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PRINCETON,

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J.

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BL 1010 .S3 V.42
Vedas Atharvaveda. English
Hymns of the Atharva-Veda
.

Shelf

THE

SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST

[42]

Bonbon

HENRY FROWDE
Oxford University Press Warehouse

Amen Corner,

E.G.

(Hew 2)ora

THE MACMIU.AN

CO.,

65 FIFTH

AVENUE

THE

SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST


TRANSLATED

BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS

AND EDITED BY

F.

MAX^MULLER

VOL. XLII

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS


1897
\_All rights reserved]

Oxfot&

PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS


BY HORACE HART
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA


TOGETHER WITH

EXTRACTS FROM THE RITUAL BOOKS

AND THE COMMENTARIES

TRANSLATED BY

MAURICE BLOOMFIELD

O;i:forl)

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS


1897
[

Ail

rights reserved']

CONTENTS.
Introduction

PAGES

The names of the Atharva-veda and their meanings


II. The position of the Atharva-veda in Hindu Litera-

xvii

I.

......
.......
.......

ture in general
III.

The Atharva-veda
Literature

Prefatory remarks

view of

in the

Hymns, Translation and Commentary


I.

Charms

to cure diseases

its

xxviii

RituaHstic

Ivii

Ixxi

and possession by demons

of disease (bhaisha^yani).

Book

Charm

v, 2 2.

takman

against

related diseases

(fever)

and
.

i.

44i

3,

468

3)

270

4,

565

4,

4^4

5,

676

7,

246

Charm against takman (fever)


25. Charm against takman (fever)
vii, 116. Charm against takman (fever)
20.

vi,

i,

V, 4.

Prayer to the kushZ/^a-plant to destroy

takman
stroy
i,

12.

i,

22.

(fever)

Prayer to the kush/^a-plant to de-

xix, 39.

takman

(fever)

and other ailments

Prayer to lightning, conceived as the

cause of fever, headache, and cough

Charm

diseases

......

against jaundice

and

related
7,

263

8,

463

8,

513

8,

233

9'

277

Charm against the disease balasa


vi, 105. Charm against cough
2. Charm against excessive discharges from
vi,

14.

i,

the
ii,

3.

body

Charm

......

against

excessive

discharges

from the body, undertaken with springwater

CONTENTS.

Vlll

Charm

44.

vi,

... .....

Charm

3.

i,

urine

.....

Rudra

the missiles of

Charm against dropsy


83. Charm against dropsy

vii,

cured by flowing water

An

80.

vi,

241

12,562

12,471

oblation to the sun, conceived as one of

Charm against kshetriya, hereditary disease


10. Charm against kshetriya, hereditary disease
Charm against kshetriya, hereditary disease
iii, 7.

ii,

i,

23.

Leprosy cured by a dark plant

i,

24.

Leprosy cured by a dark plant

Charm

83.

13,

500
286

14,

292

15,

Charm

16,

336
266

.16,

268

13,

curing scrofulous sores called

for

apa/^it

76. A.

vii,

235

11,

the two heavenly dogs, as a cure for paralysis

vi,

10,

11,506

....
.

8.

ii,

481

Dropsy, heart-disease, and kindred maladies

24.

vi,

10,

retention of

against internal pain (colic), due to

10.

i,

and

against constipation

Charm

90.

vi,

against excessive discharges from

body

the

.17,

apa/tit

B.

503

for curing scrofulous sores called

17.

Charm

for curing

tumours called ^ayanya

559

17,560

C. Stanza sung at the mid-day pressure of

the
vii,

74. A.
apa/^it

B.

soma

Charm
.

Charm

to

appease jealousy

C. Prayer to Agni, the lord of vows

Charm

vi,

25.

vi,

57. Urine

iv,

12.

Charm

i,

.18,
.18,

17.

31.

ii,

32.

559

18,

559

19,

472

.19,

488

scrofulous

for
.

with the plant

silaX'i

wounds

.19,

384

(laksha, arundhati)
.

The pepper-corn as a cure for wounds


Charm to stop the flow of blood
Charm against worms
Charrn against worms in cattle

109.

ii,

557

with the plant arundhati (laksha) for

for the cure of


vi,

a cure

the cure of fractures


v, 5.

(^alasha) as

Charm

562

upon neck

against scrofulous sores

and shoulders
sores

.18,

for curing scrofulous sores called

.20,
.

419

21,516

.22,

257

22,

313

23, 317

CONTENTS.

IX
PAGES

BOOK

Charm against worms


Charm against poison
Charm against poison

V, 23.
iv, 6.
iv,

7.

vi,

100.

in children

Ants as an antidote against poison

Charm against snake-poison


vi, 12. Charm against snake-poison
vii, 56. Charm against the poison of serpents,

V, 13.

pions,

and

.....

insects

scor-

Charm against ophthalmia


Charm to promote the growth of hair
136. Charm with the plant nitatnt to promote

vi,

16.

vi,

21.

vi,

.....

the growth of hair

....
....

Charm to promote the growth


4. Charm to promote virility
III. Charm against mania
37. Charm with the plant agasrmgi
137.

vi,
iv,
vi,
iv,

of hair

to drive out

Rakshas, Apsaras, and Gandharvas


ii,

amulet of ten kinds of wood

Charm

36.

iv,

against

demons

as the cause of disease


n.

VI,

....

Possession by demons of disease, cured by an

9.

conceived

(pi^a/^a)

25. Charm with the plant pnlrniparwi against the


demon of disease called ka7zva
Charm for driving away demons (Rakshas

ii,

....

and
4.

Pi^aX'as)

Charm

with

an

amulet

xix, 34.

Charm

and demons

with an amulet derived from the

and demons

^ahgifl'a-tree, against diseases

Charm

xix, 35.

from the

derived

^ahgiia'a-tree, against diseases

with an amulet derived from the

and demons
Exorcism of disease by means of an amulet

g3.hg\dB.-tree, against diseases


vi,

85.

vi,

127.

from the vara;;a-tree

xix, 38.

The
The

viii,

7.

panacea

healing properties of bdellium

91. Barley

vi,

.....

/^ipudru-tree as a

Hymn

used as a universal remedy


vi,
ii,

96. Plants as a panacea


33.

Charm

and water as universal remedies


to all magic and medicinal plants,

to secure perfect health

CONTENTS.
BOOK

PAGES

Charm to procure immunity from all diseases


Charm for obtaining long life and prosperity

ix, 8.

29.

ii,

....

by transmission of disease

II.

Prayers for long

28. Prayer for long

ii,

life

53. Prayer for long

vii,

life

life
.

50,

306

51,

364

52, 551

death

iv,

The

10.

pearl

ing long
xix, 26.

III.

exemption from disease and death

Salve (a/T^ana) as a protector of

iv, 9.

53,

life

Gold

as

and

its

shell as

and prosperity
an amulet

life

and limb

55,

573

59,

455

61, 381

an amulet bestow.

for long

62,383

life

63,

Imprecations against demons, sorcerers, and enemies (abhiHrikawi and kntyapratiharawani).


i,

7.

Against sorcerers and demons

i,

8.

Against sorcerers and demons

i,

16.

Charm
The

2.

14.

Charm

9.

Against

demons)
iv,

20.

sor-

against a variety of female demons,

conceived as hostile to men,


iii,

demons and

soma-oblation directed against demons

(rakshas)
ii,

64,

.......
.......

with lead, against

cerers
vi,

Charm

cattle,

and home

.......

vishkandha

and

kabava

(hostile

with a certain plant (sada772pushpa)

which exposes demons and enemies


iv,

17.

Charm

with

the

sorcery, demons,
iv,

18.

Charm

sorcery,
iv,

with

apamarga-plant, against

and enemies

the

apamarga-plant, against

demons, and enemies

.....

Mystic power of the apamarga-plant,


demons and sorcerers

19.

569

Prayer for exemption from the dangers of

2.

30. Prayer for

V,

49, 341

........

death
viii,

47,308

Prayer for exemption from the dangers of

I.

viii,

life

pronounced over a boy

and long

31. Prayer for health

iii,

600

and health (ayushyawi).

Prayer for health and long

II.

iii,

life

45,

against

668

CONTENTS.

XI

72,

CONTENTS.

Xll

.......

Charm

34.

i,

with licorice, to secure the love of a

woman

iii,

Charm to secure the love of a woman


8. Charm to secure the love of a woman.
9. Charm to secure the love of a woman
102. Charm to secure the love of a woman
25. Charm to arouse the passionate love

vi,

139.

30.

ii,

vi,
vi,

vi,

woman

Charm

woman

a
vii,

38.

vi,

130.

vi,

131.

100, 311

100, 459

loi, 459

loi, 512

.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
....
.......
....

of

arouse the passionate love of

arouse the passionate love of

vi,

Charm to
a man
5. Charm at an
77. Charm to

vi,

18.

132.

iv,

woman
vii,

45.

the

return

Charm to allay jealousy


Charm to allay jealousy

14.

i,

assignation

cause

....

woman's incantation against her

rival

18.

i,

from a

woman

......

charm

vi,

110. Expiatory

vi,

140. Expiation for the irregular appearance of

unlucky star

the

first

for a child

103, 546

104, 534

104,

535

104, 535

105,371

of a truant

Charm of a woman against a rival or co-wife


vi, 138. Charm for depriving a man of his virility
18. Charm to remove evil bodily characteristics
iii,

102, 539

love of

to

vi,

102, 358

arouse the passionate love of

to

Charm to secure the love of a man


Charm to arouse the passionate

man
Charm
man

99, 274

106, 496
106, 467

107, 547
107, 252

107, 354
108, 537

109, 260

born under an

pair of teeth

109, 517

110,540

V. Charms pertaining to royalty (ra^akarmawi).


iv, 8.

Prayer

at the

iii,

3.

Charm

for the restoration of

iii,

4.

Prayer

at the election

iii,

5.

Praise of an amulet derived


tree,

iv,
i,

22.
9.

consecration of a king

an exiled king

of a king

from the

to secure the superiority of a

Prayer for earthly and heavenly success

in, 378
112, 327

.113, 330

par?;a-

designed to strengthen royal power

Charm

king

114, 331

115, 404

116, 239

XUl

CONTENTS.

PAGES

....

and power

vi,

38. Prayer for lustre

vi,

39. Prayer for glory (yajas)

116, 477
1x7, 478
117, 582

Battle-charm

viii, 8.

120, 262

19. Battle-charm against arrow- wounds


Battle-charm for confusing the enemy,
iii, I.

i,

Battle-charm for confusing the

enemy

121, 325
121, 327

iii,

2.

vi,

97. Battle-charm of a king upon the eve of

vi,

99. Battle-charm

122, 510

battle

battle

.....
....
of a king

upon the eve of


123,

510

Prayer to Arbudi and Nyarbudi for help in

xi, 9.

battle

Hymn
Hymn

V, 20.

V, 21.

123, 631

....

126, 637

Prayer to Trishawdhi for help in battle

xi, 10.

to the battle-drum

130.

436

to the battle-drum, the terror of the

131. 439

enemy
VI. Charms to secure harmony, influence in the assembly,

and the

like

(sawmianasyani, &c.).

Charm to secure harmony


vi, 73. Charm to allay discord
vi, 74. Charm to allay discord
vii, 52. Charm against strife and bloodshed
vi, 64. Charm to allay discord
vi, 42. Charm to appease anger
vi, 43. Charm to appease anger
27. Charm against opponents in debate, underiii,

30.

134, 361
i35> 494
i35> 495

136,

550

136, 492

136, 479

137,

480

ii,

taken with the pa/a-plant


12.

vii,

vi,

94.

Charm to procure influence in the assembly


Charm to bring about submission to one's

VII. Charms to secure prosperity in house,


business, gambling,

field, cattle,

and kindred matters.

vi,

Prayer at the building of a house


142. Blessing during the sowing of seed

vi,

79.

vi,

50. Exorcism of vermin infesting grain

140, 343

12.

Charm

field
vii,

II.

138, 543

138, 508

will

iii,

137. 304

for

procuring increase of grain

.....

Charm

141, 541

141, 499

in the

to protect grain from lightning

142, 485
142, 543

CONTENTS.

XIV

PAGES
ii,

Charm for the prosperity of cattle


14. Charm for the prosperity of cattle

26,

iii,

.......
.......
........
.......

vi,

59. Prayer to the plant arundhati for protection

vi,

70.

to cattle

Charm

cow

to secure the attachment of a

to her calf
iii,

Formula

28.

calves
vi,

92.

iii,

13.

Charm
Charm

in expiation

of the birth of twin-

endow a horse with

to

conducting a

for

swiftness

new

river into a

channel
vi,

Charm

106.

ward

to

off

danger from

fire

Shepherd's charm against wild beasts and

iv, 3.

robbers

....

merchant's prayer

iii,

15.

iv,

38. A. Prayer for success in

'

gambling

B. Prayer to secure the return of calves that

have strayed to a distance


vii,

vi,

50. Prayer for success at dice

Exorcism of serpents from the premises

56.

Charm

X, 4.

of

Pedu

that slays serpents

from dangers
28. Prayer to

Bhava and 6arva

from dangers
vii, 9.

vi,

......
......

Prayer to Bhava and 6'arva for protection

xi, 2.

iv,

....

against serpents, invoking the horse

Charm

for finding lost

for protection

property

128. Propitiation of the weather-prophet

xi, 6.

Prayer for deliverance from calamity, addressed to the entire pantheon

XV

CONTENTS.

vi,

20. Prayer for

vi,

27.

vi,

29.

heaven

remission of sins

after

165, 529

against pigeons regarded as ominous

Charm

166, 474

birds

Charm

64. Expiation

vii,

115.

vii,

when one

Charm

istics,

evil

for the

dreams

removal of

.167, 485

evil character-

and the acquisition of auspicious ones

IX. Prayers and

475

by a black

defiled

is

166,

167,555

Exorcism of

46.

ominous pigeons and owls

omen

bird of
vi,

against

168, 564

imprecations in the interest of the

Brahmans.
Imprecation against the oppressors of Brah-

v, 18.

mans

169,

mans

i^i, 433

......

Prayer to appease Arati, the

V, 7.

and avarice

The

xii, 4.

the

necessity of giving

Brahmans

The

xi, I.

demon

away
.

sterile

cows

172,423

to

-174) 656

Brahmans

179,

610

The preparation of the brahmaudana, the

3.

Brahmans

porridge given as a fee to the

185, 645

Removal of a house that has been presented

ix, 3.

to a priest as sacrificial reward


vi,

of grudge

preparation of the brahmaudana, the

porridge given as a fee to the


xii,

430

Imprecation against the oppressors of Brah-

V, 19.

71. Brahmanical prayer at the receipt of

XX, 127.

.193,

gifts

595

196, 494

197,688

kuntapa-hymn

X. Cosmogonic and theosophic hymns.


xii,

I.

xiii,

Hymn
.

to

goddess Earth

.199, 639

Prayer for sovereign power addressed to the

god Rohita and

his female

Rohi/a

207, 661

xi, 5. Glorification of the sun, or the primeval prin-

ciple, as
xi, 4.

Pra7?a,

supreme
ix, 2.

Prayer

Brahman

life

or

spirit

to

.214, 626

......

Kama

mordial power

disciple

breath,

personified

as

the

218, 622

(love), personified as a pri.

220, 591


XVi

CONTENTS.

xix, 53.

Prayer to Kala (time), personified as a pri-

mordial principle
xix, 54.

Prayer

to

224,681

Kala

(time), personified as a pri-

mordial principle
xi, 7.

225, 687

Apotheosis of the

u>^/^>^ish/a,

the leavings of

the sacrifice
ix, I.

Indexes
I.

II.

Hymn

226, 629

to the honey-lash

Index of Subjects

Hymns

in the order of the

Additions and Corrections

......

Index of

of the Ajvins

Atharva-veda
.

229, 587

693
709
711

Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the

Translations of the Sacred Books of the East

713

INTRODUCTION.
The names

I.

of the Atharva-veda- and

THEIR MEANINGS.

The

known in Hindu literature by an


unusually large number of appellations. Of

om

Th

Veda

fourth

pound stem
atharvangiras.
*=

these the dvandva plural atharvaiigirasa//

made
tive

name

the basis

is old,

a tt
^i
r
j <.
AV.
A, 7, 20 it is the name found at
Atharvan MSS. themselves. The appear-

-vt-

occurring

the head of the

ance of this

is

in a

-i.

given text has not unfrequently been

partly or entirely

for estimating the rela-

But

chronology of that text.

this criterion

can claim

only negative value, since the designation occurs in a text


as late as the Auj-anasa-smrzti, III. 44 ^

a great variety of texts of the Vedic

literature, as

seen in the subsequent account of the attitude


literature towards the fourth

period does

The

it

Veda

found in

It is

(p.

xxviii

ff.),

may

be

of Hindu

but at no

positively exclude other designations.

locative singular of this

same compound occurs

in

a passage not altogether textually certain, Mahabh. Ill,


305,

20=17066, where the Bombay

rasi .yrutam,

edition has atharvaiigi-

but the Calcutta, atharvaj-irasi jrutam.

The

locative singular (apparently neuter) of the stem atharvahgi-

312 (kuj-alam atharvaiigirase).


specimen of a derivative adjective from the compound
may be .seen at Manu XI, '^^, athai-vangirasi// srutih; cf

rasa occurs rarely, Ya^;7av.

I,

Mahabh. VIII, 40, 33=1848, kr/tyam atharvahgirasim.


^

[42]

X^

See Civananda's Dharmajastrasawgraha, vol.

i,

p. 514.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

XVIU

The name

atharvan, with a great variety of derivatives,


is

employed growingly

ixri

Meaning of

the Veda; the

each of the
terms atharvan

^are as to

and angiras.

2,

5,

angiras

attention

arrest

At TS. VII,
grantha, V,

as the designation of

/.

name
II,

i-irby itseh

is

when

it

is

so

met.

Ka///aka Aj-vamedha-

occurs the formula angirobhya// svaha, pre-

ceded by r/gbhya//, &c. svaha

it

is,

as far as

known,

is

the sohtary occurrence of this designation of the Atharva-

veda

a Vedic text ^

in

members

atharvahgirasa/z are separated

mentioned by itself, but always in more


close conjunction with one another.
This shows

so that each
or less

Quite frequently, however, the

compound

of the

that the

is

compound

is

not a congealed formula, but that the

texts are conscious of the fact that each has a distinct

and a right to separate existence. In other


actually consists of atharvan and aiigiras
matter, and the question arises what elements in the makeup of this Veda these terms refer to. The answer, I believe,
individuality,

AV.

words, the

may now

be given with a considerable degree of certainty

the term atharvan refers to the auspicious practices of the

Veda^ the bhesha^ani (AV. XI,

Veda which

6, 14),

those parts of the

by the Atharvan

are recognised

the orthodox Brahmanical writings, as janta,


paush/ika,

'

conferring prosperity

'

ritual
'

holy,'

and
and

the term angiras refers

to the hostile sorcery practices of the Veda, the yatu (^at.


Br. X, 5,

2, 20),

or abhi/^ara^, which

In an article entitled,

'

On

is

terrible (ghora).

the position of the Vaitana-

sutra in the literature of the Atharva-veda,' Journ.

Or. Soc. XI, 387


distinction
lists

is

ff.,

clearly

made

where two

at Vait. Su. 5, 10,

of plants are differentiated, one as atharva;^ya//, the

other as aiigirasya/^.

Gop. Br.

at

Amer.

pointed out that the above-mentioned

I,

2, 18.

The same
The former

distinction

is

maintained

refers to the list of plants

In texts not Vedic the term angirasa/i occurs occasionally as an abbreviated


form of atharvahgirasa/^. Thus in the first superscription of the AV. Prati^akhya, the ^'aunakiya Aaturadhyayika, and in Pawini V, 2, 37.
Cf. also
'

Gop. Br. I,
For the
''

on

I, 8.

distinction

p. II of our edition.

between janta and abhi/iarika see Kau.f.

3, 19,

and note 5

INTRODUCTION.
catalogued at Kaiu.
santci/i,

'

holy

8, i6,

be angirasa,

itself to

and there

the second

;'

in

list

distinctly described as

stated at Vait. Su.

is

but the designation of the


list

The

last,

is

not quite certain,

nirdahanti, shows that the

designed for unholy sorcery practices

is

adjective aiigirasa

AV.

10

general

is in

These

arigirasibhi//.

general unknown, the text

in

5,

the obscure terms, kapurviparva-

rodakavr/kkavatinac/anirdahantibhir

names are

XIX

in

(abhi/('arika)

'.

the ritualist texts of

Thus sa7;/bhara angimeans utensils for sorcery ^


daWa
angirasa//, Kauj-. 47, 12, means 'staff for sorcery;' agnir
The fifth
angirasa//, Kaui-. 14, 30, means 'sorcery-fire^.'
kalpa of the AV.^ usually known as Aiigirasa-kalpa, bears
also the names Abhi/^ara-kalpa, and Vidhana-kalpa, textsee ibid. XI, 376 ff.
book of sorcery
the

equivalent to abhi/^arika.

rasa//, Kauj-.

47,

'

2,

'

'

'

It

is

worth while to follow out this specific use of the


term angirasa in non-Atharvan texts, lest it be

The term

suspected of being an Atharvanic refinement.

angiras in

non-Atharvan

j^e Rig-vidhana IV,

texts.

j-loka

skilled in the
all

'
:

6, 4,

has the following

He agamst whom

those

with the Pratyahgirasakalpa

craft^'

(AV.

II, II, 2),

Parij-. 32, 2 (cf. Kauj-.

the

'

counter-witch-

and the k;7tyapratihara//ani, Ath.

39,

7,

The

note).

called atharva;/apratyangirakalpam

deal with

are

The term pratyahgirasa

^.'

the exact equivalent of pratyabhi/'ara/za,

is

that

Angirasakalpas practice sorcery repels them

same theme,

as

texts of the sort

see Ind. Stud.

469)
does the Ya^ur-vidhana
(!

I,

(Agni-pura//a, 259, 10) in the expression pratyaiigireshu


karmasu). Cf. also the titles of works, pratyangiratatva,

(sc.

pratyangirapa;//('anga,

and pratyahgirasukta, mentioned

in

Bohtlingk's Lexicon, as probably dealing with the same

theme.

We may

AV.

connect with this pejorative use of the

VII, 108,

Cf.

Darila, ghoradravyawi.

'

Ill, 2, 5

Kejava, angiraso^gni//

IX,

2,

4;

5, 31

XIV,

2,

48.

ka-iidklsignUi

ahgirasakalpais tu tadvido^bhi/f'aranti sa pratyahgirasakalpena sarvaws


Cf. also the following jlokas, and IV, 8, 3 ; Ath. Tans. 3,
tan pratibadhate.
I ; and see Rudolf Meyer's preface to his edition of the Rig-vidhana, p. xxxi.
*

yam

Sayaa, nivaryate parakr/tabhi^ara^anita kritya, anena

rawa,^.

iti

pratyabhi^a-

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

XX

word angirasa the

fact that the Vish;m-pura;/a (Wilson's

V, 383) and the Bhavishya-pura;/a count the


Angirasa as one of the four Vedas of the Parsis (Maga), the
translation,

other three, Vada, Vi^yvavada, and Vidut, also conveying


thinly veiled disparagement of the religious books of an

exotic religion

cf.

p. 394; Ind. Stud.

We may

Wilson

I,

then regard

and angirasa are

Reinaud's Memoire sur I'lnde,

in

292, note; Weber, Ind.

reflected

Lit.^, p. 164,

as certain that the

it

note.

words angiras

by the ceremonial literature in the


Far more important is

sense of abhi/-ara and abhi/arika.

the evidence of certain texts of greater antiquity, and higher

which have occasion to mention the Atharvan inciand enunciate clearly this twofold character of
the Veda.
They make the very same distinction between
atharvan and angiras that appeared above in the ritualistic
passage, Vait. Su. 5, 10 (Gop. Br. I, 2, 18). At 5ahkh. Sr.
dignity,

dentally,

XVI,

2,

ff.,

on the occasion of the horse-sacrifice, recita-

made from

tions are

the ordinary Vedic classes of literature,

the Hka/i, ya^uwshi, samani, and also the remoter literary

and Sutras

categories which the Brahma;/as

report, with

great unanimity and considerable variety, as having been

existence in their time

in

the

the itihasa (akhyana), pura;/a,

The Atharvan

sarpavidya, &c.^

Rik and Saman, and

immediately

figures

that too twice, in

after

double

its

is more imbhesha^am, i.e. remedial charms, are recited from


the Atharvan; ghoram, i.e. sorcery, abhi/('arikam, from
the Angiras -.
The commentator regards bhesha^am and

character as Atharvan and Angiras, and, what

portant,

ghoram
kanam

as distinct works, bhesha^agranthasya^tharva/^i.

ghoram atharvawo

The same

grantha/^.

subject

treated in almost identical terms in Asv. St. X,

is

7, i

fif.

again atharva//o veda/i and ahgiraso veda// are treated individually,

and again the former

the latter with

Max

ghoram

Miiller,

Cf.

atliarvavedo veda//

is

correlated with bhesha^am,

Once more

soxyam

iti

bhesha^w

nigadet

ghoraw nigadet.
Scholiast, ghoram iti abhiHradipiatipddakam

14, m{(

this

theme

History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature,

so I yam

".

p.

handled

is

40

ff.

arigiraso

vedo veda/i

iti

no ghorea /^arataibhi dhr/shwu.

ity artha//.

