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APM-56-8

Design an d C alculation of S team -T u rb in e


D isk W heels
By I. M ALKIN,1 PHILADELPHIA, PA.

A sim ple procedure fo r ca lc u la tio n o f ste a m -tu rb in e


disk w heels to g e th e r w ith a discussion o f som e q u estio n s
concerning th e ir elastic resistan c e in various co n d itio n s
is offered in th e follow ing a rtic le . New so lu tio n s o f th e
pro b lem o f ro ta tin g disks are developed a n d th e ir ap p lica
tio n in disk design is show n by p ra c tic a l exam ples. T h e
re su ltin g m e th o d in designing tu rb in e disks is rep rese n ted
by a g eneral schem e w ith a sta n d a rd ta b le.

is based upon th e results obtained from th e exact m ethods of


th e m athem atical th eo ry of elasticity. These results are ex
am ined in Appendix No. 1.
T he stresses in a tu rb in e disk are usually calculated for over
speed conditions. A n a tu ral question arising in design is th a t
concerning th e stresses in th e disk due to th e fit pressure when
th e wheel is a t re st; th e design having been calculated originally
for overspeed conditions. T his particu lar problem adm its of a
simple general solution, as will be shown, b y reducing th e condi
tions to those of a disk of constant thickness a t rest, th e behavior
of which is known. In th is w ay we easily find th a t th e profile
curve has practically no influence on th e stress distribution
u n d er static conditions; th e tangential as well as th e radial
stresses a t th e bore being about 60 and 40 per cent, respectively,
of th e tan g en tial stress a t th e bore in overspeed conditions.
T his result was checked on a system of disks of th e first exponen
tia l profile and graphically represented b y th e curves in Fig. 8.
These curves show th e change in th e radial and th e tangential
stresses a t th e bore corresponding to variations in th e ratio of
th e disk thickness a t th e bore to th a t a t th e rim , under static
conditions.
T he discussion tre atin g w ith th e stress distribution in a disk
a t rest is completed b y some general rem arks concerning th e
problem of th e stress variation w ith varying speed. T his is
in th e in terest of a b e tte r understanding of th e elastic behavior
of th e disk under various conditions occurring in practical
service.
T he last section of this contribution deals w ith th e influence
of a hub relief, such as shown in Fig. 9, upon th e stress distribu
tion in th e disk. T he solution of th is additional problem is
graphically represented in Figs. 9 to 14 and m ay be expressed
briefly as follows. In overspeed conditions no change of any
practical im portance is caused b y a h u b relief. U nder static
conditions, th e stresses w ithin th e disk are sm aller th a n in a
disk w ithout hub relief. Im m ediately a t th e bore th e stresses
undergo a certain modification, too, b u t th e strength, as defined
b y M ohrs theory, is no t affected.

I n t r o d u c t io n

H E calculation of steam -turbine disk wheels often forms an


actual problem of g reat im portance in steam -turbine
design, although m any m ethods for th e solution of th e
problem of rotating disks are known and used. T o be of prac
tical use in design and developm ent, a satisfactory solution of
the problems involved is expected to yield simple procedures
and practical standards and to reduce th e present cumbersome
methods of stress calculation to a minim um of m athem atical
work. To develop new solutions of this kind is th e m ain purpose
of th e present contribution.
B y introducing certain new profile curves into th e analytical
form of th e problem of ro tatin g disks, form ulas for th e stresses
are obtained, which are m uch simpler th a n those yielded by
any other analytical solution of th e problem. These curves are
suggested by certain conditions of integrability of linear differ
ential equations and are designated b y th e a u th o r as exponen
tial profiles. D ue to th e m athem atical properties of th e new
formulas th ey easily adm it of a simple and complete num erical
representation by m eans of a stan d ard tab le, w hich when once
calculated can be used in disk com putations for any special
given conditions. Such a table is presented in th is p aper for
disks of the first exponential profile. T his will be followed
in a later article by a similar tab le for th e still more im p o rtan t
second exponential profile. Exam ples of disks of th e new
profiles w ith th e corresponding stress distributions are given in
Figs. 3 to 6.
Taking into consideration th e varied wheel proportions
resulting from m odem blade dimensions, an additional investi
gation was necessary. This consisted of a revision of th e m athe
m atical fundam entals of disk design and a check of th eir validity
under th e new conditions. T he approxim ate theory of rotating
disks, developed by Stodola and used in this paper as in all
calculations in disk design thro u g h o u t th e technical literature,

T h e F ib s t E x p o n e n t ia l P r o f il e

Consider th e differential equation of ro tatin g disks in the


form [37],5

1 Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, Dr. Malkin


was the winner of the prize medal of the Teclmische Hochschule
Berlin-Charlottenburg. His theoretical studies with Professor Dr.
Max Planck and Professor Dr. R. von Mises at the University of
Berlin were preceded by four years of practical work in mechanical
engineering with industrial companies. Dr. Malkin was connected
with the AEG-Turbinenfabrik, Berlin, in charge of research work
in elasticity, especially in disk vibrations, and with the Institute of
Applied Mathematics and Mechanics of Dr. R. von Mises at the
University of Berlin. Since January, 1932, he has been connected
with the Westinghouse Company, South Philadelphia Works.
Contributed by the Applied Mechanics Division and presented
at the Annual Meeting, New York, N. Y., December 4 to 8, 1933,
of T h e A m e r i c a n S o c ie t y or M e c h a n ic a l E n o i n e e b s .
N o t e : Statements and opinions advanced in papers are to b e
understood as individual expressions of their authors, and not those
of the Society.

w herein E is Youngs m odulus of elasticity; v, Poissons ratio;


a, th e angular velocity of th e ro tatin g disk given b y th e formula
30a = irn, n being th e num ber of revolutions per m inute; pi, the
specific mass of th e disk m aterial; r, th e radius; 2y, th e thick
ness of th e disk; an d u th e radial displacem ent. T he coefficients
of th e differential equation, nam ely

585

2 See Appendix No. 2.

586

TRANSACTIONS OF TH E AM ERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL EN GIN EERS

being free of th e function u, which is to be determ ined, a new


profile y = f(r) shall be introduced in using th e following pro
cedure suggested by elem entary m ethods of integration of linear
differential equations.3
B y integrating th e differential equation, term b y term , ac
cording to th e rules of p artia l integration we obtain

where Pi = dP i/dr, and so on. H ence th e order of E q uation


[37] is lowered if F 0 P i' + P 2" = 0, or

This is a differential equation for th e profile function y.


solution is

Its

where a and 0 are th e tw o constants of integration. Only


positive values of th e constant /3 will be considered in studying
the first exponential profile, for reasons which will be indicated.
For th e profile [1] th e original differential E quation [37]
assumes th e form

or

corresponding to th e differential E quation [42], for th e stress


<rr.6 W e may restrict ourselves to th e consideration of the
homogeneous equation, because th e particular integral corre
sponding to w2 is determ ined b y [3].
B y introducing our new profile [1] into E quation [4] and in
using z = ftr4/,J as a new independent variable, we have, because
of

th e differential equation

instead of E quation [4].


B y following th e m ethod indicated b y th eo ry ,5 we find th a t
th e last integral can be represented by an infinite series of the
form

Furtherm ore it is known from th e teachings of th e theory of


functions of a complex variable, th a t th e domain of convergency
of th is series is determ ined by th a t point (singular point) nearest
to z = 0, for which th e coefficient of dV r/dz2 in [5] vanishes.
This coefficient being z2, th e radius of convergency will be equal
to <s; th e Series [6] will converge for any finite value of z =
Indeed; b y introducing Series [6] into E quation [5] we
find

C being an arb itra ry constant of integration.


In considering th e reduced equation
T his shows th a t our Series [6] converges faster th a n th a t for
th e exponential function e', th e ratio an/a n - \ in th e la tte r
case being equal to
and p u ttin g tem porarily C = 0 we find one of th e tw o integrals
of th e reduced E q uation [37]. T h is first integral is easily
found to be
As th e series for el converges in th e entire complex plane, o u r
Series [6] converges even faster. From [7] we obtain b y intro
ducing n = 1, 2, 3, 4, . . . . ,
D being again a constant of integration.
T he p articu lar integral corresponding to th e term w ith u 2 in
original E q uation [37] can now be determ ined b y variation of
th e constant D occurring in th e la st integral. If v is assumed
to be equal to 1/3, th e p articu lar integral appears in a finite
form , nam ely

Correspondingly, th e th ird integral for a, appears in th e form


In using E quations [36]4 we find th e corresponding expressions
for th e stresses. T he la st integral corresponding to th e constant
C, om itted before, can be determ ined as follows.5
C onsider th e homogeneous differential equation
In su b stitu tin g th is series into E quation [35] we find th e expres
sion

3 A. Forsyth, Differential Equations, German edition, Braun


schweig, 1912, p. 101.
4 See Appendix No. 2.
6 A. R. Forsyth, Differential Equations, German edition,
Braunschweig, 1912, p. 573.

as th e general term of th e series representing th e th ird integral,


for at, which is, accordingly, given by
6 See Appendix No. 2.

