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Original Title: Turbine Disk Design

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D isk W heels

By I. M ALKIN,1 PHILADELPHIA, PA.

disk w heels to g e th e r w ith a discussion o f som e q u estio n s

concerning th e ir elastic resistan c e in various co n d itio n s

is offered in th e follow ing a rtic le . New so lu tio n s o f th e

pro b lem o f ro ta tin g disks are developed a n d th e ir ap p lica

tio n in disk design is show n by p ra c tic a l exam ples. T h e

re su ltin g m e th o d in designing tu rb in e disks is rep rese n ted

by a g eneral schem e w ith a sta n d a rd ta b le.

th e m athem atical th eo ry of elasticity. These results are ex

am ined in Appendix No. 1.

T he stresses in a tu rb in e disk are usually calculated for over

speed conditions. A n a tu ral question arising in design is th a t

concerning th e stresses in th e disk due to th e fit pressure when

th e wheel is a t re st; th e design having been calculated originally

for overspeed conditions. T his particu lar problem adm its of a

simple general solution, as will be shown, b y reducing th e condi

tions to those of a disk of constant thickness a t rest, th e behavior

of which is known. In th is w ay we easily find th a t th e profile

curve has practically no influence on th e stress distribution

u n d er static conditions; th e tangential as well as th e radial

stresses a t th e bore being about 60 and 40 per cent, respectively,

of th e tan g en tial stress a t th e bore in overspeed conditions.

T his result was checked on a system of disks of th e first exponen

tia l profile and graphically represented b y th e curves in Fig. 8.

These curves show th e change in th e radial and th e tangential

stresses a t th e bore corresponding to variations in th e ratio of

th e disk thickness a t th e bore to th a t a t th e rim , under static

conditions.

T he discussion tre atin g w ith th e stress distribution in a disk

a t rest is completed b y some general rem arks concerning th e

problem of th e stress variation w ith varying speed. T his is

in th e in terest of a b e tte r understanding of th e elastic behavior

of th e disk under various conditions occurring in practical

service.

T he last section of this contribution deals w ith th e influence

of a hub relief, such as shown in Fig. 9, upon th e stress distribu

tion in th e disk. T he solution of th is additional problem is

graphically represented in Figs. 9 to 14 and m ay be expressed

briefly as follows. In overspeed conditions no change of any

practical im portance is caused b y a h u b relief. U nder static

conditions, th e stresses w ithin th e disk are sm aller th a n in a

disk w ithout hub relief. Im m ediately a t th e bore th e stresses

undergo a certain modification, too, b u t th e strength, as defined

b y M ohrs theory, is no t affected.

I n t r o d u c t io n

actual problem of g reat im portance in steam -turbine

design, although m any m ethods for th e solution of th e

problem of rotating disks are known and used. T o be of prac

tical use in design and developm ent, a satisfactory solution of

the problems involved is expected to yield simple procedures

and practical standards and to reduce th e present cumbersome

methods of stress calculation to a minim um of m athem atical

work. To develop new solutions of this kind is th e m ain purpose

of th e present contribution.

B y introducing certain new profile curves into th e analytical

form of th e problem of ro tatin g disks, form ulas for th e stresses

are obtained, which are m uch simpler th a n those yielded by

any other analytical solution of th e problem. These curves are

suggested by certain conditions of integrability of linear differ

ential equations and are designated b y th e a u th o r as exponen

tial profiles. D ue to th e m athem atical properties of th e new

formulas th ey easily adm it of a simple and complete num erical

representation by m eans of a stan d ard tab le, w hich when once

calculated can be used in disk com putations for any special

given conditions. Such a table is presented in th is p aper for

disks of the first exponential profile. T his will be followed

in a later article by a similar tab le for th e still more im p o rtan t

second exponential profile. Exam ples of disks of th e new

profiles w ith th e corresponding stress distributions are given in

Figs. 3 to 6.

Taking into consideration th e varied wheel proportions

resulting from m odem blade dimensions, an additional investi

gation was necessary. This consisted of a revision of th e m athe

m atical fundam entals of disk design and a check of th eir validity

under th e new conditions. T he approxim ate theory of rotating

disks, developed by Stodola and used in this paper as in all

calculations in disk design thro u g h o u t th e technical literature,

T h e F ib s t E x p o n e n t ia l P r o f il e

form [37],5

was the winner of the prize medal of the Teclmische Hochschule

Berlin-Charlottenburg. His theoretical studies with Professor Dr.

Max Planck and Professor Dr. R. von Mises at the University of

Berlin were preceded by four years of practical work in mechanical

engineering with industrial companies. Dr. Malkin was connected

with the AEG-Turbinenfabrik, Berlin, in charge of research work

in elasticity, especially in disk vibrations, and with the Institute of

Applied Mathematics and Mechanics of Dr. R. von Mises at the

University of Berlin. Since January, 1932, he has been connected

with the Westinghouse Company, South Philadelphia Works.

Contributed by the Applied Mechanics Division and presented

at the Annual Meeting, New York, N. Y., December 4 to 8, 1933,

of T h e A m e r i c a n S o c ie t y or M e c h a n ic a l E n o i n e e b s .

N o t e : Statements and opinions advanced in papers are to b e

understood as individual expressions of their authors, and not those

of the Society.

a, th e angular velocity of th e ro tatin g disk given b y th e formula

30a = irn, n being th e num ber of revolutions per m inute; pi, the

specific mass of th e disk m aterial; r, th e radius; 2y, th e thick

ness of th e disk; an d u th e radial displacem ent. T he coefficients

of th e differential equation, nam ely

585

586

profile y = f(r) shall be introduced in using th e following pro

cedure suggested by elem entary m ethods of integration of linear

differential equations.3

B y integrating th e differential equation, term b y term , ac

cording to th e rules of p artia l integration we obtain

[37] is lowered if F 0 P i' + P 2" = 0, or

solution is

Its

positive values of th e constant /3 will be considered in studying

the first exponential profile, for reasons which will be indicated.

For th e profile [1] th e original differential E quation [37]

assumes th e form

or

<rr.6 W e may restrict ourselves to th e consideration of the

homogeneous equation, because th e particular integral corre

sponding to w2 is determ ined b y [3].

B y introducing our new profile [1] into E quation [4] and in

using z = ftr4/,J as a new independent variable, we have, because

of

th e differential equation

B y following th e m ethod indicated b y th eo ry ,5 we find th a t

th e last integral can be represented by an infinite series of the

form

functions of a complex variable, th a t th e domain of convergency

of th is series is determ ined by th a t point (singular point) nearest

to z = 0, for which th e coefficient of dV r/dz2 in [5] vanishes.

This coefficient being z2, th e radius of convergency will be equal

to <s; th e Series [6] will converge for any finite value of z =

Indeed; b y introducing Series [6] into E quation [5] we

find

In considering th e reduced equation

T his shows th a t our Series [6] converges faster th a n th a t for

th e exponential function e', th e ratio an/a n - \ in th e la tte r

case being equal to

and p u ttin g tem porarily C = 0 we find one of th e tw o integrals

of th e reduced E q uation [37]. T h is first integral is easily

found to be

As th e series for el converges in th e entire complex plane, o u r

Series [6] converges even faster. From [7] we obtain b y intro

ducing n = 1, 2, 3, 4, . . . . ,

D being again a constant of integration.

T he p articu lar integral corresponding to th e term w ith u 2 in

original E q uation [37] can now be determ ined b y variation of

th e constant D occurring in th e la st integral. If v is assumed

to be equal to 1/3, th e p articu lar integral appears in a finite

form , nam ely

In using E quations [36]4 we find th e corresponding expressions

for th e stresses. T he la st integral corresponding to th e constant

C, om itted before, can be determ ined as follows.5

C onsider th e homogeneous differential equation

In su b stitu tin g th is series into E quation [35] we find th e expres

sion

schweig, 1912, p. 101.