Cf.

RV.

X, 34,

INTRODUCTION.
Sat. Br. XIII, 4,

by the

3,

ff.

here also atharvan and

recognised individually

aiigiras are

XXI

the correlation with

bhesha^am and ghoram

is

of the two categories

clearly implied in the behest to

is

wanting, but the individuality

on the third and fourth days respectively one section


each of the Atharvans and the Aiigiras, each of which are
distinctly said to be a Veda ^.
Indirect, yet significant testimony that this double
recite

AV. was clearly established in Brahmanmay be derived from the formation of the names
two apocryphal teachers. One is Bhisha^'- Atharva;/a,

character of the
ical

of

times

XVI,

3 (Ind. Stud. Ill, 459); the other


A.yv. 5r. XII, 13, i
6
Arigirasa, Kaush. Br.
Kat/i. S.

XXX,

is

Ghora

/v//and.

Up. Ill, 17, 6 (cf. Ind. Stud. I, 190, 293). The formation
Bhisha^ Atharva;/a is illustrated further by Pauk. Br. XII,
9, 10,

bhesha^a;;^ va atharva//ani

and XVI;

bhesha-

lo, 10,

ga7n vai devanam atharva;/o bhesha^yayai^vaM-ish/yai-;


cf. also the expressions sa?uyu atharva//a. personified as
a sage, Gop. Br. I. 2, i<S, and atharvabhi// santa/i, Kaus.

These names

125, 2".

inverted order

there

is

is known, occur in
no Bhisha^ Aiigirasa, and no Ghora

never, as far as

Atharvawa they reflect perfectly the individual character


and the individual function of the two members of the
;

compound
It

atharvahgirasa/^.

ahghasTn

Vedic mantra-categodes are indicated by the


expressions, rikali, samani, bhe.sha^a(ni), and

The

ya^u7shi.

choice of the word bhesha^a

Atharvan
asunder,

certainly

texts, the

but

component

parts of the

without accessory

Nr/siwhapurvatapani Up.

dvandva atharvaiigiras are drawn

statements;

thus Tait.

I'.r.

Ill,

12,

9,

5, 9.

A converse statement like bhesha^aw va angirasani,

is, if

we judge

the matter

and unheard of anywhere in Hindu literature.


So also 5anti, as the wife of Atharvan see Wilson's translation of the

aright, a counter-sense,
"

is

appeals to the auspi-

afigiraso
atharvaam ekaw parva vya/Jakshaa/i
atharvao veda;^
angirasam ekaw parva vya/^aksha;;a//. Elsewhere, aside liom the

vedaA

The passage

and one-sided.

eclectic

Atharva-

sawhita mark this same distinction with no


At AV. XI, 6, 14, four
uncertain touch.

the Athaiva-

further, that the texts of the

seems now,

Vish;ni-puraa,

I,

110, 200; Bhagavata-pura,i/a III, 24, 24.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

XXll

cious side of the holy texts, and

plement

5at. Br. X, 5,

is

Its precise

com-

Here, after correlating

20.

2,

the adhvaryu-priests with the

the

naturally chooses

auspicious aspect of the Atharvan also.

ya^na//,

the -^/-andoga-priests

with the saman, the bahvr//^as with the uktha (rik), the
author presents yatu, 'sorcery,' and the yatuvida/^, 'those

Veda.

skilled in sorcery,' as representatives of the fourth

bhesha^a of the Atharvan passage, and the yatu of the

The

present passage,

name

make up

atharvahgirasa/^

together what

(AV. X,

7,

is

embraced

in the

Moreover, the Sam-

20).

on rigorous
term ^ngirasa with aggressive
Thus VIII,
witchcraft, or the practice of spells (krztya).
pratiKna
ahgirasa//
i,
praX,
ahgirasi'/^
kr/tya
6,
5, 9,
XII, 5, 52,
tUik kntya akr/tya-mun kr/tyakr/to <^ahi
adadanam ^hgirasi brahma.^am upa d^saya cf. also VI,

hita exhibits a decided predilection, bordering


distinction, for associating the

= RV.

X, 164, 4. In XI, 4, 16 (cf. also VIII, 7, 17)


the distinction between Atharvanic and Ahgirasic plants
appears again, not, however, in any connection which con45, 3

veys of necessity the contrast between 'holy' and 'witchBut it may do so. This, it will be rememplants.
craft
'

bered,

made

is

in Vait. Su. 5, 10

it

formed the starting

point for the present enquiry, and the chain of evidence

extending through the Atharvanic and Brahmanical literaWe may add finally that the
ture seems thus to be linked.
XIX,
22 and 23, which are
AV.
late Parij-ish/a hymns,
repeated in the tract entitled Vedavratasya^dej-anavidhi,
Parii". 46, 9 and 10, deal with and state subdivisions
The
of angirasa and atharva;/a-texts, each separately \

Ath.

statements are but faintly applicable to the existing redactions of the Atharvan, the ^aunakiya, and Paippalada.yakhas

^,

but we should be slow to condemn them as wholly

apocryphal.

own

creation
'

The Gop.

by Brahman

angiras^nam

adyai/i

I, i, 5 and 8 also narrates in its


Brahmanical fancy the separate

Br.

unbridled

style of

of the ^z'shis

pa,^anuvakai/i

svaha

ifigirobhyo vidagawebhya/i svaha (XIX, 22, 18)


svi'ha
-

XIX,

Cf.

23, i).

Weber, Lid. Stud. IV, 433

ff.

Atharvan and Ahgiras,

(XIX,

22,

a{ha.rva?iS.n3Lm

i);

sarvebhyo

katmrikebhya/i

XXIU

INTRODUCTION.

the subsequent emanation from these two of twenty Atharvanic and Angirasic descendant sages \ and finally, the production by the Atharvans of the atharvawa veda, by the

Ahgiras of ahgirasa vcda.


In another passage, I, 3, 4, the Gop. Br. also asserts the
separate character of the Ahgiras and Atharvans the latter
are again associated with bhesha^am, the former is made
;

etymology, to wit

the base of a foolish

brahma yad

bhr/gvahgirasa/i',

bhuyish///aw
ye-hgiraso

ye^iigiraso

sa

rasa/^, ye^tharva;/o yc^tharv^was tad bhesha^am.


As regards the chronology and cause of this differentia-

atharvan and

tion of

d^Siuluon apparently wholly


of atharvan

and

\^^ii^

an^iras.

names (and

>

also)

The

association of

of the

name bhr/gu

silent.

later

texts

and

Veda may be sought in the


mythic beings. They are fire-priests,

fourth

the Atharvanic

rites,

Fire-priests, in

have had

fire,

of

^i

the

character of these
fire-churners

-,

and

the oblations are into the

distinction

keeping
But whence the

from soma-priests, may


homelier practices of

these

their

in

practices

as well as the house-ceremonies in

general, centre about the


fire.

with the

the texts are

ahgiras

Ahthe
In
Atharvans?
giras in contrast to the auspicious
Sarama
hymn about Sarama and the Pa;/is, RV. X, 108, 10,

common

life.

terrible aspect of the

threatens the Pa;/is with the terrible Ahgiras, ahgirasaj

This statement, wholly incidental as


of course, not to be entirely discarded.

ghora//.
be,

is,

portant

is

the fact

that

Br/haspati, the

it

divine

ka.

seems to

More impurodha

In Kauj-. 135, 9, Br/has(purohita), is


the representative, or
as
pati Ahgirasa appears distinctly
In the Mahabhathe divinity of witchcraft performances.
In his
j-resh///a//.
rata he is frequently called ahgirasa;//
distinctly ahgirasa.

function of body-priest of the

gods

it

behoves him to

redaction
1
Doubtless by way of allusion to the twenty books in the existing
ngirasa/; is rep.ated Pa.
of the .Saunakiya-^akha. The expression vi;j-ino ..
^-aunakiyn-^akha in its
V, 2, 37, as a designation of the twenty books of the
present redaction.
2

Avestan

root manth,

atar-,

the
athra-van and Vedic athar-van may be derivatives froni^
But the absence of the asj.iration in atar'churn.'

math (mth)

makes the doubtful derivation

still

more doubtful.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

XXIV

exercise against hostile powers those fierce qualities which

Thus

are later in a broader sense regarded as Angirasic.

RV. X,

= AV.

VI, 45,

3\

certainly exhibits

this

function of the divine purohita, and the composer of

AV.

X,

when he

6,

i,

164, 4

exclaims,

descendant of Ahgiras,
hita)

is

'

Back-hurler

Prati/^ina ("

do thou drive back again

(pratikUi) the spells,

slay yonder fashioners of the spells,' has also in

divine purohita

The

^.

")

the

our overseer and officiator (puro-

and

mind the

stanza foreshadows the later forma-

We

in vain, howword atharvan


should be especially associated with santa. and bhesha^a,
and must assume that this was accomplished by secondarily

tion pratyahgiras, discussed above.

ever, for statements of the reason

contrasting

why

look

the

with ahgiras after the sense of ghora, abhi/?'ara

it

had incrustated itself ovfer it ^. The uncertainty of all this


does not endanger the result that at a comparatively early
time the terms atharva/^a/z,

and

in

ahgirasa//, in the sense of

the sense of
'

witchcraft charms,' joined

the more distinctively hieratic terms

samani,

as

characteristic

holy charms,'

'

rika./i,

ya^uwshi, and

types of Brahmanical

literary

But this distinction was at a later period


again abandoned in the end the name atharvan and its
derivatives prevail as designations of the practices and
charms of the fourth Veda without reference to their
performances.

strongly diversified character.

The stem atharvan


of waj^s

forms

in

is modulated in a considerable variety


by derivative processes, the simple stem itself, or
the singular from it, being decidedly rare, and not

I have noted Nn'siwhapurvatapani Up.


ngya^/zsamatharvarupa// surya/i. Plural forms are

at all early.

rare

'

yad

atharva;/o veda/^, 5at. Br. XIII, 4,


brahmawas

indra

3, 7

patebhidrohaw Hramasi,

I,

4,

less

atharva;/am,

pra-freta

na afigiraso

dvishat^w patv awhaaa/i.

RV. IV,

a b;7haspati,

50, 7-9 prescribes that kings shall


i.

e.

Brahman

keep

in

purohita, in archaic language

honour (subhr/tam)
whose sense coincides

completely with the later Alharvanic notions. Barring the diction the passage
might stand in any Atharva-Parijish/a cf. below, p. Ixviii, note.
A dash of popular etymology may have helped the process a-tharvan,
;

''

'not injuring;'

perhaps Maitr.

cf.

thurv

S. II, 10,

in

the sense of 'injure,' Dhatupa///a

also

tiic

roots turv

XV,

62, and
and dhurv with similar meanings.

XXV

INTRODUCTION.

TB.

Ill, 12, 9,

atharva^a//, Pa;?/&. Br.

derivative neuter plural atharva/zani

from

AV.XIX,

23,

atharva/zaj- (sc.
2,

7,

]
;

The stem

in

atharva;/a,

Mahabh.

Vr/ddhahaand later.

in

the masculine singular,

veda/^) /^aturtha/^, AV/and. Up. VII,

the plural, mantra atharva;/a/^,

Ram.

Up.

Ill,

another

14

189,

derivative

II,

12963,
is

atharva;^a^

atharva/za,

in

4;

is

found

mantrai//

atharva;?air

1,

i, 2.

II, 26, 21.

atharva//a (without vr/ddhi of derivation)

N/'/si;;/hapurvatapani

Still

used

is

is

213),

p.

i,

The
common,

lo, lo.

V^fik. Br. XII, 9, 10 to

rita-sa/whita 111,45 ((^ivananda, vol.

The same stem,

XVI,

suktani)

(sc.

veda/^).

(sc.

atharva;/a-vid,

Mahabh. XII, 342, 100=13259. The name atharva-veda


appears about as early a^the corresponding names of the

XVI,

other Vedic categories (rzgveda. &c.), 5arikh. 5r.

10; Par. Gr/h.


IV,

5, I.

II,

The form employed

a(t)havva;/a-veda (see below, p.


scriptures

athabba//a-veda

is

2,

7; Hir. Gr/h. II, 19, 6; Baudh. Grih.

i,

in

the C'ainist Siddhanta

Ivi)

is

that of the Buddhist

(ibid.).

In addition to the designations of the Atharvan discussed


still others, based upon different modes of

above there are


^

Other
designations

ofthe AV.

collection of Mantras.
viewing
this heterogeneous
^
single passage, 5at. Br. XIV, (S, 14, 1-4 =

^^,.^^

^^ ^p^

y^

j^^ j_^^

sQ&ms to hint

fourth

at the

The passage

Veda with the word kshatram.

is

engaged in pointing out the merits of Vedic compositions,

uktham { = 7'ik
sama, kshatram. Inasmuch

stated in the series


ya^u//,

viously represent the

trayi vidya,

cf.

5at. Br. X, 5,

as the
it

is

first

2, 20),

three ob-

possible to view

kshatram as epitomising the Atharvan ^ If so, the passage


is of considerable interest, as it seems to view the fourth

Veda

as the

Veda

of the Kshatriyas.

passage substitutes the act of kshatra,

More
i.e.

precisely the

the characteristic

performances of the Kshatriya (through, or with the aid of


where brahma and kshatra figure. Both together
outcome of the life of a kshatriya, piety and
prowess.'
It is possible to conceive the appearance of kshatra alone as an
elliptic version of both brahma and kshatra, the two together being the outcome ofthe trayi preceding, rather than a supplementary statement of additional
Vedic types of composition cf Pra^na Up. II, 6. For brahma alone, see below,
1

Cf. also Prajna

Up.

II, 6,

represent in the epics the best

'

p. xxxi, note.

'

'

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

XXVI

Atharvanic by distinction. Recently Prohas emphasised the marked relation of the


Atharvan to the royal caste.
his purohita) as

fessor

Weber ^

The

text of the Sawhita abounds in ra^akarma;n,

'

royal

and Weber thinks that the name of Kauj-ika, the


author of the great Atharvan Sutra, points to a Kshatriya
connection, since Ku^ika is identical with Vij-vamitra, and
the latter, as is well known, stands forth among the ancient
Vedic heroes as the representative of royalty. None of
practices,'

these points can be regarded as

Two

more than

possibilities

AV.

from

other designations of the

preceding

in that

differ

-.

all

the

they are the product of a later Athar-

vanic

literary age, neither of them being found in the


Sawhita, and both being almost wholly restricted to the

ritual

text of the Atharvan

itself.

They

are the

terms

and brahma-veda.

bhr/gvaiigirasa//

The term bhr/gvarigirasa/^ is, as far as the evidence of


the accessible literature goes, found only in Atharvan texts.
Though bhr/gu

takes in this compound the place of atharvan,


the terms bhr/gava/^ or bhr/guveda do not occur.
The

term bhr/gvarigirasa/^, however,


of the

Veda

is

the favourite designation

Atharvan ritual texts ^: it makes a show,


in fact, of crowding out the other designations.
Thus the
Kaui-ika does not directly mention the Atharvan compositions by any other name (see 63, 3; 94, 2-4; cf. 137, 25;
i.39j 6), although vaguer allusions to this Veda and its
adherents are made with the stem atharvan (59, 25 73, 12
in the

'

Episches im vedischen Ritual, Proc. of the Royal

July 23, 1891

nr. xxxviii, p.

785

ff.

Academy

(especially 787, top);

at

Berlin,

Ra^suya, pp.

4,

23, note.
^

We

may

note also the prominence allowed in the

performance called sava.

AV.

to the kind of

These are elaborate and rather pompous bestowals of

dakshi;/a, rising as high as the presentation of a house (j'alasava, IX, 3^;

a goat with five messes of porridge, five cows, five pieces of gold, and

or
five

There are twenty-two kinds of these sava, and


is devoted to their exposition (Ke^rava 64-66
presents a brief catalogue of them).
Revenues of this kind are not likely to
have bfen derived from lesser personages than rich Kshatriyas, or kings.
' I"i the Sawhita the stem bhr/gvangiras is never employed as the name of
the Atharvan writings in AV. V, 19, i. 2 the terms bhr/gu and ahgirasa occur
garments (a^^audana, IX,

4).

the eighth book of the Kaujika

as the

names of

typical

Brahman

priests.

XXVll

INTRODUCTION,
also occurs in Vait. Su.

The term

125, 2.)

i,

Gop. Br.

and it is common in the


Parij-ish/as (see Weber, Omina und Portenta, p. 346 ff.
Verzeichniss der Sanskrit und Prakrit Handschriften, II,
No valid reason appears
89 ff.), and the Anukrama/n.
I,

I,

39

2,

18 (end);

3, 1. 2.

4,

the term bhr/gu has succeeded in encroaching so far


upon the term atharvan. The following may, however, be

why

The

remarked.

three words atharvan, angiras, and bhrzgu

are in general equivalent, or closely related mythic names


in connection with the production or the service of fire.

Occasionally in the mantras (RV. X, 14, 6) they are found


all together \ or bhrzgu is found in company with atharvan
(RV. X, 92, 10), or with angiras (RV.VIII, 43, 13). This
interrelation of the three

names continues

Brahma;/a-texts, but in such a

way

in the

Ya^us and

that the juxtaposition

and angiras becomes exceedingly frequent",


on complete synonymy. The latter is
IV, i, 5, i, where the sage /vyavana is
Sat.
Br.
reached in
It
as
a Bhargava or as an Ahgirasa^.
designated either

of bhr/gu

broaching

in fact

conceivable that the frequency of this collocation suggested to the Atharvavedins a mode of freshening up the
is

combination atharvahgirasa/z of any reason for


a conscious preference of the word bhr/gu the texts show

more

trite

no trace
The term brahma-veda whose origin
"*.

is

discussed below

the Atharvan
(p. Ixv) likewise belongs to the sphere of
Outside of the Atharvan there is to be noted only
ritual.

a single, but indubitable occurrence, 5ahkh. Gr/li.

Weber, Verzeichniss,

Cf.

E. g. Tait. S.

7,6; ^at.
Yaska's Nigh.V,

III,

is

2,

I, I, 7, 2

Br.

I,

16, 3.

I,

11, 46.

Maitr.S.

I, i,

2,1, 13; Katy.

.S-r.II,

Va?-. S. I, iS

4,38;

A past.

Tait. Br.
.ST. I,

I, i, 4,

12, 3

23,6;

The juxtaposition of bh;7gu and atharvan


Nir. XI, 18.
5
that of
decidedly rarer in this class of texts (e.g. Apast. ^r. IV, 12, 10);
and angiras continues in the Mahabharata, and later see Pet. Lex. s.v.
;

bh;7gu

(col. 364, top).


2

Cf. similarly Dadhya;>/(' Atharvawa, Tait. S.

Angirasa, TaTik. Br. XII,


*

V,

i,

4, 4,

with Dadhya;//&

8, 6.

are
statement like that of the late Aulika Upanishad 10, that the Bh?7gu
among the Atharvans (atharvawo bhr/guttama/i), if it is taken
rather the result than the cause of the substitution of the

foremost

seriously at all, reflects

name

bh^v'gii for atharvan.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVa-VEDA.

XXVlll

Even

The

in

the Atharvan Upanishads the term

is

wanting ^

earhest occurrences of the word, aside from 5ankh.

G/'zli.,

are Vait. Su.

i,

Gop. Br.

j;

common in the Parijish/as.


We may note finally the
kalpin.
They do not refer

I,

2,

16.

The word

terms pa;7/^akalpa and

is

pa;z/^a-

directly to the Sa/z/hitas of the

AV., but are both bahuvrihi-compounds designating one


who practises with the five kalpas of the AV.,' i.e. Atharvan
priests.
Thus the words were first explained by the author,
Journ. Amer. Or. Soc. XI, 378
Kaui-ika, Introduction,
Ivii.
Cf.
also
Magoun,
The Asuri-kalpa, Amer. Journ.
p.
Phil. X, 169.
They are very late they do not occur in the
Sutras or Brahma;za of the AV., nor, as far as is known,
in the literature proper of that Veda.
They appearas the
titles of scribes of Atharvan texts, see Kaui-ika, Introduction, p. ix
Weber, Verzeichniss der Sanskrit und Prakrit
Handschriften, II, 96. But they are sufficiently attested
'

outside of the Atharvan, in the expression, pa;7-^akalpam

Mahabh. XII, 342, 99 = 13258, and


Mahabhashya (Ind. Stud. XIII, 455).

atharva/zam,

The

II.

position of the

Hindu Literature

the

in

Atharva-veda

in

in general.

In addressing oneself to the task of characterising the

estimate which
Statement
of the

tcxts

take a broad,

em.

'

bearing

The word

Up.;

if

possible a universal view, of

statements of the Vedic and mediaeval

^j^^

texts

Hindus placed upon the Atharvan


and practices, it is especially needful to

the

upon

the

question.

The Atharvan

is

occurs in certain doubtful variants of the text of the Mu(/aka

see Ind. Stud.

I,

301, note.

In

Ram

I,

65, 22

brahmaveda

is

contrasted

with kshatiaveda, just as at Mahabh. VH, 23, 39 = 988 brahma veda with
dhanurveda. In such cases the word brahma is not to be referred pres^nantly to the
fourth Veda, but to Brahmanic religion in general represented by the

first

caste,

the science of war being in the hands of the second, or warrior-caste. Cf. below,
p. xlii.

The word brahmavid, Mahabh

however, seems to mean


the

AV.

'

III,

skilled in sorcery,'

2625 (Nala 14, 18, brahmarshi\


and may contain an allusion to

IXTROUUCTION.
sacred

text

more than one respect

in

the materials which


vedas,

many

of

its

we

aside

from

shares with the -Rtg- and Ya^^ur-

it

hymns and

are

practices

benevolent

in

general well regarded, though even

shall see,

do not altogether escape the blight

(bhesha^a) and are


these, as

XXIX

of contempt.

Many hymns

of the

AV.

are theosophic in

character: on whatsoever ground they found shelter in the

Atharvan collections they cannot have been otherwise than


The class of charms designed to establish
harmony in family and village life and reconciliation of
enemies (the so-called sa/z/manasyani, p. 134 fif.), and the

highly esteemed.

royal ceremonies (ra^akarma;/i), are obviously auspicious in

Even the sorceries of the Atharvan necesshow a double face they are useful to oneself, harmful
others. According as they are employed objectively and

their nature.
sarily

to

aggressively, they are a valuable and forceful instrument

and aggrandisement of him that employs

for the benefit

according as one suffers from them subjectively and


This conpassively, they'are dreadful and contemptible.

them
flict

of emotions lasts throughout the history of the recorded

Hindu thought

the colour of the Atharvan

able to the end, and

is

so described

in

remans change-

the

final

orthodox

and stereotyped view that it is used to appease, to bless,


and to curse ^' The fact, however, is that there must have
arisen in the long run a strong wave of popular aversion
against the Veda, whose most salient teaching is sorcery.
This appears from the discussions of the Hindus themselves
'

as to the orthodoxy of that

Veda "

from the conscious

Atharvan writings to vindicate its character and value


from the allegorical presentation of the
Atharvan as a lean black man, sharp, irascible, and
amorous ^
and many occasional statements of the Vedic
and classical texts. The history of the relation of the
Atharvan to the remaining Hindu literature is, however,
efforts of the later
;

'

'

Madhusudanasarasvali (Ind. Stud.


^^r. XV, 7, 11, and elsewhere.
2 According to Bumell, Vawjabrah-^awa of the Samaveda, p. xxi, the most
influential scholars of Southern India still deny the genuineness of the Atharvan.
1

I,

jantikapaush/ikabhiHradipratipadaka,

16); Kejava to Kauj.

'

Ra^endralalamitra

i,

in the

Deva

to Katy.

Introduction to the Gopatha-brahmawa, p. 4.

