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li{:i,(.li,t,l ,r)Ll t.Js{ af l:inglish

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ffitrfr}h# &Y,{3 UrW,

m?4&*&M

{1 husr

Yart

rrirust**}

For quostioils 1*s, rsd the text below and deicl wlrich answer
{A, $,
There is an exampl a1 the besinning (0).
Mark your answers on the oparate answer sheet.

s or

D) hest fils each gap.

Hxample:

0Atypoal Busual
0

A
s'

:
B '*

'..'.r:

classic
D

r s,'..'.

D standard

,i

Solar Prwer lor lndian Villages


ulab Devi ook$ lik a {i."...... rural woman lrom ltajasthan in north*we$t lnciia. ho can
neither read nor wrlte, but is (1) ."...... a successful pionoer in the ffiarefoot solar sngirreering
Project. a scheme (2, ........
availabriiity of soiar power {3}

to bring $olar power to llundreds of villages cross

nclia. Tho

,....... women from the arduous task of sealching for wood for fuel

and also reduces their {4} ......,, to unhealthy wood smoke.

oulab is her fanrily's $ole brsadwinner. Har jab as a solar engineer {} ...",,,. making electronic
circuit and rihatger$ for solar lghtins panels, ancl she and lrer family are blo to live comfrtably
on lrer salary.

Most of the engineers in tlre scheme are wfisrl, and arc trajned at the Barefoot college
{$) ,....,.. by social v,:orker Bunker ltoy. His {T\ .,...... is to addr$$ prob}lem$ by building on sl<ills
tha't people a,ready hav6, and then place the solutions to their problems in their own hltds.

rarly {8} ,.....,. ar tht the project is hvng a powerful impact on the live$ of women like Gulab.

'l A

futthormore

besides

t)

rrlvoilhrle;;

'A k

de*ided

inspired

d)

:roposerl

' &

ea**s

ffi

lraas

li6hieni;

i)

appearanaa

liabiliiy

exposurc

ffi

$ih.rali{)fi

# A

demands

implie

conoerns

t3

inicrlves

6 A

setdown

sey'n

set u:

$el aflicla

7 A

pursuit

ainr

deterffnati0n

ry

tenclenoy

S A

signals

hints

suggestions

indicatior'rs

{3

rilkJi r :iiiiv0ly
\lr)6irJi1it(l

'list

!lc*lur,4 dut:i

L.)${

of lingislt

Wr***

War*k
-16, reat|. thg text belov! and think of ths word whch be$t fii$ *a*11 $a, Ule only
cne worcl in *ach gap. fhere is an exantple at the beginning (S)'
Hor quentir:ns

WriLe your answors

gven in $apitals at ths oncj cf snrne n{ th*


For r.ue*tion* 1'*Q4, readlh@text bplow ljse the wrd
is an exampl$ ai th* besillnin$ (*]"
tinc t0 lorm e worcl that fiis in th0 gap in the *ame line.'rhere

$heet'
write your ail$wers lN *qEYALL*rTr;* 0$ thft ssl)*ffite a$ur$r

l OAplT,{L LllYTffi{S on tllo *eprate an*wor sheet.

ffxar*pl*t

Samels in the Arctic?

Ane You HaPPY lllhere You Work?


[jlncling a job you love is the first step to being happy at work, but (0]

....'..' the right workplace

gnvronmont i oqully imporl;lnt. creativiiy, hard worl( and bright idsas come (9) ........ positive,

hfippy workirl(; environments in (10) .,.,.... people are allowed tire freedonr to think, develop and
oxrross thclmsolve. lt'S imporl"arrt for evoryone

to have (11) ..."....own clearly-defned work

paco, even if tho wori<placo aclopts an 'open plan'style, a so many offices now {12}

"......

l?elsxation aroas whoro poople moot to chat and discuss ideas dLrring office hours are regarded
(13)

..,..., :articulally benefhial.

Camels are woll known for their {0}

""""

to survive the heat of tho

desert; however, sdentists have unearlhecl the fossilised romains


of a giant caniel that (1?| ..."." tho forest of the High Arcfic

HABIT

more than throe million yers ago, Tho ancieni tleast was almost
modern
three metres in t1S) .'..'.'. , about a third brigger than its

filr.l

animal were f<und


{19) ...,,... , the Arabian canrel. tlemains oJ the
'the
on Blesmore lsiand, the most norlherly and {20} "" "' island of

*SS$HN
M$UNTAIN

Canadian Arctic archiPelago'

Addin0 plarlts to the worl(ing environment can also (14) ........ office$ to lifo, since they increso

oxygen levels, pr-rrify tlre air and can create a calming and more productive environmant.
Finrrlly, the lightins; {15}

......." be rght, becaue it can have a huge effect on people's moods'

lf offices arc too harshly lit, {lii} ........ can result in atrger and headaohes and lefid to a lack of
0onenlrati011.

(21) ...,.... lrom previous expediiir:ns have shown that the camsl's

rNm

is
ancestors (22r ......,. in North America 45 million years ago, but tlris

(}Ftt0lN

tho firsi evidonce of camels so far nortlr' r\ccording

io Mike Buckley'

aresearchorwh<lstuclie<jthelalestrontains,thisancestor()fmo<jerr]

"""" that
for
helped t ilrvivo in harsh climates-- the lrump for f*\ l2'4| """"

camels may already have developed some of tha l2|

big
instance, the large flat feet ideal for eithor snow or sand, ancl the
oyes that perhaps holped when long, dark winters made visibiliiy :roor'

\)

h*Al:t"{
$T$HX

']'es

1:i.ttrtt/ixt,

V{trt

2fl

4.