APM-56-8

APPLIED MECHANICS

By introducing the Integrals [2] and [3] for th e displacem ent


u in E quations [36] we find th e corresponding integrals for
the stresses a r and a t, and in using those integrals as well as
expressions [8 ] and [9] we o btain th e complete solution in the
form

587

th e rim are to be calculated from [13], i.e., z0 = (3r04/ 3, Za = 0a


(3) F or these tw o values of z th e corresponding values of the
functions f(z), g{z), <p i ( z ) , >2 (2 ), <h(z), ^ 2 (2 ) are to be tak en from
th e stan d ard ta b le and introduced into formulas [1 2 ].
(4) From th e tw o b o undary conditions, o> = 0 (or a , = p0,
where p0 is a com paratively sm all am ount; see example in the
following section) a t th e bore (r = ra), and a r r a,a, w here a,a
is a given am ount following from th e centrifugal forces of the
blading for r = a, E quations [12] yield th e corresponding
values of th e constants K and L.
(5) W ith these values of th e constants K and L th e stresses
o> and at can be calculated easily for any point 2 by using E q ua
tions [1 2 ] and th e stan d ard tab le .

where K and L are arb itra ry constants to be determ ined from


the boundary conditions, wrhile A is given by

n being the mass density and w th e angular velocity, and

the profile curve being given by formula [1 ].


The functions /(z), g(z), <p i ( z ) , >2(2), ^ 1(2 ), ^ 2(2 ) can be calcu
lated once for all and p u t together into a stan d ard tab le to
be used in practical design. Such a standard table is given
in the next section and is followed by a detailed example of disk
calculations.
General P

rocedure

:n D

e s ig n in g

x p o n e n t ia l

is k s o f t h e

ir s t

r o f il e

The results of the foregoing section can be summarized as


follows: For a disk of th e profile

the radial stress o> and the tangential stress at can be represented
by the formulas

h0 and ha being the boundary values of y, while

F u rth e r practical rules are given in th e next section which


covers a detailed example of disk design.
F inally it should be noted th a t, for practical purposes, it is
of some advantage to introduce r 2 = z3^ 0 ~ /* into th e term s
A r2/(z) and A r 2g(z) in E quations [12]. These term s then appear
in th e form A 13 s/ 2F(z) and A t3 3^!G(z), respectively, where
F and G are functions of z only. The stresses, [12], then are
independent of r, being functions of z, of 8 determ ined by [14],
and of th e constants K and L (boundary conditions).
P

where n = mass density and u = angular velocity, K and L


being constants determ ined by two conditions concerning the
boundary stresses (see operation 4). T he functions f{z), g(z),
<pi(z)i >2( 2 ) , 'P1 ( 2 ) , tote) finally follow from th e stan d ard table.
The general procedure will consist of th e following operations
(see Fig. 1):
(1) From the values of r, a and ha, which usually are given
in practical design, and h0, which has to be assumed and varied,
the constant 0 is to be calculated according to [14].
(2) W ith the constant /3 th e values of z a t th e bore and a t

r a c t ic a l

xam ple

of

is k

e sig n

ir st

x p o n e n t ia l

r o f il e

We present now, following th e general scheme given in the


last section, a practical example of disk design which involves
solving a problem characterized by th e following d ata:
A disk is to be calculated for r0 = 6.75 in., a = 18.75 in.,
th e w idth a t th e rim , determ ined b y th e dimensions of the
blading, being b = 2ha = 4 in., while th e working speed is
n = 3600 rpm and th e pull exerted b y th e centrifugal forces
of th e blading a t 20 per cent overspeed is a, = 13,000 lb per
sq in. for r a.

TRANSACTIONS OF T H E AM ERICAN SOCIETY OP MECHANICAL EN GIN EERS

588

ST A N D A R D T A BLE FO R D ISK S OF T H E F IR S T E X P O N E N T IA L
PR O FIL E

z
0

0.01
0.02

0 .0 3
0 .0 4
0 .0 5
0 .0 6
0 .0 7
0 .0 8
0 .0 9
0.10

0.11

0.12
0 .1 3
0 .1 4
0 .1 5
0 .1 6
0 .1 7
0 .1 8
0 .1 9

0.20

0.21
0.22

0 .2 3

0.24
0 .2 5
0 .2 6
0 .2 7
0 .2 8
0 .2 9
0 .3 0

0 .3 1
0 .3 2
0 .3 3
0 .3 4
0 .3 5
0 .3 6
0 .3 7
0 .3 8
0 .3 9
0 .4 0
0 .4 1
0 .4 2
0 .4 3
0 .4 4
0 .4 5
0 .4 6
0 .4 7
0 .4 8
0 .4 9
0 .5 0
0 .5 1
0 .5 2
0 .5 3
0 .5 4
0 .5 5
0 .5 6
0 .5 7
0 .5 8
0 .5 9
0 .6 0
0 .6 1
0 .6 2
0 .6 3
0 .6 4
0 .6 5

0.66
0 .6 7

0.68

0 .6 9
0 .7 0
0 .7 5
0 .8 0
0 .8 5
0 .9 0
0 .9 5

1.00

1.05

1.10

1.15
1.20

1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
1.55
1.60
1 .7 0
1.80
1.90

2.00
2.10
2.20

2 .3 0
2 .4 0
2 .5 0

/(*)
----- CO

CO

5939100.0000
728550.0000
215255.5555

89775.0000
45420.0000
25961.1111
. 16139.6426
.
10668.7500
7389.7119
5310.0000

6100700.0000
775350.0000
223566.6666
100235.0000
52140.0000
30671.1111
19647.5199
13368.7500
9542.7982
7070.0000

3930.2012
2980.5555
2306.7290
1816.1832
1451.1135
1174.2186
960.6935
793.6180
661.1848
555.0000

5497.9696
4 225.0000
3376.5495
2746.7961
2268.8915
1899.2186
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1188.6070
1035.0000

469.1427
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340.5840
292.3549
252.0000
218.0009
189.4683
164.6505
143.6336
125.5551

907.9636
801.9126
712.6055
636.7936
572.0000
516.2246
4 6 8 .2058
425.8751
389.0549
356.6661

109.9346
96.3863
84.5894
74.1617
65.2436
5 7 .3038
50.3008
4 4 .1100
3 8 .6229
3 3 .7500

328.0398
302.6362
279.9977
259.6280
241.5737
225.2043
210.4173
197.0166
184.8422
173.7500

29.4099
25.5424
2 2 .0848
18.9890
16.2139
13.7213
11.4797
9 .4 6 1 6
7 .6 4 2 0

163.6137
154.3402
145.8272
137.9965
130.7818
124.1178
117.9529
112.2390
106.9335

.
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$1(2)
CO

1.0000

1.0000

989.8500
346.2690
186.4090
119.6920
84.6203
6 3 .5 7 9 0

9 .8007
440.2156
3 3 .2304
2 7 .9 5 8 7

1016.7878
365.5067
202.2745
133.5710
97.1567
7 5 .1387
60.6103
50.4292
42.9563
37.2783

1.0080
1.0161
1.0243
1.0326
1.0409
1.0493
1.0577
1.0662
1.0748
1.0835

1.0054
1.0107
1.0162
1.0216
1.0271
1.0327
1.0383
1.0439
1.0496
1.0550

1.0923

9 .0 5 2 9
8 .1 9 3 5

32.8409
29.2935
26.4017
2 4 .0079
21.9987
2 0 .2 9 2 0
18.8269
17.5584
16.4544
15.4765
14.6142
13.8467
13.1603
12.5417
11.9843
11.4787
11.0175
10.5975

1.0610
1.0668
1.0727
1.0785
1.0845
1.0904
1.0964
1.1025
1.1086
1.1147

9(e)

102.0000

CD

_ 2 3 .8659

20.6139
17.9790
15.8100
13.9991
12.4686
11.1609
10.0334

^ 2(2)

1.1011
1.1100

9 .8 5 8 0

1.1190
1.1280
1.1372
1.1464
1.1557
1.1651
1.1745
1.1841
1.1937
1.2034
1.2132
1.2231
1.2331
1.2431
1.2533
1.2635
1.2738

3.0 0 1 7
2.7 3 8 8
2.4 9 4 7
2.2 6 7 7
2 .0 5 6 0
1.8580
1.6725
1.4982
1.3341
1.1794

9 .5 3 1 8
9 .2 3 0 5
8.9517
8.6931
8 .4 5 2 4
8 .2 2 8 3
8.0 1 9 4
7 .8 2 3 8
7 .6 4 0 8
7 .4 6 9 4

1.2842
1.2947
1.3053
1.3160
1.3268
1.3376
1.3485
1.3596
1.3708
1.3820

1.1209
1.1271
1.1334
1.1397
1.1461
1.1525
1.1589
1.1655
1.1720
1.1786
1.1852
1.1920
1.1987
1.2055
1.2123
1.2192
1.2262
1.2332
1.2403
1.2474

1.0331
0.8 9 4 6
0.7 6 3 3
0.6 3 8 4
0.5 1 9 5
0.4 0 6 2
0.2 9 7 9
0.1 9 4 4
0 .0 9 5 2

7 .3 0 8 4
7 .1 5 7 2
7 .0 1 4 7
6 .8 8 0 6
6 .7 5 3 9
6 .6 3 4 3
6.5 2 1 4
6 .4 1 4 7
6 .3 1 3 6
6 .2 1 7 7

