water up-lift; and that they be designed for a safety

factor of 1.5 against lateral sliding and overturning.

(International Building Code, 2006)

1.0

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1

RETAINING WALL AND ITS INPORTANCE

A retaining wall is a structure designed and constructed to

resist the lateral pressure of soil when there is a desired

change in ground elevation that exceeds the angle of repose

of the soil. (Ching, et al, 2006).

The most important consideration in proper design and

installation of retaining walls is to recognize and counteract

COHESIVE SOIL (CLAY)

Possible. Therefore it may be concluded that the slope may

be steeper than ' as long as the depth of the slope is less

than the critical depth.

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Fig. 2.1 Stability analysis of infinite slopes in cohesive soils (clay). (Murthy,2003)

The equation of the strength envelope is given by: S = C +

n tan

At failure, S = f = C + nf tan

But nf = Zc cos2

And f =Zc sin cos

Therefore Zc sin cos = C + Zc cos2 tan

Zc cos (sin cos tan) = C

Zc

=

(C/).

1

/[

cos2

tan)]2.1

(tan

particular values of and . From equation 2.2

C/

Zc

=

cos2

(tan

tan)2.2

The quantity C/ Zc is called the stability number Sn.

For any depth Z less than Zc, the factor of safety

F = shear strength/shear stress

F = c + z cos2 tan/ z cos

2.3

sin

Fc = c/cm, where cm = mobilized cohesion, at depth z,

tan)..2.4

From equations 2.3 and 2.5,

Fc =

This is based on the assumption that the frictional resistance

of the soil is fully developed. The actual factor of safety

should be based on the simultaneous development of

cohesion and friction.

If there is seepage parallel to the ground surface throughout

the entire mass of soil, it can be shown that:

c/z

=

cos2

(tan

'/

tan)2.5

Since effective stress alone is capable of mobilizing shearing

strength. (Venkatramaiah, 2006)

RANKINES THEORY OF EARTH PRESSURE

A soil element at any depth z is subjected to a vertical stress

z and a horizontal stress x and, since there can be no

lateral transfer of weight if the surface is horizontal, no shear

stresses exist on horizontal and vertical planes. The vertical

and horizontal stresses, therefore, are principal stresses.

(Craig, 2004).

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the shear strength parameter c but a general derivation with

c greater than zero is given below to cover the cases in

which undrained parameter cu or tangent parameter c' is

used.

Referring to Fig. 2.3,

Pa =

=

..... 2.11a

=

(H

.2.11b

Z0)2

Sin =

Therefore 3(1 + sin ) = 1(1 sin ) 2c cos

3 = 1

2c

3=1

..2.6

Alternatively, tan2

1 = z

The horizontal stress for the above condition is defined as

the active pressure (pa) being due directly to the self-weight

of the soil. If

Ka =

Is defined as the active pressure coefficient, then equation

2.6 can be written as

Pa

=

kaz

2c

...2.7

When the horizontal stress becomes equal to the active

pressure the soil is said to be in the active Rankine state,

there being two sets of failure planes each inclined at

/2 to the horizontal. (Craig, 2004)

The maximum value 1 is reached when the Mohr circle

through the point representing the fixed value 3 touches the

failure envelope for the soil. In this case, the horizontal

stress is defined as the passive pressure ( pp) representing the

maximum inherent resistance of the soil to lateral

compression.

Rearranging equation 2.7

1

above the

bottom of the wall surface.

The force due to the passive pressure distribution is referred

to as the total passive resistance (Pp). For a vertical wall

surface of height H: Pp =

=

H2

.2.12

2c

respectively, above the bottom of the wall surface.

If a uniformly distributed surcharge pressure of q per unit

area acts over the entire surface of the soil mass, the vertical

stress z at any depth is increased to z + q, resulting in an

additional pressure of kaq in the active case or kpq in the

passive case. The corresponding forces on a vertical wall

surface of height H are kaqH and KpqH, respectively, each

acting at mid-height.

If the water table is at the surface and if no seepage is taking

place, the active pressure at depth z is given by

Pa = kaz 2c'

Where

Ka =

For the undrained condition in a fully saturated clay, the

active and passive pressures are calculated using the

parameter cu (u being zero) and the total unit weight sat (i.e.

the water in the soil pores is not considered separately). The

effect of the tension zone must be considered for this

condition. Thus the clay would be supported by the water

filling the crack to the depth (z0w) at which the active

pressure equals the hydrostatic pressure. Thus, assuming no

surface surcharge: satz0w 2cuwz0w = 0

Therefore, z0w =

(Craig, 2004).

2.8

If

Kp =

Pp = kpz + 2c

2.9

When c is greater than zero, the value of pa is zero at a

particular depth z0. From Equation 2.8, with pa = 0,

Z0

=

2.10

The force per unit length of wall due to the active pressure

distribution is referred to as the total active thrust (Pa). For a

vertical wall surface of height H:

In the active case, the vertical stress at depth z on a plane

inclined at angle _ to the horizontal is given by

z = z cos

Therefore,

Ka

2.13

Thus, the active pressure acting parallel to the slope is given

by

Pa

=

kaz

cos

.2.14

And the total active thrust on a vertical wall surface of

height H is

4049

http://ijesc.org/

Pa

=

kaH2

cos

2.15

In the passive case, the vertical stress z is represented by a

distance.