For qiji'$tiofi 2#*4, am)lat/ the secnnc! sefllence


lhat il ha a i\ilar r1\*a(,int tho firt
ssiltene, usiirg tho word given. ** n** *hang* *te
w*rd siv?il1, y$u rru$t 1,se hotwson thro
an<j *ix vtt.>rds, k:cluding ths word gtven. t-1re i|
ert e.y.aple

ll vtas arah's ideas that euabled ufi to pilt on

trtl llx: ul 1;,tglisl't

a suco{:}ss{i.ll fash:ort slrow.

flo&
ide$.,.''rev'JoLltl

{).

ti'i itavr'; be$ri

abl)

ic pui fi a gr.lrlr::e$slltl

Hxatnslu:

James wouki only speak to the head f deparlment


aone,

$t{

ffy

farclv'/{3ll parly.

*xttrpTl0N

James

..

. .

...

.,

...

,.

Hveryonointhstreet.......,..,,..

". to the heacl of depaitment lone.

The gap can be filled wiih the worcls ,insiste<j on speaking,,


so you write:

hxar]lpte: i 0 ] I INS|STEDONTTAKJNG
L-._iL._*_
write oilly th missing words

Loo was tho only person in the $treet who didn't oorno

r$t

30

....tomyfarewollparty.

The concert shduld have starled aboL thres hour$ ago.


plSH

^""""_*

c,AprrAL LTTflH$ on rhe sqparte nswr shset.

The

concert

aboutthree hour

a{,1()

Yotlr book$ will be despatched on rocopt of your order provi<ied


they are in siock.

s00N

26

We will despatch your books


stock.

......,......... theorder provided they are in

Because the gym increased its fees last month,

am no longer a memher.

up
lithe

7i7

gym

its fes last

ffont,

I woulcl

siill b a memher

The driver said that we were rierayed because an arrir trn


hcl broken down.

AUS
Accordng to the driver, our

breakdown of an earlier train.

1,1

.d

irr

R}

s
4

Rttiittt; ant.l l.ir' r'l :tt:alish

*,

Wart #
Yat"s

arq {}ai*t} to raad an arl.it:ls abc,ul tho fLrturc of new*pap*ru.

&"
W

for questi$ns S1-, ch*e*ethe

an*ru*r (1t", fri, * or ) which yoil think 'iiis b**t accordn1to the iext.
Mark yoiu'illrlwors on th* separ**te &t\*w*r 6heet.

Thm

ffir*tuE^ffi

*
*

l0

A
S

,.]ourttalisrn s a fuli-timo trade fronl 'nhich you rxxrld lrope to mske a living harclly existecl boforB tho lgth
century. von then, Ilter vr'as no obv,ous ruason r#hy most poople treeclecJ news n a regular basis, whether
daily or weol<ly. ln srre ,espect$, re,ulrity of new$paper pulrlicalion ancl rigiciity of format was, and
remains, t burrjon. Orline news rordsrs {:an dip irl an ollt accorcling to how they perceive the urgncy
of evenlsi. lncreas;ingly eophislicatc,d $earch rrnlrines and lgorlthrTls allow us to pbrsonalise the nei,vs t
out own :riorities and irlterQsls. \4rhen irnpod]nt stories broai(, internei now$ proviciers ca|1 post minutehy-nlinufe [pdates. lrrrror, nlilr.iorl0option *ncl laolish $pecultion can b{} coircctecl or moi,ifieci almost
-l'horo
inntantlv,
are no $ptco restridto,xi k provcnt narratire or analyais, ancl <Jccumente or *vents cited
in nevr$ $ioriss cafi often be rccesod in hrll. All lhi:; ia a vrnl'lc1 arvay frc,rr"r the straitjacket of newsp*por
yet
fev,- il any provdsl$ saet11 t\liva to ths now mocliurr'B capilciry for spreacilng unclorstan<1ing
l)ilblioatior").
finrl 0nlqh10n,fint,

ln$tod, tho anxiety j$ alwsy$ lo bo frsi with the new, to rraximise roader com*'tont, to creat6 hat.
rouild and fury incl thu$ acJcl to tha cierlije of 0onfusion^ Jn the mediovl world, whi news there was wa
u$ually oxchanllod )micl the hablrlo of tho mfirketplaoe or the lavern, where truth cotrpetc)d with rumour,
nrishearing nd miunderstrrding. lil $o1$ r6pocts, it is to thai world that r,e seeir to be returning.
Newspa::trts lltlvo nevor boon very g0od - or not as goocl as they ueJht to ho * at tefling us how ie
worlcl work$. porhaps ihey now faoe extinotion. Or perhaps, as the internet nlereiy adcls to wiiat cte Bolton
riesoritros as otlr seno lhai we live ir'r 'an unimprovahio and funciamentally chaoilc universo,, ihoy will
di$cover that thoy arrd thoy aloile can guicle us to wisclom and uncJerstanclng.'

hie intorpret*tion ol 6 ourrent trend.


e\kleca ll\mt $ilf;ports a \'tidepr*ed vi$u)'

*n the frJilro *f prtr:*iatsr*alixr*'


raa***.*for the clocline in newspaper t'eaclor$hip'

*iv; err*dit;tjt>n

ono$'
HxistinS rfiadi&ar* not necsarilyreplaoel by new
The bost modia teohnoiogie$ tenci to-be ihe rnt long-lasting'
Public erlthu$ia$m for new type'of rfioclia is often unpredictat'le'

nlti$in0vitableth*tmostmediatechnologieswillhavealimitedlife,
$Whichphraseinthesecondparu$aphhasthesamomoaningas'helditsowngainst'

Y0l one of tlie few reliable tact of ilist()ry is that old rfledia have a hahit of suruiving. An over-exuberanl New
Yori( lournalist alrnoLtncecl in 1 fl35 thet books and theaile 'have hacl tlroir clay' and iho daily newspperwoulcl
ho0orno 'th rctest orgn of $ooifll life'. Thoatre duly wlh$toocj nol only the nowspaper, but also cinemB
',ttld tltn tolovisioil. ltadio hts flourished ir1 the l'V ago: cinema, in tllrn. has held its own ]gainst videos and
DVDs. ven vinyl recordsi lrave macie a ccnreback, with online sales up 745 percent sincs 2008,