1.3933
1.4048
1.4163
1.4280
1.4397
1.4516
1.4635
1.4756
1.4877
1.5000

1.2545
1.2617
1.2690
1.2763
1.2837
1.2911
1.2986
1.3061
1.3137
1.3214

0.1 7 9 4
0 .2 6 4 2
0.3 4 5 9
0 .4 2 4 9
0.5013
0.5753
0.6469
0.7 1 6 5

6.1 2 9 9
6.0 4 0 7
5.9 5 8 8
5.8 8 1 2
5.8 0 7 4
5.7371
5.6703
5 .6 0 6 8
5.5 4 6 4

1.5124
1.5249
1.5374
1.5502
1.5630
1.5759
1.5889
1.6021
1.6153

1.3291
1.3368
1.3447
1.3526
1.3605
1.3685
1.3766
1.3847
1.3929

7.4 3 5 6
6 .7 6 2 3
6.1 6 1 7
5.6221
5.1361
4 .6 9 5 8
4 .2 9 4 9
3 .9 2 9 4
3.5 9 4 1
3.2861

0.0000
+ 0.0 9 1 5

10.2120

6.0000

4.5 1 6 2
3.1 7 4 5
1.9606
0.8611
0.1353
1.0388
1.8582
2.6 0 1 6
3.2 7 6 5

97.4031
93.1146
89.1087
8 5 .3600
81.8481
78.5528
75.4575
72.5473
69.8056

3.8888

4.4 4 1 9
4.9 4 9 6
5.4 0 7 4
5.8 2 2 8
6.1 9 9 4
6.5407
6 .8 4 9 6
7.1292
7.3836
7.6 0 9 4

67.2225
64.7836
62.4800
60.2517
58.2398
56.2857
54.4327
5 2 .6740
51.0019
4 9 .4088
47.9007

0.7 8 4 1
0.8 4 9 9
0.9 1 3 9
0.9763
1.0371
1.0966
1.1547
1.2116
1.2673
1.3218
1.3754

5.4 8 8 8
5.4339
5.3 8 1 7
5 .3 3 1 9
5.2845
5.2 3 9 2
5.1961
5 .1 5 5 0
5.1 1 5 9
5.0 7 8 6
5.0 4 3 0

1.6287
1.6422
1.6559
1.6696
1.6834
1.6974
1.7115
1.7258
1.7401
1.7546
1.7692

1.4011
1.4094
1.4178
1.4262
1.4347
1.4433
1.4519
1.4606
1.4693
1.4781
1.4870

8.4 4 4 5
8.9062
9.1227
9.1769
9.1 2 3 7
9.0 0 0 0
8 .8 3 0 6
8.6326
8.4 1 7 8

41.3331
36.0938
31.8461
28.3539
25.4468
23 .0000
2 0 .9200
19.1359
17.5937

1.6297
1.8662
2.0 8 9 9
2.3 0 4 5
2.5133
2.7 1 8 3
2.9 2 1 6
3.1 2 4 8
3.3292

4 .8 8 9 0
4.7691
4.6 7 7 4
4.6 0 9 2
4.5 5 1 8
4.5 3 0 5
4.5 1 5 1
4 .5 1 3 5
4 .5 2 4 2

1.8442
1.9225
2.0 044
2.0899
2.1792
2.2 727
2.3701
2.4722
2 .5 787

1.5325
1.5797
1.6287
1.6797
1.7326
1.7876
1.8447
1.9042
1.9659

8.1 9 4 4
7.9 6 8 0
7 .7 4 2 4
7.5202
7.3032
7.0926
6.8 8 8 9
6.6 9 2 6
6.5039
6 .1 4 9 0

16.2499
15 .0 7 2 0
14.0327
13.1108
12.2888
11.5520
10.8890
10.2896
9.7461
8.7993

3 .5 3 6 0
3 .7 4 6 2
3.9 6 0 8
4.1 8 0 7
4 .4 0 6 5
4 .6 3 9 0
4.8791
5.1 2 7 2
5.3841
5.9 2 7 0

4 .5 4 6 2
4 .5 7 8 7
4.6 2 1 0
4.6 7 2 5
4.7 3 2 9
4.8 0 1 8
4.8791
4 .9 6 4 4
5.0 5 7 8
5.2 6 8 5

2.6902
2.8 065
2.9283
3.0 555
3.1 885
3.3 275
3.4729
3 .6 250
3.7 839
4 .1238

2.0301
2.0969
2.1663
2.2385
2:3135
2.3917
2.4729
2.5575
2.6454
2.8323

5.8231
5.5241
5 .2 5 0 0
4.9983
4.7671
4.5541
4 .3 5 7 6
4 .1 7 6 0

8.0 0 4 2
7.3291
6.7 5 0 0
6.2 4 8 8
5.8113
5.4269
5.0867
4 .7 8 4 0

6.5 1 3 2
7.1481
7.8373
8.5 8 6 9
9.4 0 3 6
10.2941
11.2663
12.3271

5.5112
5 .7 8 6 5
6.0957
6.4402
6.8 2 2 3
7 .2 4 4 0
7.7 0 8 5
8.2184

4 .4 955
4.9021
5.3468
5.835
6 .3 6 8
6 .951
7.5 89
8.2 82

3.0348
3.2546
3.4922
3.7 5 0
4.0 3 0
4 .3 3 5
4 .6 6 5
5.0 2 4

_,
.

In using our first exponential profile [1 ] we find, ac


cording to operation 1 of th e scheme, given in th e last
section,

B y varying th e ratio 2h0/4 w ithin th e lim its 2 and 3,


respectively, we o btain th e corresponding values of /3
and, according to operation 2 of th e scheme, those of z0
= /3r4/, Z(i = /3a4/, from th e following table:
T A BL E l
2Ao/4.0
2.0
2 .5
3 .0

0
0.0187
0.0247
0.0296

0.238
0.315
0.378

0.9 3 0
1.230
1.475

Now we introduce th e boundary conditions accord


ing to operations 3 and 4 of th e scheme. W e first re
quire th a t, a t th e overspeed na = 1.2 X 3600 = 4320 rpm ,
th e pressure between th e sh aft and th e disk should disap
pear, th a t is, th e radial stress o> m u st be equal to zero a t
th e bore (r = r0) for n 0 = 4320 rpm , while a t th e rim
(r = o) th e disk is affected b y a radial stress a, = 13,000
lb per sq in., as indicated above. T he stresses are given
b y form ulas [12], wherein th e constant A is

we find

where

and
Zo = 569/(z0)

Za = 13,000 4395/(2*)

In using our stan d ard tab le we find b y interpolation the


values which are tab u late d in Table 2. (See page 589.)
Correspondingly we will have from our Form ula [12],
th e following approxim ate values:
N o.

1
2
3

T A BLE 3
2 V 4 .0
2. 0

2 .5
3 .0

<rto (lb/in.*)
59,000
52.500
49.500

As a result of our prelim inary calculations, we obtain the


curve shown in Fig. 2, representing th e tangential stress
o-io a t th e bore as a function of th e ratio h o / h a = 27io/4.0
for given constant values of a , = 0 a t th e bore (r = r0)
and <Tr = 13,000 lb per sq in. a t the rim (r = a), re-

APPLIED MECHANICS
TABLE 2
zo

/(z o )

Zo

<pi(zo)

<pi(zo)

ta

f (z a )

0 .2 3 8 300 171,000 5 .7 5
0 .3 1 5 108
6 1 ,500 2 .8 5
0 .3 7 8 46
25,900 1 .5 5

1 .2 2
1 .3 0
1 .3 6

0 .9 3 0
1 .2 3 0
1 .4 7 5

9 .1 5
8 .0 5
7 .0 0

Za

<pi(za)

2 7 ,200 2 .4 3
2 2 ,400 3 .6 5
17,800 4 .7 5

<p2(za) g( z o)
(zo) 'Mzr)
2 .1 5 650 1 2 .6 5 1 .1 4
2 .7 7 323 9 .3 5 1 .1 9
3 .4 0 2 0 0 7 .8 5 1 .2 4

spectively. For 2/i0/4.0 = 1 th e ordinate is calculated from the


known formulas for the disk of constant thickness inasmuch
as the use of those for our exponential profile requires, in this
special case, a complicated passage to th e lim it 0 > 0 .
Even by the approxim ate result represented by Fig. 2 the
conclusion is justified, th a t th e rate of the decrease in th e am ount
of the tangential stress a t the bore is getting smaller and smaller
with the increase in the value of th e ratio ho/ha. This result
can be assumed to be of general character although it is ob
tained here for a special case.
From the diagram Fig. 2 we have now to decide upon the
value of ho/ha = 2/i0/4.0 on the basis of the maximum admissible
value of <ri0. The question of th e maximum admissible working
stress a t the bore in overspeed conditions will n o t be discussed
here generally. F or our example we consider m0 = 52,500 lb
per sq in. as a permissible am ount for th e tangential stress a t
the bore for 20 per cent overspeed, corresponding to th e value
h0/ha = 2.5. Then we will have

in T able 2.

APM-56-8

589

C orrespondingly, w ith ovo = 500 lb per sq in.


for r = r0 a t th e overspeed, Z 0 = 500 + 12.5
X 6.502 X 125.56 = 65,900 instead of Z 0 =
61,500 in T able 2; Za = 13,000 12.5 X 18.941
X 7.968 = 22,750 instead of Za = 22,400
T herefore

W ith these values of K and L we o btain from Table 4 th e following

= 0.0247

from T able 1, giving a profile curve represented by

according to th e sam e table.