When c = 0 the passive pressure coefficient is given by

Kp

DESIGN)

.2.16

Then the passive pressure, acting parallel to the slope is

given by

Pp

=

kpz

cos

.2.17

METHODOLOGY

Any engineering structure must be designed satisfactorily

and economically to ensure that under the worst loading

condition, the structure is safe and during normal working

condition, the deformation of any member does not detract

from the aesthetic, durability and performance of the

structure.

height H is

Pp

=

kpH2

cos

..2.18

(Craig, 2004)

10kN/m2

19kN/m2

24kN/m3

20o

Cohesion of soil

20kN/m3

1.5

4050

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CONCLUSION

According to the limit state design, cantilever retaining wall

must not collapse, suffer major damage or be subject to

unacceptable deformations in relation to its location and

function, suffer minor damage which would necessitate

excessive maintenance and tender it unsightly or reduce its

anticipated life.

The proper construction of the wall following the design

procedure will satisfactorily serve for the intended period.

Construction of retaining walls should be given to a wellqualified contractor, and should be well supervised to ensure

that the wall is constructed to standard. If appropriate

measures are taken and considered by professionals then a

well designed retaining wall could check erosion of soil,and

important nutrients meant for Agricultural production and

other residential, commercial ,highway structures.

5.2 RECOMMENDATION

During the design of the retaining wall, the following

recommendation can be made.

1. Further studies are recommended to compare erodibility

from different land uses; to know which land use can

ameliorate land degradation most.

2. Due design and construction of retaining Walls be

effected in flood prone area as appropriate to avert

erosion.

3.

4.

using computer languages like FORTRAN, PASCAL,

BASIC, and some other current languages.

Computer aided courses should be taken as a course

particularly in the civil engineering profession so as to

remove the complete ignorance of the computer

literacy.

REFERENCES

1. Cernica, J. N. (1995): Geotechnical engineering: Soil

mechanics, John Wiley

and Sons Inc. New York.

2. Chin, F. D., Faial, R. S. and Winchell, P. (2006):

Building Codes Illustrated: A guide to understanding

the 2006 International Building Code, NY: Wiley,

New York.

3. Craig R. F. (2004): Craigs Soil Mechanics, Seventh

Edition, Spon Press, London and New York.

International Building Code (2006): Section 1806.1.

Wikipedia.

4.

Agric. Eng. Vol. 25: 131-136. And 181-182

Cohesive Sediment Deposits. J. hydr Eng. ASCE,

111(10): 1308-1326.

6. Henan, W.C. and Monnier L.D, (1984): Susceptibility of

Agricultural Soils to interrill erosion. Soil science

society of America Journal 48, 1152-1157.

7. Julian, P. and Torres, R. 2006: Hydraulic Erosion of

Cohesive River Bank. Geomorphology. 76:193206[Doi]

8. Kukal, S and M. Kaur. (2003): Effect on land use on soil

aggregation as an index of soil Erosion in Submontane

Pansab. Indian journal of Soil Conservation 31: 310312

4051

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relationships in soil, journal ASCE, 108(GT6), 85172.

10. Murthy, V. N. S. (2003): Geotechnical Engineering:

Principles and practices of soil mechanics and

foundation engineering, Marcel Dekker, Inc.

New

York.

11. Ram C. and Virendra G. (2004): Elements of limit

state design of concrete structures, Pawan Kumar

Scientific Publishers, India.

12. Sinha, S. N. (2002): Reinforced concrete design, Tata

McGraw-Hill Publishing

Company, New York.

13. Terzaghi, K. (1943): Theoretical soil mechanics, John

Wiley and Sons Inc. New

York.

14. Venkatramaiah, C. (2006): Geotechnical Engineering

Revised Third

15. Sharma, B and K. S. Bhatia. (2003): correlation of soil

physical properties with soil erodibility. Indian Journal

of Soil Conservation 31: 313-314.

16. Sheikh, A., Ruff S F, and Abt S.R. (1988): Erosion

Rate of Compacted Namontmorillonite soils. J

Geotech Eng. ASCE, 114(3): 296 -305

17. Singh, G. and Khera K.L. (2008): Effect of Land Use

on Soil Aggregation as

an Index of Soil Erosion

on Submontane Punjab. Indian journal of soil

conservation 31:310 -312

18. Singer, P.F. Blackard R.A and Janisky Y.B. (1998):

Aggregate Stability in the

Palouse

Region

of

Washington Effect of Landscape position, soil Sc. Soc.

Am J. 47, 1407-1412.

19. Swanson, N.P and Dedrick, P.A. (1965): A Rainfall

Simulator and Erodibility of Some Iowa Soils. Iowa St.

Coll J. Sci. 31: 347 - 348

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