Newsparers tlrensolve$ wsrs once nor,v r:todia, tlhorrgh it iook sevoral centurios boforo they became the
ciominant rnoclium for rrews. lhis wa$ not sololy Llecause prclucing up-to-dale ne\r's for farge readership
ovel a wida i:lrea hoc,iwe practiable ancj ecor]omicj only it the md-19th century, wltlr tho stoarn pres.
the r&ilway nci the telrjfJrapii. Ec.lually lmpoant was the emerger)co of ihe icloa that everything around
us i it1 Oonstlr]t movon'roni anrl we noed to bo updated on its condition at rcgular iiltervals * E concept
quito alin in rnoclie,al lilTles ,ind prabably also ts most people in the eatiy modern era. Novu, we expecl
changg. To r:ur rrlp:clioval nlrrestr$, hovover, the nnly rcalities were tho pasing f tho soason, punctutecl
by oal$tnphos sur:h as farnine, flood or disoase ihrt they lrad no reliable means of anticipating. l"fe, a
the w1el Alain de iSolton pllte il, \,a$ 'inelotftbly oyclioal' ancl 'lho most imporiant truths were reurring',

firsl arulila?h, th6 writor is Brosani'n$J

Whaf psitll is the writer rfiaktr\$i* the second pqrnrepY\?

ffif ffimwmpmperm

AnyiJody who sayri they can rerii;ri:lly fE'60ae1 the fldu,e of newspaiers is either a liar ot a fool. Lool( al
the raw filJUIe$, and rlelw$pspers secm donrod^ Slrce 2000, th circulation of most UK national dailies
has lallon by hotwen a thircl and a half. The authoritat;ve Perv Research Centr'e in the USA reports thal
rlowsFaper$ aro now the rrlrin sollrce of ne's for oniy 26 percent of US. oitizens as against 45 percont
in 200'1 . I"here i$ n,) holtalJe oi praphets who conficlentiy predict that the la$t printocl newspaper will be
safoly bLrriocl withi[ 15 years a1 most.

lhru

tn lhe

in line

l
ffi
*
S

10?

'lrad th*ir daY'


'withstood'
'flo*risired'
'made a cotr'Ieb*ck'

ati

64

ln th* third parSraph, the writer stre$es the sisnific*noe of

h
ffi
S

world'
a shift in people's attitLldes t$ward{' the out$ide
certain key 1gth-century advance in nrechanisatlon'
the challenge of news di$tribution in the pre-industrial ra'

nthecompelitinhelweellnewspaporsanclmoreestsblihedmedia.
3

What do6s the writer sugget

1s

the main advaniage of oirline new$ site?

the flexibiliiy 0f the mediLtm

thoaccuracyofth*rep0rting
the ease of access lor thoir u$er

th* broadth ofthoir potental rodor$hip

6 Wlrat does the wriior su$g{rsl bLll new$pepers in th* final BafigraPb?

A
ffi

Thy
They
They
Thoy

$till heve an important 1016 to play.


can no longer compie with the int*rnoi'
will have to chanso to l<eep up wiih the diital age'
will retain a level of popularity among certain type of reador'

lr.

trd
l<t'"ultitt:,tt,i

Fart6

thn oilco,

tlas a difFcront opinion


xhiirts?

fom n the valtr$ of sinC diitfil rnedia

shat0$ B's vk.aw oil thj further benefit of rru6tln$ oxhibiling


0ther c()ilntrie?

Mirrk your answers <)t].ths separulo nswer sh4X.

Lo pro.rert

oi:]*i;tl frcnl

ha$ djftrent opinion from A abut th $ucoe$ o local museurrs?

lWuseums
A

1::st!rslt

\lVhith mus*utlx *irer)tsY

Yr:u itre goin io read extracts lrarn laur sticle* ffi whch mu**unr dircclrsr$ gi\ ht\s viaws on
il1tr$esrfl$. For que$tion$ *?*40, choose frcnr the extracts A*l3."l.lt* mil$um djircctors rnay be
0h0$Gr1 1re

of

Siat$ts how thi museums are gong from $trength to stength in terns f visito numbors, whicli is an
errcouraging ign n our oomputor-obsessed $o0ie1y. Online access increasingly rules hw ws appaoah
infoffiatoil iody, nd musunrs have to engage with this to 1ay rolovant. That said, a picture on a screen
cannot replac matelial enggement wilh an object. Unfortunatsly, many ppl frtill have rather outciated
idea of what muoums ar lik, inluclin believing that they are high-brow institutions med at som
iniernalional elitet whlch is cloarly n longer the se, particularly with the smaller on, With effort, a
mueurY] oan bo the hearl f a communiiy, presenr'ing the stres which are impofiant to those who lve
rieari)y, and I know of many sLtch l]1rsoums all ver the country whch are thrivng.

has dil{orent opiilion lrom th other$ about how woll llluseurrl crt{}r for all
Ievels of society?

13 It is intgresiig that people who do not think twice about visting a musLm lrihelt on

hlaiay very rarely


sei foot ir| oi'le th ret of th* tirno, but this is nothirg to d wiU'] a failure to acco]modalo a vricle range of
people - ,nuunl$ defhiilrly rio that nov/adays, I think lt is more tl'tat, when we are entrencheci in oui. daly
routine, rrlrums are not lrigh on or.r lisi of pdovilieS. Breaking out of that routlne ivs you the oppollunity
t clo difforsnt thirlgs, ailong them things lil{e v$itinU ]u$eums. parl of the appeal of museum, f course,
io the chanoe to view objocta fronr around the world arrd ge1 a taste of anoiher oulture. Although ihor6 are
rigorou oxport cntrol$ stpping objet3 ol natnsl $ignifiaftc b6in0 sold abroacl, thanks to the intornot
rrusetlm$ an o-opente to arranEe reciprocal loa$ for $p4cial exhibition.