T he constant a is given by

Now we use again our stan d ard tab le of th e first exponential


profile and obtain th e following table:
TABLE 4
z
0 .3 0
0 .6 0
0 .9 0
1.10
1 .2 5

y (in.)
5 .0 7
3 .7 6
2 .7 8
2 .2 8
1 .9 6

r (in.)
/(*)
6 .5 0 1 2 5 .5 5 5
1 0 .9 4
3 .8 8 9
1 4 .8 3
9 .1 7 7
1 7 .2 1
8 .6 3 3
1 8 .9 4
7 .9 6 8

o(z)
3 5 6 .6 6 6
6 7 .2 2 3
2 8 .3 5 4
1 9 .1 3 6
1 5 .0 7 2

Mz)
3 .2 8 6
0 .7 8 4
2 .3 0 5
3 .1 2 5
3 .7 4 6

9 .8 5 8
5 .4 8 9
4 .6 0 9
4 .5 1 4
4 .5 7 9

<pz(z)
1 .2 7 4
1 .6 2 9
2 .0 9 0
2 .4 7 2
2 .8 0 7

^ t(z)

1 .1 7 9
1 .4 0 1
1 .6 8 0
1 .9 0 4
2 .0 9 7

Instead of the given lim iting radii r0 = 6.75 in. and a = 18.75
in., we introduced in this table boundary values of r approxi
m ately equal to r 0 and a, respectively, which in our standard
table correspond to tab u lated values of z and its functions
/(z), g(z), <ei(z), tpi(z) ipi(z), i/-2(z). The reasons for this pro
cedure are as follows.
In using interpolations as indicated above, we m ultiply by
large numbers the errors introduced b y these interpolations in
the course of our calculations. Considerable inaccuracy can
be caused hereby in th e results. I t is m uch b etter, therefore,
to proceed in the way shown in our T able 4, nam ely, to use
numbers tabulated in th e stan d ard tab le w ithout interpola
tions. N aturally, some deviations will be caused by th e fact
th a t, in the special example treated , th e boundary conditions
actually refer to z0 = 0.315 and za = 1.230, according to th e
Tables 1 and 2, and not to z0 = 0.30 and z = 1.25, according
to Table 4. B ut these deviations will be sm aller generally
than the errors produced b y interpolations. And, besides,
these deviations due to inaccuracy in fulfilling th e boundary
conditions are of negligible order, because in practical cases
those boundary values cannot be sta te d very accurately anyway.
In using Table 4, w ith th e approxim ate values of z 0 and za as
given by the first and the last lines of th a t table, respectively,
we find th a t

F ig s . 3 a n d 4

stress distribution in using th e stress Form ulas [12], according


to operation 5 of th e scheme given in th e la st section:
TABLE 5
r ( in .)

V (in.)
5 .0 7
3 .7 6
2 .7 8
2 .2 8
1 .9 6

6 .5 0
1 0 .9 4
1 4 .8 3
1 7 .2 1
1 8 .9 4

<rr ( l b / i n . 2)

500
13,850
15,700
14,600
13,000

a t ( lb /i n .a)
5 2 ,4 0 0
3 4 ,2 0 0
2 8 ,2 0 0
25,2 0 0
2 3 ,4 0 0

T he profile curve as given b y th e first tw o columns of th is table


is represented b y Fig. 3. T he stress distribution according to
th e th ird and th e fo u rth colum ns of T able 5 is shown in Fig. 4.
According to th e general conclusions draw n in Appendix No. 1
th e maxim um tangential stress a t th e bore will be a b o u t 5 per
cent larger th a n th e average am ount given in our T able 5.
T he m axim um stress, therefore, in our example will be about
55,000 lb per sq in.
As to th e profile curve, it does n o t differ appreciably from a
straig h t line. This, obviously, will be still more nearly the
case for disks w ith a ratio h0/h a < 2.5, th e radial dimensions
being of th e sam e order as in th e example treated.
T

he

Second E

x p o n e n t ia l

r o f il e

If th e foregoing m ethod of developing th e first exponential


profile be applied to E qu atio n [41 ],7 a new solution is obtained
7 See Appendix No. 2.

590

TRANSACTIONS OF TH E AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS

characterized by a profile curve for which

and which m ay be designated as th e second exponential pro


file. The stresses are, w ith v = 1/3, given b y th e expressions
all calculations can be accomplished in the m anner outlined for
th e first exponential profile.
Two

C o m p a r is o n o f t h e

P r o file s

I t is, of course, of practical interest to compare th e two ex


ponential profiles. Suppose

are th e profile curves joining the point r = r0, y = y0 with the


point r a, y = ya. T hen we will have
where A and B are th e tw o arb itra ry constants of integration,
while 0 is determ ined by th e ratio h0/h a; h and h a being again
From these tw o equations we find

T his equation shows th a t yn is always smaller th an yi, provided


th a t a t th e boundaries (r = r 0 and r = a) yi and yu are, respec
tively, equal to each other. The profile curve y\ has a hori
zontal, and th e profile curve yn a vertical tangent a t the point
r 0 (see Fig. 5).
P

r a c t ic a l

xam ple

of

is k

e s ig n

Second E

x p o n e n t ia l

r o f il e

As an example we tre a t here the same problem, as in the last


section, in using our second exponential profile. The pro
cedure is essentially th e sam e as indicated in the scheme given
above for th e first exponential profile and we find, for h0/h a
= 2.5,

We introduce th e values z0 = 0.93; z = 1.86 into our further


calculations, according to the practical rules given in the last
section. By substituting
the values of y a t th e bore (r = r0) and a t th e rim (r = a), re
spectively.
This solution is rem arkable for th e fact th a t both of the
stresses as well as th e profile are given b y finite expressions;
as to the exponential function e, occurring in those expressions,
it is tabulated very extensively. Therefore th e formulas of
the second exponential profile can be used for steep profile
curves as well; th a t is, for curves characterized by large values
of 0. T his is of some practical advantage for calculation of the
disk p a rt connecting th e wheel w ith th e rim. For such a p a rt
0 has a large negative value, in either of bo th profiles, and the
form ulas of th e first exponential profile cannot be used, be
cause in the vicinity of such 0 values th e series occurring in the
stress expressions converge very slowly. Form ulas [16] and
[17] are, of course, free of such objections. This explains why
positive values of ( 0) were n o t considered in our Form ulas
[1], [10], and [11], I t m ust be rem arked, however, th a t the
stress formulas are th e less accurate, th e steeper th e profile
curve becomes.
B y tabulating the functions

<r, = 250 lb per sq in. for z = zo = 0.93


o> = 13,200 lb per sq in. for z = Za = 1.86
we find from E quations [16] and [17]

W ith these values of the constants A and B and with th a t of 0


th e following table is obtained by using some interm ediate
values of z:
TABLE 6
z

a r ( l b / i n . 2)

a t ( l b / i n . 2)

r (in .)

V (in .)

0 .9 3

250
4,6 5 0
13,700
17,000
14,800
13,200

5 3 ,000
4 7 ,400
3 6 ,3 0 0
3 0 ,8 0 0
26,6 0 0
24,500

6 .6 5
7 .4 2
1 0 .3 7
1 3 .6 0
1 7 .1 5
1 8 .8 5

5 .0 7
4 .7 5
3 .6 8
2 .8 7
2 .2 3

1.00

1 .2 5

1.50

1 .7 5
1 .8 6

2 .00

T he profile and th e stress distribution according to this table


are shown in Figs. 5 and 6, respectively. For a comparison with
th e results obtained above for th e first exponential profile
(see th e first example) th e profile curve and th e stress distribu
tion, represented by Figs. 3 and 4, respectively, are shown dotted
in Figs. 5 and 6.
A standard tab le for the second exponential profile will
be available later.

APPLIED MECHANICS
Str esses D

u e to

it

ressur e

l a s t ic

e sist a n c e

it h

V a r y in g S p e e d

The boundary conditions for th e problem of stresses (p,, pi)


in a disk due to fit pressure in resting conditions are 8

where ato is the tangential stress a t th e bore for = wo (over


speed). W ith these boundary conditions th e problem is to be
confined to special profiles. I t is, however, possible to draw
general conclusions from the following consideration.
For a disk of constant thickness the general solution for stresses
due to fit pressure under static conditions is given b y th e for
m ulas9

(C i

APM-56-8

591

L and M are arb itrary constants of integration and /i(r), fi{r),


gi(r), gz{r), h\(r), h2(r) are th e integral functions for the profile
considered, th e boundary conditions are to be stated from which
th e constants L and M should follow as functions of th e speed .
D esignate b y p r(w) and pt(u) th e disk stresses as functions
of . T hey usually are calculated for th e overspeed = w0
and appear th en as functions of r, so th a t, w ith our former
designations,

The boundary conditions for a, and at are, as we know,

= const, and C 2 = const.)