XXX
Still

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.


unwritten, and the following pages aim to supply the

necessary data.

hymn

In the

(RV. X,

man

to the Purusha, the primaeval cosmic

Vedic categories, rikdih samani


ysigwh, are mentioned
a fourth term,

90, 9), the three

Manda;;zsi,

the AV. in
the Rig-

canons,

or

is

generic,

the

whole, but the

embodying the

metrical

metrical

compositions

as

opportunity to mention the

Atharvan is neglected ^.
The names atharvan, ahgiras,
and bhr/gu, which occur frequently elsewhere in the RV.,
designate mythic personages, intimately connected with the
production of the fire, and the soma-sacrifice nowhere do
they seem to refer to any kind of literary composition.
;

Even the expression


atharvan,

RV.

brahma;/i, used in connection with

80, 16,

I,

can claim no special

cause, as will appear later (p. Ixvi),

interest, be-

the word

brahma

is

never used as a specific designation of Atharvan charms.


No great importance is to be attached to this silence the
;

praises to the gods in connection with the great


sacrifices,

with their

somaprevailing mythical colouring, darkened

very often by priestly mysticism, offer but scant occasion


for the mention of sorcery, or the plainer practices of every-

day

Yet sorcery and house- practices there were

life.

India at

all

times

The

^.

failure of the

in

Rig-veda to mention

any systematic redaction of charms by a collective name


must be gauged by the slenderness of

like atharvangirasa/^
its

opportunities to mention the

(cf.

VIII,

19, 5),

ticular (X, 90, 9)

'

Veda

as a generic

name

or Vedic collections or redactions in par-

There

3.

is

no proof that even the oldest

For RV. X, 71, II, which also hints at the three Vedic types, and the
that embraces them all, see the full discussion below, p. Ixiv ff.
Cf. e. g., RV. I, 191
VII, 50, and especially VII, 104, 16.

brahma

The

familiar mention

does not,

of compositions called rik, saman, uktha, stotra,

important to note, refer to collections at all, but to


types of poetic productivity they are moreover all of them such as were disjastra, &c.,

it is

tinctly connected with the soma-sacrifice.

Their presence simply accentuates


the preoccupation of the body of the Rig-vedic collection with the great priestly

sacrifices,

and the consequent absence of the more general terms

classes of writings.

The stem

yaj-u/;, in

for

Vedic

the sense of collection of formulas of

the Ya^ur-veda, occurs only in the above-mentioned passage, X, 90,

9.


INTRODUCTION.

RV., or the most ancient Hindu tradition

of the

parts

XXXI

accessible historically, exclude the existence of the class


entitled to any of the names given to the
Atharvan charms there is no evidence that these writings
ever differed in form (metre) or style from those in the
and, finally, there is no
existing Atharvan redactions
barring
argumentum
ex silentio
evidence
the
positive

of writings

names current

that the

in

other texts as designations of

Atharvan hymns (bhesha^ani, atharvawa//, aiigirasa//, &c.)


were unknown at the earliest period of literary activity.

On

the other hand, the existing redactions of the

RV.

betray themselves as later than the

AV.

redaction by the

character of the variants in those mantras which they share

with the

As

RV.

regards the AV., the stanza X,

7,

20 presents the

four Vedic categories, rika.h, yzguh, samani, and atharvan-

g^irasa//, the last the traditional name of the


^
6"aunakiya- version. The same tetrad is intended

'

Position 01

the

AV.

in

^^

ofthe'^^
i'aunakiya-

^^'

XIX,
suggests
i-ikdih

it,

where the narrower term bhesha-

54,

the

mention

because stanza 3 speaks

and

in character

va;/ani

^'l-'

atharvan

of

At
and

though not directly referable to the AV., certainly

angiras,

the

^^

^a(ni) takes the place of atharvaiigirasa//.

(sc.

y2.gv\h
cf.

and

above,

p. xxii),

same

in the

XIX,

in

22,

23,

strain of

(parij-ish/a

the angirasani and athar-

suktani) are mentioned separately.

Otherwise

name for the type of


this text also
The Atharvan is
literature known later as Atharvanic ^
very much in the same position as we shall find the Ya^usfails

texts

the three

to present a fixed

Vedas are mentioned,

often in connection

with other more specific forms and designations of prayer

and sacerdotal
impression

acts,

left in

but the Atharvan

both cases

is

is

omitted.

by no means

The

that of con-

scious neglect or contempt, but rather of esoteric restriction


to the sphere of the great

Vedic

ritual (.yrauta)

Thus

-.

The word brahma which is catalogued with the tiayi at XI, 8, 23 XV. 6, 3
XV, 3, 7) does not refer to the Atharvan, but is the broader and higher
term for religiuus activity in general. Cf. RV. X, 71, 11, and see below, p. l.vvi.
E. g. in the very same hymn (X, 7, 14) in which the Alharvahgirasa/4 are
^

(cf.

''

also

HYMNS of the atharva-veda.

xxxii

augurs no contempt or neglect of the Atharvan, if in


a charm constructed for the purpose of obtaining a knowledge of the Vedas, AV. VII, 54 (Kaus. 42, 9), only r/k,
it

saman, yagu/i, veda, and oblation (havi/^) are mentioned


who here desires Vedic learning is not in training
for Atharvan priesthood, and therefore does not take care
:

the person

to include this specialistic learning ^

siderable

number

of additional

And

similarly a con-

Atharvan passages, IX,

6,

I. 2; XI, 7, 5. 24; 8, 23; XII, 1,38; XV, 3, 6-8; 6, 3, in


which the Atharvan is not mentioned with the other Vedic
compositions, betray no sign of conscious exclusion or con-

tempt of the Atharvan.

On

the other hand, this very

omission ensures the interesting result that the Sa7//hita


of the AV., unlike its ritualistic adjuncts (see p. Ivii fif.),
in

is

no wise engaged either

in

self-glorification,

or

in

seems altogether
totally unconwere
diaskeuasts
Atharvan
the
evident that
text, or any
their
inherent
in
scious of any disadvantages
polemics against the other Vedas.

It

contemptuous treatment on the part of the adherents of


the other Vedas.
In addition to the explicit designation of the Atharvan
compositions as atharvaiigirasa//, bhesha^ani, atharva/zani,
&c., there is to be noted in the 5aunakiya-text of the
a decided advance in the association of the names
Atharvan, Arigiras, and Bhrzgu with the practices and
conditions which these hymns are aimed at. The older,
broader, and vaguer mythic personality of all three which

hymns

appears, e.g. in

RV. VIII,

58); X, 92, 10,

T,

1, 1

XI,

13;

6,

Bhr/gu are

is

still

XVI,

at times

8,

43, ^3

X,

14, 6

= AV.

XVIII,

continued in the Atharvan (VI,


11-14): Atharvan, Ahgiras, and

simply semi-divine, or wholly divine

mentioned as the fourth Veda the poet lapses into the more familiar traividya,
which, like st. 20, aims to state that the Vedas are derived from
Skambha (Brahma), a monotheistic personification cf. Muir, Original Sanskrit
in a stanza

Texts, V, 378.

similar passage in a Sutra of the RV. (A5v Grih. Ill, 3, 1-3, on the
occasion, namely, the study of the Vetla, does not hesitate to include the

same

Atharvan along with many other Vedic texts. This does not argue conscious
more than the Atharvan passage indicates conscious exclusion

preference, any
cf.

below, p.

xliv.

INTRODUCTION.
beings,

whose

XXXlll

But on the

non-Atharvanic.

office is entirely

other hand the Atharvans appear at IV, 37, 1 as slayers


of the Rakshas (similarly IV, 3, 7)
the Atharvans and
;

and consequently slay the Dasyus,


and the name Bhr/gu appears at V, 19, i (cf.

Aiigiras fasten amulets,


at X, 6, 20

TS.

I, 8,

18, I

TB.

of a Brahma7/a,

I,

8,

the typical designation

5) as

2,

Atharvan

here, of an

i.e.

Such

priest.

specialisations of these

names are unknown

Especially noteworthy

the evident beginning of the asso-

name

ciation of the

is

RV.

the

in

atigirasa with aggressive witchcraft or

and the somewhat less clear corresponding correlation of the stem atharva;-?a with auspicious charms (see
Altogether the impression arises that
above, p. xviii ff.).
Atharvan,
Arigiras, and Bhr/gu, connected with
names
the
the redaction of the AV., have in the text of that Veda
assumed, or commenced to assume, the office which the
diaskeuast and the ritualistic texts of the Atharvan have
definitely and permanently bestowed upon them.
In the domain of the sruti, exclusive of the Rig-veda, i. e.
in the Ya^s-sa;;/hitas, and the Brahma;zas., the position
of the Atharvan is on the whole defined with
Position of
-^
^
surhcient clearness.
It depends altogether on
the AV. in
spells,

the rest of
Ihe smti.

jrauta-performances

these,

great Vedic

the

of

character of these texts as ex-

practical
^

^j-^g

ponents

any very

by

their very nature, exclude

charms of the
Such sorcery as is inter-

direct interest in the systematic

bhesha^ani and

abhi/{'arika;^i.

woven with the j-rauta-performances has acquired


pendent expression
the Ya^us-sa?;/hitas

name

of sacrificial

Veda

threefold

the

in

figures in

it

formulas

(ya^"u;;/shi)

of the

part

as

Thus the subject-matter

vidya).

(trayi

'
:

dig (pits) that slay the

Rakshas, destroy the spells that belong to Vish//u


spell here

which

my

equal or unequal has dug

make

ground) do

my unequal

that plans hostile schemes against

V, 23

I
ff.

[42]

cast out

VI,

2, II,

vSat.

1.

2;

inde-

and prose formulas


the form and by the

metrical

of formulas like the following

I, 3, 2,

the

sacrifices,

subject here

Maitr. S.

Br. Ill, 5, 4, 8

ff.),

I,

2, 10.

is

by

my
me

its

11

that

into (the

equal or
'

(Tait. S.

Va^.

S.

very terms

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

XXxiv

Atharvanic, and the practices by which its recitation is


supplemented might be described in the Kau^ika-sutra.

The formula yo asman


'

he that hates us and

dvesh/i ykin

whom we

vaya;/^ dvishma/^,

kd.

hate

'

(shall

or

perish,

the like); occurs countless times in the Ya^us-texts, as well


The aims and the acts of
as in the Atharvan charms.
the Atharvan are present at the Vedic sacrifice, as well as
the difference lies in the
at the practices of private life
;

degree of applicability, and the degree of prominence in


the i-ruti-literature the sphere of the Atharvan is restricted
to matters that are incidental and subsidiary, intended
:

merely to pave the way

for the

main

the successful

issue,

dispatching of the sacrifice to the gods, and the undisturbed gratification of the priests (the ish/am and the purUnder these circumstances and at such a time
tam).
pronounced hostility against the Atharvan would be a
paradox, too silly even for the Ya^us-texts and the Brahmawas no such hostility or repugnance is in evidence
that is reserved for a later and more reflective age.
In the first place then, the mythic personages Atharvan,
:

and Bh/7gu, whose proper names in the course


of time are growingly restricted to the sphere of the
Atharvan, continue in their pristine position of demi-gods.
Aiigiras,

At

Maitr. S.

I,

6, i

the Arigiras are

tva devana;;^ vratena

dadhe

still

gods,. arigirasa;;z

similarly Tait. Br.

1,4,

I,

8,

vratena^dadhami cf.
also Tait. Br. Ill, 2, 7, 6; Maitr. S. I, i, 8; Va^- S. I,
18 (5at. Br. I, 2, I, 13; Katy. Sx. II, 4, 3'"^) Apast. Sx. V,
For Atharvan, see Tait. S. V, i, 4, 3 6, 6, 3 Tait.
11,7.
XI, 32. And so innuVa^. S. VIII, -^6
Br. I, I, 10, 4
Needless
to say, the descendants
instances.
other
merable
of the three divinities, conceived eponymically as the

bhr/gu;/a;// tva^ngirasa;/^ vratapate

founders of families of ^/shis, the Atharva;/a, Aiigirasa,


and Bhargava, enjoy the same rights, and hold the same
position of honour as the other families of

reserved for the later

./^zshis, it

being

Atharvan writings to extol them

beyond measure, and to establish them as the typical


teachers ^ Thus Atharvan Daiva is the name of an ancient
^

Cf.

Weber, Omina und Portenta,

p.

347.

INTRODUCTION.
teacher,

.S"at.

XIV,

Br.

Atharva7/a; Tait. S. V,
1

VI,

4, 2, 3

5,
I,

22

5,

4,

XXXV

28

3,

7,

6, 6,

Badhy^Tik

^at. Br. IV,

i,

.",,

RV.

the countless Aiigirasa, of which the

Anukramawi counts no

less than 45 \ e. g. Sat. Br. IV, 1.


Kaush. Br. XXX. 6
Ait. Br. VIII, 21, 13
Apast.
V, 11,7: and the equally frequent Bhargava, Tait. S.

5,

Sr.
I,

8,

]8,

XXII,

4.

^at. Br.

ib.

Ait. Br. VIII,

1.5; Kau.y. Br.

2,

Occasionally, doubtless, even the

j-ruti feels

the

connection that has been established between these names

and the sphere of Atharvanic literary


Ka///. S.

XVI,

13 mentions a

activity, as

when

the

Bhisha^ Atharva;/a
the Kaush. Br. XXX, 6,

"'

i^z'shi

Weber, Ind. Stud. Ill, 459)


A
Ghora Ahgirasa or when the Vaiik. Br. XII, 8, 6
states that Dadhya;7/v' xA-iigirasa was the chaplain (puro-

(see

a i?zshi

dhaniya) of the gods.

The manner

in

which the hymns of the Atharvan are

alluded to in the i^rauta-texts

is

Ordinarily the

as follows.

texts are preoccupied with the sacrificial literature in the

narrower sense, and hence devote themselves to the menand laudation of the trayi vidya, either without recount-

tion

ing

its

specific

literary varieties,

the terms rzk, saman, ya^u/z.

or

by

fuller citation of

For these are substituted not

infrequently other terms like stoma, uktha,

j-astra,

udgitha.

from

&c., special liturgical varieties, also derived directly

the sphere of the j-rauta-performances, and, in

fact, strictly

dependent upon these performances for their existence.


On the other hand, whenever the jrauta-texts mention, or
make draughts upon other literary forms like itihasa,
purawa, gatha, sutra, upanishad, and many others, the
Atharvan literature is almost unfailingly included, and
that

too almost

traividya

is

invariably in the following

mentioned

and next follow

place,

first,

in

order

the

the Atharvan holds the fourth

somewhat

variable arrangement

the types itihasa, &c.

Cf.

Weber, Episches im vedischen Ritual, Sitzungsberichte der Koniglich-

Preiissischen

Akademie

d.

Wissenschaften

zii

Berlin,

1891, p. Si

(46 of the

reprint).
^

The snme apocryphal J?ii,hi is reported by the Anukraniawis as the author


hymn to the plants,' RV. X, 97 Va^. S. XII, 75-S9.

of the oshadhistuti, 'the

C 2

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

XXXVl

Thus the Taittiriya-sawhita mentions


ysi^u/i

alone at
1,4

TheAV. in

12. 7

II, 4,

12,

__
^
at 11, 4, IT, 0,

the
Taittiriya-

VII,

3,

to

5,

VI,

i,

2,

the expressions samna/^, ya^u-

sham, and ukthamadanam

sawhita.

saman, and

rik,

same categories are alluded

the

7,

at III,

2,

0,

5.

6
^

in the expressions udgatr/z/am (with udgitha),

ukthai-awsinam (with

rika/i),

and adhvaryuwam

ish/aya^usha//, stutastomasya, jastokthasya at

The only mention

of

Atharvan

literature

is

also

of.

4, 28, i.

I,

at VII, 5, 11, 2,

under the designation ahgirasa/^ (without atharvawa// ^), and


here the text is as follows righhya/i svaha, ya^urbhya/;
:

svaha, samabhya/^ svaha. ahgirobhya/^

svaha, vedehhya/i

svaha, gathabhya// svaha, nara.ja;//sibhya//

svaha, raibhi-

bhya// svaha.

This

also, in the

AV.

the

TheAV.

in

the

the nature of the references to

is

Either the term

5atapatha-brahmaa.

trayi vidya
in

used, or nk, saman,

is

i-

hSlt:

^' 4.
I,

2,

4; IX,

^,

3-7; XII,

5, 2,

2-7

IV,

3. 3, 2

4,

6,

10.

8; 3,1,
T2; X, 4,
r,

2.
;

7,

I.

21.

22;

V,

5,

5, 2, I.

4,3' 12

tt

4,

2.

5, 5,

I.

i,

1,

11.20; VII,

XIV,

and yagu/i

are mentioned explicitly:

the

VI,

2,52; VIII, 5,
2; XI, 5, 4, 18;
15, 2.9.

8,

11,

In

all

no mention of the Atharvan; but neither


there any mention of any other literary type that has

these cases there


is

main,

is

a distinctive standing outside of the trayi vidya.

other hand, the Atharvan

is

mentioned

in

number

every one of which presents also a lengthy

Thus XI,

tional literary forms.

5, 6,

list

On

the

of cases,

of addi-

4-8, rikaJi, ya^u;//shi,

samani, atharvaiigirasa//, anuj-asanani, vidya, vakovakyam,


itihasapuia;mm, gatha narai^awsya/^
veda/^, ya^Liwshi vedaZ;,

sarpavidya

veda//,

5,

6,

11),

4, 3, 3

fif.,

riko

deva^anavidya veda//, maya veda//,


samani veda/^ XIV, 5, 4,

itihaso veda/;, purana^u veda/i,

lo;

XIII,

atharvawo veda//, aiigiraso veda/^,

6; 7, 3, II ( = Brzh. Ar. II, 4, 10; IV, i, 2


r/gvedo ya^Yveda/i samavedo^tharvahgirasa iti-

ID,

hasa/^ pura/^a;-'/ vidya upanishadaZ; s\oka/i sutra^zy

anuvya-

kh}anani vyakhyanani

(yag-u/i),

'

X,

5, 2, 20,

Cl. above, p. xviii.

adhvaryava/^

INTRODUCTION.

XXXVll

>^//andoga// (saman), hahvrika./i (uktham). yatuvida// (yatu),

sarpavida//

Only

deva^anavida/;.

XIV,

passage,

1-4

14,

tS,

= B/7h.

seems to mention, or rather hint


nection with representatives

Veda

series

uktham,

is

ya_^u//.

the passage possibly views the fourth

Veda

as the

Upanishad

of the trayi vidya, without

The

mentioning other texts ^


sama, kshatram

at.

a single

Ar. Up. V, 13, 1-4).


the Atharvan in con-

of the Kshatriyas, or,

substitutes the act of kshatra,

kshatriya as Athar\-anic

by

i.

e.

more

precisely,

the performances of the


See. for this, p. xxv,

distinction.

above.

The
once

Taittiriya-brahma;/a mentions the Atharvan twice.

in

accordance with the method described above, at


III, 12, 8, 2, ;-iko }'a^u;//shi samani atharva-

The

A\'. in
the
Taittinya-

ngirasa//

-i

itihasapurawam.

in the other

the Atharvan is mencustomary adjuncts, and


that too before the Sama-veda, to wit, rik2iin pra^^i
mahati dig u/^yate, dakshi;/am ahur ya^'-usham aparam.
atharva^/am aiigirasaw pratii"!. samnam udiy^i mahati dig
U/^yate.
But it is of interest to note that in the sequel,
where sundry symbolic and mystic correlations of the
Vedas with the sun. &c., are established, the Atharvan is
wanting, and the operations take place with vedais tribhi//.
Thus, ;7^bhi// purvahne divi deva iyate. ya^urvede tishZ/'ati
madhye ahna//, samavedena^stamaye mahiyate, vedair
passage. III,

12,

Q.

I.

tioned without the

We

a.yunyas tribhir eti surya//.


that the fourth

Veda

manner, only because

shall not err in

mentioned

is

it is

needed to

in

fill

out the scheme of

the four principal directions of space; the real


the heart of the author
II, 5. 6.

On

is

falls into line in

in

their

it

is

The

Taittiriya-arawyaka again

I,

24, 8.

10,

presenting the

rikd^h,

ya^uwshi.

catalogued with other texts (vakovakyam itiha-

sapuraz/amj, but without the Atharvan, at XI,


.Sahkh. Gr/h.

at

would be altogether erro-

two passages, II, 9 and


most expansive form,

Conversely the trayi

theme

as, e. g. in III, lo,

hostility, or conscious discrimina-

tion against the Atharvan.

texts

the traividya,

the other hand,

neous to assume either

judging

a purely formulaic

5,

7,

ft".

cf.

the same

list

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

XXXVIU

samani, atharvangirasa//, brahma;/ani,

itihasan,

pura;^ani,

kalpan, gatha/^, naraj^awsi//.

The only mention

Atharvan as a

of the

6"ahkhayana's vSrauta-sutra
series,

The AV.

in

,.

the remaining jrauta-

XVI,

at

is

2,

literary

type in

again in the

ft'.,

veda/i, ya^urveda//, atharvavedaZ;

j-t'ko
.

(in

connection With bhesha^amj, angiraso veaa/i

^j,-j

connection with ghoram), sarpavidya, raasuravidya, itihasaveda//,

kshovidya,

pura;/a-

vedci/i,

samaveda/^.

Very

similarly in Ai-valayana's 5rauta-

SLitra

X,

riko

veda/^

veda./i

ff.,

7,

ya^urveda//,

atharva;za/

(with bhesha^am), angiraso veda/^ (with

ghoram),

vishavidya, pii'a/^avidya, asuravidya, purawavidya,

itihaso

These passages are essentially identheir chief


tical with 5at. Br. XIII, 4, 3, 3 ff., above
interest lies in the differentiation of atharvan and ahgiras,
veda./i,

samaveda/^.

respectively as representatives of the auspicious (bhesha^'-am)

and

terrible

(ghoram = abhiMrikam)

above, p. xviii

cf.

10;

XVI,

favourably
vai

10,
:

Veda

In the Pa7^/v'avi///j"a-brahmawa, XII,

ff.

10,

activities of this

the Atharvan

charms are mentioned

bhesha^a;;/ va atharvawani, and

devanam atharva;/o
XXIII, 16, 7; Ka//!.

9,

bhesha^aw

bhesha^yayai^va^rish/yai.

Cf.

XI, 5 (cf. Ind. Stud. 111,463).


The Va^asaneyi-sa7hita mentions the traividya (or rik

also

S.

and saman without yagu/i) frequently, IV, 1.9; VIII, 12


XVIII. 9. 29. 6y XX, 12 XXXIV, 5 XXXVI, 9 the
x'\tharvan is nowhere mentioned in connection with the other
;

three.

Once

at

XXX,

i5=:Tait. Br. 111,4,

that miscarries (avatoka)

is

reference, in the light of

i, 11,

woman

devoted to the Atharvans

AV.

charm

to prevent miscarriage),

hymns

or Atharvanic practices.

VI, 17

the

Kaui-. ^j, 12 (a

seems to be to Atharvan
Otherwise the word atharvan occurs in connections that admit of no special, or at
any rate obvious, reference to the fourth Veda, VIII, 56
XI, 32. Neither is there, as far as is known, any mention
of the Atharvan in the Maitraya;n-sa;;zhita, the Aitareya
and Kaushitaki-brahma;/as, or Katyayana's and La/ya;

yana's 6"rauta-sutras.

The

position of the

Atharvan in the j^rauta-literature


might be naturally
is what

according to this evidence

:
;

INTRODUCTION.
expected

XXX l.K

no evidence of repugnance or exclublended with every sphere of


is
religious thought and activity, and the only
sane attitude on the part of these texts must

there

is

Witchcraft

siveness.

the^""autatexts estimate

of the

]-,

AV.

of the

recognition
^

^Yiq

which

, .

by

are

hterary products
,

distinction

the

.,

repositories

No one will expect rigid consistency


hot and cold from the same mouth
blows
witchcraft
according as it is turned towards the inimical forces,
of witchcraft.

human and demoniac,

or

turned by others against one-

is

regarded as useful, or noxious. The AV. itself


the hymn, II, 1 2,
takes the same view by implication
hurls the bitterest invective against enemies that endeavour

self, it

is

to

thwart one's holy work

own endeavour

does not prevent one's


sacrifice of an enemy

this

frustrate

to

the

70); the hymn, II, 7, ensures protection against


curses and hostile plots, but does not prevent the existence
of fierce imprecations and curses issued forth subjectively

(VII,

another (VI, 13 and 37). It is a question


throughout of my sorcery, or thy sorcery. The flavour of
holiness and virginal innocency is necessarily absent, and
this want crops out in connection with the performances
for the ruin of

RV.

of yatu even in the

exclaims

'
:

may

plains against his

(VII, 104. i5- i^}, where the writer

die to-day

enemy who

if

am

calls

a sorcerer,' and

him, though he

is

compure,

a sorcerer, and against the real sorcerer who pretends that


Though yatu (sorcery) is regarded here as
he is pure.
e.g. AV. L 7 and <S), the writer at 5at. Br. X,
prevented from placing the yatuvidaZ-, those
not
5, 2,
in sorcery,' in solemn array with the represkilled
that are
holiest forms of literature, immediately
the
sentatives of
of
after the hahvrtka./i, as the characteristic exponent

devilish

20

(cf.