{3

Museunrs ale clafly koen to capitalise on tho ,:rossfjilities oford by tha itlternet, affj it is a valuable tol
for extonding acces. Exhrbitins can remain on view on our \^/ebsite indefinitely after a physical shw h
Ileen dlmantled, and people have the opportunity to exarnine fascinating artefacts ancl works of aft from all
corners of fhe gfolre in muoh greater detail than 'they oan in tho gallery. The only downside of the increasng
expeotation of oniine access that I can see, is thal provitlcil fiusutfls ose out lo the large natonls, as
tl-reir more iimited resources mean they oalnot hp{, to compet. I am convinccd that this $ what i$ behnd
heir fllling vslor nurbers, i.'lavins saicl that, oli a ationaf love, moie pooplo foel that museufi$ aro
relevan1 lo everyone , Iather than ju$t a fielsct fe,,v, and this has learly made a difforeilce.
I wuld love to thnk thai people come thi'ugh the dor of insttutions such as mino becaus3 thoy want
op(, rt fl1oir m;nds t nev,/ thin$, but, urhll thlt may b truo of a iW i kow tht the majority are visitors

to
t

tho oi4/ who are inclurling one or two musoilms ifi their ilinerary n ordor to ad.l varity, Having sd thi,
I realy hope that they leave with a wish to corxe bck, r to try other musrlums. I als think lhre i$ still
a ong way to go torms of winning, over visi.lr$ from les$ privilegod llackground, ln this So f fas1,
changing, user-friendly dgtal iohnology, many people fel intimidled by the rafher clry, academio way
in which many till display thoi oxhilits, Wo aro now working a groat cleal more with oversoas rnuseumsi
and, n addiiion to allowing us to costantly chango the items we have ori disply, we have found thal this
encourages m$seums, and oven government, to engage in dlalogue.

Readng and

'I'est 6

A liut thzrt';r ntrtr all it cLtl rlo l{cversr: h# })}:gecs


**d it. .cirll 0ool I homc il: snl'nnrer' 1f Lhe
uuluttrl is rrrlcl crtrrtglr, il {irrl)lv ;s'rtlr< the
h"t {,,,,,, insi<lc thr: l:ttilclirru irlstrt'1 tl Ionl

trarNY
You irrg goinc tr: reacl il nwgazin* arltcls abeuL ways cf reu*itrg escaped h*ai, $ix P*teraflh
Irave bcen romovecl fr^om th e article. Choose from the par*graphn A-* ths ono which fil$ e*sh Sap
(41*46)."lhore is on$ extrfl p*r*qr*plt which yctu do nst need io us#.
Mark your anrlwer on tho $sparat6 fin$wer she*t'

iitc gttr*nd'

fley mf Feat

situntion

ffscaped heat costs us tnoney a nd atfeets or clfiate, hlsea Wald


ropo(ts on a grand plan to capture t and put it to good ue.

sorrrrr{r's sl1orver,

I141 rI
IIi

r\s it

llrr;;r:l.lrring iI rvorrlill't .j*st bctrr:lil rtr rtall*t.s.

I{:

ha.ppem, therq i 1tn cxisring tnchnologY

flrom the

'ourrd,

- "*-**1
I

ft sas also cstirnatj thar 1iwr lh


txrhrxrluJir:s,

crrllgr,, altJrouh thatlr

ollln tllk ll.xrnt

r':asir':r

sairl

Lhr: ruarrtit.v

of

sirys

l)nvir) lr'lirc;i(a1; <Jricl sr:icntifir: ari,isc to thc [.jI(


1)irttrilrrrort ol llncrqr, rrrl Llin:alc Changr:, 'hul
[ol ll1(]l (l[i)liL); N{osl ol'r'hrtr h,e think l 'warte
lriltr' isLll ar:tualL-v lll lfrat lxri; abr:rt,tL sixt.v llctr:ettl is

lxrlor, 230''(]. \\:lli.lc tlt*l nrAt, srurd rlrtty lurt,. il


too rxlld 1o tLrnl ir tu|inc tel go:crate elcm ir:ity.

-''*"

t
l*sl
t"-".-"_._1.--._-_

_."".^

is
']
I

'l"lore. lrrjldius tap inlo []e s)'stem to warnr tltcir

watcr srpl)lies

or nil iirr r:entral hcatin.

lvl.arrv

r:ouxrics alr: entxrur*gilrg slrdr r::gen<r'alion. as il:


is r:alled. A l..l initiative. lbr ex*rn:1e, rnight save

40

'['he medranisril fur tl]i$ is siurrl+. ;\ rclrvork of


piles makes a cirvui[ berrveen thc irsiclc o[ the

t.lrtl rkrxl.'We

wasrc hcat.i

ltt'tl fiom *ingl*'

illicul ProPlrsition.

retlr:rk of pipes to neari:y cities'

drtellhrg; ;rnrJ r;;oil buriecl unclergronncl. These


pipes il$ntilirl a *t.ix a{ v'a.tv,t'ard fluid t:elt:i*:4rafi.1..

l'ight.

tc- rruld rcrJair ucarly lrlf of'that

rvato

tttttc stlccossf*l wa' o[: using thc h{l't is 1r)


rrtvc fhe heat rlirmdy ltt wlt:r: it is rxleded' A
numlrer r:f powcl plill llow do exilclJy *mt'
'llev r:at'tult sc'n.: tlr alt "I t1tir wslr llet
*
a
auc{'rn,,,i il - as slcitttt or hol h'aler L-rrr1lr

that. nr:rlitr:rs hanr.llc el:tri<;it.,v irnd rvntcr. Cirrld


thc)'iroin( Lhc \va),to lllc I)cx{ cr}er8y rr:volltlintlT

-,r--'"r142\
l_-_11

tfian ihe

fr .k

invfirlol' Rober' !V0bl:er tealised he cou.ltl invcl


1r) exrra{, lteat:

l:larngsi;

