Heat and Mass transfer Bergman - solutions

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Heat and Mass transfer Bergman - solutions

© All Rights Reserved

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63

KNOWN: Dimensions and emissivity of a cell phone charger. Surface temperature when plugged in.

Temperature of air and surroundings. Convection heat transfer coefficient. Cost of electricity.

FIND: Daily cost of leaving the charger plugged in when not in use.

SCHEMATIC:

Tsur = 20C

Ts = 33C

= 0.92

qconv

50 mm

Air

T = 22C

h = 4.5 W/m2K

qrad

Eg

45 mm

20 mm

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Convection and radiation are from five exposed

surfaces of charger, (3) Large surroundings, (4) Negligible heat transfer from back of charger to wall

and outlet.

ANALYSIS: At steady-state, an energy balance on the charger gives E& in + E& g = 0 , where E& g

represents the conversion from electrical to thermal energy. The exposed area is A = (50 mm 45

mm) + 2(50 mm 20 mm) + 2(45 mm 20 mm) = 6050 mm2. Thus,

= 4.5 W / m 2 K(33C 22C) + 0.92 5.67 108 W/m 2 K 4 ( (306 K)4 (293 K)4 ) 6050 106 m 2

= 0.74 W

This is the total rate of electricity used while the charger is plugged in. The daily cost of electricity is

Cost = 0.74 W $0.18/kWh 1 kW/1000 W 24 h/day = $0.0032/day

<

COMMENTS: (1) The radiation and convection heat fluxes are 73 W/m2 and 50 W/m2, respectively.

Therefore, both modes of heat transfer are important. (2) The cost of leaving the charger plugged in

when not in use is small.

PROBLEM 2.6

KNOWN: Rod consisting of two materials with same lengths. Ratio of thermal conductivities.

FIND: Sketch temperature and heat flux distributions.

SCHEMATIC:

T1

T2

T1 < T2

0.5 L

properties, (3) No internal generation.

ANALYSIS: From Equation 2.19 for steady-state, one-dimensional conduction with constant

properties and no internal heat generation,

T

k

x x

qx

0

0 or

x

From these equations we know that heat flux is constant and the temperature gradient is inversely

proportional to k. Thus, with kA = 0.5kB, we can sketch the temperature and heat flux distributions as

shown below:

COMMENTS: (1) Note the discontinuity in the slope of the temperature distribution at x/L = 0.5.

The constant heat flux is in the negative x-direction. (2) A discontinuity in the temperature distribution

may occur at x/L = 0.5 due the joining of dissimilar materials. We shall address thermal contact

resistances in Chapter 3.

PROBLEM 2.13

KNOWN: Temperature distribution in solid cylinder and convection coefficient at cylinder surface.

FIND: Expressions for heat rate at cylinder surface and fluid temperature.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional, radial conduction, (2) Steady-state conditions, (3) Constant

properties.

ANALYSIS: The heat rate from Fouriers law for the radial (cylindrical) system has the form

q r kA r

dT

.

dr

2

Substituting for the temperature distribution, T(r) = a + br ,

q r k 2 rL 2br = -4 kbLr 2 .

At the outer surface ( r = ro), the conduction heat rate is

q r=ro 4kbLro2 .

<

q r=ro q conv h 2 ro L T ro T ,

Substituting for q r=r and solving for T,

o

T = T ro

2kbro

h

T = a + bro2

2 kbro

h

2k

T = a+bro ro .

h

<

PROBLEM 2.38

KNOWN: Cylindrical shell under steady-state conditions with no energy generation.

FIND: Under what conditions is a linear temperature distribution possible.

SCHEMATIC:

T(r)

T(r1)

T(r1)

r1

r2

T(r2)

T(r2)

r

r1

r2

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady state conditions. (2) One-dimensional conduction. (3) No internal

energy generation.

ANALYSIS: Under the stated conditions, the heat equation in cylindrical coordinates, Equation 2.26,

reduces to

d dT

kr

dr dr

If the temperature distribution is a linear function of r, then the temperature gradient is constant, and

this equation becomes

d

kr 0

dr

which implies kr = constant, or k ~ 1/r. The only way there could be a linear temperature distribution

in the cylindrical shell is if the thermal conductivity were to vary inversely with r.