'

is

the other hand even bhesha^am, 'cure, medicine,' the altruistic province of the
Atharvan, though well regarded in general, does not come

Atharvanic

activity.

off without a sneer.

And on

The

Tait. S. VI, 4, 9, 3

(cf- ^laitr.

S.

bhesha14) says, brahma//ena

2; Ssit. Br. IV, I, 5,


na karyam, 'a Brahman shall not practise medicine,'
the reason that is assigned being that the physician is

IV,

gam

6,

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

xl

impure, that the practice entails promiscuous, unaristocratic

minghng with men


6, 2, p. 80,

1.

'men run

to the physician'

And we may

1)^.

trust that the

(MS. IV,
canons of

and literary appreciation of a people that


had produced the best that is to be found in Vedic literature could not fail altogether, when in the proper mood, to
estimate at its right value the wretched hocus-pocus of the
bhesha^ani themselves, though these were the best that
the Vedic period had produced for the relief of bodily
ailment.
Yet the Veda without witchcraft would not be
the Veda, and the i-rauta-texts are not in the position to
throw stones against the Athai-van.
Moreover it must
not be forgotten that the Atharvan contains in its cosmogonic and theosophic sections more material that undertakes
to present the highest brahmavidya than any other Vedic
Sawhita (cf. below, p. Ixvi)
by whatever literary evolution this was associated with this sphere of literature and
social standing

incorporated into the redaction,

it

doubtless contributed to

more compact body of sorcery-charms,


higher valuation among the more enlightened of the

the floating of the

and

its

At any

people.

Atharvan

in

rate,

a sober survey of the position of the

the traividya yields the result that this Veda,

while not within the proper sphere of the greater concerns


of Vedic religious
as a

Veda

life,

in perfectly

relative importance, its

is

considered within

good standing
authority, and

its

own sphere

the question of

its

canonicity

is

its

not

discussed, nor even suggested.

The
The

Atharvan in the Upanishads does not


from that in the svut'i in general. Aside
^^'^^'^
the Atharvan Upanishads, which are

position of the

appear to

AV

in

differ

somewhat freer in their reference


AV., and in the mention of more or
less apocryphal Atharvan teachers, it is introduced but
rarely, and usually in the manner prevalent elsewhere
in the jrauta-literature, i. e. preceded by the trayi, and
the Upani-

naturally

c r| o rl c

to the

'

Cf. the

contempt for the pugsLyag/nya/i, ye pugan )'a_^'-.iyanti, those who


Manu HI, 151 Mahabh. I, 2883, and the gramayaoin,

sacrifice for a crowd,'

'

Manu IV, 205, and gramay%aka, Mahabh.


LXXXII, 12; Gaut. XV, 16.

Ill,

13355.

See also Vishwu

INTRODUCTION.

xli

Thus
followed by a variable list of other literary types.
the passages quoted above from Sat. Br. XIV, 5, 4, 10 6,
5, n,
10, 6; 7, 3, II = Brih. Ar. Up. II, 4> 10; IV, i, 2
;

and the Tait, Ar. II, 9 and 10, are of Upanishad character,
and the Maitr. Up. VI, 32 repeats the list of texts stated at
Sat. Br.

Br/h. Ar. Up., just cited, in precisely the same

The same

order.

Atharva.j-iras

4),

text, Maitr.

has

the

Up. VI, 33

list

= Maha

Up.

r/gya^u/zsamatharvangirasa

purawam. The AV/and. Up. Ill, 1-4 deals with


rik, yagu/i, saman, atharvahgirasa/^, and itihasapuiawani
the same text at VII, i, 2. 4 2, i
7, 1, has the same list,
itihasa//

atharva7/a.y

y^-aturtha/^

itihasapura/za/^

pa/'ama/z,

to

which are added a lengthy series of additional sciences


The Tait. Up. = Tait. Ar. VIII, 3, again, presents
(vidya).
in a formulaic connection, tasj^a (sc. atmana//)
Atharvan
the
ya^r eva slra/i, rig dakshviah paksha//, samo-ttara// paThere is,
ksha//, adej-a atma, atharvaiigirasaZ; ^ukkhaiu^.
Atharvan
the
of
mention
as far as is known, no additional
the non-Atharvanic Upanishads, and

in

there

is

it

evident that

is

manner in which the


Very much more numerous are

no marked change

in

the

Veda is handled.
the instances in which the trayi alone appears

fourth

see Jacob's

Concordance to the principal Upanishads, under the words


ya^urveda, ya^urmaya, ya^us
r/gveda, r/iimaya, rik
samaveda, samamaya, saman. They show that the draughts
;

upon the Atharvan and the subsequent

literary

forms

are,

in general, made under the excitement of formulaic solemnity while on the other hand, needless to .say, the Upanishads with their eye aloft alike from hymn, sacrificial
;

formula, and witchcraft charm, have no occasion to condemn


the Atharvan, aside from that superior attitude of theirs

which implies, and diplomatically expresses condemnation


of the entire Veda that is not brahmavidya.
Even in the Atharvan Upanishads there is sounded in
hence the pre-eminence of the
This Upanishad belongs to a Ya^us-school
The Atharvan is here forced into a position of disadvantage, and it
may be admitted that its mention after the adeJ-a (Upanishad) is intentional.
But there is really no other course open to the writer. The tenor of the entire
passage excludes the notion of disparagement of any of the te.xls mentioned.
'

ya^us.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA,

xlii

general neither the polemic nor the apologetic note which

We

characterises the ritualistic writings of the Atharvan.

TheAV.

be

find, to
in

.^

,.

radic,

the

Atharvan

II

^^^.^
'

^j^g

qj^

Prawava Up. a spo,


,.
not sohtary. assumption of superiority
sure, in the late

Upanishads.

passage

in

AV.^ and an interpolated


^
the Prai-na Up. V, 5 betrays the
^f

j-j^g

tendency to secure at any cost the correlation


Atharvan with the highest brahma ^. The authority
of Atharvanic teachers, Sanatkumara, Angiras, Paippalada,
distinct

of the

&c.,

is,

of course, cited with

especial

frequency

the

in

Atharvan Upanishads, helping to confer upon them an


esoteric school character.
But in general, all that may be
said is, that the Atharvan Upanishads mention the fourth
Veda along with the other three more frequently than the
corresponding tracts of the other schools, that the Athaivan
is quietly added to the trayi^ whether other literary forms
like the itihasapura/^am, &c., appear in the sequel, or not.

Even these Upanishads, however, occasionally lapse into


more frequent habit of the bulk of the Vedic literature,

the

and

fail

notj

it

to refer to the Atharvan, whether consciously or


seems impossible to tell. Thus the Muwr/aka Up.
I, I, 5 counts the
four Vedas (Atharvan included) along
with the Ahgas as the lesser science, above which towers

the science of

Brahma:

/vgvedo, ya^urveda//, samavedo

But

^tharvaveda/^ jiksha, &c.

sama ya^uwshi diksha


says of the Pra//a,

in

'life's

breath'

karham satyam atharvaiigirajam


tains an allusion to the

II,

have, pia;/e sarva;;/ pratish///itam

list is,

Praj-na

(personified),

asi,

Athaivan

1,6 the

The

yno-uaska..

Up.

rika/i
II, 8

r/shiwaw

which seemingly con-

writings, but in II, 6


r/y^o

we

ya^u;shi samani

brahma ka ^.
See also Mahanaraya//a
This betrays the usual preoccupation with the
traividya, which is not quite effaced by the possible allusion
yagriah kshatra///

Up.

22.

to the

'

Atharvan

See Ind. Stud.

I,

See Ind. Stud.

It

in II, 8.

296

The Nrzsiwhapurvatapani Up.

IX, 51.

453, note, and cf. Lohtlingk's critical edition of the


Pra.fna in the Proceedings of the Royal Saxon Academy, November, 1890.
I,

would have been easy

girasaj kx ye, or the like.

to substitute for the last four words, atharvah-

Cf. also Tiaj-na V, 5, alluded to above.

INTRODUCTION.

xlHi

2 has, ;7gya^^u//sainatharva;/aj- /'atvaro veda/;

I,

ya^u/zsamatharvarupa/! surya//

II, i

I,

4, rig-

= Nr/.siwhottarata-

panl Up. 3 Atharvaj-ikba Up. i), r/gbhi// rz'gveda//, ya^rbhir ya^urveda//, samabhi// samaveda/^,atharva;/air mantrair
;

V, 9 it falls into the broader style of


samani, atharva/^am, aiigirasam,
ya^uwshi,
reference, rika/L

atharvaveda//

in

leading up

^akha//, pura//ani, kalpan, gatha//, narajawsi//,

Om

finally to pra;^avam, the

which embraces

(sarvam).

all

we have r/gmaya/// ya^urmaya;// samamaya?;/


brahmamayam amr/tamayam, where brahmamayam obBut

in

V,

viously refers to the brahmavidya, the holy science, not to

mavidya Up. 5
culminating

in

recounts the

ff.

the

And

Brahmaveda ^

the fourth Veda, the

Om,

thus the Brah-

merits of the

traividya,

without reference to the Atharvan.

seems clear that even the Atharvan Upanishads as a

It

class

are engaged neither in defending the Atharvan from attack,

Other
it any degree of prominence.
i,
rzg
Atharvai'iras
in
occur
Atharvan
references to the
Muatharvangiraso-ham
sama^^ham
ahaw ya^r ahaw
nor

in

securing for

ktika Up. 12-14, rzgveda, ya^uZ', saman, atharva;^a

atharvavedagatanam

upanishadam

trani k/ia.nda. r/gveda//, traish/ubha;

ibid, i,

Maha Up. 3, gayaMando ya^rveda/?,

CSLQ-atam k/ianda/i samaveda^/, anush/ubha/// /V/ando>^tharva-

Cf

veda/^

On

Up.

also /ifulika

10, 13,

turning to the Gr/hya-sutras

Hit

would be natural to

anticipate a closer degree of intimacy with the Atharvan,

^Jnthr

and hence a more frequent and less formulaic


For the subjectreference to its writings.

Gr/hya-

matter of these texts

with

many

ing, Atharvanic, besides being dashed strongly


elements of vidhana or sorcery-practice, i.e.

narrower sense and by disverses quoted in the G/Vhya-sutras are

Atharvanic features
tinction I
1

we
I,

Many

the

in

not designate the fourth Veda as Brahmaveda, unless


and addenda, reported by Weber, Ind. Stud.
earlie-t occurrence of Brahmaveda is at 5ahkh. Gr/h. I, 16,

The Upanishads do

trust certain doubtful variants

301, note.

The

13 (see above, p. xxvii).


2 Cf., e.g. the use of roots. Par.

charm,
'

broadly speak-

is itself,

A.rv.

III.

12

i^cl.

p.

remedial charms,' Ajv. Ill,

I,

117
6,

13,
ff.

ft".;

.Vankh.

of this
Par.

I,

I.

19,

vclume:
16, 24

ft.;

23,

the
Ill,

the battle-

bhaisha^yani,

6; Hir.

II,

7;

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

xliv

identical with; or variants of those contained in the

AtharvaBut even the Grzhya-rites, popular, nay vulgar,


as they must have been in their untrammelled beginnings,
were, so to speak, Rishified, and passed through in due
time a process of school-treatment which estranged them
as far as possible from the specifically Atharvanic connections, and assimilated them, as far as possible, to the Rigveda,. Sama-veda, and Ya^ur-veda, as the case may be.
sawhita.

Thus the battle-charm, Asv. III. 12, instead of drawing


upon the very abundant mantras of this kind, contained in
the

AV.

decked out with the scattering


may be extracted from the RV.
(see the notes to Stenzler's and Oldenberg's translations).
In general the preference for mantras of the particular
(see p. 117

ff.).

is

material of this sort that

school

is

nearly

The

if

not quite as great as in the 6"rauta-

marked degree of literary


Atharvan is not materialised. The
GrzTiya-sutras of the Sama-veda (Gobhila and Khadira),
and Apastamba \_ do not seem to mention the Atharvan
at all; Aj-valayana (III, 3, 1-3), on the occasion of the
svadhyaya. the daily recitation of the Veda, recommends
the Atharvan, but the mention of this text is that which
we have found to be the normal one in the 5rauta-literature, i.e. preceded by nk, ya^u//, and saman
followed by
brahma;/a, kalpa, gatha, naraj-awsi, itihasa, and pura?/a ^.
sutras.

anticipation of a

relationship with the

Similarly Hira;^yakei-in

long

list

(II,

19, 6),

in

connection with a

of deities, mentions in order ;7'gveda^ ya^urveda,

samaveda, and itihasapura;/a in 5ankhayana I, 24, 8 the


Atharvan is even omitted in a similar list, which catalogues
;

Apast.

Vn,

18

(cf. p. I ff.)

the sawmanasyaiii, 'charms to secure harmony,'

Par. Ill, 7; Apast. HI, 9, 4 ff.


134 ff.), &c. See in general the

VHI,

list

23, 6. 7; Hir. I, 13, 19 ff. (cf. p.


of miscellaneous Gr/hya-rites in Olden-

berg's index to the Gr/hya-sutras. Sacred Books, vol. xxx, p. 306

ff.

This Sutra mentions neither rik, saman, nor atharvan, a probably unconscious preoccupation with the yagu/i that must not be construed as intentional
chauvinism against the other Vedas.
The mantra-materials quoted and
'

employed do not

differ in their general

physiognomy from those of the other

Sutras, but they are always referred to as ya^U/^.


-

The passage

texts presented
5> 7> c- 6.

contains in slightly different arrangement the

by the Tait. Ar. H, 9 and 10, above;

cf.

also

list

Sat

of Vedic
Br.

XI,

INTRODUCTION.

xlv

^/gveda, ya^urveda, samaveda, vakovakyam, itihasapura-

wam, and

finally sarvan

Br. XI, 5,

7,

But

ff.).

vedan (cf. the same grouping, Sat.


in 5ahkh. I, i6, 3 (brahmaveda)

Hir. II, 3, 9 (atharvangirasa//) ; II, 18, 3; 20, 9 (atharvaII, 10, 21 (atharva;/am)


veda)
Par. II, 10, 7 (atharvavcda)
;

there

a distinct advance along the line of later develop-

is

ment

Veda

the familiar mention of the fourth

in

this

balanced altogether by the restriction to the

not

^ahkh.

I,

22, 15

24,

Hir.

I,

13;

5,

6=

or the

III, 2, 48
Aj-v.
two Vedas, Gobh. I, 6, 19
Par. I, 6, 3 = 5ahkh. I, 13, 4, because these passages

restriction to
I, 7,

II, 13, i,

is

trayi,

are to a considerable extent quotations, or modifications


of mantras derived from the

testimony

is

much

as

sutras,

The

j-ruti.

true value of this

chronological, not sentimental


as

their

subject-matter

Atharvan, are not imbued with a sense of

and importance, any more than the

the G;-/hya-

akin

is

the

to

especial value

its

j-rauta-texts.

They

handle their materials in a self-centred fashion, without


acknowledging any dependence upon the literary collections
of the Alharvans
their more frequent reference to the
fourth Veda is formulaic in every single instance, and the
greater frequency with which it is mentioned marks the
later chronology of the Grzhya-sutras (cf. Oldenberg, Sacred
;

Books,

vol.

XXX, pp.

and

The construction of
as we have seen, such
.
Ihe AV.

nation

lawbooks.

sion

by demons);
of

the

holy by

its

ff.).

ills

at

the

from

very terms.

the Atharvan.

In

so

offers the means of defence

of

in so far as

individual,

is,

forbid any genuine discrimi-

against

Veda

against the

blessings pronounced
life

as to

there

far as this

in the

xvii

the Vedic literature in general

life
it

(disease

and posses-

presents the auspicious


the

sacramental points in
conception

Even

to

witchcraft

is

death,

it

is

part of the

has penetrated and has become intimately


blended with the holiest Vedic rites the broad current
of popular religion and superstition has infiltrated itself
religion

it

through numberless channels into the higher religion that


is presented by the Brahman priests, and it may be pre-

sumed

that the priests were neither able to cleanse their

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

xlvi

own

religious beliefs from the mass of folk-belief with which


was surrounded, nor is it at all likely that they found
But there is another field
it in their interest to do so.
also
reach down to the Veda, in
of literature whose roots
which judgment must be passed over the more unclean
and sinister phases of Atharvanic activity. The broad
arena on which men meet in daily contact is the true
it

golden

for the

field

The need

rule.

of doing unto others

what one would have others do unto


the opposite undone,

is

sure to be

expression in the proper literature.

This literature

the

is

(dharma), more narrowly that part of

literature

legal

and leaving
and sure to gain

oneself,

felt,

it

which deals with the mutual rights and obligations of men,


the vyavahara-chapters of the legal Sutras and 6"astras.

Here

also the

virtue of

Atharvan

retains in a

measure

profound hold upon popular

its

indispensable

sciences

by

place

its

beliefs,

because

medicine and astrology are

like

Atharvanic by distinction and because the Atharvan performs, especially for the king, inestimable services in the
injury and overthrow

(purohita) was in
priest

(cf.

all

Ya^;?av.

I;

of enemies.

The

chaplain

king's

probability as a rule an Atharvan

312).

But incantations,

love-charms do work injury, and

sorceries,

and

the dharma-literature

pronounces with no uncertain voice the judgment that the

Atharvan, while useful and indispensable under certain

on the whole

in character and
and either stand in
need of regulation, or must be prohibited by the proper

circumstances^

is

inferior

position, that its practices are impure,

punishments.

The Atharvan

is

not mentioned very frequently either

the Dharma-sutras, the older metrical Dharma-jastras,

in

or in the

Baudh.
107)

more modern

II, 5, 9, J4

101^

nanda, vol.

la

distinct

this

(cf.
i,

p.

passage,

from the

Manu

InVish;/u

legal Smr/tis.

IV,

3,

II, (S5)

514), the

4; Ya^;/av. I, 44
Aujanasa-smr/ti
;

Atharvan

is

geschichte^, p. 165, note.

veda by distinction;

cf.

(cf.

III,

Manu

44
mentioned

II,

(6"ivain

the

tlie Atharvan
is kept
Weber, Indische Literatur-

vedalharvnpuia;/ani setihasani,

tra)i, the

XXX, 37

xl VU

INTRODUCTION.
normal Vcdic manner,
followed by

It is

ransLvn.

cases (Baudh.

the older

i.e.

preceded by the traividya, and

other literary types, especially the itihasapu-

worthy of note that


II, 5,

name

only

in

14; Ya^;7av.

9,

I,

thi'ce

of the five

44; Aus.

atharvaiigirasa// appears;

Ill,

44),

the other three

have atharvaveda, or atharvan. But it seems altogether


impossible to derive from this any chronological indications
as to the date of a given legal text, since U^'anas, or even

Ya^wavalkya,

At

this

is

certainly later than

Baudhayana and Vish//u.

time the names atharvaveda, atharvan, atharva;/a

have established themselves as the equivalent of the older


atharvaiigirasa//, but the older name crops out at times in
At Ya^wav. I, 3 the fourth Veda is
a purely chance way.
also implied as

one of the fourteen foundations of know-

ledge and law, without being mentioned by


Auj-anasa-.smrzti V, 66 (6'ivananda, vol.

i,

name

also

cf.

531, bottom).
position of the

p.

The Atharvan, however, holds also the


fourth Veda in cases where no additional literature

is

men-

Baudh. Ill, 9, 4 burnt oblations are offered to


the
the four Vedas and many divinities at Baudh. IV, 5,
in
mentioned
are
Atharva-veda
Saman, Rik, Ya^us, and
tioned

at

connection with oblations calculated to procure the special


wishes of one's heart (kamyesh/aya//). At Vas. XXII, 9
the Sawhitas of all the Vedas (sarva,^7/anda//sa;;/hita//) are

among the purificatory texts the Atharvan is


probably intended to be included, especially as the AtharIn the late
va.s-iras (see below) is explicitly mentioned.
counted

(sc.

suktani)

ya^u;;/shi and samani.

In the

Vr/ddhaharita-sa/z/hita III, 45^ the atharva;/ani


are on

a level with the

r//('o

518) the twiceAuj-anasa-smmi III,


two Vedas, the
Veda,
a
born is recommended to read either
the trayi
between
Vedas, or the four Vedas, a distinction
(S6

(6'ivananda, vol.

i,

p-

vidya and the four Vedas, not explicitly stated elsewhere.


The Atharva-riras, an Upanishad connected with the AV.,
Vas. XXII,
is mentioned a number of times, Gaut. XIX, 1 2
;

the same text is


Au.fanasa-smr/ti IV, 5
9
mentioned under the name of 5iras at Baudh. IV, i, 28;
;

XXVIII,

14

See Givanandavidyasagaia's Dharma.fastrasawgraha, vol.

i,

p. 213.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

xlvili

Vas.

XXI, 6-8

called

XXV,

Baudh.

5iras,

13

company

of the

mended

may

More

pointedly, and without

traividya, the

Atharvan and Angiras

Certain vows

9.

14, 2; Vas. XXVI, 12, also


of Atharvanic practices
so

emanate from the sphere


Govinda at Baudh. loc. cit.
the

LV,

Vish;ni

II, 8,

(j-rutir

texts

of the

atharvahgirasi//) are

recom-

sacred

the true weapons with which the Brahma;/a

as

Manu

slay his enemies,

for his chaplain (purohita)

XI, 33 the king must choose


one who is skilled in the Atharvan
;

and Aiigiras (atharvangirase), Ya^;7av.

312^; and the


17, where
the king is enjoined to take heed of that which astrologers
and interpreters of omens tell him, and to cause the purohita to perform in his house-fire among other expiatory

same recommendation

is

prosperity (mangala), and witchcraft

rites (i-anti), rites for

practices (abhiy^ara) against enemies

eo ipso an Atharvan
nanda's collection,
*

Atharvan

priest.

vol.

i,

p.

Such a purohita

^.

In the Atri-sa;hita
45) ^'yotirvido
are
.

priests skilled in astrology

performance of j-raddhas and

for the

I,

implied at Gaut. XI, 15.

'

is

(GW^-

atharva;/a/i;,

recommended

sacrifices (cf. Vish^zu

The sn^taka must not live in


332).
y^
a country without physicians, Vish;m LXXI, 66, and the
III,

Ya^;7av.

I,

king should consult his physicians

At

in

the morning, Ya^;/av.

Vish;ai III, 87, the king himself

is urged to
be conversant with incantations dispelling the effects of
poison and sickness, and at Manu VII, 217, the food of the
king is rendered salubrious by sacred texts that destroy

332.

I,

poison

these passages evidently refer to Atharvanic bhai-

sha^yani (cf

p.

25

ff.),

and Atharvan

priests skilled in their

AtBaudh. II, 8, 15,4; Vish;/u LXXIII, 11 LXXXI,


the
demons called yatudhana are driven out by means
4,
of sesame, in perfect accord with AV. I, 7, 2.
Thus far then the dharma-literature expresses regard for
use.

the Atharvan, and distinct dependence upon

and

its

Veda sounds from


*

The king

This

is

kabhi/Oarika

himself

literature

is

notes pitched in a different key.


urged

the stereotyped
;

its

But the ever dubious quality of the fourth

practices.

see p. xxix.

(ib. I,

summary

In the

310) to deyote himself to the trayi.


of the functions of the AV., j'antapush/i-

INTRODUCTION.
first

xllx

we may remark that the conspicuous omission


Veda which characterises the j-rauta-litcrature, with-

place

of this

out pronounced disapproval of the Atharvan.

is

continued

in

Thus notably in the prohibition of the


recital of the other Vedas while the sound of the Samans
is heard, these texts mention only the riV and the yzgwh
see Gaut. XVI, 21; Vas. XIII, 30; Vish;/u XXX, 26;
the dharma-texts.

Manu

IV,

124.

123.

At Baudh.

IV,

26^-66, the recitation of the traividya

5,

Manu XI,

29;

recommended

is

a most efficient means of purification and release from

as

sin.

In the cosmogonic account, Manu I, 23, only r/k. ysigwh,


and saman are deri\'ed from the primeval creation.
In
Baudh. II, <S, 14, 4. 5; Manu III, 145, the traividya and
its adherents only appear at the funeral-offerings (.yraddha),
though the Atri-sawhit^ singles out Atharvans skilled in
astronomy on that very occasion (see above, p. xlviii). At

Manu

XII, 112 (cf Ya^//av.

Vedas

are

recommended

I,

9)

adherents of the three

as an assembly (parishad) to decide

II, 21
punishment is declared for
him that abuses one skilled in the three Vedas at Ya^;7av.
I, 310 the king is urged to devote himself to the study of
the trayi (vidya) his chaplain, on the other hand, must be

points of law; at Ya^;^av.

skilled in the manipulation of the atharvarigirasam (ib.