By introducing the boundary conditions given above, we find

where 2r0 and 2a are the bore and the rim diam eter, respectively.
The stress distribution given by [18] is shown graphically in
Fig. 7. The formulas [18] together w ith Fig. 7 adm it of a
simple interpretation. As soon as th e ratio a /r0 exceeds a cer
tain value, say a fro ^ 3, th e stress distribution according to
the curves pr and pt in Fig. 7 does not v ary essentially w ith
varying a. The maximum values of pr and pt always take
place a t the bore, and these maximum values are always about
40 to 60 per cent respectively of th e maximum tangential stress
ato a t the bore under overspeed conditions. In other words,
only th e parts of the disk in th e vicinity of th e bore are essen
tially carrying the fit loading under static conditions, an increase
of th e outer radius a being of little influence on th e functions
[18].10
This result can be easily generalized for disks of other profiles.
We have only to realize th a t the disk of constant thickness
investigated above can be subdivided into several separate rings;
the larger the diam eter of any of them , th e less its influence on
the stress distribution of the whole disk under static conditions,
as shown above, and the less, consequently, th e stress variations
in the disk due to the reduced thickness of th a t ring as compared
with the original thickness of th e parallel sided disk. This means
th a t the statem ent developed above for disks of constant thick
ness is qualitatively and, with a certain approxim ation, also
quantitatively true for disks of any profile.
This general result shall be checked now in calculating, for a
special disk, the Stresses pr and pi due to fit pressure under
static conditions. The question m ay be treated on a som ewhat
more general basis by considering th e disk as ro tatin g with
varying speeds. This is useful for a b etter understanding of
the elastic behavior of th e disk in various conditions of the
actual service.
Having the general solution for rotatin g disks in th e form

where A is a certain constant determ ined b y th e profile, while


8 See A ppendix N o. 2.
9 A. S todola, S team T u rb in e s , sec. 76, E q . 22, w ith w = 0 an d

where r0 and a are th e radii of th e bore and th e rim respectively


wrhile aa designates th e radial tension a t th e rim exerted by the
centrifugal forces of th e blading a t th e overspeed. These
boundary conditions for ar result in a corresponding value of
at a t th e bore, equal to ato, and from th e values of aro and ato
a t th e bore, for = w0, th e boundary conditions [43] and [44]
for p, = pr(w = 0 ) and pt = pt{oi = 0 ) under static conditions
are obtained, as showTi in Appendix No. 2. Now, by using the
same m anner of reasoning we find th e condition

where K is a constant independent of th e speed u, to be true


for any speed w. This condition can be w ritten, with close
approxim ation, in th e form 11

A = 0.
10 Cf. A. F oeppl, F est.igkeitslehre, S ect. 56 ( D ickw andige R oehre n ).

11 See Appendix No. 2.

592

TRANSACTIONS OF T H E AM ERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL EN GIN EERS

where <rto is th e tangential stress a t th e bore (r = ro) for co


(overspeed). A t the outer boundary, r = a, we will have

coo

If we su b stitu te co = 0 in th e general E quations [22] and


calculate th e corresponding values of L and M , the following
expressions for th e stresses due to fit pressure under static
conditions are obtained from [21 ]:

where <ra is th e value indicated above. The boundary condi


tions [19] and [20] are to be introduced into

from which we obtain

According to th e general statem ent developed above these


stresses m ust reach am ounts of about

respectively, a t th e bore, for any profile, if o ^ 3r0.


tu tin g r = ro into [23] we find

By substi

These are tw o equations for th e tw o constants L and M . These


constants of integration, therefore, appear as functions of the
speed co and in consequence th e problem of stress distribution in
term s of th e speed is solved.
F or the disk of constant thickness, for instance, we have
These formulas shall be applied to our first exponential profile

for a special example. Consider a disk w ith a = 21 in., r0 =


7 in., while th e ratio yo/ya m ay vary between 1 and 3. For
yo/ya = 1 th e formulas for disks of constant thickness are to
be used. Generally we will have

W ith th e given values of a and r0 we find th e values of Zo and


Za according to th e formulas
and th e constants of integration are
and then, b y using th e standard table, w ith th e symbols <pi,
<p2f ii, and fa, occurring in th a t table, th e corresponding values
of fi, fiy gi, and g<i are obtained as follows:
So we finally have for th e disk of constant thickness

TA BL E 7
v * /y o

!2
0
IZa

2 .0
3.0

representing th e stresses for any speed betw een co = 0 and


a = wo, provided th a t ato and aa are th e tangential stress a t the
bore and th e radial stress a t th e rim , respectively, a t th e over
speed. If w = 0 is substituted, th e solution as developed above
applies to stresses due to fit pressure under static conditions.
R eferring to th e general E quations [21 ] for p T (a) and pt(a)
and E quations [22] for th e constants L and M as functions of
th e speed o> for any profile, it is easily seen th a t b o th stresses
always can be represented in th e form

where Fi(r) and Ft(r) are certain functions of r. In o th er


words, th e stresses v ary proportionally to cos, th e proportionality
factor being a function of r.
12 See Appendix No. 2.

0.2 08
0.902
0.330
1.430

/i * <pi
7 .5
2.3
2.5
4.5

ft
14.6
4.6
9.0
4.8

ffi <ps
1.19
2.10
1.31
3.28

fft m 'pi
1.12
1.69
1.20
2 .36

B y substituting these values in Form ulas [24] we find th e ratios


Pro(0)/<ri0 and pta(0)/ata for th e exponential profile w ith yo/ya
= 2 and yo/ya = 3, respectively. For th e disk of constant
thickness th e aforem entioned ratios are to be found from the
Form ulas [18]. T he results obtained in this way are set forth
in th e following table:
TABLE 8
y o /y a

2
3

Pro (0)/<Tto
0.444
0.397
0.369

Pio (0)/<r
0.556
0.6 03
0.631

These results are graphically represented in Fig. 8. From these


it is evident th a t, even for ro/a = 1/3, th e stresses due to fit
pressure under static conditions do n o t depend essentially on
th e form of th e disk; which is in full accordance w ith th e state
m ent developed above. T he q u an titativ e agreem ent w ith the
result yielded b y th e general consideration is very satisfactory.
An im p o rtan t result is expressed, furtherm ore, by E quation
[19] in its original physical meaning. The strength of an elastic

APM-56-8

A PPLIED MECHANICS

593

body is characterized, according to th e well-known theory of


O tto M ohr, by the difference of th e largest and th e smallest of
the three principal stresses. The axial stress at, i.e., th e principal
stress along the axial direction, being approxim ately equal to
zero, th e difference a t th e bore will be always equal to pt p r,
because a t the bore pro(u) ^ 0 and pio(w) > 0. According to
E quation [19] this difference in stress values a t th e bore is
always th e same a t any speed. Therefore, we have, w ith close
approximation, the general result, th a t the strength of the disk
at the bore is always the same at any speed within the limits

0^ u<

OJO*

is k

it h

ub

e l ie f

An instructive example for application of th e results developed


in the last section will be obtained b y studying stress conditions
in disks w ith hub relief as shown in Fig. 9.
First consider a disk designed w ithout hub relief (Fig. 10).
The corresponding stresses m ay be represented b y Fig. 11, the
boundary conditions being given, for w = wo, by th e relations

where cra is the tension due to th e centrifugal forces of the


blading. Of course, th e stress curves in Fig. 11 are also com
pletely determined, if the conditions [25] are replaced by

In other words, the stress curves are completely determ ined if


two conditions are to be fulfilled corresponding to th e tw o con
stants of integration occurring in the general expressions for the
stresses.
Now consider the same disk w ith a hub relief according to
Fig. 9. We require again th e conditions covered b y E quations
[26] to be fulfilled. As these two relations determ ine th e stress
curves, we will have the same stress diagram (see Fig. 12) in
the new conditions, as in Fig. 11, as long as th e disk profile is
the same, i.e., from r = a to r = r 0 + A, where r0 + A is the
radius corresponding to th e point where ar vanishes in Fig. 11.
This restriction (the vanishing of o> for r = r 0 + A) will be
removed below.
As to the stresses in the disk, or rath er ring, represented by
the section A BC D , it is easy to see th a t th e radial stress is
equal to zero a t the outer edge BC. Indeed, th e radial stress
being zero a t the edge B E of th e disk BGFE, th e equilibrium
requires th a t the same be th e case along BC in th e disk A BC D .
The tangential stress along BC in th e same small disk is deter
mined, as well known, by the condition th a t th e tangential
elongation u a t the cylindrical section BC m ust be th e same
for both disks. This elongation being given b y th e formula

the stress at m ust be th e same on both sides of BC, since ar is


the same on both sides. In other words, neither a, nor at can
jum p a t the outer edge BC of th e disk A B C D . So both of the
boundary values of ar and at are known a t th e outer edge BC
of the small disk, and the stresses are completely determined,
therefore, for the p art between r = r0 and r = r0 + A according
to previous statem ents. Furtherm ore, these boundary values
being the same in Fig. 9 (for th e ring A B C D ) and Fig. 10 (for
the ring A 'B 'C 'D ') the stresses w ithin th e p a rt between r = ra
and r = r0 + A m ust be the same in both cases. Therefore

F ig s . 9

to

14

th e stress distribution for Fig. 12 is identical w ith th a t for Fig. 11.