<

COMMENTS: It is unlikely to encounter or even create a material for which k varies inversely with

the cylindrical radial coordinate r. Assuming linear temperature distributions in radial systems is

nearly always both fundamentally incorrect and physically implausible.

PROBLEM 2.51

KNOWN: Temperature distribution in a spherical shell.

FIND: Whether conditions are steady-state or transient. Manner in which heat flux and heat rate

vary with radius.

SCHEMATIC:

ANALYSIS: From Equation 2.29, the heat equation reduces to

1 2 T 1 T

.

r

r2 r r t

Substituting for T(r),

1 T

1 2 C1

r

0.

t

r2 r r2

<

From Equation 2.28, the radial component of the heat flux is

q r k

C

T

k 1.

r

r2

<

q r 4r 2 q r 4kC1.

Hence, qr is independent of r.

<

COMMENTS: The fact that qr is independent of r is consistent with the energy conservation

requirement. If qr is constant, the flux must vary inversely with the area perpendicular to the direction

2

of heat flow. Hence, q r varies inversely with r .

PROBLEM 3.15

KNOWN: Dimensions and materials associated with a composite wall (2.5m 6.5m, 10 studs each

2.5m high).

SCHEMATIC:

(surfaces normal to x are isothermal), (3) Constant properties, (4) Negligible contact resistance.

k B = 0.16 W/mK; Gypsum, k C = 0.17 W/mK; Insulation (glass fiber paper faced, 28 kg/m ),

k D = 0.038 W/mK.

ANALYSIS: Using the isothermal surface assumption, the thermal circuit associated with a single

unit (enclosed by dashed lines) of the wall is

=

( LA / k A A A )

0.008m

= 0.0524 K/W

0.094 W/m K ( 0.65m 2.5m )

=

( L B / k BA B )

0.13m

= 8.125 K/W

0.16 W/m K ( 0.04m 2.5m )

=

( LD /k D A D )

0.13m

= 2.243 K/W

0.038 W/m K ( 0.61m 2.5m )

=

( LC / k C A C )

0.012m

= 0.0434 K/W.

0.17 W/m K ( 0.65m 2.5m )

R eq =

(1/ R B + 1/ R D )

=

(1/ 8.125 + 1/ 2.243)

=

1.758 K/W

With 10 such units in parallel, the total wall resistance is

R tot =

10 1/ R tot,1

0.1854 K/W.

)1 =

COMMENTS: If surfaces parallel to the heat flow direction are assumed adiabatic, the thermal

circuit and the value of R tot will differ.

<

PROBLEM 3.73

KNOWN: Representation of the eye with a contact lens as a composite spherical system subjected to

convection processes at the boundaries.

FIND: (a) Thermal circuits with and without contact lens in place, (b) Heat loss from anterior

chamber for both cases, and (c) Implications of the heat loss calculations.

SCHEMATIC:

r1=10.2mm

k1=0.35 W/mK

r2=12.7mm

k2=0.80 W/mK

r3=16.5mm

2

T,i=37C

hi=12 W/m K

T,o=21C

ho=6 W/m K

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Eye is represented as 1/3 sphere, (3) Convection

coefficient, ho, unchanged with or without lens present, (4) Negligible contact resistance.

ANALYSIS: (a) Using Eqs. 3.9 and 3.41 to express the resistance terms, the thermal circuits are:

Without lens:

<

With lens:

<

(b) The heat losses for both cases can be determined as q = (T,i - T,o)/Rt, where Rt is the

thermal resistance from the above circuits.

Without lens: R t,wo

-3

6 W/m K4 12.7 10 m

-3

6W/m K4 16.5 10 m

1 1

1

3

With lens:

1 1

1

m

4 0.80 W/m K 12.7 16.5 103

3

Hence the heat loss rates from the anterior chamber are

Without lens: q wo 37 21 C/451.1 K/W=35.5mW

With lens:

q w 37 21 C/356.0 K/W=44.9mW

<

<

(c) The heat loss from the anterior chamber increases by approximately 20% when the contact

lens is in place, implying that the outer radius, r3, is less than the critical radius.

PROBLEM 3.94

KNOWN: Distribution of volumetric heating and surface conditions associated with a quartz

window.