The

I,

Atharvan is stated outright


312).
at Apast. II, II, 29, 10. II, where it is said that the knowledge of women and 6"udras is a supplement of the Atharvaveda (cf Biihler, Sacred Books, vol. ii, p. xxix) and yet
more brusquely Vish//u V, 191 counts him that recites a
deadly incantation from the Atliarva-veda as one of the
inferiority of the

seven kinds of assassins.


Still more frequently, performances which imply the
knowledge and use of the Atharvan are decried and
punished, though the writings of the Atharvan are not
expressly mentioned.
Thus magic rites with intent to
harm enemies, and sorceries and curses in general, cause
impurity, and are visited with severe penances at Apast. I,
Gaut. XXV, 7;
9, 26, 7; 10, 29, 15; Baudh. II. i, 2, 16
Vish;m XXXVII, 26; LIV, 25; Manu IX. 290; XI, 198;
YkgiidM. Ill, 289. Yet the other side of the coin is turned
;

[4-']

;;

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

up

Manu

at

XI, 33, where the Atharvan is recommended


weapon of the Brahma;/a against his enemies

as the natural

Narada, V, 108, also betrays his hostile


when he remarks that the sage

above).

(see

attitude towards sorcery

With

frequency and emphasis the impurity of

especial

physicians

Manu

19;

upon, Apast.

insisted

is

I,

18,

6,

LXXXII,

20; 19, 15;

9; Gaut. XVII, 17 Vas. XIV,


III, 152. 180; IV, 212. 220; Ya^/^av. I, 162

Vish;m LI, 10;


a.

of witchcraft ^

took an oath, being accused

Vasish//^a

240 we gathered above (p. xxxix) that the practice of


medicine is regarded in the same light in the Brahmawas
III,

the charge, of course, reflects upon the Atharvan.

logy

and

also,

Manu

Baudh.

II, I, 2,

logy

forbidden to ascetics, Vas. X, 21

is

i6;

and the astrologer

LXXXII,

III, 162.

character

in

An

Kauj-. 50, 152.

IX, 258; the practice of astroManu VI, 50;


;

excluded from the jraddha, Vish;m

is

Manu

7;

Atharvanic

Astro-

impure occupations,

are

fortune-telling,

That these

practices were

we may gather from AV. VI, 128

especially pointed reflection

against

AV. is implied in the prohibition of the mulakriya or


mulakarma, 'practices with roots ^.' at Vish;m XXV, 7
wives are especially forbidden to engage in such practice
at Manu IX, 290 magic rites with roots, practised by persons not related to him against whom they are directed,
are regarded as sinful^; at Manu XI, 64 practices with
roots in general are forbidden.
Such practices abound in
the AV. and its ritual; see I, 34
III, 18 ( = RV. X, 145);
V, 31, T2 VI, 138. 139 VII, 38, &c., and the performances
connected with them (cf. p. 99 ff. and the commentary on
these hymns).
Though they are not wanting elsewhere,
the

especially in the Grzhya-sutras, the brunt of the charge

without doubt directed against the Atharvan.

XV,

Gaut.
*

He

16

Vish;m

LXXXII,

12

has in mind the asseveration of the poet,

Manu

III,

RV. VII,

151

IV,

104, 15, adySi

muriya yadi yatudhano asmi, &c., 'may I die to-day if I am a sorcerer.'


^ Cf.
Seven Hymns of the Atharva-veda,' Amer. Journ. Phil. VII, 4S4
'

(19

ff.

of the reprint)

the present vohime, pp. 160, 532

same prohibition

'

Cf. the

The commentator Narada

against a husband or relative.

in the

ff.

ff.

Maliabharata, below,

states that

is

Finally, at

p. liv.

they are permissible,

if

practised

INTRODUCTION.

205, he who practises for a multitude (gramaya^aka) is


pronounced impure we may presume that this kind of
activity was largely, if not entirely in the hands of Atharvan-priests cf. the note on p. xl.
The position of the Atharvan in the Mahabharata may
be characterised in the single statement that its importance
^^ ^ Veda, and its canonicity, are finally and
Th AV
theMahacompletely established that its practices are
:

familiarly

known

barring

in

general, not

sub-

There is no especial
between the great Epic and the ^rauta-literature,

jected to any particular


affinity

and,

criticism.

continuance of a

the

considerable quantity

of

the legendary materials (akhyana) which are woven into


the descriptions of the Vedic sacrifices in the Brahma//as

hence there

is

nothing

in

tion with the trayi vidya.

collection

so

deals

the Epic to induce preoccupa-

On

largely

the other hand, the great

with

the

interests

of

the

Kshatriyas as to preclude any conscious discrimination


against the fourth Veda, since this Veda also is to a very
considerable extent engaged in the interest of the kings

and the pracAtharIt is true that the Mahabharata in


vanic in character.
common with all Hindu literature, the Atharvan literature
not excluded, mentions frequently only the three Vedas by
their distinctive names, or by the generic terms trayi vidya
and trayo veda//.
Thus in the passages assembled in
A. Holtzmann's sufficiently exhaustive collectanea on this
question in his work on the Epic, Das Mahabharata und
seine Theile, vol. iv, p. 5, the prevailing Vedic habit of
But there can be little
referring to the Vedas is continued.
(ra^akarmawi, Kau.yika, chapters 14 to

17),

tices of their chaplains (purohita) are also largely

question that this

mode

of reference has at this time, as

doubtless in a measure also in the period of Vedic productivity, become a stereotyped mechanical habit, continued

from the tradition of earlier times cf. BUhler, Zeitschr. d.


Deutsch. Morgenl. Gesellsch. XL, 701, who compares the
German expression die vier Erdtheile,' and the like. There
is no indication that the mention of the Atharvan is con;

'

sciously avoided.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

HI

The main proof of the high regard for the Atharvan


and its unchallenged position in the canon, are the quasicosmogonic passages in which the four Vedas figure in the
primordial transactions of the creation of the world, and
10 = 3770

Brahman is said
Vedas; Brahman himself is

= 13560,

Thus, at V, 108,

with the personified creator.

its affinity

as similarly

12884; at

III,

to

have

called A'aturveda, III, 203, 15

Vish/m

at

XIX,

238, 9 (Bhav.)
VI, 67, 6 3019 Vish/^u

14=12963;

189,

sung the four

first

himself declares that the four Vedas (atharva^a the fourth)

According to XIX,

have sprung from him.

= 11516,

Brahman created

first

14, 15 (Bhav.)
the tristich called Gayatri,

the mother of the Vedas, and afterwards the four Vedas

XIX,

each of his
II, II,

32

At XII,

= 449,

53, 41

the four Vedas dwell bodily in his palace.

347, 27

= 13476

owe

it

Brahman

demons

malicious

steal the four

Accordand the kings, both of whom

Vedas from Brahman, and Vish;m


ingly the

(Bhav.)= 13210 he carries upon


four heads one of the Vedas, or, according to

according to

priest

restores them.

to themselves to be vedavid, are

more

specifically

described as knowing and reciting the four Vedas, at

37 = 2880 K

VII,

9,

29 = 289

XIX,

142,

I,

70,

(Vish.)=7993,

where a Brahma/za is designated as /^aturveda//, just as the


Other instances of the mention
divinity Brahman, above.
of the four Vedas, with or without other literary composi-

1,1,264; 11,11,32 = 450; 111,43,41 =


1661 (akhyanapa/^/^amair vedai/z) III, 58, 9 = 2247 (/^aturo
vedan sarvan akhyanapa/}/('aman) III, 64, 17 = 2417 (/"atvaro vedaZ: sangopaiiga/^) III, 189, 14=12963; V, 44, 28
tions, are

I, i,

21

= 1711 VII, 59, 15 = 2238; VII, 149, 22 = 6470; XII, 236,


= 8613; XII, 335, 28 = 12723; XII, 339, 8=12872; XII,
;

8=13136

ya^urvede tathai^va^tharvaXII, 342,97 = 13256 ff.; XII,


= 1205 (where the AtharXIII,
91
28=13476;
17,
347,
van appears first, atharva^irsha/z samasya rz'ksahasramiteXIII, 11 1, 46 = 5443;
kshawa/z, ya^u/zpadabhu^o guhya/z)
341,

(rzgvede

samasu, pura?/e sopanishade)

fif.

XIII, 168, 31=7736;

XIX,

109, 5 (Vish.)

sakhila veda/i sarahasya/z savistara//)

= 11665.

Cf.

Holtzmann,

I.e., p. 6.

= 949i

XIX,

14, 15

(/i-atvaro

(Bhav.)

INTRODUCTION,

By

itself

the Atharvan

is

llii

mentioned numerous times: as

atharvangiras (singular), atharvaiigirasa/^ (plural), atharvaatharvan, atharvawa, athar\^a//a, and atharva-veda.

ligirasa,

Invariably the statements presenting these names are either


directly laudatory, or they exhibit the

At

disputable position of usefulness.

Atharvan

in

an

in-

20=17066
j-rutam, for com-

III, 305,

Kunti knows mantras, atharvaiigirasi ^


gods to appear; at II, 11, 19 = 437 the atharvarigirasa/", personified, are mentioned honorifically along
at V, 18, 5 = 548 ff. Angiras
with other Vedic i^zshis
praises Indra with atharvavedamantrai/^, and Indra declares
that this Veda shall henceforth have the name atharvaiigipelling the

At XII,

rasa.

342,

99=13258

ff.

Pra^apati declares that

the sages skilled in the Atharvan (vipra atharva;/avidas)

him

fashion

into an

Atharvan

priest,

devoted to the practice

At V,

of the five kalpas (pa/7/^akalpam atharva;/am).

37,

= 1391

Atharvan practitioners (atharva;/a//) are spoken


For him that has been wounded with
of in a friendly way
the arrow of wit there are no physicians and no herbs^ no
sacrificial formulas, no amulets, no Atharva;/as (conjurers),
and no skilful remedies^.' See also I, 70, 40=2883; III,
251,24=15147; XIII, 14, 309 = 901 XIII, 94, 44 = 4590.
In a number of places weapons are said to be as fierce
and efficacious as the sorcery-practices of the Atharvan
58

'

(krz'tyam atharvangirasim iva), VIII, 40,


90,

4=4625;

VIII,

91,48=4795; IX,

17,

33=1848; VIII,
44=907; xni,

the passages imply neither praise nor blame,


98, 13 = 4706
but represent Atharvan practices as familiarly established
:

among
It

the customs of the people.


scarcely to be expected that the Atharvan and

is

practices, notwithstanding their establishment in the

graces of the epic writers, shall


criticism

supposed
vulgarity.

come

off entirely without

there must have been persons aching under


inflictions,

its

good

and moods awake to a

full

sense of

its

its

In such cases the Mah^bharata reflects entirely

the spirit of the dharma-texts.

Thus

at XII,

36-28 = 1 322

In the Calcutta edition, atharvajirasi for atharvaiigirasi.

"

Cf. BolUlingk, Indische Sprliche, 1497-8.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

Hv

XIII, 90, 13 = 4282, physicians are declared to be impure


Practices undertaken by bad women
above, p. 1).

(cf.

mulawith charms and roots (mantramulapara stri


the man that has a wife
pra/^ara) are inveighed against
.

addicted to them would be afraid of her, as of a snake that


had got into the house, III, 233, 13=14660 ff. cf the
;

Women

of the dharma-texts above,

prohibition

identical

are said at XIII, 39,

6 = 2237

(cf.

ff.

p. 1)

Bohtlingk's

Indische Spriiche^ 6407) to be skilled in the sorceries of the


Magic
evil demons Namu/^i, 5"ambara, and Kumbhinasi.
or sorcery

is

in general

Thus kr/tya

regarded as good.

is

regarded as the divinity of witchcraft (abhi/^aradevata) by


the commentator on VII, 92, 54 = 3314, and kritya, abhi-

and maya are in general allowable, but yet it is


possible in the view of the Epic to bewitch right to make
kkva.,

wrong, to be a dharmabhi/^arin, XII, 140, 42 = 52<S8, onto use foul maya, VII, 30, 15=1316 ff. (see above, p. xxix,
and cf. Hopkins, Journ. Amer. Or. Soc. XIII, 312 ff.).
In the Ramayawa the Vedas in general are mentioned
it

special Vedic names appear to be rare,


Sama-veda (samagaZ-) being mentioned at IV, 27, 10,

very frequently
the

the Taittiriya [aksLryas taittiriya;/am) at


Stud.

I,

occurs at

297).

The Atharvan

II,

(mantr^j-

32, 7
/^a ^

Ind.

(cf.

tharva;;a//)

II, 26, 21.

In the proverb-literature the Atharvan

tioned (cf Mahabh. V, 37,

58= 1391

in

is

scarcely

men-

Bohtlingk's Indische

Spriiche-, 4216), but the mantras of the Athar-

Van are in the minds of the poets, though


they usually speak of mantras in general
in general.
...
^^,
^
Thus a comparison
without specification.
of proverbs 1497-8 with 4216 seems to call up the atmosphere of the Atharvan practices in their mention of aushadhani and mantrawi still more clearly rogaviyogamantramahima at 2538 refers to the bhesha^ani of the AV., and
vyadhir bhesha^asawgrahaii- ka.
sakyaJH varayitum
vividhamantraprayogair visham, proverb 6348, both to the
the later

literature

The sentiment has become

proverbial

(Bohtlingk's Indische Spriiche', 5260).

see

6aihg.
<

Paddh.,

niti

76 b

INTRODUCTION.

Iv

bhesha^ani and the charms against poison (see p. 25 ff.).


The knowledge of sorcery, dreaded in women (see the
above), is alluded to in
prohibitions in the dharma, p.
1

526o=Mahabh.

proverbial form at

and 6407 = Mahabh. XIII,

39, 6

13=14660;

233,

Atharvan

the

In the Dajakumara-yl'arita

Ill,

= 2237.
is

employed

twice, once in an obvious sorcery practice, ^tharva;/ikena

vidhina (chapter
fices

where

p. 108, 13),

priests

perform

sacri-

preliminary to transforming a person from one shape

Another time (chapter

to another.

vidhina).

Cf.

94) a marriage

p.

ii,

Atharvanic ceremonies

with

celebrated

is

iii,

Weber, Ind. Stud.

297

I,

(atharva;/ena
Ind.

Streifen,

32H.

I,

In the Kiratar^uniya X, 10

Weber,

(cf.

Muir, Orig. Sanskrit Texts P,

Ind. Stud.

2H9

I,

395) there is a passage


which shows that the potency of the Atharvan had not

then waned

p.

anupama.yamadiptitagariyan krz'tapadapanktir

atharvawena veda//,

'

he (Ar^una), being through unparal-

composure and fervour exceedingly powerful, as the


Veda arranged by Atharvan ^.'
The Purawas always speak of the fourfold Veda -, and
present the Atharvan in the advanced position of the ritualleled

of the

istic literature

AV.

itself;

cf.

below,

priests

of the

Similarly at

AV.

the

j-rauta-ritual,

Prasthana-bheda,

16,

p.

p. Ivii

Vedas

Vish;/u-pura//a, p. 276, assigns the four

the

to

10,

1.

The

ff.

to the four

Brahman.

there

is

the

statement, paurohityaw .yantipaush^'ikani ra^^wam atharva-

vedena karayed brahmatva;;/


Sanskrit Literature, p. 476.
19.

20 speaks of the fourfold

/^a

cf.

Max

Miiller,

Ancient

The Bhagavata-pura;/a I, 4,
Veda designed for the execu-

Mallinatha comnienls upon the passage, and cites an agama, to wit sama/i
ahhyudayakandc diptita ugrala abhi/6araka;/fl'e atharva;/a vasish///ena kr/ta
ra/ita padanaw pahktir anupurvo yasya sa vedaj -iaturthaveda/^, atharvaas tu
1

iantir

The passage has a twofold


mantroddharo vasishZ/^ena kr/la ity agama/^.
Angirasic (abhiinterest
it reflects the ancient Atharvanic (abhyudaya) and
Hra) components of the Veda, and it ascribes its redaction to VasishMa cf.
above, p. xviii, and below, p. Ixv.
:

Cf. Colebrooke, Miscellaneous

Essays, vol.

pura;/a I, 5 (Wilson's translation, vol.


be the northern mouth of Brahman.

i,

p. 85),

i,

p.

lo.

See, e.g. "\'ishu-

where the Atharvan

is

said to

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

IvI

tion of the sacrifice (ya^;7asa;tatyai

vidham), mentioning them by


6,

name

vedam

eka;;z /^'atur-

At VI,

in the sequel.

19 figures the atharvahgirasa veda.

Also, the Matsya-

purawa, as quoted by Saya;^a in the introduction to the

AV., p. 6, orders that the purohita shall compass the


Mantras and the Brahma/^a of the AV.
and the Mar;

ka;^(^eya-pura;/a claims that the king consecrated with the

Mantras of the AV. enjoys the earth and the ocean see
Sayawa, ibid.
In the 6"ainist Siddhanta, fifth anga (bhagavati), I, 441
upahga, I, 76
II, 246-7
X, 3, the scope of Vedic or
Brahmanical literature is stated as riuveda,
;

the 6'aina

^a^veda, samaveda, ahavva/zaveda

and Bauddha

va;/a-),
/^

writings.

itihasapaw/^ama?
1

;
1

see

(athav-

Weber,
J

Verzeichniss der Sanskrit- und Prakrit-Hand-

423-4; and Ind. Stud. XVI, pp. 238, 304,


According to Weber, ibid., p. 237, the
379, 423, 474 ^
Siddhanta is to be placed between the second and fifth
centuries of our era.
This mode of describing the Vedic
literature we found above to prevail from the time of the
5at. Br. to the Mahabharata.
In the Sutrakrztahga-sutra
schriften, II,

27 (see Jacobi's translation, Sacred Books, vol. xlv,


366) the incantations of the Atharvan (atharva;n) are
naturally spoken of in condemnatory language.
II,

p.

As specimens of the view of the Buddhist writings we


may quote the A////akavagga 14, 13 of the Sutta-nipata
(Fausboll's translation, Sacred Books, vol. x, part

ii,

p. 176),

where the practice of the Athabba;/a-veda is forbidden. To


the condemnation of practices essentially Atharvanic in
character is devoted the Maha Sila?;^, in the second chapter
of the Tevi^a-sutta see Rhys Davids' translation in the
Sacred Books, vol. xi, pp. 196-200, similarly the Vinaya,
Kullavagga V, 32, 2, ibid., vol. xx, p. 152.
;

Cf.

p. 221.

also

Kalpa-sutra, in Jacobi's

translation,

Sacred

Books,

vol.

xxii,

TNTRODUCTIftN.

The Atharva-veda

III.

in

Ivii

the view of

its

Ritualistic Literature.
It is but natural to expect, and the expectation nowhere
meets with disappointment, that the Atharvan texts in
general should allude with predilection, and
The normal
^^.^
^ terms ofr praise, ^to ^ithen' own kindj otf comestimate of

theAV.

own

inits

who

sages

mythical

the

to

positions,

literature.

are
.

and to the priests


their reputed
in hand with the
hand
devoted to the practices that went
found above,
We
recitation of the Atharvans and Angiras.
the
(pp. xxxii, xlii), a sufficiently marked tendency on
part of the Sawhita itself and the Atharvan Upanishads to
authors,

do this there was occasion to note, too, that this tendency


was followed out naturally and with moderation. Certainly
there is no indication in these texts of any systematic
;

attempt to make battle against the ancient threefold Veda,


or to enter into polemics against the priests devoted to
their respective duties while reciting or chanting its mantras.
Similarly the

and yet

incidentally, to their

AV.

allude preferably,

own Veda, and

bring to the front the priests schooled

offers,

Kau.y. 139, 6

an oblation

along with other

any

texts of the

ritual

is

divinities,

as occasion
in

it.

Thus

offered to Bhr/gu and Angiras


without mention, however, of

The
of the other Vedas.
vedabhigupto brahmawa parivr/to

representatives

specific

expression, Kau.f. 12^,

2,

-tharvabhi// .yanta/^ \ illustrates this passive preference for

the Atharvan very well

cf.

also 137, 25.

Again, Kau5.

7?/shis, skilled in the


63, 3, four priests descended from
bhrzgvarigirasa/^, are employed very naturally, and simiAtharvan
larly allusion is made to Atharvan priests and
Parijr.
Ath.
schools, Kau.y. 59, 25; 73, 12; Vait. Su. 1, 5;

In the Atharva-parii-ish/as Bh;-/gu,


than any
Angiras, and Atharvan figure more frequently

46, 2

73,

77, 4.

Veda with
The passage reflects also the Athaivanic connection of their
Brahman and the brahma cf. Ath. Pari.;. 2, 1, brahmawe brahmavedaya
1

namaskrjtya, and see below,

p. Ixii

ff.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

Iviii

other names

they have become the typical teachers of

the triviaHties which these texts profess.

But over and above


special

claims

this

regarding

the ritual texts raise certain

the position

of the

Atharvan

among the Vedas, and they


^ further make the
demand With strident voice and obvious

Nature of the
especial claims

polemic intention that certain

"^^^exts^'""^

offices shall

be

reserved for the priests conversant with that

Veda.

The

may be stated under


they are not content with the rather

position of these texts

three heads.

First,

vacillating attitude of the


in

non-Atharvanic texts which

refer

we have seen,
Veda to more or less
moods when it is felt

general to a threefold Veda, reserving, as

the honorific mention of the fourth


well-defined occasions, especially to

desirable to call into requisition the entire range of Vedic


literary

composition

itihasa,

pura//a, gatha,

in

addition to the trayi vidya (e.g.


&c.).

Secondly, the

office

of the

Brahman, the fourth priest at the jrauta-ceremonies, who


oversees and corrects by means of expiatory formulas
(prayaj/^itta) the accidents and blunders of hotar, udgatar,
and adhvaryu, is said to belong to an Atharvavedin, and
the Vaitana-SLitra in fact exhibits the bhr/gvaiigirovid in
possession of that office.
Thirdly, a similar claim is

advanced in respect to the office of the purohita. Again


and again it is stated that the purohita, guru, or brahman
of a king, the chaplain or house-priest, shall be conversant

with the Atharvan writings, shall be an Atharvan priest, and

we have seen above (p. xlvi), is supported


some extent by later Brahmanical treatises not derived
from Atharvan schools. Cf. also below, p. Ixvii.
The Gopatha-b)ahina;/a, \\\ its opening chapters I, 1,4this claim, as

to

10, describes
Exaltntion
of the AV.
in f^eneml

the cosmogonic origin of the universe and

^^^^

Vedas from the lone brahma.

UnHke

other texts, which as a rule ignore the Athar-

"

van in these creative accounts, the atharvan


and the arigiras texts are placed at the head the other
Vedic texts (r/k, ya^u//, and saman, I, i, 6), as well as the
;

subsidiary compositions (the five Vedas, called sarpaveda,


pij-a/taveda, asuraveda,

itihasaveda,

and pur^aveda,

I,

i,

Hx

INTRODUCTION.
relegated

are

lo),

Atharvan
Gop. Br.
greatest

brahma

is
I,

At

the rear.

to

Su.

Vait.

6,

the

again placed at the head of the four Vedas.


compositions as the
3, 4 lauds the Atharvan
manifestation,

religious

j^ad bhr/'gvangirasa/;,

and

etad
at

the Atliarvan figures as the fourth

bhuyish^//a;

vai

I,

i6

2,

Veda by

(cf.

the

I.

2,

name

i8)

of

Brahma-veda, being here correlated with the service of the


Brahman-priest as the overseer at the j-rauta-ceremonies ^.
At I, 1,9 there is quoted a stanza, thoroughly Upanishad
which shows that the Atharvanists correlated
the knowledge of brahma, the higher and
subtler religious conception, which at all times is raised
above any special knowledge of the constituent parts of
The highest Veda was born of tapas,
the Vedic religion
2.'
heart of those that know the brahma
it grew in the
The Atharvan ritual texts never cite the trayi vidya in
in character,

their

Veda with

'

formulary order without including the fourth Veda ^, differing in this regard even from the text of the Saw/hita and
the Atharvan Upanishads (see pp. xxxii, xliii). The first
half of the Gop. Br. (1, 5, 25) ends with the assertion that they

who study

the trayi reach, to be sure, the highest heaven


nakam uttamam), but yet the Athar-

(trivish/apaw tridivaw

vans and Angiras go beyond to the great worlds of Brahma

brahmaloka mahanta//).
As regards the Brahman, the overseer

(ata uttare

performances, the Vait. Su.

1,

states

at

the i-rauta-

that he must be

conversant with the Brahma-veda, and


I

of pfrahman
in the ritual

^ this priest

Jqj.j

^f

is

world, &c.