4 See Appendix No. 2.

6 A. R. Forsyth, Differential Equations, German edition,

Braunschweig, 1912, p. 573.

for at, which is, accordingly, given by

6 See Appendix No. 2.

APM-56-8

APPLIED MECHANICS

u in E quations [36] we find th e corresponding integrals for

the stresses a r and a t, and in using those integrals as well as

expressions [8 ] and [9] we o btain th e complete solution in the

form

587

(3) F or these tw o values of z th e corresponding values of the

functions f(z), g{z), <p i ( z ) , >2 (2 ), <h(z), ^ 2 (2 ) are to be tak en from

th e stan d ard ta b le and introduced into formulas [1 2 ].

(4) From th e tw o b o undary conditions, o> = 0 (or a , = p0,

where p0 is a com paratively sm all am ount; see example in the

following section) a t th e bore (r = ra), and a r r a,a, w here a,a

is a given am ount following from th e centrifugal forces of the

blading for r = a, E quations [12] yield th e corresponding

values of th e constants K and L.

(5) W ith these values of th e constants K and L th e stresses

o> and at can be calculated easily for any point 2 by using E q ua

tions [1 2 ] and th e stan d ard tab le .

the boundary conditions, wrhile A is given by

The functions /(z), g(z), <p i ( z ) , >2(2), ^ 1(2 ), ^ 2(2 ) can be calcu

lated once for all and p u t together into a stan d ard tab le to

be used in practical design. Such a standard table is given

in the next section and is followed by a detailed example of disk

calculations.

General P

rocedure

:n D

e s ig n in g

x p o n e n t ia l

is k s o f t h e

ir s t

r o f il e

follows: For a disk of th e profile

the radial stress o> and the tangential stress at can be represented

by the formulas

covers a detailed example of disk design.

F inally it should be noted th a t, for practical purposes, it is

of some advantage to introduce r 2 = z3^ 0 ~ /* into th e term s

A r2/(z) and A r 2g(z) in E quations [12]. These term s then appear

in th e form A 13 s/ 2F(z) and A t3 3^!G(z), respectively, where

F and G are functions of z only. The stresses, [12], then are

independent of r, being functions of z, of 8 determ ined by [14],

and of th e constants K and L (boundary conditions).

P

being constants determ ined by two conditions concerning the

boundary stresses (see operation 4). T he functions f{z), g(z),

<pi(z)i >2( 2 ) , 'P1 ( 2 ) , tote) finally follow from th e stan d ard table.

The general procedure will consist of th e following operations

(see Fig. 1):

(1) From the values of r, a and ha, which usually are given

in practical design, and h0, which has to be assumed and varied,

the constant 0 is to be calculated according to [14].

(2) W ith the constant /3 th e values of z a t th e bore and a t

r a c t ic a l

xam ple

of

is k

e sig n

ir st

x p o n e n t ia l

r o f il e

last section, a practical example of disk design which involves

solving a problem characterized by th e following d ata:

A disk is to be calculated for r0 = 6.75 in., a = 18.75 in.,

th e w idth a t th e rim , determ ined b y th e dimensions of the

blading, being b = 2ha = 4 in., while th e working speed is

n = 3600 rpm and th e pull exerted b y th e centrifugal forces

of th e blading a t 20 per cent overspeed is a, = 13,000 lb per

sq in. for r a.

588

ST A N D A R D T A BLE FO R D ISK S OF T H E F IR S T E X P O N E N T IA L

PR O FIL E

z

0

0.01

0.02

0 .0 3

0 .0 4

0 .0 5

0 .0 6

0 .0 7

0 .0 8

0 .0 9

0.10

0.11

0.12

0 .1 3

0 .1 4

0 .1 5

0 .1 6

0 .1 7

0 .1 8

0 .1 9

0.20

0.21

0.22

0 .2 3

0.24

0 .2 5

0 .2 6

0 .2 7

0 .2 8

0 .2 9

0 .3 0

0 .3 1

0 .3 2

0 .3 3

0 .3 4

0 .3 5

0 .3 6

0 .3 7

0 .3 8

0 .3 9

0 .4 0

0 .4 1

0 .4 2

0 .4 3

0 .4 4

0 .4 5

0 .4 6

0 .4 7

0 .4 8

0 .4 9

0 .5 0

0 .5 1

0 .5 2

0 .5 3

0 .5 4

0 .5 5

0 .5 6

0 .5 7

0 .5 8

0 .5 9

0 .6 0

0 .6 1

0 .6 2

0 .6 3

0 .6 4

0 .6 5

0.66

0 .6 7

0.68

0 .6 9

0 .7 0

0 .7 5

0 .8 0

0 .8 5

0 .9 0

0 .9 5

1.00

1.05

1.10

1.15

1.20

1.25

1.30

1.35

1.40

1.45

1.50

1.55

1.60

1 .7 0

1.80

1.90

2.00

2.10

2.20

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

2 .5 0

/(*)

----- CO

CO

5939100.0000

728550.0000

215255.5555

89775.0000

45420.0000

25961.1111

. 16139.6426

.

10668.7500

7389.7119

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52140.0000

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572.0000

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4 6 8 .2058

425.8751

389.0549

356.6661

109.9346

96.3863

84.5894

74.1617

65.2436

5 7 .3038

50.3008

4 4 .1100

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3 3 .7500

328.0398

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279.9977

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9 .4 6 1 6

7 .6 4 2 0

163.6137

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137.9965

130.7818

124.1178

117.9529

112.2390

106.9335

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1.0000

1.0000

989.8500

346.2690

186.4090

119.6920

84.6203

6 3 .5 7 9 0

9 .8007

440.2156

3 3 .2304

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1016.7878

365.5067

202.2745

133.5710

97.1567

7 5 .1387

60.6103

50.4292

42.9563

37.2783

1.0080

1.0161

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9 .0 5 2 9

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1.0964

1.1025

1.1086

1.1147

9(e)

102.0000

CD

_ 2 3 .8659

20.6139

17.9790

15.8100

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12.4686

11.1609

10.0334

^ 2(2)

