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The quadratic f ( x ) = ( x 0.3)( x 0.5) obviously has zeros at 0.3 and 0.5.

(a) Why is the interval [0.1, 0.6] not a satisfactory starting interval for

bisection?

Ans :

f(0.1) = 0.08 and f(0.6) = 0.03 f(0.1)*f(0.6) > 0

(b) If you start with [0, 0.32], which root is reached with bisection?

Left

Right

Result

0

0.16

0.32

0.32

0.24

0.28

0.32

0.32

f(0.24) * f(0.32) < 0

f(0.28) * f(0.32) < 0

f(0.30) * f(0.32) = 0

New

Iteration

0.16

0.24

1

2

0.28

0.30

3

4

Reach root 3.

(c) Using the interval in (b), how many iterations will be required to attain an

accuracy of 0.01 ?

Ans :

Version 1 :

Left

Right

Result

0

0.16

0.24

0.32

0.32

0.32

0.28

0.32

f(0.24) * f(0.32) < 0

f(0.28) * f(0.32) < 0

f(0.30) * f(0.32) = 0

Version 2 :

0.32 0.0

2n

0.01 n = 5

New

Iteration

0.16

0.24

0.28

1

2

3

0.30

2.

f ( xk )

x k +1 = x k

f ( x k )

(a) Please describe under what kind of conditions the algorithm does not

converge.

Ans :

1.

f ( x ) = 0

2.

f(x k + i ) = f(x k ) for some i > 0 (loop , see slide chap 1 page 19)

(b) Please show that Newtons method is also an example of the fixed point

method . (express Newtons method in the iteration scheme of the

fixed-point method)

Ans :

f ( xk )

x k +1 = g ( x k ) = x k

f ( x k )

3.

f (x ) = x 2 x 2 = 0

g1 ( x ) = x 2 2 ,

g 2 (x ) =

x+2 ,

g 3 ( x) = 1 +

2

,

x

x2 + 2

,

2x 1

Analyze the convergence properties of each of the corresponding fixed-point

g 4 ( x) =

Ans :

Converge if g i ( x) < 1 .

g1 ( x) = 2 x

g 2 ( x) =

1

2 x+2

g 3 ( x ) =

g 4 ( x) =

g1 (2) = 4 > 1

1

x2

2x 2 2x 4

(2 x 1)2

diverge.

g 2 (2) =

1

<1

4

converge.

g 3 ( 2) =

1

<1

4

converge.

g 4 (2) = 0 < 1

converge.

4.

Carry out one iteration of Newtons method applied to the system of nonlinear

equations with starting point x0 = [x0

y 0 ] = [1 2]

T

x + 2y 2

f ( x, y ) = 2

2

x + 4 y 4

Ans :

1 2

J ( x, y ) =

2 x 8 y

1

1 1 2

x1 = x0 + J ( x0 )( f ( x 0 )) = +

2 2 16

11

1 1 16 2 3 1 6

= +

= +

2 12 2 1 13 2 7

12

1

5.

3

13

5

6

=

17

12

A = LU

ATx = b

(LU) Tx = b

UTLTx = b

Q UT is a lower-triangular matrixand LT is a upper- triangular matrix

Let L1 = UTU1= LT

L1 U1x = b

First we get y = U1x from L1y = b by forward-substitution

then we get x from y = U1x by backward substitution.

6.

1 1 0

(a) det( 1 2 1 ) = 0

0 1 1

singular

1 0

1 0

1 1 0

1

1

1

1

(b) 1 2 1 (1) 1 1 (1)

0 1 1

(0) 1 1

(0) (1) 0

0 0

1

L = 1 1 0

0 1 1

1 1 0

U = 0 1 1

0 0 0

7.

n

j =1

j i

i = 1,2,,n

6 2 1

2

(b) Coefficient matrix is 2 7

1

2 5

8.

1

0

0 Qi Pi

1 Qi +1 Pi +1

=

0 Qi + 2 Pi + 2

3 Qi +3 Pi +3

0 0

0 0

3 0

0 3

replace it back

p(u) = u

= u

u2

2

3

1

0

u2

u1

u1

1

3

1

3

3

6

3

0

2

3

0

0

3

3

0

0

1

2

1

0

1 1

1 0

0 3

0 0

0

0

3

0

0

0

0

3

0 Qi

1 Q i +1

0 Q i + 2

3 Q i +3

1 Qi

0 Q i +1

0 Q i + 2

0 Qi+3

(c)

P0~3 = u 3

P3~ 6 = u 3

u2

u2

u1

1 3 3

3 6 3

1

3 3

0

0

0

1

1 10 10

0 50 15

= u3

0 75 60

0 90 100

u1

1 3 3

3 6 3

1

3 3

0

0

0

1

1 90

0 105

0 150

0 180

100

140

= u3

200

140

u2

u2

u1

u1

45

5

45 120

1

120 15

10

10

45 140

90

60

1

45

120

100

90

X = 5u 3 45u 2 + 120u + 10

P0~3 0~3

3

2

Y0~3 = 45u + 120u + 15u + 10

X = 45u 3 + 90u 2 + 45u + 90

P3~ 6 3~ 6

u [0 , 1]

3

2

Y

u

u

u

=

140

+

60

+

120

+

100

3~ 6

9.

X 3 X 5 a 0 + a1 x + a 2 x 2 + a3 x 3

10. X

+

=

3

5

1 + b1 x + b2 x 2 + b3 x 3

x 0 : a0 = 0

x1 : a1 = 1

x 2 : a 2 = b1

1

+ b2

x 3 : a3 =

3

1

x 4 : 0 = b3 b1

3

1 b

x5 : 0 = 2

5 3

b b

x6 : 0 = 1 3

5 3

3

5

b1 = b3 = 0

b2 =

a3 =

1 3 4

+ =

3 5 15

4 3

x

15

Pad approximation:

3

1+ x2

5

x+

0 0

2

0 1 0

2

det

1

0 0

2

0

...

...

0 ... ...

... 0

... 0

1

= ( ) n if n det 0

... 0

2

... 0

1

...

2 n*n

But it is nonsingular

(b) False.

(textbook p117)A small number means good conditioninga large one means

ill-conditioning(nearly singular).

(c) True.

Condition number = A A 1 .

cond(A) =

A A 1

A 1 A

= cond( A 1 )

(d) False.

(textbook p184) B-spline need not pass through any points of the set that are

used in its definition.

(e) True.

(textbook p170).cubic spline meets these conditions :

g i( xi +1 ) = g i +1( xi +1 ) C2 continuous.

(d) True

(e) False.

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