cn(;enllrtqd sr:rtr'ces lilie polvrr Ilailfii' Whati


rnctrtr, itis harciy wafrrnol*lll tr;t ltrelil: it$ oalrle'
Rcdzrirrring thal rvtlril<t bt: an .tll<tge\"htn' ma:e

r:lrr

thc rcrrigemtion proces

,t.s thr: ffuid mixture rravels through llre pipsr


lrurierl r:nrlergnruncl, it .tbsot'lls the l:e*r, tran *t<t
IfJ'C soil.
i
t

"l'his s,vsrcrn is
xrwerful e ntrngl: ti elf:<:i.erttl.y
,:rovide l:t:irt evc in
lliace, as cold a.s Norrvay anr.i
Alaskri. Ir is also r:hr:ap, Scierrtists an:urd tJe t'orld
ale nou working rn thc itlea tht rhe ivy ahead
is tr: develop ciLy-vjde $rids usilg sourcc-lttztl
pu,nps [o rccltJe waste trn a granr.lcr scalc, Iironr
sn:rccs such as subrr,ays and seivcrs,

l:rnlc$'

(rJn)r)ire(l rvjl.h rht'"lluat lost


()\vcv(rr' \i:sl(
ofl iL:cs, r,,rr I rt'llirlt:s :rird rr'r ils' l-l
heat lrcun f]:qstl mvriacl rltlrces is rrtttr;h harder

ll(*1; pulnps hars bcnr helring home*rvrrom


savu on he:rting li.lls sincc t:he 1940s, whe* [i$

of thr: rlirrrrairr1;'[]rrts orr lltr:


r:lillarc,'l hc H()11 n.t'$ ir tlrirl. ss:vlr*l ciiles hirvil
f'ouilrl ;r r,i.r,lu llrrrlt drlwn ilr{)ir.-(ullllus henl iJt
sorne rrne;\pcct0{l ltlatrs.'i"ltr:sl r:Lirs arr btikling
syst(rms llrlr dclivi'r ilca irr rlt.tclt lhc sautc \\ay
rvorrlrJ revclsc sLrlne

dle . oceall

fion rtlr

sip'hor:r *nergy lirorri such tolnpeMlltl?s,


altlrough cp!.ving il on * lzrrge sclc r captu
rrastc hcal is as yet nitachiertl:lq. Clround source
t,har

crth.er indusrialisecl qotrntiieii i$

* \ht. even this i .iu$i a dtup in

ro

*-"-1

in

sirnilir'

rhe country $10 l:illion per,vear:^Attd cr:gJenet'*lio*


allqrvn pilrvt: rlatrts tu lrt.l)llp up l:heir eflici*rlci
fron tlrilry- pelcerlf o ainto$t r]in(}tv perceltt"

l)c:rtl irr t:lto luttuels o{' L,on<lolis untlolground


l'ililrvltl,, iis ir rnnn-t,arounrJ tlte s'or1ti, it's so hot
It; r:iru l'rxll lcry ttncoufirl;ahler. Arrd lc1 il lhcr
llnscrttt:ttt nf a building onh,a f'cu'rrtlrrrs trl{it)'
lrr)tlt t.110 stat;ior a boilcr is [irin to Ir(:il{: \Y*lcl lbr

av *l.|t.r\:jYe pro;)osilio{I' A t*vr|' iil 2A*


lrun*l th.:*t the in+.|g"t lost as leirt e*ch yent'
Lr US iurlrslt ccrtrlletl thc' ;ntnttal encigy
is
use o['fitc ni]lion citizcrts l'trtcr listleraliotr
a mrritrr crllrrit: tltc llcrt lo't fIirln ll)al s(:clor
otirne'<t*r.f, rhc tot'i'l crrcrgv usc 'r[.Japan I.]re
lt.',s

l"i*

'fllre syrit.*m lakes zirlvart;agrl ci:

r:{ fiuglistt

lhc illt

t1t

ferri:era*: tt:grr:rt* -' rcg;arellcu tl' slrrlrrr


:lie:
tr:rrrTr"rnllrrc -" n li:ro ,'*etl'e* unck:rgrtrtrrrl'."lrrql
soil il lwrys r:nr;ri ris lit ksrvnrltl a rl<1 slalrlr':'' I

in

llr;il {?)1r4i\rcll i'( J'1I'';rlrrl''


Irrlnr)s (:.llI tl il1r:
to hcrt a llrrrrsc il h(: \\irllcll

While rlris is *ot wh:rt: you rri-ritt colsitlc hr:"


it norlelhele$ r:ues lhe lk1uid tr: e!p{-rl'ato
tlt:
irl.() r (r. \\'lrcl tllis )las I ii-cltirrci llll<:l< irrto
llicl)
buil<lirliu, it is.fcci thruirgit il rrlrrc\srr:
,r.rl* lnicnsifics tle llcat.'l hai Jtc'rl ':rr thct' be
1va{cr
uset hy a hcat exchanger rrt lvlrt}l 1lp hol
or air ducf;
r'lltt
G Ilathcr th:'rn sf.ewillg in rhal r':xrs-* heal
if we cnnlrl rnalcc it ltr:rk frrr r:si' 'l'lrruahot'tt:
ciur elnergY systelr - [trrrn elccuir:itl goneratiort
i, yNrrter]plalts m fowcring er - lllt)rc thtil
fift;, pcrcenr: of tlx-l o)lelgy we rse lcaks into ffic
su

rtorr rtdi ngs.

)!t
,tl;:

I
t

llt;,t,1:t:,utt.l

?rt 8
Yu ari, ong

$eclions may be cho$en lnoro than

h{ark yaur answer*

** th* sfsarets efiswst

;,;,'

r,l iitt/i:;/t

Yirme #ut
It

to road an artixle iltottlth* value af br{)dom. Ft)r questiofis 4T*#, chooso


frcnr flrg
-fh*

$ctions (4"").

{1nc8.