1.1011

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2.4 9 4 7

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2 .0 5 6 0

1.8580

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9 .5 3 1 8

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7 .6 4 0 8

7 .4 6 9 4

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1.2947

1.3053

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1.1720

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1.1920

1.1987

1.2055

1.2123

1.2192

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1.2332

1.2403

1.2474

1.0331

0.8 9 4 6

0.7 6 3 3

0.6 3 8 4

0.5 1 9 5

0.4 0 6 2

0.2 9 7 9

0.1 9 4 4

0 .0 9 5 2

7 .3 0 8 4

7 .1 5 7 2

7 .0 1 4 7

6 .8 8 0 6

6 .7 5 3 9

6 .6 3 4 3

6.5 2 1 4

6 .4 1 4 7

6 .3 1 3 6

6 .2 1 7 7

1.3933

1.4048

1.4163

1.4280

1.4397

1.4516

1.4635

1.4756

1.4877

1.5000

1.2545

1.2617

1.2690

1.2763

1.2837

1.2911

1.2986

1.3061

1.3137

1.3214

0.1 7 9 4

0 .2 6 4 2

0.3 4 5 9

0 .4 2 4 9

0.5013

0.5753

0.6469

0.7 1 6 5

6.1 2 9 9

6.0 4 0 7

5.9 5 8 8

5.8 8 1 2

5.8 0 7 4

5.7371

5.6703

5 .6 0 6 8

5.5 4 6 4

1.5124

1.5249

1.5374

1.5502

1.5630

1.5759

1.5889

1.6021

1.6153

1.3291

1.3368

1.3447

1.3526

1.3605

1.3685

1.3766

1.3847

1.3929

7.4 3 5 6

6 .7 6 2 3

6.1 6 1 7

5.6221

5.1361

4 .6 9 5 8

4 .2 9 4 9

3 .9 2 9 4

3.5 9 4 1

3.2861

0.0000

+ 0.0 9 1 5

10.2120

6.0000

4.5 1 6 2

3.1 7 4 5

1.9606

0.8611

0.1353

1.0388

1.8582

2.6 0 1 6

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97.4031

93.1146

89.1087

8 5 .3600

81.8481

78.5528

75.4575

72.5473

69.8056

3.8888

4.4 4 1 9

4.9 4 9 6

5.4 0 7 4

5.8 2 2 8

6.1 9 9 4

6.5407

6 .8 4 9 6

7.1292

7.3836

7.6 0 9 4

67.2225

64.7836

62.4800

60.2517

58.2398

56.2857

54.4327

5 2 .6740

51.0019

4 9 .4088

47.9007

0.7 8 4 1

0.8 4 9 9

0.9 1 3 9

0.9763

1.0371

1.0966

1.1547

1.2116

1.2673

1.3218

1.3754

5.4 8 8 8

5.4339

5.3 8 1 7

5 .3 3 1 9

5.2845

5.2 3 9 2

5.1961

5 .1 5 5 0

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5.0 7 8 6

5.0 4 3 0

1.6287

1.6422

1.6559

1.6696

1.6834

1.6974

1.7115

1.7258

1.7401

1.7546

1.7692

1.4011

1.4094

1.4178

1.4262

1.4347

1.4433

1.4519

1.4606

1.4693

1.4781

1.4870

8.4 4 4 5

8.9062

9.1227

9.1769

9.1 2 3 7

9.0 0 0 0

8 .8 3 0 6

8.6326

8.4 1 7 8

41.3331

36.0938

31.8461

28.3539

25.4468

23 .0000

2 0 .9200

19.1359

17.5937

1.6297

1.8662

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2.3 0 4 5

2.5133

2.7 1 8 3

2.9 2 1 6

3.1 2 4 8

3.3292

4 .8 8 9 0

4.7691

4.6 7 7 4

4.6 0 9 2

4.5 5 1 8

4.5 3 0 5

4.5 1 5 1

4 .5 1 3 5

4 .5 2 4 2

1.8442

1.9225

2.0 044

2.0899

2.1792

2.2 727

2.3701

2.4722

2 .5 787

1.5325

1.5797

1.6287

1.6797

1.7326

1.7876

1.8447

1.9042

1.9659

8.1 9 4 4

7.9 6 8 0

7 .7 4 2 4

7.5202

7.3032

7.0926

6.8 8 8 9

6.6 9 2 6

6.5039

6 .1 4 9 0

16.2499

15 .0 7 2 0

14.0327

13.1108

12.2888

11.5520

10.8890

10.2896

9.7461

8.7993

3 .5 3 6 0

3 .7 4 6 2

3.9 6 0 8

4.1 8 0 7

4 .4 0 6 5

4 .6 3 9 0

4.8791

5.1 2 7 2

5.3841

5.9 2 7 0

4 .5 4 6 2

4 .5 7 8 7

4.6 2 1 0

4.6 7 2 5

4.7 3 2 9

4.8 0 1 8

4.8791

4 .9 6 4 4

5.0 5 7 8

5.2 6 8 5

2.6902

2.8 065

2.9283

3.0 555

3.1 885

3.3 275

3.4729

3 .6 250

3.7 839

4 .1238

2.0301

2.0969

2.1663

2.2385

2:3135

2.3917

2.4729

2.5575

2.6454

2.8323

5.8231

5.5241

5 .2 5 0 0

4.9983

4.7671

4.5541

4 .3 5 7 6

4 .1 7 6 0

8.0 0 4 2

7.3291

6.7 5 0 0

6.2 4 8 8

5.8113

5.4269

5.0867

4 .7 8 4 0

6.5 1 3 2

7.1481

7.8373

8.5 8 6 9

9.4 0 3 6

10.2941

11.2663

12.3271

5.5112

5 .7 8 6 5

6.0957

6.4402

6.8 2 2 3

7 .2 4 4 0

7.7 0 8 5

8.2184

4 .4 955

4.9021

5.3468

5.835

6 .3 6 8

6 .951

7.5 89

8.2 82

3.0348

3.2546

3.4922

3.7 5 0

4.0 3 0

4 .3 3 5

4 .6 6 5

5.0 2 4

_,

.

cording to operation 1 of th e scheme, given in th e last

section,

respectively, we o btain th e corresponding values of /3

and, according to operation 2 of th e scheme, those of z0

= /3r4/, Z(i = /3a4/, from th e following table:

T A BL E l

2Ao/4.0

2.0

2 .5

3 .0

0

0.0187

0.0247

0.0296

0.238

0.315

0.378

0.9 3 0

1.230

1.475

ing to operations 3 and 4 of th e scheme. W e first re

quire th a t, a t th e overspeed na = 1.2 X 3600 = 4320 rpm ,

th e pressure between th e sh aft and th e disk should disap

pear, th a t is, th e radial stress o> m u st be equal to zero a t

th e bore (r = r0) for n 0 = 4320 rpm , while a t th e rim

(r = o) th e disk is affected b y a radial stress a, = 13,000

lb per sq in., as indicated above. T he stresses are given

b y form ulas [12], wherein th e constant A is

we find

where

and

Zo = 569/(z0)

Za = 13,000 4395/(2*)

values which are tab u late d in Table 2. (See page 589.)

Correspondingly we will have from our Form ula [12],

th e following approxim ate values:

N o.

1

2

3

T A BLE 3

2 V 4 .0

2. 0

2 .5

3 .0

<rto (lb/in.*)

59,000

52.500

49.500

curve shown in Fig. 2, representing th e tangential stress

o-io a t th e bore as a function of th e ratio h o / h a = 27io/4.0

for given constant values of a , = 0 a t th e bore (r = r0)

and <Tr = 13,000 lb per sq in. a t the rim (r = a), re-

APPLIED MECHANICS

TABLE 2

zo

/(z o )

Zo

<pi(zo)

<pi(zo)

ta

f (z a )

0 .2 3 8 300 171,000 5 .7 5

0 .3 1 5 108

6 1 ,500 2 .8 5

0 .3 7 8 46

25,900 1 .5 5

1 .2 2

1 .3 0

1 .3 6

0 .9 3 0

1 .2 3 0

1 .4 7 5

9 .1 5

8 .0 5

7 .0 0

Za

<pi(za)

2 7 ,200 2 .4 3

2 2 ,400 3 .6 5

17,800 4 .7 5

<p2(za) g( z o)

(zo) 'Mzr)

2 .1 5 650 1 2 .6 5 1 .1 4

2 .7 7 323 9 .3 5 1 .1 9

3 .4 0 2 0 0 7 .8 5 1 .2 4

known formulas for the disk of constant thickness inasmuch

as the use of those for our exponential profile requires, in this

special case, a complicated passage to th e lim it 0 > 0 .

Even by the approxim ate result represented by Fig. 2 the

conclusion is justified, th a t th e rate of the decrease in th e am ount

of the tangential stress a t the bore is getting smaller and smaller

with the increase in the value of th e ratio ho/ha. This result

can be assumed to be of general character although it is ob

tained here for a special case.

From the diagram Fig. 2 we have now to decide upon the

value of ho/ha = 2/i0/4.0 on the basis of the maximum admissible

value of <ri0. The question of th e maximum admissible working

stress a t the bore in overspeed conditions will n o t be discussed

here generally. F or our example we consider m0 = 52,500 lb

per sq in. as a permissible am ount for th e tangential stress a t

the bore for 20 per cent overspeed, corresponding to th e value

h0/ha = 2.5. Then we will have

in T able 2.

APM-56-8

589

for r = r0 a t th e overspeed, Z 0 = 500 + 12.5

X 6.502 X 125.56 = 65,900 instead of Z 0 =

61,500 in T able 2; Za = 13,000 12.5 X 18.941

X 7.968 = 22,750 instead of Za = 22,400

T herefore

= 0.0247

T he constant a is given by

profile and obtain th e following table:

TABLE 4

z

0 .3 0

0 .6 0

0 .9 0

1.10

1 .2 5

y (in.)

5 .0 7

3 .7 6

2 .7 8

2 .2 8

1 .9 6

r (in.)

/(*)

6 .5 0 1 2 5 .5 5 5

1 0 .9 4

3 .8 8 9

1 4 .8 3

9 .1 7 7

1 7 .2 1

8 .6 3 3

1 8 .9 4

7 .9 6 8

o(z)

3 5 6 .6 6 6

6 7 .2 2 3

2 8 .3 5 4

1 9 .1 3 6

1 5 .0 7 2

Mz)

3 .2 8 6

0 .7 8 4

2 .3 0 5

3 .1 2 5

3 .7 4 6

9 .8 5 8

5 .4 8 9

4 .6 0 9

4 .5 1 4

4 .5 7 9

<pz(z)

1 .2 7 4

1 .6 2 9

2 .0 9 0

2 .4 7 2

2 .8 0 7

^ t(z)

1 .1 7 9

1 .4 0 1

1 .6 8 0

1 .9 0 4

2 .0 9 7

Instead of the given lim iting radii r0 = 6.75 in. and a = 18.75

in., we introduced in this table boundary values of r approxi

m ately equal to r 0 and a, respectively, which in our standard

table correspond to tab u lated values of z and its functions

/(z), g(z), <ei(z), tpi(z) ipi(z), i/-2(z). The reasons for this pro

cedure are as follows.