^[^^

'

texts.

indicate that he

to

tive at the sacrifice of the personified


II, 2 (cf

These expressions
,

seem
Gop.

Br.

I, 2,

16) the

to be conversant with the

in 1,17.

described as the lord of beings,

is

the

representa-

god Brahman.

Brahman

is

At

again ordered

atharvaiigirasa/z, this time

in

^atasro va ime hotra, hautram adhvaiyavani audgatra//^ brahmatvam.


Thus according to the version of Sayaa, Introduction to the AV., p. 5,
sreshi/io hi vedas tapaso^^dhio-ato brahma^;7ana; hridaye sawbabhuva. Ra^^en'

dralalaniitra's edition, i-reshi'/zo

was created
See especially Gop. Br.

sa;babhuva,
^

'it

ha vedas tapaso ^ dhi^^to brahmr^yanaw kshitaye

for the destruction


II,

2,

every time in liturgical formulas to

of the oppressors of Brahmans.'

where the atharvangirasa/; are added


the riiak, ya^uwshi, and samani.
14,

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

Ix

expressed

contrast with udgatar, hotar, and adhvaryu


(samaveda, r/gveda, ya^urveda). At Gop. Br. I, 2, 18 (end)

the Brahman is described with the words, esha ha vai


vidvan sarvavid brahma yad bhrzgvangirovid.
The last
statement is of especial interest as indicating the identification of the Atharvan with the sarvavidya which stands
above the trayi vidya (cf. below, p. Ixiii). Especially at
Gop. I, 3, r. 2 the futility of the sacrifice without a Brah-

man

skilled

the bhr/gvangirasa//

in

described vividly

is

a cow, a horse, a mule, a chariot cannot proceed with less


than four feet, therefore the sacrifice, in order to succeed,

must have four

feet

the four Vedas, and the four priests.

Especially characteristic

&c.

is

At

the following:

Tait. S. Ill,

Ind. Stud. X, 34), the well-known legend is


told, according to which Vasish///a
saw Indra clearly,
5, 2, 1,

(cf.

'

though the

did not see him clearly.'


Indra makes Vasish//^a his Brahman (purohita), and con-

fides to

Ri'shls (in general)

him moreover a mystery, the stomabhaga-verses.

men have Vasish/Z/a for their purohita theredescendant of VasishMa is to be chosen as Brahman.
The same legend is repeated almost verbatim Gop. Br. II,
2, 13, but the text demurs at the last clause.
The Gop. Br.
Since then

fore a

cannot say tasmad vasish///o brahma karya//, because it has


previously stated emphatically that a bhr/gvaiigirovid is the
only person fitted for that exalted office (I, 2, 18 3, i ffi).
;

At

Vait. Su. 6,

steed which

the garhapatya-fire

prepared by the four Vedas for the Brah-

is

man, and by Pra^apati

man =athai-van
a

personified as a

is

for

implied.

Atharvan

the equation brah-

The

passage, Vait. Su. ^/, 2,


or theological contest between the Brahman

brahmodya

is

and the Udgatar, betrays perhaps a certain insecurity and


touchiness on the part of the Brahman in his assumed
superiority to the other priests

better than

'

Not

goest not before me.

art

thou superior,

Thou

speakest
these words that are worthy of being learned, (but) shalt
not become equal to me.' The superiority of the Brahman
I,

was occasionally disputed \ and possibly the Atharvanic


Sec Hang, Brahma unci die Brahmanen, p. 10.

INTRODUCTION.

Brahman

XI

that he stood in special need of asserting his

felt

dignity.

Even more
texts
The

of
the

ffi-

purohita

in

demands of

energetic are the

matter of the

the

in

guru.

'

who

is

by the name of brahman and

also

^^'''own

tlie liturgical

of purohita

office

The king who rules the country shall


Brahman (brahmawam). He verily

seek a wise

is skilled in the bhr/gu and aiigiras


for the
and ahgiras act as a charm against all ominous
occurrences, and protect ever}'thing' (Kau^-. 94, 2-4; cf.
The equivalence of brahman, purohita, and
126, 2).
guru is guaranteed by comparing with this Ath. Parij-.
kulinaw sroti'\ya.;/i bh/v'gvahgirovida//^
guruw
[,
3,
and 3, 3, tasmad bhr/gvaiigirovida;;/
vrzV/iyad bhupati/z

wise that

is

bhrz'gu

kury^t purohitam.
Conversely,

atharvavit.

twice-born (priests) do

'

Cf
The

also

2,

2,

brahma tasmad

gods, the Fathers, and the

not

the oblation of the

receive

whose house there is no guru that is skilled in


Cf Weber, Omina und Portenta,
the Atharvan
(2, 3).
kins: in

'

p.

346

AV.,

ff.

Ind. Stud. X, 138

6.

p.

In Kauj. 17, 4

(Darila:

ra^a.,

practice

at

purodha//) are

the

(brahma ra^a

Saya;/a, Introduction to the

ff

consecration
in

ka.)

140,

the king and the purohita

seen in active co-operative


of the
ft",

king

the

at

and

again

indramahotsava-

festival.

The

Atharva-pari.yish/as are not content with these strong

recommendations of their own adherents, but they would


have the adherents of the other Vedas, yea even of certain
branches (j-akha) of the Atharvan itself, excluded from the
purohiti
The Atharvan keeps off terrible occurrences,
not the
and acts as a charm against portentous ones
adhvaryu, not the kAandoga., and not the hahvrika.
The bahvrZ-^a destroys the kingdom, the adhvaryu destroys
hence the guru must
sons, the Mandoga dissipates wealth
be an Atharva//a. ... A Paippalada as guru increases hap'

piness, sovereignty,

who understands
whose purodha

and health, and so does a .Saunakin

the gods and the mantras.


is

deposed from his

The king

any way a 6"alada or a Mauda is


kingdom within the year (Ath. Faris.
in

'

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

Ixli

The

2-5) ^

2,

Maudas

are

representatives

Kavuika, Introduction,

(see

G'aladas, and
Atharvan schools

vSaunakins,

Paippaladas,

alike

p.

of

xxxiii

ff.):

passage

the

shows how eager the scramble for the office of purohita


That the Atharvans finally succeeded in
had become.
clamorous demand for this office (see
their
heard
making
below, p. Ixvii) is probably due, as we shall see, to their
superior, if not exclusive knowledge of witchcraft, which
was doubtless regarded in the long run as the most practical

and trenchant instrument

for the defence of

king and

people.

In order to estimate at

its

the Atharvanists that their

correct value the claims of

own Veda

name Brahma-veda, and


leading^npto
the exaltation
of the AY.

is

entitled

that

the

to the

so-called

Brahman-priests and the Purohitas must be


adherents of the AV., we need to premise

..
-J
r
^
certam considerations of a more general nature.
In the Vedic religious system, or we might say more
cautiously religious evolution, three literary forms and
.

correspondingly three liturgical methods of application of


these forms to the sacrifice were evolved at a time prior to
the recorded history of Hindu religious thought and action.
They are the 7ika./i, samani. and ya^u;;/shi, known also by
a variety of other designations, and characterised to a considerable extent

by

special verbs expressing the act of

them

Correspondingly the priests


who had learned one of these varieties of religious expression and its mode of application to the sacrifice appear,
again for aught we know from prehistoric times as individual actors (hotar, udgatar, adhvaiyu), in no wise qualified
reciting or chanting

-.

each by himself to shoulder the burden of literary knowledge or liturgic technique. The Hindus were at all times
well aware that these religious forms are fragmentary

parts of a whole.

The Rig-veda

sions indicating the insufficiency of the


1

Cf.

Weber,

Ind. Stud.

I,

296

and

contains countless expres-

the author,

7-ika./i

to

fulfil

alone

Joum. Amer. Or. Soc. XI, 378,

note.
^ See Max Miiller,
History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature,
Ludwig, Der Rigvcda, HI, p. 25 ff.

p.

489

ff.

INTRODUCTION.

Ixiii

the scheme of religious action, and the interdependence of

There

the three Vedic types.

is

a Rig-veda, but no Rig-

vedic reh'gion, as even recent writers on the rehgions of


the absence of samans
Vedic religion just as much muti-

India unfortunately tend to assume

would

in principle leave

lated as the absence of rzks

the categories are the three

whose melody is carried by each in turn.


A comprehensive vision was never wanting, though the
search for a word for religion,' or religious practice, as
The BrMima/^aa whole was at first not very successful.
texts still struggle with the notion of the superiority of him
that knows all the Vedas, and they consequently posit a
sarvavidya^ which is superior to a knowledge of each of
parts of a trio

'

The most

the Vedas.

successful

attempt at describing

the religious literature and action as a whole

is

the word

brahma, and. correspondingly, he who knows the religion


Each of these words appears
as a whole is a brahman.

brahma after the trayi


company with the priests of the trayi. In
brahma is a fourth Veda, but it is not co-ordinate

occasionally in the fourth place,

brahman

in

a sense the

with the other three

and much

it

else besides

embraces and comprehends them


it is the religious expression and

religious action as a whole,

and

it

is

the learned esoteric

understanding of the nature of the gods and the mystery


of the

sacrifice

as a whole

(brahma

in

brahmodya and

brahmavadin). Needless to say, this fourth Veda, if we may


so call it, has primarily no connection with the Atharvan,
not even in the Atharva-sawhita
6, 3),

nor

in

itself

the Upanishads of that

purvatapani Up. V,

2)

(XI,

Veda

8,

23

XV,

3, 7

(e.g. Nrzsi/;zha-

the claim that the Atharvan

is

the

In the
Brahma-veda belongs to the Atharvan ritual.
with
contrasted
Upanishads this brahma, still frequently
all
above
extolled
the ordinary Vedas, is taken up eagerly,
furit
that
other knowledge, and in a way personified, so
nishes one of the main sources of the various conceptions
which finally precipitate themselves in the pantheistic

9.4.

Tait. Br. Ill,


1

7-

lo,

ii,

4; Tait. Ar. X, 47;

cf.

^at. Br.

XIV,

6,

7,

ii

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

Ixiv

The knowledge

Brahman-Atman.

which

tutes the brahmavidya,

is

of this

brahma

consti-

separated by the widest

imaginable gap from the Brahma-veda in the Atharvanic


sense

cf.

above,

p. xliii.

This broader religious knowledge exists again from


earliest times, not only in the abstract, but centres in
persons who grasped it in its entirety, in distinction from

some speciality.
brahman is to
Thus the important stanza, RV. X,

the technically qualified priests devoted to

What

brahma

the

is

hotar, adhvaryu, &c.

to the trayi, that the

71, II, depicts the activity

the hotar

fice,

(g^yatra;//

{i-ikd.ni

of four priests at a j-rauta-sacri-

posham

aste pupushvan), the udgdtar

the adhvaryu (ya^''/7asya


and the brahman. The latter is dethe words, brahma vadati ^atavidyam, the Brahgayati

^akvarishu),

matra;;^ vi mimite),

scribed in

man

'

tells (his)

innate

wisdom

The

^.'

association of

tlie first

three priests with the three Vedic categories, r/k, saman,

and yagu/i, is expressed with a degree of clearness commensurate with the character of the hymn, which is in the
nature of a brahmodya.
But the brahman has no peculiar
Veda certainly there is no allusion to the Atharvan. His
knowledge is that of the entire Veda, the sarvavidya (Tait.
By
Br. Ill, 10, II, 4), religious knowledge as a whole.
means of this knowledge he is able to assume in the ritual
;

practices the function of correcting the mistakes of the

other priests, whose knowledge

Brahman

as

is

drama, the physician of the


the

mind

such he

is

more mechanical.
in

The

the sacerdotal

when it is attacked by
Br. XIV, 2, 2, 19J
he
As
Br. XIV, 6, i, 7)^.

sacrifice

the disease of faulty execution


is

is

were the stage-manager

it

(vS"at.

of the sacrificer (^at.

also conversant with the mystic aspects of the

divine powers, the powers of nature, and the details of the

the

'

brahma vadati ^atavidyam,


brahma (neuter), and vadati ^^ata-

In the expression,

sacrifice.

own wisdom

'

is

the

vidyam foreshadows the brahmodya,


1

'^

p. 9

RV.

Cf.

X, 91,

10,

II, I, 2;

IV, 22,

VI, 38,

3.

the holy, or theo4; VII, 33, 14; X,52, 2;

10.

Cf.
ff.

I,

'

Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 135 ff.


Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 28

Haug, Brahma und

ff.

die

Brahmanen,

INTRODUCTION.

IxV

logical mystery, or riddle \' as well as the ritualist refine-

ments which the Br^hmawa and Sutra-texts introduce times


without end with the closely-related expression, brahmavadino vadanti.

In the non-Atharvanic Vedic texts

never suggested that the Atharvan


ment, above

all

Kaush. Br. VI, i t


a Rig-veda scholar

On

the contrary, the

raises the rather one-sided claim that


is

the proper

Brahman and

for this office

is

it

the specific equip-

other things, which shapes the faculties

of this all-round Vedic theologian.

a celebrated

is

were said

Brahman

-.

Vasish//^a

was

Purohita, and the qualifications

for a

time (probably by the descen-

home

dants of Vasish///a themselves) to be especially at

in

But the Brahma;/a-texts declare explicitly that


this is an uberwundener standpunkt,' an obsolete custom
every one properly equipped may be a Brahman see Weber,
There is no original connection
Ind. Stud. X, 34. ^5. 137.
between Vasish///a and the Atharvan ^, and it is not going
too far to assume that the distinguished abilities demanded
by the theory of this office were rare enough to admit every
one that had intrinsically valid claims upon it.
How, then, did the Atharvans come to raise the plea
that the Brahman must be one of themselves, and that,
consequently, the Atharva-veda was the Brahma-veda ?
Schematically this was suggested by an obvious proportion.
this family.
'

As

the hotar, &c.,

is

to the Rig-veda, &c., so the

Brahman

Atharvan is the fourth


Veda, or rather a fourth Veda, it required no too violent
wrench to identify it with that other comprehensive fourth
Veda, the knowledge of the brahma. Thus the Atharvan
to the fourth Veda, and as the

is

'

See the author, Joiirn. Amer. Or. Soc.

Apastamba,
perform with

may

XV,

pp. 172, 184

ff.

broader view, yet one that ignores the Atharvan claim,


in the

Ya^a-paribhasha-sutra

all three

19.

Only the commentator admits

Vedas.

taken by

is

There the Brahman


that the

is

said to

Atharvan

Max Miiller, Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 470


Morgenl. Gesellsch. IX, p. xlvii; Sacred Books, vol. xxx,
Cf. also ^at. Br. XI, 5, 8, 7, and Madhusildana's statement of the final

be included.

See

Zeitschr. d. Deutsch.

p. 321.

orthodox view,
'

The

Max

Miiller, ib.

445

ff.

Ind. Stud.

I, 4. 14.

interesting association of Vasish//^a with the redaction of the Atharvan,

reported by Mallinatha in

founded upon this very

his

title

comment on Kiratar^uniya X,

to the

office

10,

of purohita, and thus

purohitas were naturally supposed to be Atharvavedins

cf.

may

show

above, p.

Iv.

be

that

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

Ixvl

The

became the Brahma-veda.

there was no

fact that

systematic sharply-defined provision for the Atharvanists

must have been


arrangement was completed
They may have, though we

the scheme of the hieratic reHgion

in

galHng

at

their

to

until

first,

own

this

satisfaction.

do not know that they

did,

gathered courage for

this

tour de force by the frequent mention in the AV. itself


of the word brahma in the sense of charm, prayer, e.g.
If this was done it was a
I, lo, i; 14, 44; 23, 4, &c.
proceeding both arbitrary and superficial the word has
in the AV. the meaning of charm only in so far and
:

inasmuch as the hymns of that Veda happen to be charms


the RV. employs the term freely to designate its own
X, 13, i 61, 1).
suktani (e.g. V, 85, i VII, 28, 1
36, i
One misses, too, the plural brahmawi as the true Vedic type
of designation for a special class of composition, on a level
;

with
V3.n2ih

may

r/^a//,

samani, ya^uwshi, atharvahgirasa/^, or athar-

(bhesha^ani)

and

angirasa//

(abhiMrika/^i).

We

Sawhitas
contains the largest collection of theosophic hymns which
also

remember that the Atharvan of

deal explicitly (X,

2),

or implicitly (X,

7),

all

with

Brahman

and the brahma^. This may, of course, have helped to


suggest that the Atharvavedin was the truly superior theologian.
In the Upanishads the knowledge of just such
theosophic relations is styled the brahmavidya. Saya//a
in the Introduction to the AV., p. 4, argues that the
AV. is known as Brahma-veda because it was revealed to
Brahman who is called Atharvan ^. His authority, however,
is Gop. Br. I, 4 ff., a text that elsewhere identifies the AV.
with that bhuyish///am brahma which was produced by the
tapas (cf. AV. VIII, 10, 25), pressing to an unwarranted
degree the relationship of the Atharvan texts with the
sphere of the Upanishads ^ cf. above, p. lix.
It may be safe to assume that all these and other notions
;

^
^
'

Cf. also the superabundant Upanishads, composed in Atharvanic schools.


atharvakhyena brahmawa drjsh/atvat tannamna aya; vedo vyapadijyate.

Similarly the Vishu-pura;/a VI, 5 (Wilson's translation, vol. v, p. 210)


By the one which
also states that there are two kinds of knowledge.
:

The AV.

is

the supreme,

God

(akshara)

J\ik and other Vedas.'

is

obtained

the other

is

that

which consists of

INTRODUCTION.

Ix VII

through the minds of the systematic theologians


^ ^^^ Atharvan schools as they continued
Relation of

flitted

the purohita

to

upoH the name Brahma-veda for


and upon the office of BrahA measure of substantiaUty may,

insist

their scriptures,

man

for their priests.

however, come to their claim from another quarter at


a comparatively early time, in this instance with the passive
support of

The matter concerns

Vedic schools.

all

office of the purohita,

One would

king, his chaplain, and chancellor.


in

the

the spiritual and temporal aid of the

again look

vain in the non-Atharvanic Sa7//hitas, Brahma//as, or

Sutras for the direct declaration that the purohita either

These
any

was, or should be, an adherent of the Atharvan.

texts do not mention the Atharvan in this connection

more than

in

connection with the

the

office of

Brahman

Yet it seems extremely unlikely that the


knowledge of Atharvan practices should not have been
at the sacrifice.

considered a very valuable adjunct,

qua non, of the

formal adherents of the


in

if

not a conditio sine

Purohitas, whether they are

purohiti.

AV.

or not, are always engaging

Atharvanic practices, even against one another

Muller, Ancient Sanskrit Literature,

p.

(cf.

The

486).

Max

interests

of the king and his sovereignty (kshatriya and kshatram)


are too obviously dependent

upon magic

to admit

rites

the likelihood that the pretensions to this office on the


part of him that

At

all

knew them should have been

ignored.

periods the safety of the king, the prosperity of his

people, his ascendency over hostile neighbours,

depended upon

must have

The

the skill of his purohita in magic.

description. Ait. Br. VIII, 24-28, of the purohita, his functions,

and

his relation to the king, transfer the reader to

the sphere and

spirit

of the

Atharvan.

The

purohita

secures for the king royalty, strength, empire, and people

(VIII, 24,

7).

The

purohita

is

fire

with

five

flaming

but,
dangerous when not properly propitiated
duly honoured, he embraces the king, protecting him with
his flames as the ocean the earth (VIII, 25, i). His people
missiles,

do not die young,

his

own

before he has reached the

life's

breath does not leave him

full limits

e 2

of his

life,

he

lives to

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA,

Ixviii

a good old age,


ledge,

is

if

a Brahmaa, imbued with this

his purohita, the shepherd of his

know-

The

kingdom.

subjects of such a king are loyal and obedient (VIII, 25,


2.

The

3).

prescriptions regarding the purohita are fol-

lowed (VIII, 25) by a magic


mara, designed to

found a place

in

the

called brahmawa/^ pari-

rite,

which might have


of the Atharvan K
In later

hostile kings,

kill

ritual

texts, as a matter of fact, the rule

is

laid

down formally
Thus in

that the purohita should be an Atharvavedin.

Gaut. XI, 15. 17


above.

Ya^;^av.

I,

312

(cf.

also

Manu

XI, ^^)

see

Saya;/a in the Introduction to the AV.,

p. xlviii,

pp. 5, 6, claims outright that the office of purohita belongs


to the Atharvanists (paurohityaw ka. atharvavidai^va ka-

ryam), and he is able to cite in support of his claim not


only the rather hysterical dicta of the Atharvan writings,

but also
&c.

rites,

cf.

from a number of PurA;/as, the

i'lokas

above,

p. Ivi

Nitij"astra,

In the Da.yakumara-/^arita magic

-.

as well as the marriage ceremony, are in fact per-

formed

at the court of a king with

Atharvan

rites,

va;/ena (atharva;/ikena) vidhina, and the statement

more valuable as it is incidental see above, p. Iv.


I do not desire to enter here upon a discussion

athar-

the

is

of the

question of the original relation between the purohita and

the brahman, whose identity

is

baldly assumed in

passages of the earlier Hindu literature^.

many

believe that

they were not originally the same, but that they were

bound together by

certain specific

ties.

They

are similar,

^ Cf. the battle-charm, AV. IH,


19 the purohita figures in it as well as in
the accompanying performances, Kaus. 14, 22-23 (Darila).
And RV. IV, 50,
:

7-9, perhaps earlier, shows the brAaspati (purohita) in essentially the

same

important relation to the king.


^

Cf.

Deva

at

Katy.

6"r.

XV,

11, purohito

7,

yostharvavedavihitanaOT janti-

kapaush/ikabhiHrakarmaa^ karta.
^

Cf.

Max

Miiller,

History of Ancient

Sanskrit Literature, p.

485

ff.

Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 31 ff.; Ra^suya, p. 23, note; Haug, Brahma und die
Brahmanen, p. 9 ff.
Geldner, Vedische Studien, II, 144 ff. Oldenberg, Die
Religion des Veda, pp. 374, 395 ff.
Saya;M at RV. VII, 33, 14 equates
purohita and brahman, and Ait. Br. VII, 16, i exhibits Vasish/Z^a, the typical
purohita, in the office of brahman at a .yrauta-rite.
At RV. IV, 50, 7 ff. the
;

activity of a purohita is sketched


(

= brahnaan).

the purohita, however,

is

called br/haspati

INTRODUCTION.
above

in this, that

all,

own way,

Ixix

they have in charge, each

his

in

the general interests of their noble employers,

whereas other priests are likely ordinarily to have had


only subordinate charges, because of the technical character of their

RV. X,

knowledge and occupation.

71, 11

expresses clearly the existence of broader theological interests than

the mere

chanting of

hymns and

knowledge of the
the

recitation

mechanical service

and

of the

and adhvaryu). This is the Brahmanship which later forks into two directions, on one side
the general knowledge of the procedures at the sacrifice
(the Brahman as fourth priest), and the theological speculaon the other, the higher
tions attaching (brahmavadin)
theosophy which leads ultimately to the brahmavidya of

sacrifice (hotar, udgatar,

the Upanishads.

It is natural that a divine

thus qualified

should at a very early time assume permanent and confidential relations to the

noble ra^anya in

concerned his religious and

those of chaplain and

tions are

unlikely that this


to attend to those

all

matters that

His funcIt seems

sacrificial interests.

high-priest.

Brahman was in all cases, too, competent


more secular and practical needs of the

king connected with the security of his kingdom, the fealty

These

of his people, and the suppression of his enemies.


activities,

ra^akarma/n, as the Atharvan writings

must have

they

called for different training

and

call

them,

different talents

represent rather the functions of a chancellor, or

prime-minister, than those of a chaplain

and

there

is

no

warrant to assume that every Brahman possessed these


necessary qualifications in addition to his expertness in
systematic theology.

On

the other hand, conversely, there

must have been purohitas incapable of assuming the charge


of their employers' interests on the occasion of the more
elaborate Vedic performances (jrauta), unless we conceive
that in such cases the Brahman was a mere figure-head
and his office a sinecure.
And yet precisely here is to be found the measure of
truth which

we may suspect in the Atharvanist claim that


Brahman shall be an adherent of the AV.

the supervising

In

many

cases the tribal king, or ra^a, might have


e 3

had but

IIVMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

IxX

one body-priest, well capable of attending to the kingdom's


needs in all manner of charms and sorcery, and thus filling
the paurohitya creditably with the entire

Veda

armament

of the

of charms

and sorcery, himself an Atharvavedin. If


the king had about him no systematic theologian resplendent in his ^atavidya, if there was no adherent of that
ideal fourth Veda, the sarvavidya that looms above the
trayi vidya, the remoter applicability of the jrauta-practices

and woe of everyday

to the weal

or confidence in the

life^

adhvaryu, &c., to perform their duties

ability of hotar,

correctly of themselves, would

him to entrust the

lead

general supervision of the Vedic performances

claim of the Atharvan priests

(in

the nar-

Thus the sweeping

rower sense) to his Atharvan purohita.

may

be founded at least
and later the Atharvan
priests are likely to have equipped themselves with a sufficiency of rather external and mechanical knowledge to
perform the function of Brahman with a show of respecta-

upon a narrow margin

bility,

witness the activity of the

rites of

the Vaitana-sutra.