This result is developed on th e basis th a t ov = 0 for r = To + A
in Fig. 11, i.e., th a t th e depth of th e hub relief is equal to the
distance A a t th e end of which ar vanishes in th e disk w ithout
hub relief. If ar = S for r = r0 + A in Fig. 11, where S is a
small am ount, positive or negative, th en or jum ps in Fig. 12,
and we will have

594

TRANSACTIONS OF TH E AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL EN GIN EERS


F or r = r0 this difference m ust be equal to S 'T ' in th e case of
Fig. 10 and to P 'Q ' in th e case of Fig. 9; so we have

to th e left of BC. The corresponding value of at follows from


th e jum p Bat of at according to our E qu atio n [27]:
and

As 5 is a small am ount anyw ay, th e stresses do n o t jum p essen


tially a t the section BC and th e whole consideration above is
practically n o t affected a t all. This m eans th a t under rotating
conditions no change in stress distribution is caused by th e hub
relief.
Now consider both disks, w ith and th a t w ithout hub relief,
under static conditions. T he stress distribution in th e la tte r is
represented by Fig. 13 in accordance w ith our previous con
siderations, and we know, th a t

where c is an a rb itrary constant of th e same kind as b.


fore, for r = r0 + A

There

Now we have
or approxim ately
and, according to [31]
being of negligible am ount. T h e stress distribution m the
disk w ith hub relief under static conditions is again determ ined
b y th e boundary conditions given above. These are th a t a t
th e outer edge we m ust have
o-ro

while a t th e bore (r = ro) th e difference of b o th stresses pi and


p , m ust be th e sam e a t any speed w. Therefore, under static
conditions, this difference m ust be, w ith reference to Fig. 12

and th e question is, to determ ine, in an approxim ate way, th e


stress distribution satisfying th e last tw o boundary conditions
in th e disk shown in Fig. 9. S tarting w ith th e outer edge
r = a in Fig. 14 we state, th a t for th e disk p a rt BEF O (Fig. 9)
th e stress distribution is completely determ ined if we assume
a certain value of pt for r = a, p r being equal to zero a t th a t
point. Assuming p i to be of th e sam e am ount s as in Fig. 13
a t th e outer edge r = a, we find, of course, th e same stress curves
p , and pt in Fig. 14, as in Fig. 13, for r0 + A ^ r ^ a. A t th e
point r = ra + A th e stresses a, an d <ri jum p, according to
E quations [28] and [29], from th e points S and T to th e points
P and <2, respectively. Since

w hich is nothing other th a n E q uation [30].


W e have found, therefore, th a t if, for r 0 + A ^ r jC a, the
stresses pt an d p , in Fig. 14 are th e same as in Fig. 13, the dif
ference of th e stress values pm an d pro a t th e bore, represented
b y P 'Q , will be larger th a n th e sam e difference under rotating
conditions as represented in Fig. 12. This being impossible,
o ur assum ption, according to w hich th e stress curves are the
sam e for r0 + A ^ r ^ a in both disks w ith and w ithout hub
relief in resting conditions, m ust be altered. In other words,
for r a th e tangential stress m ust be less th a n s in Fig. 13.
W e th en o btain stress curves pt and pr, determ ined by both
b oundary conditions for r = a. I t is easily seen th a t th e curves
pt and pr qualitatively correspond to each other physically. If
th e radial stress, which is compression, is diminishing from pr to
pr (Fig. 14), th e tangential stress, which is tension, m ust diminish
from pt to pt. A t a certain definite decrease of both stress
functions th e state will be reached a t which th e previously
mentioned stress difference a t th e bore will assume th e required
value, independent of th e speed . This m eans th a t by using
a disk w ith hub relief, th e stresses are th e sam e under rotating
conditions, as in a disk w ithout hub relief, and they are smaller,
throughout th e disk except th e hub, under static conditions,
while a t th e bore th ey rem ain w ithin permissible limits deter
m ined b y th e relation p> pro = const, a t any speed a.

according to [28] and [29], we will have

A ppendix N o . 1
T

T his shall be proved as follows.


For r0 + A ^ r
r0 th e profile represents a disk of constant
thickness in both Fig. 9 a n d Fig. 10. Therefore th e general
expressions for th e stresses in b o th of them , for static conditions,
are represented b y th e relations

he

roblem

of

o t a t in g

heory of

D
E

is k s i n

the

a t h e m a t ic a l

l a s t ic it y

The rigorous m athem atical basis for th e design of steamturb in e disk wheels consists in a solution of th e following problem
w ith boundary conditions.
Consider th e state of strain and stress in an isotropic elastic
body of revolution rotatin g about its axis z-z w ith th e angular
velocity w. T he displacem ent will be sym m etrical about the
same axis. The com ponents of th e displacem ent being u in
th e radial and w in th e axial direction, th e conditions of elastic
equilibrium are expressed by th e differential equations18
13 A. E . H . L ove, M a th e m a tic a l T h e o ry of E la stic ity , 4 th ed.,
C am b rid g e, 1927, p. 146, a n d p. 104.

APPLIED MECHANICS

The boundary conditions express th e fact th a t th e lateral


surfaces of the disk, represented b y th e equation y f(r),
where f( r) is a known function of r, are free of stresses,
while the edges r = ro and r = a (Fig. 15) can be affected
by given forces. In special problems th e inner boundary
surface can vanish (disk w ithout bore). The stresses in
the rotating disk are to be determined.
In the form [32] the problem has been solved for a few
special forms of the m eridian curve (profile) only, p ar
ticularly for the cylinder14 and for th e ellipsoid15 under
certain boundary conditions.16
I t is of practical interest and im portance for compari
son w ith th e procedure used in technical applications as
reproduced below to know th e results yielded b y the
methods of the theory of elasticity. Therefore a concise
report concerning the solutions ju st m entioned shall be
given.
We designate by a , , a t, and a* th e norm al stresses along
the radius r, the tangent, t, to th e circle of th e radius
r, and the direction, z, of the axis of rotation, respectively.
As to the shear stresses, the components rrt and Tzt vanish
by reasons of sym m etry about th e axis, while t
0
generally.
Consider now the stress distribution determ ined by
th e equations

This stress distribution is produced b y a certain elastic


displacement satisfying E quations [32].17 T he solution
[33], if applied to the case of a cylindrical disk w ith
out bore, fulfils th e boundary conditions a t th e plane
surfaces z = I. Indeed, th e stress com ponent at and
the shear stresses vanishing identically, th ey vanish also
a t the surfaces z = =*= I. B u t a t th e cylindrical surface
r = a both th e radial stress oy and th e tangential stress
<7i follow a special law of distribution along th e axial
11 A. E. H. Love, loc. cit.; and F. Purser, Trans. Royal
Irish Acad., vol. 32, 1902.
16 C. Chree, Royal Soe. Proc., London, vol. 58, 1895; treated
the general ellipsoid.
16 See also Zeitschr. f. Ang. Math. u. Mech., vol. 3, 1923, p.
319.
17 A. E. H. Love, loc. cit., Eq. [70] and [71], and p. 56.

APM-56-8

595

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TRANSACTIONS OF TH E AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL EN GIN EERS

direction z, as shown by E qu atio n [33]. According to this


law the average am ount of o> along th a t direction vanishes for
r = a. T he additive correction of E quation [33], necessary to
produce boundary stresses a, 0 for r = a, is discussed in
the article of Purser, previously m entioned. This correction is
of im portance only for calculation of stresses in th e vicinity of
r = a. F or parts which are n o t too near to th e edge, th e stress
state of the disk is represented b y E q uation [33] w ith sufficient
accuracy according to th e well-known principle of de Saint
V enant,18 provided th a t th e thickness 21 is sm all com pared w ith
th e diam eter 2a. The axial distribution of th e stresses a t th e
edge r = a is here of little interest. T h a t a t th e inner edge in
disks w ith central bore- is m uch m ore im p o rtan t. F or such
disks th e solution [33] is to be replaced by th e following form ulas:

According to th e solutions [33] and [34] th e stress variation


along th e axial direction, z, is of an alm ost vanishing am ount,
if I, equal to a half th e thickness of th e disk, does n o t exceed a
certain lim it as com pared w ith th e o u ter radius of th e disk.
T ake, for instance, a solid cylindrical disk for which a = 51.
Suppose, this ratio justifies th e application of th e principle of
de Saint V enant. In Fig. 16 th e curves a, and at show th e stress
distribution, according to E quations [33], for th e middle plane,
(z = 0), of th e disk. T he stress variation along th e axial direc
tion z is represented by th e parabolical curves Z -Z , analytically
expressed b y the form ula A a = Cz2, C being a constant and
I ^ z ^ I. T he am ount of this stress variation is about 2.5
per cent of th e m axim um stress a t th e axis r = 0.
The lower p a rts of th e curves in Fig. 16 are dotted, because
in th e vicinity of r = a th e y do n o t represent th e actual stress
conditions, as explained above.
Fig. 17 shows th e stress distribution according to E quations
[34], in an analogous way, for th e sam e disk as in Fig. 16, b u t
having a bore, the radius of which is equal to I. T he maxim um
stress appears again in th e vicinity of th e inner edge of th e disk;
b u t it is alm ost twice as large as in th e case of th e solid disk of
Fig. 16. The stress variability along th e axial direction is th e
sam e as before, or about 1.5 per cent of th e m axim um stress in
th e varied conditions.
T he stress distribution in an ellipsoid according to th e exact
solution cited above is discussed in detail b y Stodola.20 We do
n o t reproduce the complicated form ulas for th e stresses; only
th e general results shall be mentioned.
F or a solid disk of elliptical m eridian curve having a diam eter
2a and a m axim um thickness 2c a t th e axis, Stodola finds a
stress variability along th e axis (r = 0) as represented b y th e
following table:

where a designates th e tangential or radial stress for r = 0,


while A a = o-(r = 0 , z = o) '(r-=o, z = l)I t is interesting to observe, th a t th e stress variability along
th e axis is of a larger am ount for th e elliptical disk th a n for the
cylindrical one. This result is quite natural, if th e uniform
mass distribution along th e axial direction in th e case of a cylin
drical disk, causing a uniform distribution of the centrifugal
forces along th e same direction, is taken into account. B ut even
for a disk of elliptical profile, having a maximum thickness equal
to 1/ i of th e diam eter, th e absolute value of th e excess of the
stress am ount over th e average stress along th e axis remains
w ithin th e lim its of about 7 per cent of th e maximum stress.
A rem arkable detail is characterized by appearance of normal
stresses a , in th e axial direction. These stresses a , represent
compression in th e disk p arts of larger, and tension in those of
smaller thickness. T hey reach th e am ount of only a few per cent
of th e maxim um norm al stress.
From analogy w ith th e cylindrical disk we m ay conclude, th at,
if th e elliptical disk is provided w ith a bore, th e non-uniformity
in th e stress distribution along th e axial direction a t th e bore, as
defined b y th e expression (aimsx
+ o-fmin),
will be about a half of th e am ount indicated b y th e last table,
so th a t th e absolute value of th e excess over th e average stress
along th e axial direction rem ains w ithin lim its of about 3Vj per
cent of th e m aximum stress for c/a = 1/4.
In sum marizing we arrive a t th e following conclusion with
certain approxim ation, special regard having been given to the
increased proportions in m odern disk design: B y increasing
th e thickness of th e disk from 1/ to V* of th e diam eter the
absolute value of th e excess of th e stress values over th e average
stress along th e axial direction increases in disks w ith bore from
th e order of about 1 per cent to th a t of about 4 per cent of the
m aximum stress, while th e axial stresses a z still rem ain w ithin
negligible limits.
T he rigorous tre atm e n t of th e problem of rotatin g disks in
general form, i.e., for given m eridian curves, b y using methods
of m athem atical physics, would be, a t th e present stage, in
certain branches of th e m athem atical analysis, a t least exceed
ingly complicated.21 A very valuable new m ethod of analyzing
plates and disks22 is invented b y G. D . Birkhoff ;2* in its further
developm ent th is m ethod m ay acquire practical im portance for
disk design. As far as technical requirem ents are concerned
th e approxim ate m ethod, introduced b y Stodola,24 is very satis
factory. H is procedure is based upon th e fundam ental con
clusion draw n from th e exact solutions as previously reported.
T he non-uniform ity of th e stress distribution along th e axial
direction in rotatin g disks can be neglected w ithin certain limits
determ ined approxim ately b y T able 9 and emphasized in the
foregoing conclusion. This basis of strength calculations in
disk design does n o t lose its validity in th e new conditions
characterized b y increased disk proportions.

Z = 0,

A ppendix N o . 2
D i f f e r e n t i a l E q u a t io n s i n A p p r o x im a t e s F o r m o f
R o t a t in g D is k s

Since th e variability of th e stresses o> and at along the axial


direction is, to all practical purposes, of negligible am ount, they

21 See St. Bergmann, Mathem. Ann., vol. 98, 1927, p. 248. A


detailed report is given by I. Malkin, Zeit. f. Ang. Math. u. Mech.,
vol. 10, 1930, p. 182.
c /a
l/s
l/ t
l/s
22 The mathematical analogy between circular plates under bending
A<r/<r (%)
5
13
45
and rotating disks is established by L. Foeppl, Zeit. f. Ang. Math,
** A. E. H. Love, loc. cit., p. 132.
u. Mech., 1922.
28 Phil. Mag., vol. 43, 1922, p. 953; also C. A. Garabedian, Amer.
A. E. H. Love, ibid., p. 148.
20 A. Stodola, Steam Turbines, New York, 1927, vol. II, sec. Math. Soc. Trans., vol. 25, 1923, p. 343.
184. See also his article in Zeit. V .D .I., 1907, p. 1259.
21 Stodola, Steam Turbines, sec. 74.
T A BLE 9

A PPLIED MECHANICS

APM-56-8

597

use to be considered as functions of r only. W ith this simpli


fication, Stodola obtains from th e conditions of equilibrium
[see Fig. 18] the equation24

where

so th a t th e differential equation of equilibrium in approxim ate


form can be w ritten as follows:

In elastic conditions the stresses follow from th e radial displace


m ent u according to the relations

The differential equations reproduced here are used in pre


ceding sections for developing new solutions of th e problem of
rotatin g disks. Furtherm ore, in using E quations [36], the
boundary conditions for th e problem of stresses due to fit pres
sure in th e disk under static conditions can be obtained as
follows.
D esignate b y
d
D
both
o

th e bore diam eter of th e disk


th e diam eter of th e shaft
under undeform ed static conditions, and by
th e radial displacem ent of th e disk
Mo' th e radial displacem ent of th e shaft
b o th for r = ro and for an y speed w betw een 0 and th e over
speed wo- W ith these designations we obviously m ust have

and by introducing [36] into [35] th e equation


provided th a t, a t any speed o> < wo, th ere is a certain pressure
betw een th e disk and th e shaft. T he shrink fit is corre
spondingly given by

is obtained. T he elimination of u from E quations [36] yields


the condition

of com patibility of both stresses.


In assuming a certain curve, y f(r), as th e m eridian curve
(profile) of th e disk a differential equation for u is obtained
from E quation [37]. If th e solution of this differential equation
is known, the stresses can be determ ined b y E quations [36] in
connection w ith the boundary conditions. Should th e stresses,
as following from these calculations, exceed permissible limits,
the assumed profile m ust be modified and th e calculations
repeated until satisfactory results are obtained.
Sometimes another equivalent procedure is used in solving
the systems [35] and [38] of differential equations. A certain
kind of stress function S is introduced b y th e form ula25

T he displacem ents

where at and ar
spectively, for r
<' = a, are th e
T he shrink fit is,

Uo

and ito' are according to E quations [36]

are th e tangential and th e radial stresses, re


r 0 a t th e speed w, in th e disk, while at' and
corresponding stresses in th e sh aft for r = r0.
therefore,

In using th e well-known formulas for a disk of constant thick


ness27 w ithout bore we will have

Correspondingly

where

Now. bv introducing

B y using these expressions E quation [35] is satisfied identically,


while E quation [38] requires

an equation which does n o t differ m uch from E quation [37] for


the displacement u.
Still another analytical expression for our problem can be
obtained by eliminating a, or at from E quations [35] and [38].
By eliminating at, Stodola finds th e following differential equa
tion for o>:26
28 A. Foeppl, Technische Mechanik, vol. V, 1922, p. 87.
26 A. Stodola, loc. cit., sec. 181b.

H erein aTo is equal or approxim ately equal to zero. As to the


q u a n tity V(l v)nw,2r02, it is a sm all value which m ay be
neglected in th e last equation. Indeed, w ith reference to the
example treated in th e preceding section we have

27 See Stodola, ibid., sec. 76.

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TRANSACTIONS OF T H E AM ERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL EN GIN EERS

or about 2 per cent of m0 = 52,400 lb per sq in. So th e boundary


condition in question can be w ritten as follows

This is the inner boundary condition for th e stresses p t and pr


due to fit pressure under static conditions. T he other boundary
condition expresses th e vanishing of p r a t th e ou ter disk edge

is no t homogeneous. I t is reduced to th e following homogeneous


equation 31 which can be solved w ith series:

r = a:

where
The boundary condition [43] is here obtained in a w ay some
w hat different from th a t used b y Stodola 28 in order to show th e
limits of accuracy of this condition.
and

D iscussion
J. L. M a u l b e t s c h .29 I t can be shown th a t th e tw o profiles
given by the author belong to a series of profiles of th e type

if we assume

where

and lim it 7 to th e values

and
i.e.,

T his lim iting condition for 7 is due to th e fact th a t we w ant to


obtain a particular solution of E quation [45] so th a t a homo
geneous equation m ay be obtained.
T he particular solution is of th e type

and th a t any profile of this series will allow a sim ilar solution
to the one presented by th e author.
The solution for any value of 7 consists of tw o infinite series
and of an expression containing a few term s only. F or 7 = 4/a
and 7 = 2/ 3, this last expression has three term s. In general,
for any value of 7 , the num ber of term s p is:

where

a any positive integer

and
We see th a t if y becomes smaller, p will increase, i.e., we
have more term s and th e calculations are som ewhat longer.
However a stu d y of th e general solution shows th a t th e series
have a b etter convergence for small values of y therefore fewer
term s in th e series need to be considered.
T he m ethod used by th e au th o r is practical only if tables for
the values of th e series are calculated beforehand. Such tables
are given in this paper for th e case y V 3, and th e author also
proposes to have tables calculated for his second case where
y = 2/. Since th e calculations are rath er long, it m ight be
advisable to determ ine first which profile is b e tte r adapted for
practical purposes.
D ue to the more rapid convergence of th e series for small
values of y , a larger range for th e variable z = ffr y m ay be
taken, therefore disk profiles differing more from th e conical
shape can be approxim ated w ith y = x/ ( or Vs for instance,
th an w ith y = 4/ 3 or 2/ 3. I t seems then, th a t tables for a value
of y smaller th a n 2/ 3 would offer m ore advantages to th e designer
of turbine disk wheels th a n th e second profile proposed b y the
author.
A r& um 6 of the general solution will be given here: th e
differential equation 30
28 See Stodola, ibid., sec. 81d.
29 University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.
30 Authors Equation [37],