In using interpolations as indicated above, we m ultiply by

large numbers the errors introduced b y these interpolations in

the course of our calculations. Considerable inaccuracy can

be caused hereby in th e results. I t is m uch b etter, therefore,

to proceed in the way shown in our T able 4, nam ely, to use

numbers tabulated in th e stan d ard tab le w ithout interpola

tions. N aturally, some deviations will be caused by th e fact

th a t, in the special example treated , th e boundary conditions

actually refer to z0 = 0.315 and za = 1.230, according to th e

Tables 1 and 2, and not to z0 = 0.30 and z = 1.25, according

to Table 4. B ut these deviations will be sm aller generally

than the errors produced b y interpolations. And, besides,

these deviations due to inaccuracy in fulfilling th e boundary

conditions are of negligible order, because in practical cases

those boundary values cannot be sta te d very accurately anyway.

In using Table 4, w ith th e approxim ate values of z 0 and za as

given by the first and the last lines of th a t table, respectively,

we find th a t

F ig s . 3 a n d 4

to operation 5 of th e scheme given in th e la st section:

TABLE 5

r ( in .)

V (in.)

5 .0 7

3 .7 6

2 .7 8

2 .2 8

1 .9 6

6 .5 0

1 0 .9 4

1 4 .8 3

1 7 .2 1

1 8 .9 4

<rr ( l b / i n . 2)

500

13,850

15,700

14,600

13,000

a t ( lb /i n .a)

5 2 ,4 0 0

3 4 ,2 0 0

2 8 ,2 0 0

25,2 0 0

2 3 ,4 0 0

is represented b y Fig. 3. T he stress distribution according to

th e th ird and th e fo u rth colum ns of T able 5 is shown in Fig. 4.

According to th e general conclusions draw n in Appendix No. 1

th e maxim um tangential stress a t th e bore will be a b o u t 5 per

cent larger th a n th e average am ount given in our T able 5.

T he m axim um stress, therefore, in our example will be about

55,000 lb per sq in.

As to th e profile curve, it does n o t differ appreciably from a

straig h t line. This, obviously, will be still more nearly the

case for disks w ith a ratio h0/h a < 2.5, th e radial dimensions

being of th e sam e order as in th e example treated.

T

he

Second E

x p o n e n t ia l

r o f il e

profile be applied to E qu atio n [41 ],7 a new solution is obtained

7 See Appendix No. 2.

590

file. The stresses are, w ith v = 1/3, given b y th e expressions

all calculations can be accomplished in the m anner outlined for

th e first exponential profile.

Two

C o m p a r is o n o f t h e

P r o file s

ponential profiles. Suppose

point r a, y = ya. T hen we will have

where A and B are th e tw o arb itra ry constants of integration,

while 0 is determ ined by th e ratio h0/h a; h and h a being again

From these tw o equations we find

th a t a t th e boundaries (r = r 0 and r = a) yi and yu are, respec

tively, equal to each other. The profile curve y\ has a hori

zontal, and th e profile curve yn a vertical tangent a t the point

r 0 (see Fig. 5).

P

r a c t ic a l

xam ple

of

is k

e s ig n

Second E

x p o n e n t ia l

r o f il e

section, in using our second exponential profile. The pro

cedure is essentially th e sam e as indicated in the scheme given

above for th e first exponential profile and we find, for h0/h a

= 2.5,

calculations, according to the practical rules given in the last

section. By substituting

the values of y a t th e bore (r = r0) and a t th e rim (r = a), re

spectively.

This solution is rem arkable for th e fact th a t both of the

stresses as well as th e profile are given b y finite expressions;

as to the exponential function e, occurring in those expressions,

it is tabulated very extensively. Therefore th e formulas of

the second exponential profile can be used for steep profile

curves as well; th a t is, for curves characterized by large values

of 0. T his is of some practical advantage for calculation of the

disk p a rt connecting th e wheel w ith th e rim. For such a p a rt

0 has a large negative value, in either of bo th profiles, and the

form ulas of th e first exponential profile cannot be used, be

cause in the vicinity of such 0 values th e series occurring in the

stress expressions converge very slowly. Form ulas [16] and

[17] are, of course, free of such objections. This explains why

positive values of ( 0) were n o t considered in our Form ulas

[1], [10], and [11], I t m ust be rem arked, however, th a t the

stress formulas are th e less accurate, th e steeper th e profile

curve becomes.

B y tabulating the functions

o> = 13,200 lb per sq in. for z = Za = 1.86

we find from E quations [16] and [17]

th e following table is obtained by using some interm ediate

values of z:

TABLE 6

z

a r ( l b / i n . 2)

a t ( l b / i n . 2)

r (in .)

V (in .)

0 .9 3

250

4,6 5 0

13,700

17,000

14,800

13,200

5 3 ,000

4 7 ,400

3 6 ,3 0 0

3 0 ,8 0 0

26,6 0 0

24,500

6 .6 5

7 .4 2

1 0 .3 7

1 3 .6 0

1 7 .1 5

1 8 .8 5

5 .0 7

4 .7 5

3 .6 8

2 .8 7

2 .2 3

1.00

1 .2 5

1.50

1 .7 5

1 .8 6

2 .00

are shown in Figs. 5 and 6, respectively. For a comparison with

th e results obtained above for th e first exponential profile

(see th e first example) th e profile curve and th e stress distribu

tion, represented by Figs. 3 and 4, respectively, are shown dotted

in Figs. 5 and 6.

A standard tab le for the second exponential profile will

be available later.

APPLIED MECHANICS

Str esses D

u e to

it

ressur e

l a s t ic

e sist a n c e

it h

V a r y in g S p e e d

in a disk due to fit pressure in resting conditions are 8

speed). W ith these boundary conditions th e problem is to be

confined to special profiles. I t is, however, possible to draw

general conclusions from the following consideration.

For a disk of constant thickness the general solution for stresses

due to fit pressure under static conditions is given b y th e for

m ulas9

(C i

APM-56-8

591

gi(r), gz{r), h\(r), h2(r) are th e integral functions for the profile

considered, th e boundary conditions are to be stated from which

th e constants L and M should follow as functions of th e speed .

D esignate b y p r(w) and pt(u) th e disk stresses as functions

of . T hey usually are calculated for th e overspeed = w0

and appear th en as functions of r, so th a t, w ith our former

designations,

where 2r0 and 2a are the bore and the rim diam eter, respectively.

The stress distribution given by [18] is shown graphically in

Fig. 7. The formulas [18] together w ith Fig. 7 adm it of a

simple interpretation. As soon as th e ratio a /r0 exceeds a cer

tain value, say a fro ^ 3, th e stress distribution according to

the curves pr and pt in Fig. 7 does not v ary essentially w ith

varying a. The maximum values of pr and pt always take

place a t the bore, and these maximum values are always about

40 to 60 per cent respectively of th e maximum tangential stress

ato a t the bore under overspeed conditions. In other words,

only th e parts of the disk in th e vicinity of th e bore are essen

tially carrying the fit loading under static conditions, an increase

of th e outer radius a being of little influence on th e functions

[18].10

This result can be easily generalized for disks of other profiles.

We have only to realize th a t the disk of constant thickness

investigated above can be subdivided into several separate rings;

the larger the diam eter of any of them , th e less its influence on

the stress distribution of the whole disk under static conditions,

as shown above, and the less, consequently, th e stress variations

in the disk due to the reduced thickness of th a t ring as compared

with the original thickness of th e parallel sided disk. This means

th a t the statem ent developed above for disks of constant thick

ness is qualitatively and, with a certain approxim ation, also

quantitatively true for disks of any profile.