Atharvan

of

of fact,

priests

Brahman

the j-rauta-

In very late times the ability


practise

to

in

and

j^rauta-rites,

the

canonicity of their j-rauta-manual, the Vaitana-sutra, were

recognised by other Vedic schools,

if

the matter-of-fact

references to that Sutra on the part of the commentators


to Katyayana's vSrauta-sutras

may

be regarded as normal

see Garbe in the preface to the edition of the Vait. Su.,


p. vi.

We may

remark, however, that the entire question of

the relation of the


point
the AV. to
the 5iautaritual.

is

at

in

to jrauta-practices

the

history

any

ritual.

literature,

it

..,.,,

pcrformances.

in

rate erroneous, or defective.

Sawdiitas of the

48,

a very obscure

of Vedic

The assumption

AV.

in

three daily pressures of

soma

broad

existing

could have

connection with j'rauta-

series of formulas, e. g. like

has no meaning except

this

The

contain mantras which

had no sense and purpose except


and

is

being assumed generally that the Atharvan


]-,^^ oria;inally nothing to do with the larger
^
^
^

Vedic
form

AV.

in

AV.

VI, 47

connection with the

(savana),

and the Vait. Su.

INTRODUCTION.

Ixxi

21,7 exhibits them, properly no doubt, as part of an ordinary j-rauta-rite, the agnish/oma. It would seem then that
the Atharvavedins possessed the knowledge of, and pracjrauta-rites prior to the conclusion of the

tised

redactions of their hymns, and thus perhaps, after


purohita,

case

in

being

of his

present
all,

the

Atharvan, was not

an

altogether unequipped for taking a hand in the broader

and the usual assortment


hymns which are
evidently expiatory formulas for faults committed at the
Vedic

with the three

rites

fires

AV.

Again, the

of priests.

contains

Thus AV. VI, 114 presents

sacrifice.

an ordinary

prayaj->^itta- formula,

Vaitana-SLitra which

add

make up

eight which

the

six

itself in

and there are MSS. of the


chapters to the

praya.y/('itta

body

the light of

The Gop.

of that text ^

more frequently than other Brahma;zas, refers to defects


in the sacrifice (virish/a, una, yatayama) which are to be
corrected (sawdhana) by certain hymns, stanzas, and formulas see I, i, 13 and 22. Possibly the germs of the correlation of the Atharvan and the Brahman, in his function as
Br.,

supervisor and corrector of the sacrifice,


to be

may

also turn out

traceable to a period prior to the present redaction

of the Sawhitas.

The

present volume of translations comprises about one

third of the entire material of the Atharva-veda in the text

of the 5aunaka-school.

the fourth

spirit of

indicated

by

this

Veda

But
in

it

represents the contents and

a far greater measure than

numerical statement.

The

is

twentieth book

of the Sa7//hita, with the exception of the so-called kuntapasuktani (hymns 127-136^), seems to be a verbatim repetition of mantras contained in the Rig-veda, being

employed

Vaitana-sutra at the .mstras and stotras of the somasacrifice


it is altogether foreign to the spirit of the original
in the

'

See Garbe,

in

the preface of his edition of the text, p. 5

zeichniss der Sanskrit

nnd Prakrit Handschriften,

II,

8.:;

Weber, Ver-

Kaujika, Introduction,

p. xxxiii.
^

One

of these,

hymn

127, appears in the present volume, p. 197

ff.

Ixxii

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

Atharvan.

The

nineteenth book

general very corrupt

hymns

its

is

addendum ^

a late

in

omission (with the exception of

26, 34, ^^, 38, 39, 53,

and 54) does not detract much

from the general impression left by the body of the collecThe seventeenth book consists of a single hymn of
tion.
inferior interest.
Again, books XV and XVI, the former
entirely Brahmanical prose ^, the latter almost entirely so,
Finally, books
are of doubtful quality and chronology.
XIV and XVIII contain respectively the wedding and
funeral stanzas of the Atharvan, and are largely coincident
with corresponding mantras of the tenth book of the
Rig-veda they are, granted their intrinsic interest, not
specifically Atharvanic ^.
Of the rest of the Atharvan
(books I-XIII) there is presented here about one half,
naturally that half which seemed to the translator the
most interesting and characteristic. Since not a little of
the collection rises scarcely above the level of mere verbiage,
the process of exclusion has not called for any great degree
:

of abstemiousness.

These successive acts of exclusion have made

possible

it

to present a fairly complete history of each of the

The employment

hymns

hymns

Atharvanic practices is in closer touch with the original purpose


of the composition or compilation of the hymns than is
true in the case of the other collections of Vedic hymns.
Many times, though by no means at all times, the practices
connected with a given hymn present the key to the correct
translated.

of the

in the

hymn itself. In any case it is instrucwhat the Atharvan priests did with the hymns
of their own school, even if we must judge their performances

interpretation of the
tive to see

to be secondary.
I

do not consider any translation of the AV. at this time


The most difficult problem, hardly as yet ripe for

as final.
final

^
^

solution,

is

See Kaiuika, Introduction, p. xl ff.


Translated by Professor Aufrecht, Indische Studien,

The

fourteenth book has been rendered

Studien, V, p. 195

ft".;

many

the original function of

the eighteenth

I,

mantras,

130, 140.

by Professor Weber, Indische

book by the same schoLir

ceedings of the Royal Prussian Academy, 1S95, p. S15

ff.

in

the Pro-

1896, p. 253

ff.

INTRODUCTION.

Ixxiil

they have been stripped of certain adaptive modifica-

after

imparted to them to meet the immediate purpose

tions,

Not infrequently a stanza has to be


some measure of harmony with its connection,
when, in fact, a more original meaning, not at all applicable
to its present environment, is but scantily covered up by
of the Atharvavedin.

rendered

in

the secondary modifications

of the

This garbled

text.

partakes of the character

tradition of the ancient texts

of popular etymology in the course of the transmission of

New

words.

meaning

their wording. The

of

is

read into the mantras, and any

stubbornness on their part

little

situation

collections

met with modifications

is

encounters here a very

critic

difficult

searching investigation of the remaining Vedic

necessary before a bridge can be built from

is

the more original meaning to the meaning implied and


required

by the

situation in a given

Atharvan hymn.

to say the only correct and useful

less

a mantra in the Atharvan,

is

to reproduce

way
it

Need-

to translate

with the bent

has received in the Atharvan. The other Vedic


The
collections are by no means free from the same taint.

which
entire

it

Vedic

tradition, the

Rig-veda not excepted, presents

rather the conclusion than the beginning of a long period


of literary

activity.

Conventionality

of subject-matter,

form (metre), &c., betray themselves at every step


the earliest books of the RV. are not exempt from the
same processes of secondary grouping and adaptation of
style,

'

their

'

mantras, though these

obvious than

is

are

less

frequent and

less

the case in the Atharva-veda.

Obligations to previous translators

Weber, Muir, Ludwig,

\ Henry, &c., are acknowledged in the introI regret that the work was in the
duction to each hymn.
to the appearance of Professor
prior
printer
hands of the

Zimmer,

Grill

Henry's excellent version of books X-Xll^. The late


lamented Professor Whitney kindly furnished me with the

Grill's

(1888),

is

work, entitled, Hundeit Lieder des Atharva-veda, second edition

cited as

'

Grill I'

My own

six series of Contributions to the Interpre-

Veda, are cited for the sake of brevity as Contributions.'


Les livres X, XI, et XII de 1' Atharva-veda. Paris, 1896.

tation of the

'

Ixxiv

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

Shankar Pandurang Pandit's


with Sayawa's commentary,
also with many of the readings of the Cashmir text

advance sheets of the

scholarly edition of the


as

late

AV.

AV. Neither the


Paippalada nor Saya;^a sensibly relieves the task of its

(the so-called Paippalada-j-akha) of the

difficulty

and responsibility.

MAURICE BLOOMFIELD.
Johns Hopkins University,
Baltimore: April,

1S96.

HYMNS
OF THE

ATHARVA-VEDA

HYMNS
OF THE

ATHARVA-VEDA.
I.

CHARMS TO CURE DISEASES AND POSSESSION BY


DEMONS OF DISEASE (BHAISHAGYANI).
V,

2 2.

Charm

against takman (fever) and

related diseases.

May Agni

1.

drive the

takman away from

here,

may Soma, the press-stone, and Varu?/a, of tried


skill
may the altar, the straw (upon the altar), and
;

him away) Away


go the hateful powers
Thou that makest all men sallow, inflaming

the brightly-flaming fagots (drive


to

naught
2.

shall

even now, O takman, thou


shalt become void of strength
do thou now go
away down, aye, into the depths

them

like a searing fire,

3.

The takman

that

is

spotted,

covered with

him thou, (O plant) of


unremitting potency, drive away down below
4. Having made obeisance to the takman, I cast
him down below: let him, the champion of Sakamspots, like reddish sediment,

bhara, return again to the Mahav/'/shas


5.

His home
[42]

is

with the Mu^avants, his


B

home

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

From

with the Mahavrzshas.

the

moment

of thy

birth thou art indigenous with the Balhikas.


6.

(thy

takman, vyala,

missile)

far!

vi

gada, vyanga,

Seek the gadabout

hold off
slave-girl,

strike her with thy bolt


7.

takman, go to the Mu^avants, or to the

Balhikas farther away

female

her,

Go away

Seek the lecherous

^'udra-

takman, give a good shaking-up

Mahavrzshas and the Mu^avants, thy kinsfolk, and consume them


Those
(regions) do we bespeak for the takman, or these
8.

to the

regions here other (than ours).


9. (If) in other regions thou dost not abide, mayest
thou that art powerful take pity on us
Takman,
now, has become eager he will go to the Balhikas.
!

When

10.

thou, being cold,

and then again de-

accompanied by cough, didst cause the


O takman, thy missiles were
terrible
from these surely exempt us
11. By no means ally thyself with balasa, cough
and spasm
From there do thou not return hither
again that, O takman, do I ask of thee
12. O takman, along with thy brother balasa,
liriously hot,

(sufferer) to shake, then,


:

along with thy sister cough, along with thy cousin

paman, go to yonder foreign folk


13. Destroy the takman that returns on (each)
third day, the one that intermits (each) third day,
the one that continues without intermission, and the
autumnal one destroy the cold takman, the hot,
him that comes in summer, and him that arrives in
;

the rainy season


14.

To

the Gandharis, the Mu^avants, the Angas,

and the Magadhas, we deliver over the takman,


a servant, like a treasure

like

CHARMS TO CURE

Charm

VI, 20.
1.

As

from

if

against takman (fever).

Agni

this

DISEASES.

(fire),

burns and

that

Let him then, too,


away Let him, the
impious one, search out some other person, not
ourselves
Reverence be to the takman with the
burning weapon
(the

flashes,

takman) comes.

as a babbling drunkard, pass

Reverence be to Rudra, reverence to the


takman, reverence to the luminous king Varu;^a
Reverence to heaven, reverence to earth, reverence
2.

to the plants
3.

To

turnest

thee

and

bodies yellow, to the red, to the brown,

all

takman produced by the

to the

through,

burnest

that

here,

forest,

do

render

obeisance.

I,

1.

Charm

25.

When

against

takman

Agni, having entered the waters, burned,

who uphold
rendered homage (to

where the (gods)


universe)
say,

is

thy origin on high

the

order (of the

Agni), there, they

do thou

feel for us,

and

takman
Whether thou

spare us,

(fever).

whether thou art


heat, or whether from licking chips (of wood) thou
2.

hast arisen, Hrii^u

the yellow

art

by name

do thou

takman
3. Whether thou

flame,

art

feel

O god of
and spare us,

art thou,

for

us,

burning, whether thou art

whether thou art the son of king


Varu?^a, Hru^u by name art thou, O god of the
yellow
do thou feel for us, and spare us, O
scorching,

or

takman
B 2

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

To

4.

cold takman, and to the dehriously

the

To him
him that returns for
two (successive) days, to the takman that returns
on the third day, homage shall be
the glowing, do

hot,

render homage.

that returns on the morrow, to

Charm

VII, 116.
1.

Homage

(be)

against

the

to

takman

(fever).

deliriously

shaking, exciting, impetuous (takman)

the cold (takman), to him that in the past


desires

the

hot,

Homage

to

fulfilled

May

(the takman) that returns

on the morrow,
he that returns on two (successive) days, the impious
2.

one, pass into this frog

V,

Prayer to the kushZ/^a-plant to destroy

4.

takman
1.

Thou

that art born

the most potent of plants,

(fever).

upon the mountains, as


come hither, O kushZ/^a,

destroyer of the takman, to drive out from here the

takman
2.

To

thee (that growest) upon the mountain, the

brooding-place of the eagle, (and) art sprung from


Himavant, they come with treasures, having heard
(thy fame).

For they know

(thee to be) the de-

stroyer of the takman.


3.

The

a^vattha-tree

is

the seat of the gods in

the third heaven from here.

cured the kush//^a,


amr/ta (ambrosia).

the

There the gods

visible

pro-

manifestation

of

golden ship with golden tackle moved upon


There the gods procured the kush///a,
the flower of am;Vta (ambrosia).
4.

the heavens.

CHARMS TO CURE

I.

':

DISEASES.

The

paths were golden, and golden were the


golden were the ships, upon which they carried forth the kush///a hither (to the mountain).
5.

oars

This person here,

6.

and cure him

kush//^a, restore for

Render him

free

from

me,

sickness

me
7. Thou

for

art born of the gods, thou art Soma's


good friend. Be thou propitious to my in-breathing
and my out-breathing, and to this eye of mine
8. Sprung in the north from the Himavant (mountains),

thou art brought to the people

There the most superior


were apportioned.
'

9.
is

the

Superior,'

name

in the east.

varieties of the kush//^a

kush///a,

is

thy

Do

of thy father.

name

superior

*
;

thou drive out

10.

ailment of the body,

all

that

the

shall

kush//i!a

a divinely powerful (remedy), forsooth

heal

XIX,

May

Prayer to the kush///a-plant to destroy

39.

takman
1.

all

and render the takman devoid of strength


Pain in the head, affliction in the eye, and

disease,

and other ailments.

(fever),

god

the protecting

kush///a

come

hither

from the Himavant: destroy thou every takman,


and all female spooks
2. Three names hast thou, O kush//^a, (namely
kush//^a),

na-gha-mara

na-gha-risha

('

shall suffer (na

whom

('

forsooth -no- death

forsooth-no-harm

gha

').

rishat) this

'),

Verily no

and

harm

person here, for

bespeak thee morn and eve, aye the

(entire)

day
3.

Thy

mother's

thy father's

name

name
is

is

^ivanta

^ivala ('quickening'),
('

living

').

Verily no

!!

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

harm shall suffer this person here, for whom I bespeak thee morn and eve, aye the entire day
4. Thou art the most superior of the plants, as
a steer

cattle, as

Verily no

prey.
for

among

whom

harm

the tiger

among

beasts of

shall suffer this person here,

bespeak thee morn and eve, aye the

day
Thrice begotten by the

entire
5.

by the Adityas, and

thrice

6ambu

Ahgiras, thrice

by

the gods, this

all

remedy, stands together with


Destroy thou every takman, and all female

kushZ/^a, a universal

soma.

spooks
6.

The

a^vattha-tree

is

the seat of the gods in

the third heaven from here.

There came

to sight

the amr/ta (ambrosia), there the kush//^a-plant was


born.
7.

golden ship with golden tackle moved upon

There came to sight the amrz'ta, there


the kush///a-plant was born.
8. On the spot where the ship glided down, on
the peak of the Himavant, there came to sight the
This
ambrosia, there the kush//^a-plant was born.
the heavens.

a universal remedy, stands together with


Destroy thou every takman, and all female

kush^'/za,

soma.

spooks

(We know)

whom

Ikshvaku knew of yore,


whom the women, fond of kush//^a, knew, whom
therefore art thou a
Vayasa and Matsya knew
universal remedy.
10. The takman that returns on each third day,
the one that continues without intermission, and
9.

thee

the yearly one, do thou, (O plant)


strength, drive

away down below

of unremitting

CHARMS TO CURE

I,

DISEASES.

Prayer to lightning, conceived as the cause

12.

of fever, headache, and cough.

The

born of the (cloud-)womb,


born of wind and clouds, comes on thundering with
1.

first

May he,

rain.

red

bull,

that cleaving

our bodies; he who, a single


threefold
2.

moves
force,

straight on, spare

has passed through

Bowing down

to thee that fastenest thyself with

heat upon every limb,


oblations

we would reverence

we would reverence

thee with

with oblations the

crooks and hooks of thee that hast, as a seizer, seized


the limbs of this person.

Free him from headache and also from cough,


(produced by the lightning) that has entered his
every joint
May the flashing (lightning), that is
born of the cloud, and born of the wind, strike the
trees and the mountains
4. Comfort be to my upper limb, comfort be to
my nether comfort be to my four members, comfort
to my entire body
3.

I,

Charm

22,

against jaundice and related


diseases.

1.

Up

jaundice

to the sun shall


:

in

go thy heart-ache and thy

the colour of the red bull do

we envelop

thee
2.

May

We

envelop thee

this

person go unscathed, and be free of yellow

in

red

tints,

unto long

life.

colour
3.

The cows whose

divinity

is

Rohi;^i,

they who,

moreover, are (themselves) red (rdh'mi/i) (in their)


every form and every strength we do envelop thee.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

4.

Into the parrots, into the ropa;^akas (thrush)

do we put thy jaundice, and, furthermore, into the


haridravas (yellow wagtail) do we put thy jaundice.
VI,

Charm

14.

The

against the disease balasa.

that has set in, that


crumbles the bones, and crumbles the joints, every
balasa do thou drive out, that which is in the limbs,
1.

and
2.

do

in the joints

The

disease

internal

balasa of him that

is

afflicted

with balasa

remove, as one gelds a lusty animal. Its connection do I cut off as the root of a pumpkin.
3. Fly forth from here, O balasa, as a swift foal
I

And

(after the mare).

year, pass

away without

VI, 105.
1.

As

distance

even, as the reed in every


slaying

Charm

men

against cough.

the soul with the soul's desires swiftly to a


flies,

thus do thou,

cough,

fly forth

along

the soul's course of flight


2.
flies,

As

a well-sharpened arrow swiftly to a distance

thus do thou,

cough,

fly

forth along the

expanse of the earth


3.

As

the rays of the sun swiftly to a distance

thus do thou,

cough,

fly

fly,

forth along the flood of

the sea
I,

Charm

2.

against excessive discharges from

the body.
1.

who

We

know

furnishes bountiful

his mother,
2.

the father of the arrow, Parfanya,

Pmhivi

fluid,

and well do we know

(earth), the

multiform

bowstring, turn aside from us, turn

my body

CHARMS TO CURE
into Stone

Do

DISEASES.

thou firmly hold very far away the

powers and the haters


the bowstring, embracing the wood (of
3.
the bow), greets with a whiz the eager arrow, do
thou, O Indra, ward off from us the piercing mishostile

When

sile

4.

As

the point (of the arrow) stands in the

of heaven

and

thus

earth,

unfailingly stand in the


sive) discharge

II, 3.

way

may

way

the mu/l^a-grass

of sickness

and (exces-

Charm

against excessive discharges from

the body, undertaken with spring-water.


1.

The

spring-water yonder

which runs down

upon the mountain, that do I render healing for


in order that thou mayest contain a potent

thee,

remedy.

Then

yea quite surely, of the hundred


in thee, thou art the most superior
checking discharges and removing pain.

2.

surely,

remedies contained
in

3.

Deep down do

the Asuras

bury

great

this

healer of wounds that is the cure for discharges,


and that hath removed disease.
that
4. The ants bring the remedy from the sea
is the cure for discharges, and that hath quieted
:

disease.

This great healer of wounds has been gotten


out of the earth that is the cure for discharges, and
that hath removed disease.
5.

6. May the waters afford us welfare, may the


herbs be propitious to us Indra's bolt shall beat off
!

the Rakshas, far (from us) shall

by the Rakshas

fly

the arrows cast

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

lO

Charm

VI, 44.

against excessive discharges from


the body.

1.

The heavens have

stood

still, all

2.

Of

still,

creatures have stood

that sleep erect

of thine stand

stood

have stood

still

the earth has

The

still.

may

trees

this disease

still

the hundred remedies which thou hast, of

the thousand that have been collected, this

most excellent cure

for discharges, the best

is

the

remover

of disease.
3.

Thou

amma

art the urine

(ambrosia).

of Rudra, the

Thy name,

forsooth,

navel of
is

visha-

from the foundation of the


Fathers, a remover of diseases produced by the
winds (of the body).

?^aka, (thou

I, 3.

art) arisen

Charm

against constipation and retention

of urine.
1.

We

know

the father of the arrow, Par^anya, of

With this (charm) may I render


make thy outpouring upon the
out of thee may it come with the sound bal

hundredfold power.

comfortable thy body


earth

5.

We know the father of the arrow, Mitra, &c.


We know the father of the arrow, Varuna, &c.
We know the father of the arrow, A^andra, &c.
We know the father of the arrow, Surya, &c.

6.

That which has accumulated

2.
3.

4.

thy canals,

in

thy bladder

thus

in
let

thy entrails, in
thy urine be

sound bal
open thy penis like the dike of a lake
thus let thy urine be released, out completely, with
the sound bal
released, out completely, with the
7.

split

CHARMS TO CURE

!!

DISEASES.

the opening of thy bladder like the


thus let thy urine be
ocean, the reservoir of water
sound bal
with
the
released, out completely,

Relaxed

8.

is

As an arrow flies to a
from the bow thus let thy
9.

distance

when hurled

urine be released, out

completely, with the sound bal

VI, 90.

Charm

against internal pain

(colic),

due

to the missiles of Rudra.

The arrow

1.

that

Rudra did

cast

upon

thee, into

do we now

into thy heart, this here

(thy) limbs, and


draw out away from thee.
2. From the hundred arteries which are distributed
along thy limbs, from all of these do we exorcise

forth the poisons.

Rudra, as thou casteth


(thy arrow) adoration to the (arrow) when it has
been placed upon (the bow) adoration to it as it is
beinor hurled; adoration to it when it has fallen

Adoration be to thee,

3.

down

I,

1.

Charm

against dropsy.

This Asura rules over the gods;

mands of

From

Varu/^a,

this (trouble),

(Varu;2a),
this

10.

do

I,

the

ruler,

come

true.

from the wrath of the mighty

excelling in

man.
Reverence,

surely

the com-

my

incantation, lead out

O
O

king Varu7^a, be to thy wrath,


one, dost thou discover.
mighty
for all falsehood,
A thousand others together do I make over to thee
this thy (man) shall live a hundred autumns
2.

3.

From

the untruth which thou hast spoken, the

abundant wrong, with thy tongue from king Varu/ea


I release thee, whose laws do not fail.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

12
4.

release thee from Vai^-vanara (Agni), from the

Our

great flood.

rivals,

mighty one, do thou cen-

sure here, and give heed to our prayer

VII,

Thy

1.

Charm

St,.

against dropsy.

golden chamber, king Varu^^a,

the waters

Thence the king

laws shall loosen

all

said,

ye waters, ye cows

'

built in

shackles

From

every habitation (of


Varu;za, from here do thou free us
2.

is

that maintains the

thine),
!

'

king

we have
we have said,

In that

in that

from this (sin), O Varuwa, free us!


from
us, O Varuna, the uppermost fetter,
3.
take down the nethermost, loosen the middlemost!
A
Then shall we, O Aditya, in thy law, exempt from
guilt, live in freedom
4. Loosen from us, O Varu;za, all fetters, the
uppermost, the nethermost, and those imposed by

*0

Varu?2a,'
Lift

Varuwa

from us
pious

Evil dreams, and misfortune drive

then

may we go

to

away

the world of the

Dropsy, heart-disease, and kindred

VI, 24.

maladies cured by flowing water.


1.

From

the

forth, in the

Himavant (mountains) they

Sindhu (Indus), forsooth,

sembling-place

may

The

Vv'hich

in

the

me

'

pain that hurts

hurts

their as-

the waters, indeed, grant

that cure for heart-ache


2.

is

flow

me

heels

in

the eyes, and that

and the

fore-feet,

waters, the most skilled of physicians, shall put

the
all

that to rights
3.

Ye

rivers

all,

whose mistress

is

Sindhu, whose

!!

