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1.

The quadratic f ( x ) = ( x 0.3)( x 0.5) obviously has zeros at 0.3 and 0.5.
(a) Why is the interval [0.1, 0.6] not a satisfactory starting interval for
bisection?
Ans :
f(0.1) = 0.08 and f(0.6) = 0.03 f(0.1)*f(0.6) > 0

(b) If you start with [0, 0.32], which root is reached with bisection?
Left

Right

Result

0
0.16

0.32
0.32

0.24
0.28

0.32
0.32

f(0.16) * f(0.32) < 0


f(0.24) * f(0.32) < 0
f(0.28) * f(0.32) < 0
f(0.30) * f(0.32) = 0

New

Iteration

0.16
0.24

1
2

0.28
0.30

3
4

Reach root 3.
(c) Using the interval in (b), how many iterations will be required to attain an
accuracy of 0.01 ?
Ans :
Version 1 :
Left

Right

Result

0
0.16
0.24

0.32
0.32
0.32

0.28

0.32

f(0.16) * f(0.32) < 0


f(0.24) * f(0.32) < 0
f(0.28) * f(0.32) < 0
f(0.30) * f(0.32) = 0

Version 2 :
0.32 0.0
2n

0.01 n = 5

New

Iteration

0.16
0.24
0.28

1
2
3

0.30

2.

The iteration scheme of Newtons method for root finding is


f ( xk )
x k +1 = x k
f ( x k )
(a) Please describe under what kind of conditions the algorithm does not
converge.
Ans :
1.
f ( x ) = 0
2.
f(x k + i ) = f(x k ) for some i > 0 (loop , see slide chap 1 page 19)
(b) Please show that Newtons method is also an example of the fixed point
method . (express Newtons method in the iteration scheme of the
fixed-point method)
Ans :
f ( xk )
x k +1 = g ( x k ) = x k
f ( x k )

3.

For the equation

f (x ) = x 2 x 2 = 0

Each of the following functions yields an equivalent fixed-point problem:


g1 ( x ) = x 2 2 ,
g 2 (x ) =

x+2 ,

g 3 ( x) = 1 +

2
,
x

x2 + 2
,
2x 1
Analyze the convergence properties of each of the corresponding fixed-point
g 4 ( x) =

iteration schemes for the root x = 2 by considering g i (2) .


Ans :
Converge if g i ( x) < 1 .

g1 ( x) = 2 x
g 2 ( x) =

1
2 x+2

g 3 ( x ) =

g 4 ( x) =

g1 (2) = 4 > 1

1
x2

2x 2 2x 4

(2 x 1)2

diverge.

g 2 (2) =

1
<1
4

converge.

g 3 ( 2) =

1
<1
4

converge.

g 4 (2) = 0 < 1

converge.

4.

Carry out one iteration of Newtons method applied to the system of nonlinear
equations with starting point x0 = [x0

y 0 ] = [1 2]
T

x + 2y 2
f ( x, y ) = 2

2
x + 4 y 4
Ans :
1 2
J ( x, y ) =

2 x 8 y
1

1 1 2
x1 = x0 + J ( x0 )( f ( x 0 )) = +

2 2 16
11
1 1 16 2 3 1 6
= +

= +
2 12 2 1 13 2 7
12
1

5.

3
13

5
6
=
17

12

A = LU
ATx = b
(LU) Tx = b
UTLTx = b
Q UT is a lower-triangular matrixand LT is a upper- triangular matrix
Let L1 = UTU1= LT
L1 U1x = b
First we get y = U1x from L1y = b by forward-substitution
then we get x from y = U1x by backward substitution.

6.

1 1 0
(a) det( 1 2 1 ) = 0
0 1 1
singular

1 0
1 0
1 1 0
1
1

1
1
(b) 1 2 1 (1) 1 1 (1)
0 1 1
(0) 1 1
(0) (1) 0
0 0
1

L = 1 1 0
0 1 1

1 1 0
U = 0 1 1
0 0 0

7.

(a) coefficient n*n matrix is diagonally dominant


n

aii > aij


j =1
j i

i = 1,2,,n

6 2 1
2
(b) Coefficient matrix is 2 7
1
2 5
8.

(a) From the condition we can find that

1
0

0 Qi Pi
1 Qi +1 Pi +1
=
0 Qi + 2 Pi + 2

3 Qi +3 Pi +3

0 0
0 0
3 0
0 3

replace it back

p(u) = u

= u

u2

2
3
1
0

u2

u1

u1

1
3
1
3

3
6
3
0

2
3
0
0
3
3
0
0

1
2
1
0

1 1
1 0
0 3

0 0

0
0
3
0

0
0
0
3

0 Qi
1 Q i +1
0 Q i + 2

3 Q i +3

1 Qi
0 Q i +1
0 Q i + 2

0 Qi+3

(b) No. Qi + 2 Qi +3 Qi + 4 need be collinear.

(c)

P0~3 = u 3

P3~ 6 = u 3

u2

u2

u1

1 3 3
3 6 3
1
3 3
0

0
0
1

1 10 10
0 50 15
= u3
0 75 60

0 90 100

u1

1 3 3
3 6 3
1
3 3
0

0
0
1

1 90
0 105
0 150

0 180

100
140
= u3

200

140

u2

u2

u1

u1

45
5
45 120

1
120 15

10
10

45 140
90
60
1
45
120

100
90

X = 5u 3 45u 2 + 120u + 10
P0~3 0~3
3
2
Y0~3 = 45u + 120u + 15u + 10
X = 45u 3 + 90u 2 + 45u + 90
P3~ 6 3~ 6
u [0 , 1]
3
2
Y
u
u
u
=

140
+
60
+
120
+
100
3~ 6

9.

X 3 X 5 a 0 + a1 x + a 2 x 2 + a3 x 3
10. X
+
=
3
5
1 + b1 x + b2 x 2 + b3 x 3
x 0 : a0 = 0
x1 : a1 = 1
x 2 : a 2 = b1
1
+ b2
x 3 : a3 =
3
1
x 4 : 0 = b3 b1
3
1 b
x5 : 0 = 2
5 3
b b
x6 : 0 = 1 3
5 3

11. (a) False.

3
5
b1 = b3 = 0
b2 =

a3 =

1 3 4
+ =
3 5 15

4 3
x
15
Pad approximation:
3
1+ x2
5
x+

0 0
2
0 1 0

2
det
1
0 0
2

0
...
...

0 ... ...

... 0

... 0

1
= ( ) n if n det 0

... 0
2

... 0
1
...

2 n*n

But it is nonsingular
(b) False.
(textbook p117)A small number means good conditioninga large one means
ill-conditioning(nearly singular).
(c) True.
Condition number = A A 1 .
cond(A) =

A A 1

A 1 A

= cond( A 1 )

(d) False.
(textbook p184) B-spline need not pass through any points of the set that are
used in its definition.
(e) True.
(textbook p170).cubic spline meets these conditions :

g i( xi +1 ) = g i +1( xi +1 ) C2 continuous.
(d) True

(e) False.

Almost linear parallel Small residual but big error of solution.