This general result shall be checked now in calculating, for a

special disk, the Stresses pr and pi due to fit pressure under

static conditions. The question m ay be treated on a som ewhat

more general basis by considering th e disk as ro tatin g with

varying speeds. This is useful for a b etter understanding of

the elastic behavior of th e disk in various conditions of the

actual service.

Having the general solution for rotatin g disks in th e form

8 See A ppendix N o. 2.

9 A. S todola, S team T u rb in e s , sec. 76, E q . 22, w ith w = 0 an d

wrhile aa designates th e radial tension a t th e rim exerted by the

centrifugal forces of th e blading a t th e overspeed. These

boundary conditions for ar result in a corresponding value of

at a t th e bore, equal to ato, and from th e values of aro and ato

a t th e bore, for = w0, th e boundary conditions [43] and [44]

for p, = pr(w = 0 ) and pt = pt{oi = 0 ) under static conditions

are obtained, as showTi in Appendix No. 2. Now, by using the

same m anner of reasoning we find th e condition

for any speed w. This condition can be w ritten, with close

approxim ation, in th e form 11

A = 0.

10 Cf. A. F oeppl, F est.igkeitslehre, S ect. 56 ( D ickw andige R oehre n ).

592

(overspeed). A t the outer boundary, r = a, we will have

coo

calculate th e corresponding values of L and M , the following

expressions for th e stresses due to fit pressure under static

conditions are obtained from [21 ]:

tions [19] and [20] are to be introduced into

stresses m ust reach am ounts of about

tu tin g r = ro into [23] we find

By substi

constants of integration, therefore, appear as functions of the

speed co and in consequence th e problem of stress distribution in

term s of th e speed is solved.

F or the disk of constant thickness, for instance, we have

These formulas shall be applied to our first exponential profile

7 in., while th e ratio yo/ya m ay vary between 1 and 3. For

yo/ya = 1 th e formulas for disks of constant thickness are to

be used. Generally we will have

Za according to th e formulas

and th e constants of integration are

and then, b y using th e standard table, w ith th e symbols <pi,

<p2f ii, and fa, occurring in th a t table, th e corresponding values

of fi, fiy gi, and g<i are obtained as follows:

So we finally have for th e disk of constant thickness

TA BL E 7

v * /y o

!2

0

IZa

2 .0

3.0

a = wo, provided th a t ato and aa are th e tangential stress a t the

bore and th e radial stress a t th e rim , respectively, a t th e over

speed. If w = 0 is substituted, th e solution as developed above

applies to stresses due to fit pressure under static conditions.

R eferring to th e general E quations [21 ] for p T (a) and pt(a)

and E quations [22] for th e constants L and M as functions of

th e speed o> for any profile, it is easily seen th a t b o th stresses

always can be represented in th e form

words, th e stresses v ary proportionally to cos, th e proportionality

factor being a function of r.

12 See Appendix No. 2.

0.2 08

0.902

0.330

1.430

/i * <pi

7 .5

2.3

2.5

4.5

ft

14.6

4.6

9.0

4.8

ffi <ps

1.19

2.10

1.31

3.28

fft m 'pi

1.12

1.69

1.20

2 .36

Pro(0)/<ri0 and pta(0)/ata for th e exponential profile w ith yo/ya

= 2 and yo/ya = 3, respectively. For th e disk of constant

thickness th e aforem entioned ratios are to be found from the

Form ulas [18]. T he results obtained in this way are set forth

in th e following table:

TABLE 8

y o /y a

2

3

Pro (0)/<Tto

0.444

0.397

0.369

Pio (0)/<r

0.556

0.6 03

0.631

it is evident th a t, even for ro/a = 1/3, th e stresses due to fit

pressure under static conditions do n o t depend essentially on

th e form of th e disk; which is in full accordance w ith th e state

m ent developed above. T he q u an titativ e agreem ent w ith the

result yielded b y th e general consideration is very satisfactory.

An im p o rtan t result is expressed, furtherm ore, by E quation

[19] in its original physical meaning. The strength of an elastic

APM-56-8

A PPLIED MECHANICS

593

O tto M ohr, by the difference of th e largest and th e smallest of

the three principal stresses. The axial stress at, i.e., th e principal

stress along the axial direction, being approxim ately equal to

zero, th e difference a t th e bore will be always equal to pt p r,

because a t the bore pro(u) ^ 0 and pio(w) > 0. According to

E quation [19] this difference in stress values a t th e bore is

always th e same a t any speed. Therefore, we have, w ith close

approximation, the general result, th a t the strength of the disk

at the bore is always the same at any speed within the limits

0^ u<

OJO*

is k

it h

ub

e l ie f

in the last section will be obtained b y studying stress conditions

in disks w ith hub relief as shown in Fig. 9.

First consider a disk designed w ithout hub relief (Fig. 10).

The corresponding stresses m ay be represented b y Fig. 11, the

boundary conditions being given, for w = wo, by th e relations

blading. Of course, th e stress curves in Fig. 11 are also com

pletely determined, if the conditions [25] are replaced by

two conditions are to be fulfilled corresponding to th e tw o con

stants of integration occurring in the general expressions for the

stresses.

Now consider the same disk w ith a hub relief according to

Fig. 9. We require again th e conditions covered b y E quations

[26] to be fulfilled. As these two relations determ ine th e stress

curves, we will have the same stress diagram (see Fig. 12) in

the new conditions, as in Fig. 11, as long as th e disk profile is

the same, i.e., from r = a to r = r 0 + A, where r0 + A is the

radius corresponding to th e point where ar vanishes in Fig. 11.

This restriction (the vanishing of o> for r = r 0 + A) will be

removed below.

As to the stresses in the disk, or rath er ring, represented by

the section A BC D , it is easy to see th a t th e radial stress is

equal to zero a t the outer edge BC. Indeed, th e radial stress

being zero a t the edge B E of th e disk BGFE, th e equilibrium

requires th a t the same be th e case along BC in th e disk A BC D .

The tangential stress along BC in th e same small disk is deter

mined, as well known, by the condition th a t th e tangential

elongation u a t the cylindrical section BC m ust be th e same

for both disks. This elongation being given b y th e formula

the same on both sides. In other words, neither a, nor at can

jum p a t the outer edge BC of th e disk A B C D . So both of the

boundary values of ar and at are known a t th e outer edge BC

of the small disk, and the stresses are completely determined,

therefore, for the p art between r = r0 and r = r0 + A according

to previous statem ents. Furtherm ore, these boundary values

being the same in Fig. 9 (for th e ring A B C D ) and Fig. 10 (for

the ring A 'B 'C 'D ') the stresses w ithin th e p a rt between r = ra

and r = r0 + A m ust be the same in both cases. Therefore

F ig s . 9

to

14

This result is developed on th e basis th a t ov = 0 for r = To + A

in Fig. 11, i.e., th a t th e depth of th e hub relief is equal to the

distance A a t th e end of which ar vanishes in th e disk w ithout

hub relief. If ar = S for r = r0 + A in Fig. 11, where S is a

small am ount, positive or negative, th en or jum ps in Fig. 12,

and we will have

594

F or r = r0 this difference m ust be equal to S 'T ' in th e case of

Fig. 10 and to P 'Q ' in th e case of Fig. 9; so we have

th e jum p Bat of at according to our E qu atio n [27]:

and

tially a t the section BC and th e whole consideration above is

practically n o t affected a t all. This m eans th a t under rotating

conditions no change in stress distribution is caused by th e hub

relief.