FIND: Temperature distribution in the quartz.

SCHEMATIC:

Negligible radiation emission and convection at inner surface (x = 0) and negligible emission

from outer surface, (4) Constant properties.

ANALYSIS: The appropriate form of the heat equation for the quartz is obtained by

substituting the prescribed form of q into Eq. 3.44.

d 2T 1 qo - x

e

0

k

dx 2

Integrating,

1 qo e- x C

dT

1

dx

k

1 q e- x C x+C

o

k dT/dx) x=o qo

k dT/dx) x=L h T L T

Boundary Conditions:

1-

k

qo C1 q o

k

C1 qo / k

Hence, at x = 0:

At x = L:

1-

1-

k

qo e- L C1 h qoe- L C1L+C2 T

k

q

q L qo1- - L

C2 o 1 1 e- L o

e

T .

h

k

k

Hence,

T x

1 qo e- L e- x qo

k

L x

qo

h

1 1 e- L T . <

and . For or = 1, the heating occurs entirely at x = 0 (no volumetric heating).

PROBLEM 3.99

KNOWN: Dimensions and properties of tubular heater and external insulation. Internal and external

convection conditions. Maximum allowable tube temperature.

FIND: (a) Maximum allowable heater current for adiabatic outer surface, (3) Effect of internal

convection coefficient on heater temperature distribution, (c) Extent of heat loss at outer surface.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional, steady-state conditions, (2) Constant properties, (3) Uniform

heat generation, (4) Negligible radiation at outer surface, (5) Negligible contact resistance.

ANALYSIS: (a) From Eqs. 7 and 10, respectively, of Example 3.8, we know that

q& 2 r2 q& 2 2

r2 ln

r2 r1

2k

r1 4k

Ts,2 Ts,1 =

and

Ts,1 = T,1 +

(1)

(2)

2h1r1

Ts,2 T,1 =

& 22

qr

r

1

k

ln 2 1 r12 r22 +

1 r12 r22

2k r1 2

h1r1

)(

Hence, with Tmax corresponding to Ts,2, the maximum allowable value of q& is

1400 400

q& max =

= 8.084 106 W m3

4

1.237 10

with

q& =

I 2 Re

I2 e L A c

e I2

=

2

LA c

r 2 r 2

2 1

1/ 2

q&

e

= 0.035 0.025

6

3 1/ 2

2 8.084 10 W m

m

= 6406 A

0.7 10 m

<

Continued

(b) Using the one-dimensional, steady-state conduction model of IHT (hollow cylinder; convection at

inner surface and adiabatic outer surface), the following temperature distributions were obtained.

1500

Temperature, T(K)

1300

1100

900

700

500

300

0.025

0.027

0.029

0.031

0.033

0.035

Radius, r(m)

h = 100 W/m^2.K

h = 500 W/m^2.K

h = 1000 W/m^2.K

The results are consistent with key implications of Eqs. (1) and (2), namely that the value of h1 has no

effect on the temperature drop across the tube (Ts,2 - Ts,1 = 30 K, irrespective of h1), while Ts,1 decreases

with increasing h1. For h1 = 100, 500 and 1000 W/m2K, respectively, the ratio of the temperature drop

between the inner surface and the air to the temperature drop across the tube, (Ts,1 - T,1)/(Ts,2 - Ts,1),

decreases from 970/30 = 32.3 to 194/30 = 6.5 and 97/30 = 3.2. Because the outer surface is insulated, the

heat rate to the airflow is fixed by the value of q& and, irrespective of h1,

<

(c) Heat loss from the outer surface of the tube to the surroundings depends on the total thermal resistance

ln ( r3 r2 )

1

+

R tot =

2 Lk i

2 r3Lh 2

or, for a unit area on surface 2,

r ln ( r3 r2 )

r

+ 2

R tot,2 = ( 2 r2 L ) R tot = 2

ki

r3h 2

Again using the capabilities of IHT (hollow cylinder; convection at inner surface and heat transfer from

outer surface through R tot,2 ), the following temperature distributions were determined for the tube and

insulation.