Ut
,i,.:i'

sh*t"

W,1ich ssotisn
point$ out a drlwback in failing to allow time for mundane
roflection?

commerlts 0n a poronl experience of uing a particular psychological technique?


coml'nents on the broad appeal that a particular notion might potoniially have?
sugge$t that boredom as a way of dealing v/ith a problem

not a fiw idea?

W)
W:

W{:
i;

refer$ to the communicalion of n erroneous message?

l-
tll

rofers to an aotivity indicative of modern life taking place n variou$ locations?

outlines a po$;tive consequence of distancing oneself from technology?


explains that a partioular finding supportec.l existing knowledge?
remark$ on the significance of monotony in the clevelopn:fft f the
irunran species?

7*

fion$idor rjy public plce \nh*iti) Pe/:)Pie \ttl*d \a


enjy a $pt t tilon1 6onlornplaiion - frn1 l"ain
caffiges and boauty spots to our lcal $tre6t and the96 ciays yu'll {iee people plugelerj into
thoir seducUve Qleelonic sourb of cor'lstilnt
timulation, All this inffinlation overloacl rieems
lil(e a terrbly *rodern-day problom. But oe unique
thinker actully stumbled oll a neal $oution evoral
decades ago: radial boredon. ln 1942, a Germarl
wter called $iefrfried Karcauer wrote despai'ingly
of th massive ovor-stmulation of the lldern city
wh6re people listenng to the radio wee ir'l a tflte

ol'pon]lanent receptivily, constantly

prognnt

t
r...-._,I

with Londo'r, the lffel fow*r, l}rlin.' l"ls arl$lver


wa$ 10 slrggest a :erlod of total withdrawal frorfl
stimulation - to cut our$elve off and experience
'oxtraotdinary radical boredom'. On a sunny
aftcrnon whfl overyone i9 outside, one would
do best to hang abut the lrain station,' he vrrcto.

r*-l

'Or bettor ye1, stay at llome, clraw lhe our[airl$ and


surrencler oneself to one' borodom n the sof.'

WT:
-*t

distin,uishes hetweon rrere reflection aird conscious avoidance of


mental stimulati<n?

seetrA. tht embracn) bra(lom and atlawn{S eursel/t}s to cltft away t:t.tL.tid

W:

W:)
W::
sffi:1

Karsauer i)elievocl thai actively pur$uing bordonl


it'r thi$ way was a valualle nreans of unlol(ing
playful wild ideas far away fior plaln reality and,
bctter still, achieve 'a kind of bli$ that is almost
unearthly'. lt' a beautful theory and one {hat
wuld definitely hold an allure lor many people,
mighl
Plus modern reserl'l suggosts thai
ctually have a sound psychologlcal bas, To iest
the potental poBjtive of borodo11, psycholctgist
Dr $andi Manl] asl(ed gloup of 40 p6opk to
task desgnod to howcrie iheir
cor]lplts

it

creaiivity, But befro thy

gt tarted on il,

to perlorm a suitolrly dull


from the tolepholla
task - copyin nufllbers -fhe
dala po]trl to
diretory for 'l rniniltes.
subgrLlp wa$ akecl

th6 grup that had prvously 6ndured

boredori'l

displaying nrore oreative flair durillg tho iasi( tharr


ihe ontrol group' AcoordiJ t pycholo0i$ts ihi$
is normal, becauso wlten poope brecome borocl
and sta* to daydream, their minds come up with
dffreni proceses and they wodt out lrore creative
solutions to Problem.

}s<t

1t:rxl {or

**

'Ihi* wilci :tti:)#r:t!;i petp*, llt l b'y' l)vtit"


$tirnulriliil(, rr i}tinlJ, \te'r, t\ol juut rnaking
nlore 5lrcsriad, we'i al$ mi$$ii1!, 1,1
on chance to unhok orlr tlloughi$ from th{, claly
grifid and think moro croiii,rr,)ly. l"'lzlvln srid thfll,
psyohobgists al$o point oLlt tht dospito it$ i3d
rputation, boredorn ha$ a defillite ovolutoil4ry
purpose. lv4ann say$ 'Without i1, vr{;'d be lik#
toclcllers in a prpetual state of arflazonill, '1$t
im)!:jIre it: "liow '' lool( at l:hal fantaiic oeroal at
the bottonr of n1y bowll" ll may l,4 very riiimulatins,
but wo'd 'rever get anyihing dono.' That puts ile
in mincl of aclult6 who are ac.ldicted to $ociai media
ancl smarl phones - atleniion-seekin, sollrryirlf,J
around {he internet $croaming 'l,ook at thi$l Look
lt theml Lok at rnel' whilc the real \uojd beyond
the electroni d()vics continues o{1 utroubl0d
iiC Lrlexarninod. Ment\/hile, a Mann points oili.
we're irloorreolly lorchir]g or a0tLll lodc]ler6 ihai
horeclom an<J lack of stirnLllation is lorllothing io ho
rrrchros

feared raiJ]or than embraceci.

f)
So how clo yu learn io tac{ioally embrce poriod$
of raclical boredorfl? The first $tep ls realising that
this is diffetent florrl simply ial(in tirre to pondor
whal yor.r've cione sitlce gettino tlp tirat morning.
'Usint boreclom positively i5 aboul creating new
opportunities s/[en your mi,]cl in'i o{loupierl and
'fhis
you carl't foorts rn ani,thing else,' says Mann.
or
wnciow
out
the
staring
as
illtple
c0ulci be a$
vratching lhe rlirr oorile clr:wn Or hodirl{.] otf for
a $liiary v,/rlk with no fixod ck+s;tnation in ntind,
or voLr snlart pholle ill your r:nket, Alr)4hrt tht
give6 yur !11ind th Ial$ cllanco to (lIift ol1 iiti
rnoorin,cls. 'l cr1 teally re0il1'lalld t,' iraryii MilIr,
'lt's a great exporiefloe * lil(s 1al(il1g a holiclay lrorn
your hrairr.' l'n clefin:teiy $olt . l'm tl'ying to kep rlly
phone trn{ic1 off riuring thc weellslld ncj &liow
filysol{ the ocld, drcamy \Nallr:vt ofi' the sofa diiln(J
tho week, timo penitting, nd tne best thinrJ: il
v,/orks. Afier lal(ing a blek and llowing nty mind
io roam, ii return$ r(}flesheci and revtali7-od, with a
fresh tal(e n the challonges that I faoo durin0 lh{,
clay. When my daughter gets 10 al1 agc

reacly to vthine

io sayl

\nihff

ilho',

'l'm borcd', l'll knov'i exaotly wllill

--*

\'Yritirg

[ (:st t)