Now consider both disks, w ith and th a t w ithout hub relief,

under static conditions. T he stress distribution in th e la tte r is

represented by Fig. 13 in accordance w ith our previous con

siderations, and we know, th a t

fore, for r = r0 + A

There

Now we have

or approxim ately

and, according to [31]

being of negligible am ount. T h e stress distribution m the

disk w ith hub relief under static conditions is again determ ined

b y th e boundary conditions given above. These are th a t a t

th e outer edge we m ust have

o-ro

p , m ust be th e sam e a t any speed w. Therefore, under static

conditions, this difference m ust be, w ith reference to Fig. 12

stress distribution satisfying th e last tw o boundary conditions

in th e disk shown in Fig. 9. S tarting w ith th e outer edge

r = a in Fig. 14 we state, th a t for th e disk p a rt BEF O (Fig. 9)

th e stress distribution is completely determ ined if we assume

a certain value of pt for r = a, p r being equal to zero a t th a t

point. Assuming p i to be of th e sam e am ount s as in Fig. 13

a t th e outer edge r = a, we find, of course, th e same stress curves

p , and pt in Fig. 14, as in Fig. 13, for r0 + A ^ r ^ a. A t th e

point r = ra + A th e stresses a, an d <ri jum p, according to

E quations [28] and [29], from th e points S and T to th e points

P and <2, respectively. Since

W e have found, therefore, th a t if, for r 0 + A ^ r jC a, the

stresses pt an d p , in Fig. 14 are th e same as in Fig. 13, the dif

ference of th e stress values pm an d pro a t th e bore, represented

b y P 'Q , will be larger th a n th e sam e difference under rotating

conditions as represented in Fig. 12. This being impossible,

o ur assum ption, according to w hich th e stress curves are the

sam e for r0 + A ^ r ^ a in both disks w ith and w ithout hub

relief in resting conditions, m ust be altered. In other words,

for r a th e tangential stress m ust be less th a n s in Fig. 13.

W e th en o btain stress curves pt and pr, determ ined by both

b oundary conditions for r = a. I t is easily seen th a t th e curves

pt and pr qualitatively correspond to each other physically. If

th e radial stress, which is compression, is diminishing from pr to

pr (Fig. 14), th e tangential stress, which is tension, m ust diminish

from pt to pt. A t a certain definite decrease of both stress

functions th e state will be reached a t which th e previously

mentioned stress difference a t th e bore will assume th e required

value, independent of th e speed . This m eans th a t by using

a disk w ith hub relief, th e stresses are th e sam e under rotating

conditions, as in a disk w ithout hub relief, and they are smaller,

throughout th e disk except th e hub, under static conditions,

while a t th e bore th ey rem ain w ithin permissible limits deter

m ined b y th e relation p> pro = const, a t any speed a.

A ppendix N o . 1

T

For r0 + A ^ r

r0 th e profile represents a disk of constant

thickness in both Fig. 9 a n d Fig. 10. Therefore th e general

expressions for th e stresses in b o th of them , for static conditions,

are represented b y th e relations

he

roblem

of

o t a t in g

heory of

D

E

is k s i n

the

a t h e m a t ic a l

l a s t ic it y

The rigorous m athem atical basis for th e design of steamturb in e disk wheels consists in a solution of th e following problem

w ith boundary conditions.

Consider th e state of strain and stress in an isotropic elastic

body of revolution rotatin g about its axis z-z w ith th e angular

velocity w. T he displacem ent will be sym m etrical about the

same axis. The com ponents of th e displacem ent being u in

th e radial and w in th e axial direction, th e conditions of elastic

equilibrium are expressed by th e differential equations18

13 A. E . H . L ove, M a th e m a tic a l T h e o ry of E la stic ity , 4 th ed.,

C am b rid g e, 1927, p. 146, a n d p. 104.

APPLIED MECHANICS

surfaces of the disk, represented b y th e equation y f(r),

where f( r) is a known function of r, are free of stresses,

while the edges r = ro and r = a (Fig. 15) can be affected

by given forces. In special problems th e inner boundary

surface can vanish (disk w ithout bore). The stresses in

the rotating disk are to be determined.

In the form [32] the problem has been solved for a few

special forms of the m eridian curve (profile) only, p ar

ticularly for the cylinder14 and for th e ellipsoid15 under

certain boundary conditions.16

I t is of practical interest and im portance for compari

son w ith th e procedure used in technical applications as

reproduced below to know th e results yielded b y the

methods of the theory of elasticity. Therefore a concise

report concerning the solutions ju st m entioned shall be

given.

We designate by a , , a t, and a* th e norm al stresses along

the radius r, the tangent, t, to th e circle of th e radius

r, and the direction, z, of the axis of rotation, respectively.

As to the shear stresses, the components rrt and Tzt vanish

by reasons of sym m etry about th e axis, while t

0

generally.

Consider now the stress distribution determ ined by

th e equations

displacement satisfying E quations [32].17 T he solution

[33], if applied to the case of a cylindrical disk w ith

out bore, fulfils th e boundary conditions a t th e plane

surfaces z = I. Indeed, th e stress com ponent at and

the shear stresses vanishing identically, th ey vanish also

a t the surfaces z = =*= I. B u t a t th e cylindrical surface

r = a both th e radial stress oy and th e tangential stress

<7i follow a special law of distribution along th e axial

11 A. E. H. Love, loc. cit.; and F. Purser, Trans. Royal

Irish Acad., vol. 32, 1902.

16 C. Chree, Royal Soe. Proc., London, vol. 58, 1895; treated

the general ellipsoid.

16 See also Zeitschr. f. Ang. Math. u. Mech., vol. 3, 1923, p.

319.

17 A. E. H. Love, loc. cit., Eq. [70] and [71], and p. 56.

APM-56-8

595

596

law the average am ount of o> along th a t direction vanishes for

r = a. T he additive correction of E quation [33], necessary to

produce boundary stresses a, 0 for r = a, is discussed in

the article of Purser, previously m entioned. This correction is

of im portance only for calculation of stresses in th e vicinity of

r = a. F or parts which are n o t too near to th e edge, th e stress

state of the disk is represented b y E q uation [33] w ith sufficient

accuracy according to th e well-known principle of de Saint

V enant,18 provided th a t th e thickness 21 is sm all com pared w ith

th e diam eter 2a. The axial distribution of th e stresses a t th e

edge r = a is here of little interest. T h a t a t th e inner edge in

disks w ith central bore- is m uch m ore im p o rtan t. F or such

disks th e solution [33] is to be replaced by th e following form ulas:

along th e axial direction, z, is of an alm ost vanishing am ount,

if I, equal to a half th e thickness of th e disk, does n o t exceed a

certain lim it as com pared w ith th e o u ter radius of th e disk.

T ake, for instance, a solid cylindrical disk for which a = 51.

Suppose, this ratio justifies th e application of th e principle of

de Saint V enant. In Fig. 16 th e curves a, and at show th e stress

distribution, according to E quations [33], for th e middle plane,

(z = 0), of th e disk. T he stress variation along th e axial direc

tion z is represented by th e parabolical curves Z -Z , analytically

expressed b y the form ula A a = Cz2, C being a constant and

I ^ z ^ I. T he am ount of this stress variation is about 2.5

per cent of th e m axim um stress a t th e axis r = 0.

The lower p a rts of th e curves in Fig. 16 are dotted, because

in th e vicinity of r = a th e y do n o t represent th e actual stress

conditions, as explained above.

Fig. 17 shows th e stress distribution according to E quations

[34], in an analogous way, for th e sam e disk as in Fig. 16, b u t

having a bore, the radius of which is equal to I. T he maxim um

stress appears again in th e vicinity of th e inner edge of th e disk;

b u t it is alm ost twice as large as in th e case of th e solid disk of

Fig. 16. The stress variability along th e axial direction is th e

sam e as before, or about 1.5 per cent of th e m axim um stress in

th e varied conditions.

T he stress distribution in an ellipsoid according to th e exact

solution cited above is discussed in detail b y Stodola.20 We do

n o t reproduce the complicated form ulas for th e stresses; only

th e general results shall be mentioned.

F or a solid disk of elliptical m eridian curve having a diam eter

2a and a m axim um thickness 2c a t th e axis, Stodola finds a

stress variability along th e axis (r = 0) as represented b y th e

following table:

while A a = o-(r = 0 , z = o) '(r-=o, z = l)I t is interesting to observe, th a t th e stress variability along

th e axis is of a larger am ount for th e elliptical disk th a n for the

cylindrical one. This result is quite natural, if th e uniform

mass distribution along th e axial direction in th e case of a cylin

drical disk, causing a uniform distribution of the centrifugal

forces along th e same direction, is taken into account. B ut even

for a disk of elliptical profile, having a maximum thickness equal

to 1/ i of th e diam eter, th e absolute value of th e excess of the

stress am ount over th e average stress along th e axis remains

w ithin th e lim its of about 7 per cent of th e maximum stress.