1200

Insulation Temperature, T(K)

1200

1160

1120

1080

1040

1000

0.025

1100

1000

900

800

700

600

500

0.027

0.029

0.031

Radius, r(m)

delta =0.025 m

delta = 0.050 m

0.033

0.035

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

r3 = 0.060 m

r3 = 0.085 m

Continued...

Heat losses through the insulation, q ( r2 ) , are 4250 and 3890 W/m for = 25 and 50 mm, respectively,

with corresponding values of q ( r1 ) equal to -10,990 and -11,350 W/m. Comparing the tube temperature

distributions with those predicted for an adiabatic outer surface, it is evident that the losses reduce tube

wall temperatures predicted for the adiabatic surface and also shift the maximum temperature from r =

0.035 m to r 0.033 m. Although the tube outer and insulation inner surface temperatures, Ts,2 = T(r2),

increase with increasing insulation thickness, Fig. (c), the insulation outer surface temperature decreases.

COMMENTS: If the intent is to maximize heat transfer to the airflow, heat losses to the ambient should

be reduced by selecting an insulation material with a significantly smaller thermal conductivity.

PROBLEM 3.149

KNOWN: Diameter and internal fin configuration of copper tubes submerged in water. Tube wall

temperature and temperature and convection coefficient of gas flow through the tube.

FIND: Rate of heat transfer per tube length.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state, (2) One-dimensional fin conduction, (3) Constant properties, (4)

Negligible radiation, (5) Uniform convection coefficient, (6) Tube wall may be unfolded and represented

as a plane wall with four straight, rectangular fins, each with an adiabatic tip (since, by symmetry, there

can be no heat flow along the fins where they cross).

ANALYSIS: The rate of heat transfer per unit tube length is:

qt = o hAt Tg Ts

o = 1

NAf

(1 f

At

For an adiabatic fin tip,

q

M tanh mL

f = f =

q max h ( 2L 1) Tg Ts

M = [ h2 (1m + t ) k (1m t )]

1/ 2

mL = {[ h2 (1m + t )]

( Tg Ts ) 30 W

m K ( 2m ) 400 W m K 0.005m

2

30 W m 2 K ( 2m )

1/ 2

[ k (1m t )]} L

2

400 W m K 0.005m

1/ 2

( 400K ) = 4382W

1/ 2

0.025m = 0.137

4382W ( 0.136 )

595W

f =

=

= 0.992

30 W m 2 K 0.05m 2 ( 400K ) 600W

o = 1

0.20

0.337

(1 0.992 ) = 0.995

W/m2K (0.137 m)(400 K) = (2380 + 1644) W/m = 4024 W/m.

PROBLEM 4.53

KNOWN: Volumetric heat generation in a rectangular rod of uniform surface temperature.

FIND: (a) Temperature distribution in the rod, and (b) With boundary conditions unchanged, heat

generation rate causing the midpoint temperature to reach 600 K.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state, two-dimensional conduction, (2) Constant properties, (3) Uniform

volumetric heat generation.

ANALYSIS: (a) From symmetry it follows that six unknown temperatures must be determined. Since

all nodes are interior ones, the finite-difference equations may be obtained from Eq. 4.35 written in the

form

Ti = 1 4 Tneighbors + 1 4 ( q& ( xy ) k ) .

With q& ( xy ) 4k = 62.5 K, the system of finite-difference equations is

T1 = 0.25 ( Ts + T2 + T4 + Ts ) + 15.625

(1)

T2 = 0.25 ( Ts + T3 + T5 + T1 ) + 15.625

(2)

T3 = 0.25 ( Ts + T2 + T6 + T2 ) + 15.625

(3)

T4 = 0.25 ( T1 + T5 + T1 + Ts ) + 15.625

(4)

T5 = 0.25 ( T2 + T6 + T2 + T4 ) + 15.625

(5)

T6 = 0.25 ( T3 + T5 + T3 + T5 ) + 15.625

(6)

With Ts = 300 K, the set of equations was written directly into the IHT workspace and solved for the

nodal temperatures,

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6 (K)

348.6

368.9

374.6

362.4

390.2

398.0

<

(b) With the boundary conditions unchanged, the q& required for T6 = 600 K can be found using the same

set of equations in the IHT workspace, but with these changes: (1) replace the last term on the RHS

(15.625) of Eqs. (1-6) by q& (xy)/4k = (0.005 m)2 q& /420 W/mK = 3.125 10-7 q& and (2) set T6 =

600 K. The set of equations has 6 unknown, five nodal temperatures plus q& . Solving find

<

PROBLEM 4.61

KNOWN: Steady-state temperatures (C) associated with selected nodal points in a two-dimensional

system.