W$qTg\*ffi

P*rl*

(1 hr:ur 3f) minutes)


Part

W*t.e an ans\/or t() ane af t.ho quesf i*ns 9r4


an'apprsptiala glYlo.

y$ttt 'l)trsvrar in '***bfi* rrords

Your class has hatj a discussion about tho imporlance o{ storles far young childron, You have

you havo bnon studying at your internutional collogo for a yo*r, The Principal of the colloge
su$ge}ting
Iras askerj yu to wriia a ropo* about the stucly resourcos offerld to *tudenf$,
year'
ways in which tlloe reoilrce could be Improvecf for noxt

nrade lhe notes belowl

Write your

Yr:u m;st answor thi$ queslion. Write your answer itr Xk**26 worele in

i lhi* p&rl' Write

Ways in which *torles for yonng


ar"e

at

approprlatu

*yl*.

chil*ren

rnpor?ant:

d entertainmfit
q eclucatiort
q social values

rsp0*.

of the hglidav for


You have recently been olr afi ctivty holidy aild decicle t0 write a rcview
$valurt* t0 whrt
nd
hoiicley,
ativity
the
fiariicqlal
travel magazine. ln your review, cle*cribe
io try this
extent it niet your oxpectations ancl whethcr you would encourage othor leoPl{,

kind of holid*Y.

$ome opinions oxpressed in the


cliscussion:

"$tories are furi""


"$tories develop children'$ voca
"Children find out the dlfference
between right and wrong."

Wriie an essay for your luior discussing two of the ways in which siories for young children
are imporlant from your note$. You shor.ld explain which wayyou think i* more imtlortant,
providing reasons for your opiniotr.
You may, if you wislr, rnake Lrse of the opinions expressed in the discussion, but yor.r should
use yor r own vvords as lar as possible.

itr

Write your ra#err.


whee $tff aro
The company you work for is con$iderin the idea of a flexilrle working day,
your department has asked
of
Tlro
managor
time.
finlshing
and
tirir
$tarting
to
vary
able
you to write a proposl oxplaining why introduoirrg a flexible working dey would benefit both
ih, *orprny uncl its employees, You should also suggest how a flexible working day cot-tld
0perate in your own department.
Write yr:ur ProPosal.

e
'1't::;i: {i

ffi-f ffibXfffi

{aBer*v.kn*t.*ly 4* mirr ut**)


?art1

You will hoar thrce differet extrut$'

lgv:*;l
Ycru hear t,vta Sseassle discussing
1l1f4lvatn,

televi$irl

protr'1r11i'i

How doe$ tho w:nran {lol about ths prc$rilnlrlir)'1

For que$ti$ns 1*S, choose the arrswer (4, or


re two que$tions for each extract.

t)

which fits be*t according to what you hear' l-h(,re

A surprisecJ bY its c()nolil$ion'


S conlused bY the Pproch it took
C disappointecj bythe lacl< of explanation
What do theY aglee afrout muic?

You hear a sporlsman and a businesswoman cliscussing the isuc of being competitive.

l\

lt has unexpeeted benefits,

'1

B
C

lts effect n intelligenoe are of'vioLl$'

How does the man feel about the book he's read on competitivene?

surprised that it contradicts a well-establishod theory

l3

cr.nfusecl by the vuido ranga o1 svidence it quotes

unsuie abcut certan aspects of its argument

Tlie woman feels that in the busiiles$ worlrl, prioritising $ompetitivene$ leads 1o

a demoiivatiilg elfect on th workforce.

ffi

a con$tant drivo toward$ greater productivity'

an obsessiorr with short-term goals.

*xlt*''ryvt
Yu hoar lwo friend$ discusng some researcl int tho impct f coloor n me'flory
They both say that

re$taurarlts use clever tactics 10 attlaot new ou$tmer$.

l3

the research method$ usecl seem vaiid'

ths same colours can affect peoplo in different ways.

The woman feels that th teenager's findings

coul<i prove significant in the

longterm'

13 neeci the backing of the scientifc tblishment'

coi-rfirm irritial evirlence about the way menlory l viwed

lt'$ irxportafit to tuciy it$ psychological

tLr)lil

;ic ilrid lht ei*ct

ii

has on

l,i,iti,nit{
l-tt

ls

F*r*

Wr$*.

who has hoen t th6'k0p10al island


Yo* will hear a raclio repr-rrl hy the joLrrn*list Susie $iubbs'
[:or que*tions ?-14, complote tha
vanilia'
callod
flavouring
tho
about
fir"rcl
out
to
8unir:n
c*f
phra$6'
$orltsnoes with a worcl l $hod

$usie eays that. clesrite ils cost, varrilia is the world's mot

(7)

""""

r"-aualw ^ arstalking about thoir wor!(. ror qil$tion$


tits hest aceardlng to what you h*ar'

spice'

on a local
TIre vanilla plant i$ originllly fronr Moxico, whore it clepends

{S}...".,"""""

foritsexistence'

A
*
0
n

16

Roconfly the varrilla harvest has [:een affectsd by

...,..".'.'...'

These rlays ihe vanilla plants are covorecl hy {11}


Sornetimes there are (12t ,

..',"...,'...'

ancl this impaat$ on

ihe price'

t7

for protection'

"""""'

in the vanilla seed pods to show which

farm they c0me from'

..