A rem arkable detail is characterized by appearance of normal

stresses a , in th e axial direction. These stresses a , represent

compression in th e disk p arts of larger, and tension in those of

smaller thickness. T hey reach th e am ount of only a few per cent

of th e maxim um norm al stress.

From analogy w ith th e cylindrical disk we m ay conclude, th at,

if th e elliptical disk is provided w ith a bore, th e non-uniformity

in th e stress distribution along th e axial direction a t th e bore, as

defined b y th e expression (aimsx

+ o-fmin),

will be about a half of th e am ount indicated b y th e last table,

so th a t th e absolute value of th e excess over th e average stress

along th e axial direction rem ains w ithin lim its of about 3Vj per

cent of th e m aximum stress for c/a = 1/4.

In sum marizing we arrive a t th e following conclusion with

certain approxim ation, special regard having been given to the

increased proportions in m odern disk design: B y increasing

th e thickness of th e disk from 1/ to V* of th e diam eter the

absolute value of th e excess of th e stress values over th e average

stress along th e axial direction increases in disks w ith bore from

th e order of about 1 per cent to th a t of about 4 per cent of the

m aximum stress, while th e axial stresses a z still rem ain w ithin

negligible limits.

T he rigorous tre atm e n t of th e problem of rotatin g disks in

general form, i.e., for given m eridian curves, b y using methods

of m athem atical physics, would be, a t th e present stage, in

certain branches of th e m athem atical analysis, a t least exceed

ingly complicated.21 A very valuable new m ethod of analyzing

plates and disks22 is invented b y G. D . Birkhoff ;2* in its further

developm ent th is m ethod m ay acquire practical im portance for

disk design. As far as technical requirem ents are concerned

th e approxim ate m ethod, introduced b y Stodola,24 is very satis

factory. H is procedure is based upon th e fundam ental con

clusion draw n from th e exact solutions as previously reported.

T he non-uniform ity of th e stress distribution along th e axial

direction in rotatin g disks can be neglected w ithin certain limits

determ ined approxim ately b y T able 9 and emphasized in the

foregoing conclusion. This basis of strength calculations in

disk design does n o t lose its validity in th e new conditions

characterized b y increased disk proportions.

Z = 0,

A ppendix N o . 2

D i f f e r e n t i a l E q u a t io n s i n A p p r o x im a t e s F o r m o f

R o t a t in g D is k s

direction is, to all practical purposes, of negligible am ount, they

detailed report is given by I. Malkin, Zeit. f. Ang. Math. u. Mech.,

vol. 10, 1930, p. 182.

c /a

l/s

l/ t

l/s

22 The mathematical analogy between circular plates under bending

A<r/<r (%)

5

13

45

and rotating disks is established by L. Foeppl, Zeit. f. Ang. Math,

** A. E. H. Love, loc. cit., p. 132.

u. Mech., 1922.

28 Phil. Mag., vol. 43, 1922, p. 953; also C. A. Garabedian, Amer.

A. E. H. Love, ibid., p. 148.

20 A. Stodola, Steam Turbines, New York, 1927, vol. II, sec. Math. Soc. Trans., vol. 25, 1923, p. 343.

184. See also his article in Zeit. V .D .I., 1907, p. 1259.

21 Stodola, Steam Turbines, sec. 74.

T A BLE 9

A PPLIED MECHANICS

APM-56-8

597

fication, Stodola obtains from th e conditions of equilibrium

[see Fig. 18] the equation24

where

form can be w ritten as follows:

m ent u according to the relations

ceding sections for developing new solutions of th e problem of

rotatin g disks. Furtherm ore, in using E quations [36], the

boundary conditions for th e problem of stresses due to fit pres

sure in th e disk under static conditions can be obtained as

follows.

D esignate b y

d

D

both

o

th e diam eter of th e shaft

under undeform ed static conditions, and by

th e radial displacem ent of th e disk

Mo' th e radial displacem ent of th e shaft

b o th for r = ro and for an y speed w betw een 0 and th e over

speed wo- W ith these designations we obviously m ust have

provided th a t, a t any speed o> < wo, th ere is a certain pressure

betw een th e disk and th e shaft. T he shrink fit is corre

spondingly given by

the condition

In assuming a certain curve, y f(r), as th e m eridian curve

(profile) of th e disk a differential equation for u is obtained

from E quation [37]. If th e solution of this differential equation

is known, the stresses can be determ ined b y E quations [36] in

connection w ith the boundary conditions. Should th e stresses,

as following from these calculations, exceed permissible limits,

the assumed profile m ust be modified and th e calculations

repeated until satisfactory results are obtained.

Sometimes another equivalent procedure is used in solving

the systems [35] and [38] of differential equations. A certain

kind of stress function S is introduced b y th e form ula25

T he displacem ents

where at and ar

spectively, for r

<' = a, are th e

T he shrink fit is,

Uo

r 0 a t th e speed w, in th e disk, while at' and

corresponding stresses in th e sh aft for r = r0.

therefore,

ness27 w ithout bore we will have

Correspondingly

where

Now. bv introducing

while E quation [38] requires

the displacement u.

Still another analytical expression for our problem can be

obtained by eliminating a, or at from E quations [35] and [38].

By eliminating at, Stodola finds th e following differential equa

tion for o>:26

28 A. Foeppl, Technische Mechanik, vol. V, 1922, p. 87.

26 A. Stodola, loc. cit., sec. 181b.

q u a n tity V(l v)nw,2r02, it is a sm all value which m ay be

neglected in th e last equation. Indeed, w ith reference to the

example treated in th e preceding section we have

598

condition in question can be w ritten as follows

due to fit pressure under static conditions. T he other boundary

condition expresses th e vanishing of p r a t th e ou ter disk edge

equation 31 which can be solved w ith series:

r = a:

where

The boundary condition [43] is here obtained in a w ay some

w hat different from th a t used b y Stodola 28 in order to show th e

limits of accuracy of this condition.

and

D iscussion

J. L. M a u l b e t s c h .29 I t can be shown th a t th e tw o profiles

given by the author belong to a series of profiles of th e type

if we assume

where

and

i.e.,

obtain a particular solution of E quation [45] so th a t a homo

geneous equation m ay be obtained.

T he particular solution is of th e type

and th a t any profile of this series will allow a sim ilar solution

to the one presented by th e author.

The solution for any value of 7 consists of tw o infinite series

and of an expression containing a few term s only. F or 7 = 4/a

and 7 = 2/ 3, this last expression has three term s. In general,

for any value of 7 , the num ber of term s p is:

where

and

We see th a t if y becomes smaller, p will increase, i.e., we

have more term s and th e calculations are som ewhat longer.

However a stu d y of th e general solution shows th a t th e series

have a b etter convergence for small values of y therefore fewer

term s in th e series need to be considered.

T he m ethod used by th e au th o r is practical only if tables for

the values of th e series are calculated beforehand. Such tables

are given in this paper for th e case y V 3, and th e author also

proposes to have tables calculated for his second case where

y = 2/. Since th e calculations are rath er long, it m ight be

advisable to determ ine first which profile is b e tte r adapted for

practical purposes.

D ue to the more rapid convergence of th e series for small

values of y , a larger range for th e variable z = ffr y m ay be

taken, therefore disk profiles differing more from th e conical

shape can be approxim ated w ith y = x/ ( or Vs for instance,

th an w ith y = 4/ 3 or 2/ 3. I t seems then, th a t tables for a value

of y smaller th a n 2/ 3 would offer m ore advantages to th e designer

of turbine disk wheels th a n th e second profile proposed b y the

author.

A r& um 6 of the general solution will be given here: th e

differential equation 30

28 See Stodola, ibid., sec. 81d.

29 University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.

30 Authors Equation [37],

M i is a function of y and 0.

T he condition [48] for 7 is obtained through the analysis by

m aking th e assum ption [47] and [49].

C. R. S o d e r b e r g .32 D r. M alkins contribution to th e disk

problem is a very real one and I feel certain th a t it will find its

place among th e classics of th e subject.

I t is of im portance to th e designer to have available a method

of stress calculation which is sufficiently rapid to perm it evalua

tion of th e stresses for m an y combinations in a short tim e and

y et of sufficient accuracy to m ake th e results reliable. D uring

th e period of its use, we have had ample opportunity to demon

stra te th e g reat m erits of th e new method.