FIND: (a) Temperatures at nodes 1, 2 and 3, (b) Heat transfer rate per unit thickness from the system

surface to the fluid.

SCHEMATIC:

ANALYSIS: (a) Using the finite-difference equations for Nodes 1, 2 and 3:

Node 1, Interior node, Eq. 4.29: T1 =

T1 =

1

Tneighbors

4

1

(172.9 + 137.0 + 132.8 + 200.0 )o C = 160.7oC

4

<

1

Tm-1,n + Tm+1,n + 2Tm,n-1

4

1

o

T2 = (129.4 + 45.8 + 2 103.5 ) C = 95.6oC

4

T2 =

<

2hx

hx

2

+ 2 T3 = 2Tm-1,n + Tm,n+1 + Tm,n-1 +

T

k

k

1

10.66

(b) The heat rate per unit thickness from the surface to the fluid is determined from the sum of the

convection rates from each control volume surface.

qconv = qa + qb + qc + qd

T3 =

qi = hyi ( Ti T )

W 0.1

qconv = 50

m ( 45.8 30.0 ) C +

2

m K 2

0.1m ( 48.7 30.0 ) C +

0.1m ( 67.0 30.0 ) C +

0.1m

+

( 200.0 30.0 ) C

2

<

<

PROBLEM 5.22

KNOWN: Thickness and properties of furnace wall. Thermal resistance of film on surface

of wall exposed to furnace gases. Initial wall temperature.

FIND: (a) Time required for surface of wall to reach a prescribed temperature, (b)

Corresponding value of film surface temperature.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Constant properties, (2) Negligible film thermal capacitance, (3)

Negligible radiation.

3

ANALYSIS: The overall coefficient for heat transfer from the surface of the steel to the gas

is

1 1

U R tot R f

h

102 m 2 K/W

2

25 W/m K

20 W/m2 K.

Hence,

UL 20 W/m 2 K 0.01 m

0.0033

k

60 W/m K

and the lumped capacitance method can be used.

Bi

T T

exp t/ t exp t/RC exp Ut/ Lc

Ti T

7850 kg/m3 0.01 m 430 J/kg K 1200 1300

Lc T T

t

ln

ln

U

Ti T

300 1300

20 W/m 2 K

<

t 3886s 1.08h.

h T Ts,o Ts,o Ts,i / R f

Ts,o

hT Ts,i / R f

h 1/ R f

25 100 W/m 2 K

Ts,o 1220 K.

<

PROBLEM 5.59

KNOWN: Thickness, initial temperature and properties of plastic coating. Safe-to-touch

temperature. Convection coefficient and air temperature.

FIND: Time for surface to reach safe-to-touch temperature. Corresponding temperature at

plastic/wood interface.

SCHEMATIC:

Too = 25oC

h = 200 W/m 2-K

Air

x

L = 0.002 m

Plastic

Ti = 200oC

k = 0.250 W/m-K

= 1.20x10-7 m2/s

Wood

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction in coating, (2) Negligible radiation, (3) Constant

properties, (4) Negligible heat of reaction, (5) Negligible heat transfer across plastic/wood interface.

2

ANALYSIS: With Bi = hL/k = 200 W/m K 0.002m/0.25 W/mK = 1.6 > 0.1, the lumped

capacitance method may not be used. Applying the approximate solution of Eq. 5.43a, with C1 =

1.155 and 1 = 0.990 from Table 5.1,

42 25 C

T T

2

s s

Ti T 200 25 C

Hence, for x 1,

0.0971

2

Fo ln

/ 0.99 1.914

1.155cos 0.99

Fo L2 1.914 0.002m

t

63.8s

1.20 107 m 2 / s

2

<

<

COMMENTS: By neglecting conduction into the wood and radiation from the surface, the cooling

time is overpredicted and is therefore a conservative estimate. However, if energy generation due to

solidification of polymer were significant, the cooling time would be longer.