The Lcxes ued to $tore the pocls are wrappod in (14)

briefly before being packed in boxe

fincling sultabl imgs 1o accompany adisies


trying to locate intoruiewes
eipressing lrsrself coherently within atight word limit
workin to domanding time contraints

What is ii aboui their wrk that Angus and Yolnda boih enjoy?
ihe varietyhf the proiects thoy get involvad in
tho challenge of reporting news effectively
ihe opportunity to meet intresting people
the appeal of searching out nformation

A
B
C
n

prinl versions is tha'i thoy


ln Angus,s opinion, the advantage of onlino newspapers over

A
B
C
il

can keep tlp with ovents as they devolop'


allow interaciion bY readers.
rsach a far wder Public.

What fiiade getting a iob in iournalism so hard for Angu?


the extont of competition for posts
a low levei of encor"tragment from others
a lacl< of previous professional experience
the ctifficulty of establishing u$eful contact

1$

the professinrt is
Yoland believes ihat the essentill requirenretrt for a iourntini entering
persuasively.
urrite
t*
an ability
13 a. clear and logical mind.
a reourcelul nd confidsllt charactr'

to keoP the heat in,

A
B
C
S
A

*
S

,0

tlH

are able t cover a grealel rnge of topic'

1B

-fhe vanilla pocls are sun-dried and then

(1$)., .,

ts*r*'

of her job?
ln Yolanda's opinion, wht is the mo$t challnging aspect

suio$ilystheterm(9}.,'....'.'.,....isusedtotalkaboutvanillaplants0ntheisland"

(10)

* callecl Angus ilr{1lryn rncl Yolanrjn


clrno*e thr+ an*w*r &,w, * ar *l whi*'h

journeli$t$
Y*u will lroar a racilo intorviow in wlrich two y$un$

15

Vanillc

a mastory of interviewirrg techniques'

Angu'$ recommendation for aspiring journali$t$ i$ to


cultlvate an interet in a specific field.
seize overy opportunity to expres themslve in writing'
toncontrato on devoloping a d$tnct siyl6.
become a keen observer of life around them'

A
B

'.i*

I t:st (t

\{tr)rl *t't},

r-

q
-

,fi

.(:

{L
-ff

d)

-
{)

;5

5L>o
--io
*6

a
7,

,r

o!

-o
rc

al

13

0l

fr

r3

s
$

{l)

t:

()

's,
"e
i\l

(\]

_u]

t> 5q

F
q6
!,- 6t

\c
{/r *-!
: l\
d 6
FU^

-c

o
o

"

o
u
a

oo

o*
a
cq
Jv

IDYX
-Y
0c

6
HE

:J

o"
f
c'
Lr

r$

-o

"i

a:

$
1:

ux

()(g

o
l*

t
6\7

too)

z
o

()

q!

Xi h

**

1{
FIr

O0

vLdl

for boLrl one minute. lt is important to list$n caiofully to tho interlocutor's in$trLrtions. he
interlocutor then asks your parlner a qu6$tion about yollr rictr.rres and yoLrr partnor 'ospondB
bliefly.
You are then given another sot of picturcs to look at. \'our parfner talks about these pictures {or
abut one minute. Thistmo tho interlooutor asks you a question allout yoLil parlner's pictures
and yor] respoild brief,y.

o o".8
rnl
a6 c "gta
,e
f
5to
'i5
o

fa

r;

ri

r---'l

i;"1
lN,{
ruI t";-r
til
I {' j-Il$:'i i.t
t
t--'--l tt
l-n**1
r-l
lt
tt IItt
r_l
,I l1
rJ
L-l

o
h

{1)

{d

rd

{d
0)

ar)

()

o
f).
$

"

0
a

{s

x.

T-t*'---t

lsl

Part 3 (4 minute)

tt

L"- J

ln this part of ths to$t, you and your parlner are asked to talk togethe[ The interlocutor places
a quest[on and somo txt prompt$ on the toble botween you. This stimuus provides the basis
'l"he
for a discussiolr, after which you will need io make a deci$ion or.r the topc in question.

o
x,

$
q

.l

,:cLa)

u*

u,

intorloculor explains what you havo io do.

t/)

Yart4 (5 minutes)

()-

The lnlerlocutor acks sr"ne further questiorrs, which leadsi io a{r1aro gancral cliscr]ssior of thr
topic yol have dsu$sed n Part 3. You may cmrnnt oi1 your partrler's u]$iters if you wish,

o
3
(rl
(

e[g'aU
ph'*-.6[

kicojiE'Ea
og-0.sJo*

#8;iEEEH
i; I .
H g
f
5 ;e 3
Eii .g

s,
!d
P
0
i
or
s
6
E
p
I
{to0u''

arL 2 (a ons-minule 'long turn' for each candidate, plu$ a 3O-sct:ond resllon$e frri1
the socond candidate)
You are each given the opportunity to talk lor aboul a rninute, and 10 corrrrnent briefly aller your
pdner ha$ $poken.
Tlra interlocuior gives you a set of three pictures and a$ks you io ia,( about t\./o of the rn

0)

H4ffi
J

oa=

*.

l1 fi'u
d0

()

0
f
(
()

gB

9t)
an

d)

q)

o"

,l)
"o

>

F$

o
.g
a
o
$

C)

_
"o
-.#
Hig

al)
xtu
o

5o

(l
o"

-!!

.s
i3

()

.C
al

The interlocutor fir$i a$ks you and your parlner for son']e nforrnalion about yoLrrselvs, thorl
widens the spe oi tho questions by asking about e,g. your le isure rctivities, stdic.:,, travel
and daily lifo. You arsexpected to respond to the interlocu[or's questror]$ and lisieil to uihat your
partner ha t say.

0)

o
(J

i:

Part 1 {2 minut6$)

0)i

.t--j

(l
v
$
r
ft

.()

*xL
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