Concerning th e problem of design limits, it seems th a t the

following questions m ust be discussed: (a) tangential stress

a t th e inner bore a t overspeed; (6) perm anence of the shrink

fit on th e shaft a t th e norm al speed, and (c) norm al pressure on

th e shaft a t standstill. These aspects of th e failure problem

m ust be weighed in th e order mentioned. The im portance of

th e last item is difficult to evaluate. Failure in the ordinary

sense of th e word does n o t occur under norm al pressure until its

intensity m aterially exceeds th e yield strength. This state is

31 Authors Equation [5].

32 Westinghouse Research Laboratories, East Pittsburgh, Pa.

Mem. A.S.M.E.

APPLIED M ECHANICS

seldom reached, but the pressures are usually so high th a t the

designer does not feel he can ignore them.

A

u t h o r s

lo sur e

infinite series in each of th e two stress expressions. In recom

mending 7 = 1/ i he introduces two further expressions with

APM-56-8

599

nential profiles. T hey n o t only represent definite special solu

tions, b u t practically fill th e range between th e two limiting

solutions, inasm uch as, if completed by th e latter, th ey approxi

m ate, w ith sufficient accuracy, any interm ediate solution as well.

Practical experience shows th a t a slight variation of th e profile

curve between th e tw o fixed lim iting points a t th e bore and th e

rim is of a practically negligible influence on th e boundary

stresses. A fter having used, for a certain tim e, th e new m ethod

t han any of the proposed infinite series, because there is no indica

tion as to the rapidity of their convergence. The solutions,

thus represented by six infinite series, cannot compete w ith the

exponential profiles, the first of which involves only two infinite

series, while the second entails th e use of simple finite expres

sions. The more rapid convergence in the case of smaller values

of 7 in the first four of M r. M aulbetschs six series would not

appear to be a factor of great weight.

There is, furtherm ore, another factor which is n o t to be over

looked in connection w ith th e question of convergence. If 7

becomes smaller, the independent variable z becomes larger,

especially in the vicinity of the rim (see Tables 4 and 6 ). In

using 7 = Vi we easily find, for the disk analyzed in Figs. 3 to 6 ,

th at

above examples. The increase in za caused by decrease of 7 is

a factor of opposite effect to th a t of more rapid convergence.

The necessity of calculating tables cannot be considered as

a disadvantage of the au th o rs m ethod, because such tables are

necessary in any analytical solution, and it is contended by the

writer th at, for two reasons, th e m ethod of solution as set forth

is simpler than any other analytical solution so far developed

for the problem. First, it is much more convenient to calculate

t he tables in question by using simple finite expressions, or solu

tions w ith only two infinite series, th an by dealing with six in

finite series, as in the case of conical disks, or even w ith finite

expressions of considerable complicacy such as encountered in the

case of hyperbolic disks. The other im portant advantage is th e

fact th a t the w riters method of solution is based upon the

principle of similarity which, in the case considered, assumes the

following form: If the profile curve is given by an expression y

/ (r, 0), where 0 is the essential constant param eter characteriz

ing the individual disk, the solution will be obtained generally

in term s of two varying essential quantities, r and 0. In using

f. i. tables calculated for conical disks we have to m ultiply all

values, for any special disk, by a constant varying w ith th a t

disk. The calculations are, in other words, two-dimensional.

In the case of the exponential profiles set forth by the w riter

the solution is given essentially in term s of a certain combination

of the variable r and the param eter 0, nam ely in term s of z

0r't* and z = 0r ^ , respectively. The m ain calculations, conse

quently, include only one variable. These are th e tw o advan

tages which are of practical value in tabulating th e solutions and

in using the tables for design purposes.

As to the question of technical ad aptability of th e w riters

method of solution, our attention is called to Fig. 19 in conjunc

tion w ith the following remarks.

The problem of practical disk design is no t a problem merely of

avoiding the conical profile. I t is rath er a problem of profile

variation between two limiting profile curves, th e conical and the

hyperbolic. Fig. 19 is a typical example of the practical possi

F ig . 19

T y p ic a l

E x a m p l e s o f C h o ic e O f f e r e d

E x p o n e n t ia l P r o f il e s

by

the

T wo

will, therefore, be able to modify more or less freely the theo

retical profile curves, if th is is advisable from th e standpoint of

weight reduction or required by the necessity of avoiding possible

dangerous vibrations. The profiles y = ae~z, z = 0ry, w ith 7 =

1/ i or 7 = 1/ 6, being of sharper curvature a t th e bore th a n the

second exponential profile' and, consequently, situated in the

vicinity of th e hyperbolic profile, appear quite unnecessary in

th is connection because they do not throw any further light on the

problem of stress distribution and there would be no justification

for th e tedious calculations involved.

T his is a case of special practical interest. Inasm uch as the

hyperbolic disk is regarded as a lim iting profile characterized by

smaller weight b u t for th e m ost p a rt n o t adapted to technicaldesign purposes because of th e sharp curvature in th e vicinity of

th e bore, considerable modification of th e profile curve is neces

sary, thereby reducing th e degree of accuracy of the stress calcu

lations. Fig. 19 shows th a t, b y using th e second exponential

profile, th e designer practically obtains th e modified hyper

bolic disk w ithout being forced to abandon the basis of a reliable

600

technical im portance of th e second exponential profile. I t leads

to th e conclusion th a t, while th e hyperbolic disk represents a

theoretical lim iting profile w ith regard to th e im p o rtan t question

of uniform ity of the stress distribution, th e second exponential

profile very often will represent th e corresponding actual limiting

curve. T his applies especially to th e case of smaller bore diame

ters (see Fig. 19) where the exponential profiles differ considerably

from each other. B ut even in th e case of large bore diam eters

(see Figs. 3 to 6 ), th e second exponential profile can be considered

a t least as a good guide w ith respect to th e question of a satis

factory stress distribution a t th e bore.

T here will be perhaps another occasion later to discuss th e

problem of axial disk vibrations in connection w ith th e problem

of profile choice.

In sum marizing so far, th e following characteristic features of

th e new solutions should be emphasized: (a) simple m athe

m atical representation, (fc) compliance w ith th e principle of

sim ilarity, (c) practical use in profile-curve variation w ithin th e

lim its represented by th e conical profile and th e hyperbolical

disk, (d) reliable representation of th e actu al hyperbolical disk,

and (e) tendency tow ard uniform ity of stress distribution

a t the bore. These features m ake th e new solutions well adapted

for purposes of practical disk design.

Referring to th e problem of design lim its as stated b y C. R.

Soderberg, certain indications concerning th e distribution of th e

th e middle plane (inner bore) of th e disk have been given already

in Appendix No. 1. If th is maximum stress exceeds a certain

lim it, deform ation processes of plastic character m ay be caused

w ith th e result th a t gradual changes will tak e place in th e shrink

fit. T his is a question of entirely different n ature and beyond the

scope of th is contribution.

T h e problem of norm al pressure on th e shaft under static

conditions ad m its of a simple solution. W e have seen (Fig. 8 )

th a t th e norm al pressure p , between disk and shaft under these

conditions is from 40 to 45 per cent of th e tangential stress, <r>,

a t th e bore in overspeed conditions. T he principal stresses in the

shaft under uniform compression are, according to th e solution of

a well-known special case of th e elastic problem .38 <r, = 0 in the

axial direction an d

= <rv p, in any tw o directions in the

cross-section of th e shaft. If th e problem of failure of th e shaft

under th is uniform compression is judged from the standpoint of

M ohrs theory, we w ould have to consider th e characteristic

am ount of l/ t (ox <r,) 1/ i (ay a,) or, absolutely, V 2pr, as

compared w ith th e am ount of Vi^io in th e case of th e disk. In

other words, according to M ohrs theory, th e shaft would be in

tw ice as favorable a condition as th e disk, provided th e corre

sponding cases of failure are comparable w ith each oth er .84

33 Loo. cit., A. E. H. Love, p. 144.

34 Festigkeitsversuche, by Th. von. KArmdn, Zeit. V.D.I., 1911.

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