M i is a function of y and 0.
T he condition [48] for 7 is obtained through the analysis by
m aking th e assum ption [47] and [49].
C. R. S o d e r b e r g .32 D r. M alkins contribution to th e disk
problem is a very real one and I feel certain th a t it will find its
place among th e classics of th e subject.
I t is of im portance to th e designer to have available a method
of stress calculation which is sufficiently rapid to perm it evalua
tion of th e stresses for m an y combinations in a short tim e and
y et of sufficient accuracy to m ake th e results reliable. D uring
th e period of its use, we have had ample opportunity to demon
stra te th e g reat m erits of th e new method.
Concerning th e problem of design limits, it seems th a t the
following questions m ust be discussed: (a) tangential stress
a t th e inner bore a t overspeed; (6) perm anence of the shrink
fit on th e shaft a t th e norm al speed, and (c) norm al pressure on
th e shaft a t standstill. These aspects of th e failure problem
m ust be weighed in th e order mentioned. The im portance of
th e last item is difficult to evaluate. Failure in the ordinary
sense of th e word does n o t occur under norm al pressure until its
intensity m aterially exceeds th e yield strength. This state is
31 Authors Equation [5].
32 Westinghouse Research Laboratories, East Pittsburgh, Pa.
Mem. A.S.M.E.

APPLIED M ECHANICS
seldom reached, but the pressures are usually so high th a t the
designer does not feel he can ignore them.
A

u t h o r s

lo sur e

Mr. M aulbetschs generalization of m y solution involves two


infinite series in each of th e two stress expressions. In recom
mending 7 = 1/ i he introduces two further expressions with

APM-56-8

599

bilities of choice offered to th e disk designer by th e tw o expo


nential profiles. T hey n o t only represent definite special solu
tions, b u t practically fill th e range between th e two limiting
solutions, inasm uch as, if completed by th e latter, th ey approxi
m ate, w ith sufficient accuracy, any interm ediate solution as well.
Practical experience shows th a t a slight variation of th e profile
curve between th e tw o fixed lim iting points a t th e bore and th e
rim is of a practically negligible influence on th e boundary
stresses. A fter having used, for a certain tim e, th e new m ethod

term s in each. These two expressions, however, m ay be worse


t han any of the proposed infinite series, because there is no indica
tion as to the rapidity of their convergence. The solutions,
thus represented by six infinite series, cannot compete w ith the
exponential profiles, the first of which involves only two infinite
series, while the second entails th e use of simple finite expres
sions. The more rapid convergence in the case of smaller values
of 7 in the first four of M r. M aulbetschs six series would not
appear to be a factor of great weight.
There is, furtherm ore, another factor which is n o t to be over
looked in connection w ith th e question of convergence. If 7
becomes smaller, the independent variable z becomes larger,
especially in the vicinity of the rim (see Tables 4 and 6 ). In
using 7 = Vi we easily find, for the disk analyzed in Figs. 3 to 6 ,
th at

as compared with za = 1.25 and za = 1.86, respectively, in the


above examples. The increase in za caused by decrease of 7 is
a factor of opposite effect to th a t of more rapid convergence.
The necessity of calculating tables cannot be considered as
a disadvantage of the au th o rs m ethod, because such tables are
necessary in any analytical solution, and it is contended by the
writer th at, for two reasons, th e m ethod of solution as set forth
is simpler than any other analytical solution so far developed
for the problem. First, it is much more convenient to calculate
t he tables in question by using simple finite expressions, or solu
tions w ith only two infinite series, th an by dealing with six in
finite series, as in the case of conical disks, or even w ith finite
expressions of considerable complicacy such as encountered in the
case of hyperbolic disks. The other im portant advantage is th e
fact th a t the w riters method of solution is based upon the
principle of similarity which, in the case considered, assumes the
following form: If the profile curve is given by an expression y
/ (r, 0), where 0 is the essential constant param eter characteriz
ing the individual disk, the solution will be obtained generally
in term s of two varying essential quantities, r and 0. In using
f. i. tables calculated for conical disks we have to m ultiply all
values, for any special disk, by a constant varying w ith th a t
disk. The calculations are, in other words, two-dimensional.
In the case of the exponential profiles set forth by the w riter
the solution is given essentially in term s of a certain combination
of the variable r and the param eter 0, nam ely in term s of z
0r't* and z = 0r ^ , respectively. The m ain calculations, conse
quently, include only one variable. These are th e tw o advan
tages which are of practical value in tabulating th e solutions and
in using the tables for design purposes.
As to the question of technical ad aptability of th e w riters
method of solution, our attention is called to Fig. 19 in conjunc
tion w ith the following remarks.
The problem of practical disk design is no t a problem merely of
avoiding the conical profile. I t is rath er a problem of profile
variation between two limiting profile curves, th e conical and the
hyperbolic. Fig. 19 is a typical example of the practical possi

F ig . 19

T y p ic a l

E x a m p l e s o f C h o ic e O f f e r e d
E x p o n e n t ia l P r o f il e s

by

the

T wo

represented b y th e two exponential profiles th e practical designer


will, therefore, be able to modify more or less freely the theo
retical profile curves, if th is is advisable from th e standpoint of
weight reduction or required by the necessity of avoiding possible
dangerous vibrations. The profiles y = ae~z, z = 0ry, w ith 7 =
1/ i or 7 = 1/ 6, being of sharper curvature a t th e bore th a n the
second exponential profile' and, consequently, situated in the
vicinity of th e hyperbolic profile, appear quite unnecessary in
th is connection because they do not throw any further light on the
problem of stress distribution and there would be no justification
for th e tedious calculations involved.
T his is a case of special practical interest. Inasm uch as the
hyperbolic disk is regarded as a lim iting profile characterized by
smaller weight b u t for th e m ost p a rt n o t adapted to technicaldesign purposes because of th e sharp curvature in th e vicinity of
th e bore, considerable modification of th e profile curve is neces
sary, thereby reducing th e degree of accuracy of the stress calcu
lations. Fig. 19 shows th a t, b y using th e second exponential
profile, th e designer practically obtains th e modified hyper
bolic disk w ithout being forced to abandon the basis of a reliable

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TRANSACTIONS OF TH E AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL EN GIN EERS

stress analysis. T his consideration once more dem onstrates th e


technical im portance of th e second exponential profile. I t leads
to th e conclusion th a t, while th e hyperbolic disk represents a
theoretical lim iting profile w ith regard to th e im p o rtan t question
of uniform ity of the stress distribution, th e second exponential
profile very often will represent th e corresponding actual limiting
curve. T his applies especially to th e case of smaller bore diame
ters (see Fig. 19) where the exponential profiles differ considerably
from each other. B ut even in th e case of large bore diam eters
(see Figs. 3 to 6 ), th e second exponential profile can be considered
a t least as a good guide w ith respect to th e question of a satis
factory stress distribution a t th e bore.
T here will be perhaps another occasion later to discuss th e
problem of axial disk vibrations in connection w ith th e problem
of profile choice.
In sum marizing so far, th e following characteristic features of
th e new solutions should be emphasized: (a) simple m athe
m atical representation, (fc) compliance w ith th e principle of
sim ilarity, (c) practical use in profile-curve variation w ithin th e
lim its represented by th e conical profile and th e hyperbolical
disk, (d) reliable representation of th e actu al hyperbolical disk,
and (e) tendency tow ard uniform ity of stress distribution
a t the bore. These features m ake th e new solutions well adapted
for purposes of practical disk design.
Referring to th e problem of design lim its as stated b y C. R.
Soderberg, certain indications concerning th e distribution of th e

tangential stresses along th e bore and th eir maximum am ount at


th e middle plane (inner bore) of th e disk have been given already
in Appendix No. 1. If th is maximum stress exceeds a certain
lim it, deform ation processes of plastic character m ay be caused
w ith th e result th a t gradual changes will tak e place in th e shrink
fit. T his is a question of entirely different n ature and beyond the
scope of th is contribution.
T h e problem of norm al pressure on th e shaft under static
conditions ad m its of a simple solution. W e have seen (Fig. 8 )
th a t th e norm al pressure p , between disk and shaft under these
conditions is from 40 to 45 per cent of th e tangential stress, <r>,
a t th e bore in overspeed conditions. T he principal stresses in the
shaft under uniform compression are, according to th e solution of
a well-known special case of th e elastic problem .38 <r, = 0 in the
axial direction an d
= <rv p, in any tw o directions in the
cross-section of th e shaft. If th e problem of failure of th e shaft
under th is uniform compression is judged from the standpoint of
M ohrs theory, we w ould have to consider th e characteristic
am ount of l/ t (ox <r,) 1/ i (ay a,) or, absolutely, V 2pr, as
compared w ith th e am ount of Vi^io in th e case of th e disk. In
other words, according to M ohrs theory, th e shaft would be in
tw ice as favorable a condition as th e disk, provided th e corre
sponding cases of failure are comparable w ith each oth er .84
33 Loo. cit., A. E. H. Love, p. 144.
34 Festigkeitsversuche, by Th. von. KArmdn, Zeit. V.D.I., 1911.