PROBLEM 5.73

KNOWN: Glass sphere diameter and bakelite shell thickness. Initial solid temperature, fluid

temperature, convection heat transfer coefficient, and heating time.

SCHEMATIC:

T = 10C,

h = 30 W/m2K

Soda lime

glass

Bakelite

D1 = 25 mm

Ti = 40C

L = 10 mm

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction, (2) Constant properties, (3) Negligible contact

resistance.

PROPERTIES: Table A.3, soda lime glass (T = 25C), = 2500 kg/m3, k = 1.4 W/mK, cp = 750

J/kgK. Table A.3, bakelite (T = 25C), = 1300 kg/m3, k = 1.4 W/mK, cp = 1465 J/kgK.

ANALYSIS: The thermal diffusivities of the bakelite and glass are

k

1.4 W/m K

735 109 m 2 /s

3

c p 1300 kg/m 1465 J/kg K

k

1.4 W/m K

747 109 m 2 /s

c p 2500 kg/m3750 J/kg K

Since ab g, it is reasonable to assign a uniform thermal diffusivity of = 740 10-9 m2/s to the

composite sphere. Since kb = kg and the thermal contact resistance between the glass and bakelite is

negligible, we may treat the composite sphere as a single sphere of diameter D = D1 + 2L = 25 mm +

20 mm = 45 mm with uniform properties. The Biot number for the single sphere is

Bi

h( D / 6) 30W/m 2 K (45 10 3 m / 6)

0.16

k

1.4 W/m K

Therefore the lumped capacitance approximation is not valid. The Fourier number is

Fo

t

740 109 m 2 /s 200s

0.291

( D / 2)2

(45 103 m / 2) 2

Since Fo > 0.2, the single term approximation is valid. From Table 5.1 with Bi = h(D/2)/k = 30

W/m2K (45 10-3 m/2)/1.4W/mK = 0.482, 1= 1.145, C1 = 1.139. Hence

o*

T T

C1exp( 1Fo) 1.139exp( 1.145 0.291) 0.817

Ti T

Continued

<

COMMENTS: (1) If the thermal diffusivities and thermal conductivities of the bakelite and soda

lime glass were of sufficiently different value, or the thermal contact resistance was not negligible, a

more detailed analytical or numerical solution would be required. (2) The Biot number used in

conjunction with Table 5.1 is based upon the sphere radius.

PROBLEM 5.78

KNOWN: Spheres of 40-mm diameter heated to a uniform temperature of 400C are suddenly

removed from an oven and placed in a forced-air bath operating at 25C with a convection coefficient

2

of 300 W/m K.

FIND: (a) Time the spheres must remain in the bath for 80% of the thermal energy to be removed,

and (b) Uniform temperature the spheres will reach when removed from the bath at this condition and

placed in a carton that prevents further heat loss.

SCHEMATIC:

Sphere, D = 40 mm

T(r,0) = Ti = 400oC

(, c, k)

Air bath

Too = 25oC

h = 300 W/m2-K

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional radial conduction in the spheres, (2) Constant properties, and

(3) No heat loss from sphere after removed from the bath and placed into the packing carton.

3

ANALYSIS: (a) From Eq. 5.55, the fraction of thermal energy removed during the time interval t =

to is

Q

1 3 o / 13 sin 1 1 cos 1

Qo

(1)

Bi hro / k 300 W / m 2 K 0.020 m /15 W / m K 0.40

and for the one-term series approximation, from Table 5.1,

1 1.0528 rad

C1 1.1164

(2)

o C1 exp 12 Fo

(3)

where Fo t o / ro2 . Substituting Eq. (3) into Eq. (1), solve for Fo and to.

Q

1 3 C1 exp 12Fo / 13 sin 1 1 cos 1

Qo

(4)

Fo 1.45

<

t o 98.6 s

(b) Performing an overall energy balance on the sphere during the interval of time to t ,

Ein Eout E Ef E i 0

(5)

Ei 1 0.8 Qo 1 0.8 cV Ti T

(6)

Ef cV Tavg T

(7)

cV Tavg T 1 0.8 Ti T 0

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