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EDUCATIONAL

LEARNING
TEACHING
(ELT)MANAGEMEN
T
Dosen : Drs.H.M.Syarifuddin,
M.Pd

Wardah Mardiathussolihah
1209206139
PBI C/II
TARBIYAH DAN
PENDIDIKAN
UNIVERSITAS ISLAM NEGRI
SUNAN GUNUNG DJATI
BANDUNG
2010

SENTENCE

What Is a Sentence?
Common definition claims that a sentence is a complete thought. However, it is
more realistic to define a sentence as a satisfying complete pattern of intonation
or expression: that is, a complete utterance.

Major Sentence, Minor Sentence, and Fragments


A major sentence is a grammatically independent group of words that contain
at least two essential structural elements: a subject and a finite verb. Major
sentences constitute 99% or more of most writing.

A minor sentence is an acceptable pattern of expression that nevertheless lacks


either a subject or a finite verb, or both.
1. Exclamations: Oh! Well, I never! Heavens! Wow! Great! Incredible!
2. Questions or responses to questions: When? Tomorrow. How many? Seven.
Why? What for? How come? What else? Really?
3. Common proverbial or idiomatic expressions: Easy come, easy go. Now or
never. In a pigs eye! Sink or swim. Better late than never.
4. Minor sentences used for rhetorical or stylistic effect by writers who know
how to handle them.

Kinds of Major Sentences simple, compound, complex, and compound-

complex.
1. Simple

Denis works.

The dilapidated old building collapsed during the night.


2. Compound

it consists of two or more simple sentences (independent

clauses with coordinating conjunctions)


The clouds massed thickly against the hills; soon the rain fell in torrents.
He wanted to fly, but to she insisted on going by train.
3. Complex

sentence consists of one independent clause and one or

more subordinate clauses.


He claimed that he was innocent. (noun clause as direct object)
She left before the party was over. (adverbial clause modifying left)
4. Compound-complex sentence consists of two or more independent
clauses and one or more subordinate clauses.
Because he knew that the job was important, he began very carefully, but as
time passed he grew impatient and therefore he failed to obtain the results
that he had hoped for.

Basic Sentence Patterns


As we've seen, the Subject is usually (but not always) the first element in a
sentence, and it is followed by the verb:

Pattern 1

Subject Verb

David

sings

The dog barked

Susan

yawned

In this pattern, the verb is not followed by any Object, and we refer to this as
an intransitive verb. If the verb is monotransitive, it takes a Direct Object,
which follows the verb:
Pattern 2

Subject

Verb

Direct Object

David

sings ballads

The professor wants to retire

The jury

found the defendant guilty

In the ditransitive pattern, the verb is followed by an Indirect Object and a


Direct Object, in that order:
Pattern 3

Subject

Verb

Indirect Object Direct Object

The old man

gave

the children

some money

My uncle

sent

me

a present

The detectives asked Amy

lots of questions

Adjuncts are syntactically peripheral to the rest of the sentence. They may
occur at the beginning and at the end of a sentence, and they may occur in all
three of the patterns above:

Pattern 4

(Adjunct)

Subject

Verb

Indirect

Direct Object

(Adjunct)

Object
[1] Usually

David

sings

in the bath

[2] Unfortunately

the

wants

to retire

this year

showed the jury

the

in

photographs

chamber

professor
[3] At the start of the the judge
trial

private

Pattern 4 is essentially a conflation of the other three, with Adjuncts added.


We have bracketed the Adjuncts to show that they are optional. Strictly
speaking, Objects are also optional, since they are only required by
monotransitive and ditransitive verbs, as in the examples [2] and [3] above.
Examples of different sentence patterns
1. The wall collapsed

Subject Verb
5

2. During the war, many people lost their homes


(Adjunct) -- Subject -- Verb -- Direct Object

3. I promised the children a trip to the zoo


Subject -- Verb -- Indirect Object -- Direct Object

4. When he was 12, David moved to London


(Adjunct) -- Subject -- Verb -- (Adjunct)

5. Paul hired a bicycle

Subject -- Verb -- Direct Object

Review The patterns for these sentences are shown in the table below:
(Adjunct)

Subject

Sentence

The

wall

Verb

collapsed

Indirect

Direct

Object

Object

(Adjunct)

=
Pattern
A

Sentence During

many

people

the war

lost

their

homes

Pattern
D

Sentence

promised the

children

a trip to

the zoo

Pattern
C

Sentence When he David


4

moved

was 12

to

London

Pattern
E

Sentence

Paul

hired

bicycle

Pattern
B

More Basic Sentence Patterns

A. Passive voice
Poison killed him. (Active Voice)

He was killed by poison. (passive voice)

B. Liking verbs with complement

Subject
(noun or pronoun)

predicate

subjective complement

(linking verb)

(predicate adjective)
7

Sharon

is

Raw vegetables

rich.
make

good snacks.

C. Verbs followed by a direct object and an objective complement.


Subject

predicate

Noun or

transitive

pronoun

verb

The members
They

direct
object

considered

made

objective complement
(adjective)
Walter

themselves

incompetent.
comfortable.

D. The expletive pattern


Subject

predicate

That life begins at forty

may be true.

No plumbing

was in the cabin.

No solution

existed.

Expletive
It

linking verb
may be

There

was

There

were

complement

true

subject

that life begins at forty.


no plumbing in the cabin.
no solutions.

There were fifteen people at the meeting.


It was difficult to believe him.
Its delightful the way she can imitate her brother.

Simple sentences contain only one independent clause.

Compound sentences join two or more independent clauses (simple


sentences) but no dependent clauses. Compound sentences join ideas of
equal importance.

Complex sentences join one or more dependent clauses (sometimes called


subordinate or embedded clauses) to the independent clause. Complex
sentences are useful when your writing includes some ideas that are more
important than others. The independent clause contains the main idea, and
the dependent clauses convey minor or subordinate ideas.