I.

queen

CHARMS TO CURE

DISEASES.

Sindhu, grant us the remedy for that

is

through

this

(remedy)

may we

derive benefit from

you

An

VI, 80.

oblation to the sun, conceived as one of

the two heavenly dogs, as a cure for paralysis.

Through the

1.

beings

all

air

he

with that oblation would

The

2.

sky

flies,

looking

down upon

with the majesty of the heavenly dog,

we pay homage

to thee

three kalaka;1^a that are fixed upon the

like gods, all these

have

called for help, to

render this person exempt from injury.


In the waters

3.

thy home,
earth

thy

in the

is

greatness.

heavenly dog, with

homage

thy origin, upon the heavens

middle of the

sea,

and upon the

With the majesty of the


oblation would we pay

that

to thee

II, 8.

Charm

against kshetriya, hereditary


disease.

Up

have risen the majestic twin stars, the


viirztau (' the two looseners ') may they loosen the
nethermost and the uppermost fetter of the kshetriya
1.

(inherited disease)
2.

May

this night shine (the kshetriya)

she shine away the witches

may

tive of kshetriya, shine the kshetriya


3.

away,

may

the plant, destruc-

With the straw of thy brown

away

barley,

endowed

with white stalks, with the blossom of the sesame

may

the plant, destructive of kshetriya, shine the

kshetriya
4.

away

Reverence be to thy ploughs, reverence

to thy

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

14

wagon-poles and yokes

May

the plant, destructive

of kshetriya, shine the kshetriya


5.

Reverence be

to those with

reverence to the indigenous


the lord of the

field

May

Charm

(evils

sunken eyes
?),

(?),

reverence to

the plant, destructive of

kshetriya, shine the kshetriya

II, 10.

away

away

against kshetriya, hereditary


disease.

From kshetriya (inherited disease), from Nirmi


goddess of destruction), from the curse of the
kinswoman, from Druh (the demon of guile), from
1.

(the

the fetter of Yaruna. do

release thee.

do I render thee through my charm


and earth both be propitious to thee
2.

Guiltless

may heaven

May Agni together with the waters be auspicious


may Soma

be
from
the curse of the kinswoman, from the Druh, from
the fetter of Varu;^a do I release thee.
Guiltless
do I render thee through my charm; may heaven
and earth both be propitious to thee
3. May the wind in the atmosphere auspiciously
bestow upon thee strength, may the four quarters
of the heaven be auspicious to thee.
Thus from
kshetriya, from Nirrz'ti &c.
to thee,

auspicious.

together with

Thus from

the

plants

kshetriya, from Nirr/ti,

4.

These four goddesses, the

directions of space,

the consorts of the wind, the sun surveys.

Thus

from kshetriya, from Nirr/ti &c.


5. Within these (directions) I assign thee to old
age; forth to a distance shall go Nirrzti and disease
Thus from kshetriya, from Nirmi &c.
6. Thou hast been released from disease, from
!

!!

CHARMS TO CURE

I.

mishap, and from blame;

DISEASES.

out from

the

fetter of

Druh, and from Grahi (the demon of fits) thou hast


been released. Thus from kshetriya, from Nirmi &c.
7. Thou didst leave behind Arati (the demon of
grudge), didst

obtain

happy world of the


from Nirrni &c.
8.

The

enter

the

kshetriya,

gods, releasing the sun and the

mam (the

universe) from darkness

from Grahi, did take them out of


kshetriya, from Nirmi &c.

Ill,

didst

Thus from

pious.

order of the

divine

prosperity,

Charm

7.

and

Thus from

sin.

against kshetriya, hereditary


disease.

1.

Upon

disease) in
2.

feet.

the head of the nimble antelope a

He

grows!

The

all

has driven
directions

remedy

the kshetriya (inherited

by means of the horn.

antelope has gone after thee with his four

horn, loosen the kshetriya that

is

knitted

like

a roof

into his heart


3.

(The horn) that

with four wings

(sides),

glistens

yonder

with that do

we

drive out

every kshetriya from thy limbs.

The

lovely twin stars, the vi/^mau

the two
yonder upon the sky, shall
loosen the nethermost and the uppermost fetter of
4.

looseners

')

that

('

are

the kshetriya
5.

The

waters, verily, are healers, the waters are

scatterers of disease, the

may
6.

waters cure all disease


they relieve thee from the kshetriya

The

kshetriya that has entered into thee from

the prepared (magic) concoction, for that

remedy

drive the kshetriya out of thee.

know

the

hymns of the atharva-veda.

t6
7.

When

the constellations fade away, and

dawn does fade away, (then) shall he shine


from us every evil and the kshetriya
the

Leprosy cured by a dark

23.

I,

Born by night

1.

Do

sable.

art thou,

when
away

plant.

plant, dark, black,

thou, that art rich in colour, stain this

and the gray spots


leprosy and the gray spots drive away
from here may thy native colour settle upon thee
leprosy,
2.

The

the white spots cause to


3.

Sable

thy hiding-place, sable thy dwelling-

is

sable art thou,

place,

here the speckled spots


4.

The

away

fly

plant:

drive

away from

leprosy which has originated in the bones,


in the body and upon
mark begotten of corruption,

and that which has originated


the skin, the white
I

my

have destroyed with


I,

1.

24.

The

Leprosy cured by a dark

2.

for

The

plant.

eagle (supan^a) that was born at

gall thou wast,


this (gall)

charm.

gave

his

O plant. The Asuri having conquered


to the trees for their colour.

it

Asuri was the

leprosy,

first,

this

first

remedy
She has

to construct this

destroyer of leprosy.

destroyed the leprosy, has

made

the skin of even

colour.
3.
'

'Even-colour'

Even-colour

'

is

plant, producest

the

is

name

the

name

of thy

of thy father

even colour

mother;
thou,

render this (spot) of

even colour
4.

The

black (plant) that produces even colour has

been fetched out of the


perfect this, construct

earth.

anew the

Do

thou now, pray,

colours

CHARMS TO CURE

I.

Charm

VI, 83.

DISEASES.

for curing scrofulous sores

called apa/'It.

Fly

1.

the nest

One

an eagle from

apa/'it (sores), as

Sfirya (the sun) shall prepare a remedy,

A'andramas
2.

ye

forth,

moon)

(the

is

shall shine

variegated, one

is

you away

white, one

is

black,

and two are red


I
have gotten the names of all
of them.
Go ye away without slaying men
3. The apa/v'it, the daughter of the black one,
without bearing offspring will lly away; the boil
will fly away from here, the galunta (swelling) will
:

perish.

Consume thy own (proper) oblation with gratithy mind, when I here offer svaha in my

4.

fication in

mind
A.

VII, 76.

Charm

for curing scrofulous

sores called apa/^it.

Ye

1.

easily,
all)

(sores)

fall

that which falls

easily from,

ye exist less than those that do not exist (at

ye are drier than the (part of the body called)

more moist than

sehu,

The

2.

salt.

apa/'it (sores) that are

upon the neck, and

those that are upon the shoulders

the apa/'it that

are upon the vi^aman (some part of the body)


off of

B.

themselves.

Charm

for curing

tumours called ^ayanya.

The^ayanya that crushes


passes down to the sole of the
3.

is

fall

fixed

foot,

upon the crown of the head,

out every one.


[42]

the ribs, that which

and whichever
I have driven

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

4.

The ^ayanya,

upon man.
caused by

Here

winged,

is

flies;

he

settles

down

the remedy both for sores not

cutting, as well

as for

wounds sharply

cut
5.

We

O ^ayanya, thy origin, whence thou


How canst thou slay there, in whose

know,

didst spring.

house we

offer oblations

Stanza sung at the mid-day pressure

C.

of the soma.
6.

Drink

Drink thy

stoutly,

soma

of the

mid-day pressure

at the

fill

Indra, slayer of V;Vtra, hero,

the cup, at the battle for riches

in

Living

in

wealth, do thou bestow wealth upon us

VII, 74.

Charm

A.

for curing scrofulous sores

called
1.

We

have heard

apa-('it.

said that the

it

black apa>^it (pustules)

is

by) the divine sage do

red

mother of the

with the root (found

strike all these.

one of them, and I strike


also the middlemost of them
this hindmost one
2.

strike the foremost

cut off as a flake (of wool).

Charm

B.
3.

to

appease jealousy.

With Tvash/ar's charm

thy jealousy

also

thy anger,

have sobered down


O lord, we have

quieted.

C.
4.

Do

Prayer to Agni, the lord of vows.


thou,

lord of vows, adorned with vows,

ever benevolently here shine


thee,

when thou

rich in offspring!

May we

hast been kindled,

all,

adoring

(S'atavedas,

be

I.

VI, 25.

CHARMS TO CURE

Charm

DISEASES.

against scrofulous sores upon

neck and shoulders.


1. The five and fifty (sores) that gather
together
upon the nape of the neck, from here they all shall

pass away, as the pustules of the (disease called)


apa/{'it
2. The seven and seventy (sores) that
gather together upon the neck, from here they all shall pass
away, as the pustules of the (disease called) apa/C-it

The

nine and ninety (sores) that gather together


upon the shoulders, from here they all shall pass
3.

away, as the pustules of the (disease called)


VI, 57.

apa/^it

Urine (^alasha) as a cure for


scrofulous sores.

This, verily,

a remedy, this is the remedy of


Rudra, with which one may charm away the arrow
that has one shaft and a hundred points
2. With ^alasha (urine) do ye wash (the tumour),
with ^alasha do ye sprinkle it!
The ^alasha is
1.

is

a potent remedy:

do thou (Rudra) with it show


mercy to us, that we may live
3. Both well-being and comfort shall be ours, and
nothing whatever shall injure us! To the ground
the disease (shall

may

all

fall)

may every remedy be

remedies be ours

IV, 12.

ours,

Charm

with the plant arundhati


(laksha) for the cure of fractures.

I.

Roha;^i art thou, causing to heal

(roha/^i),

broken bone thou causest to heal (roham)


this here to heal (rohaya),

c 2

arundhati

the

cause

!!

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

20

That bone of

2.

thine which, injured and burst,

thy person, Dhatar shall kindly knit


gether again, joint with joint!
exists in

Thy marrow

3.

has fallen

the part of thy flesh that

and thy bone

off,

marrow, and thy

shall unite with

joint (unite) with joint

to-

grow together

shall

again

marrow shall be joined together with


4. Thy
marrow, thy skin grow together with skin
Thy
blood, thy bone shall grow, thy flesh grow together
!

with flesh

Fit together hair with hair, and

5.

skin with skin

what

is

thou here

rise up,

go

forth,

run forth,

feloe,

(as)

and strong

he has been injured by falling Into a pit, or


a stone was cast and hurt him, may he (Dhatar,
If

7.

if

stand upright firmly

grow

plant

a chariot with sound wheels, firm

nave

together

blood, thy bone shall

cut join thou together,

Do

6.

Thy

fit

the fashioner)

wagoner

V,

him together,

fit

joint to joint, as the

(/?/bhu) the parts of a chariot

Charm

5.

with the plant

sila/('i

(laksha,

arundhati) for the cure of wounds.

The
Aryaman
1.

night

He

thy mother, the cloud thy father,

thy grandfather.

name, thou
2.

is

forsooth,

Sila/'i,

is

thy

art the sister of the gods.

that drinks thee lives; (that) person thou

dost preserve.

For thou

art

the supporter of

all

successive (generations), the refuge of men.


3.

Every

tree

thou dost

lusting after a man.


'

saving,' verily,

is

'

climb,

Victorious,'

thy name.

'

like

wench

firmly founded,'

'

CHARMS TO CURE

I.

The wound

4.

! '

DISEASES.

that has been inflicted

by the arrow, or by fire, of that thou


do thou cure this person here

Upon

5.

21

by the

cKib.

art the cure

the noble plaksha-tree (ficus infectoria)

thou growest up, upon the ai-vattha

(ficus reh'giosa),

the khadira (acacia catechu), and the dhava (grislea

tomentosa)

grodha

(thou growest up) upon the noble nya-

(ficus

indica, banyan-tree),

Come

(butea frondosa).

6.

gold-coloured,

handsome

cure
7.

us,

Cure,' verily,

is

thy

and the

name

par/^a

arundhati

sun-coloured,

lovely,

mayest thou come

(plant),
'

thou to

most

to the fracture,
!

gold-coloured, lovely, fiery (plant), with hairy

stem, thou art the sister of the waters,

wind became thy very breath.


8. SilaZi is thy name, O thou that

art

a goat, thy father


the blood of the

is

laksha, the

brown as
With

the son of a maiden.

brown horse of

Yama

thou hast

been sprinkled.
9. Having dropped from the blood of the horse
she ran upon the trees, turning into a winged brook.
verily

Do

thou come to

VI, 109.
1.

The

The

us,

arundhati

pepper-corn as a cure for wounds.

pepper-corn cures the wounds that have

been struck by missiles, it also cures the wounds


from stabs. Anent it the gods decreed
Powerful
'

to secure life this (plant) shall


2.

The

be

pepper-corns spake to

one another, as

they came out, after having been created

'
:

He whom

we shall find (as yet) alive, that man shall not suffer
harm
3. The Asuras did dig thee into the ground, the
!

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

22

gods cast thee up again, as a cure for disease produced by wind (in the body), moreover as a cure for

wounds
I,

T.

struck

by

missiles.

Charm

17.

The maidens

to stop the flow of blood.

that

go yonder, the

veins, clothed

in red garments, like sisters without a brother, bereft


of strength, they shall stand still
2.

Stand

higher one

thou lower one, stand

still,

do thou

The most

in the

tiny (vein) stands

great artery also stand


3.

Of

hundred

still,

middle also stand


still

may

thou
still

then the

still

and the thousand


have indeed stood
At the same time the ends have ceased (to
the

arteries,

veins, those in the middle here


still.

flow).
4.

Around you has passed

stand ye

still,

Charm

IT, 31.
1.

With

a great sandy dike:

pray take your ease

against worms.

Indra's great mill-stone, that crushes

vermin, do

grind to pieces the worms, as

all

lentils

with a mill-stone.
2. I have crushed the visible and the invisible
worm, and the kururu, too, I have crushed. All the
alga;^^u and the ^aluna, the worms, we grind to

pieces with our charm.


3.

The algaw^u do

smite with a mighty weapon:

those that have been burned, and those that have


not been burned, have become devoid of streng-th.

Those

that are left

destroy with

be

left.

my

and those that are not

left

song, so that not one of the

do

worms

CHARMS TO CURE

I.

The worm which

4.

DISEASES.

in the entrails,

is

23

and he that

is in the head, Hkewise the one that is in the ribs


avaskava and vyadhvara, the worms, do we crush
with (this) charm.

The worms

5.

plants,

forests,

have

the

within

that are

mountains,

and the waters, those that


brood of the

cattle,

settled in our bodies, all that

worms do

smite.

Charm

II, 32.

The

1.

worms

against

rising sun shall slay the

in cattle.

worms, the

setting-

sun with his rays shall slay the worms that are
within the cattle
2.

The

worm,

variegated

speckled, and the white

the

crush his

four -eyed,
ribs,

and

the
tear

off his head.

Like Atri, like Ka;^va, and

3.
I

Agastya do
4. Slain

also

is slain.

slain, his
5.

is

worms

do

the king of the worms, and their viceroy


Slain

brother

the worm, with him his mother

is

slain, his sister slain.

Slain are they

who

are inmates with him, slain

are his neighbours; moreover


are

like (S'amadagni

With the incantation of


crush the worms to pieces.

slay you, ye

all

the quite tiny

worms

slain.

break off thy two horns with which thou


I cut that bag of thine which
deliverest thy thrusts
6.

is

the receptacle for thy poison.

V, 23.
1.

called

Charm

against

worms

in children.

have called upon heaven and earth, I have


upon the goddess Sarasvati, I have called

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

24

upon Indra and Agni

'
:

they shall crush the worm,'

(I said),

Slay the worms

2.

treasures

are

Slain

boy,

in this

the

all

Indra, lord of

powers by

evil

my

fierce imprecation

Him

3.

about

that

moves about

moves

in the eyes, that

in the nose, that gets to the

worm do we crush.
The two of like colour,

middle of the

teeth, that
4.

colour

the two black ones, and the two red ones

brown

the
like

the two of different

one, and the brown-eared one

vulture,

a)

and the (one

like

a)

the (one

cuckoo, are

slain.
5.

The worms

with white shoulders, the black

ones with white arms, and


gated, these
6.

worms do we

those that are varie-

all

crush.

In the east rises the sun, seen by

that which

is

all,

slaying

not seen slaying the seen and the unseen


;

(worms), and grinding to pieces

all

the worms.

7. The yevasha and the kashkasha, the e^atka,


and the ^ipavitnuka the seen worm shall be slain,
moreover the unseen shall be slain

8.
is

Slain of the

worms

the nadaniman

lentils
9.

is

the yevasha, slain further

have

all

crushed down like

with a mill-stone.

The worm

with three heads and the one with

three skulls, the speckled, and the white


his ribs
10.

and

crush

tear off his head.

Like Atri,

like

Ka;/va, and like C'amadagni

do I slay you, ye worms


With the incantation of
Agastya do I crush the worms to pieces.
11. Slain is the king of the worms, and their
Slain is the worm, with him
viceroy also is slain.
his mother slain, his brother slain, his sister slain.
!

CHARMS TO CURE

I.

Slain are they

12.

are his neighbours

worms
13.

are inmates with him, slain

moreover

the

quite

tiny

Charm

6.

The Brahma?2a was

drink the soma

against poison.

the

to be born, with

first

He was

the

to

first

that did render poison powerless.

great as heaven and earth are in extent, as

far as the
I

burn

fire.

ten heads and ten mouths.

As

the female

all

heads with the stone,

split the

IV,

have

all

the male worms, and of

their faces with

2.

25

are slain.

Of all

worms do

1.

who

DISEASES.

seven streams did spread, so

proclaimed forth

this

far

from here

charm that destroys

poison.
3.

The

devour

Garutmant

eagle

thee.

Thou

did,

poison,

first

didst not bewilder him, didst

not injure him, yea, thou didst turn into food for
him.
4.

The

five-fingered

hand that did hurl upon thee

even from the curved bow from the


point of the tearing (arrow) have I charmed away
(the arrow)

the poison.
5.

away

From

the point (of the arrow) have

charmed

the poison, from the substance that has been

smeared upon it, and from its plume. From its


barbed horn, and its neck, I have charmed away the
poison.
6.
is

thy poison.

powerless bow,
7.

Powerless,

They

daubed

it

arrow,

is

thy point, and powerless

Moreover of powerless wood

that

is

thy

powerless (arrow)

ground

(the

on, they that hurled

poison),
it,

they that

and they that

let

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

26

The
it go, all these have been rendered impotent.
mountain that grows poisonous plants has been
rendered impotent.

Impotent are they that dig thee, impotent art


Impotent is that mountain height
thou, O plant
8.

whence

this

poison has sprung.

IV,
1.

ward

Charm

7.

This water

against poison.

(var) in the (river) Vara;^avati shall

Amr/ta (ambrosia) has been


with that do I ward off (varaye)

off (varayatai)

poured into it
poison from thee.
2. Powerless is the poison from the
:

less that

from the north.

power-

east,

Moreover the poison from

the south transforms itself into a porridge.


3.

Having made thee

(the poison) that

comes from
in fat, and

a horizontal direction into a porridge, rich

cheering, from sheer hunger he has eaten thee, that

4.

Thy

body

do thou not cause injury


bewildering quality (madam), O (plant

hast an evil

that art bewildering (madavati),

a reed.

As

we

cause to

a boiling pot of porridge do

?)

fall like

we remove

thee by (our) charm.

it were, heaped
do we cause to stand still by (our)
charm. Stand still as a tree upon its place do not,
thou that hast been dug with the spade, cause

5.

(Thee,

about the

poison) that art, as

village,

injury

broom-straw (?), garments, and also


with skins they purchased thee a thing for barter
art thou, O plant
Do not, thou that hast been dug
6.

With

with the spade, cause injury!


7.

Those of you who were of yore unequalled

in

CHARMS TO CURE

T.

injure here our

engage you

27

men

may

they not

for this

very purpose do

VI, TOO.

Ants as an antidote against poison.

The gods have

1.

DISEASES.

which they performed

the deeds

given, the sun has given, the

earth has given, the three Sarasvatis, of one mind,

have given
2.

That

this poison-destroying

water,

ants,

(remedy)
which the gods poured
!

for

you into the dry land, with this (water), sent forth
by the gods, do ye destroy this poison

Thou

3.

art the

daughter of the Asuras, thou art

Sprung from heaven and

the sister of the gods.

thou

earth,

didst

render the

poison

devoid

of

strenofth.
fc>'

V.
1.

to

13.

Charm

against snake-poison.

Varu/^a, the sage of heaven, verily lends (power)

With mighty charms do

me.

thy

dissolve

The (poison) which has been dug, that


which has not been dug, and that which is inherent,
I
have held fast. As a brook in the desert thy
poison.

poison has dried up.

That poison of

2.

thine which

confined within these (serpents


that

is in

May
3.

cloud

sap of

now vanish out

lusty shout

then do

not

fluid

have

hold fast the sap

(is)

his.

May

of thee from fright

as the thunder with the

smite thy (sap) with

With manly strength

charm.

is

thy middle, thy top, and in thy bottom, too.

(the sap)

My

?).

the

sun

rise

my

have held

strong

fast that

as light from

the

darkness
4.

With my eye do

slay thy eye, with poison

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

28

do I slay thy poison. O serpent, die, do not


back upon thee shall thy poison turn

5.

dweller

speckled

kairata,

brown

?),

one,

one,
to

listen

pulsive reptiles, (listen to me)

my

the ground

of

and make

known

6.

it

friend
(to

people

serpent, the taimata, the

that

not

is

string

(is

fluid,

the

Do

ye black re-

not stand upon

cease with your poison

release (thee) from

(grass-

upatr^'/^ya

me

live

?)

the fury of the black

brown

serpent, the poison

all-conquering, as the bow-

loosened) from the bow, as chariots (from

horses).

Both Aligi and Viligi, both father and mother,


we know your kin everywhere. Deprived of your
strength what will ye do ?
8. The daughter of urugula, the evil one born
with the black of all those who have run to their
7.

hiding-place the poison


9.

The

is

devoid of

mountain, did declare this


living

force.

prickly porcupine, tripping

ditches,

in

are

'

here,

down from

Whatsoever
their

poison

the

serpents,

most

is

deficient in force.'
10.

Tabuvam

(or)

Through tabuvam thy poison

tabuvam.

art not

not tabuvam, thou (O serpent)


is

bereft of force.
1 1

Tastuvam

(or)

art not tastuvam.

not tastuvam, thou (O serpent)

Through tastuvam thy poison

is

bereft of force.

VI,
I.

As

12.

Charm

against snake-poison.

the sun (goes around) the heavens

have

surrounded the race of the serpents. As


to rest) all animals except the ha;;^sa bird, (thus) do

night (puts

with this (charm) ward off thy poison.

CHARMS TO CURE

I.

With

DISEASES.

29

was found of yore by


the Brahmans, found by the -/?/shis, and found by
the gods, with (the charm) that was, will be, and is
now present, with this do I ward off thy poison.
the moun3. With honey do I mix the rivers
tains and peaks are honey.
Honey are the rivers
Parush;n and vSipala.
Prosperity be to thy mouth,
2.

(the charm) that

prosperity to thy heart

Charm

VII, 56.

against the poison of serpents,

scorpions,
1.

The
;

insects.

by the serpent that is


by the black serpent, and by the

poison

striped across,

adder

and

infused

that poison of the kaiikaparvan

like a comb,' scorpion) this plant

('

with limbs

has driven out.

This herb, born of honey, dripping honey,


sweet as honey, honied, is the remedy for injuries
moreover it crushes insects.
bitten, wherever
3. Wherever thou hast been
thou hast been sucked, from there do we exorcise
2.

for thee

poison of the

the

insect, (so that


4.

Thou

it

small,

greedily biting

be) devoid of strength.

(serpent) here, crooked, without joints,

and without limbs, that twisteth thy crooked jaws


mayest thou, O Br/haspati, straighten them out, as
a (bent) reed
5.

The

poison

of

the

5arko/a

(scorpion)

that

creeps low upon the ground, (after he) has been


I have taken away
morehave caused him to be crushed.
There is no strength in thy arms, in thy head,

deprived of his strength,

over
6.

middle (of thy body). Then why dost


thou so wickedly carry a small (sting) in thy tail ?
nor

in the

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

30
7.

The

ants devour thee, pea-hens hack thee to

Yea, every one of you shall


poison of the i^arko/a powerless

pieces.

declare the

8.

Thou

mouth
poison
in

thy

(scorpion) that strikest with both, with

as well

then what can there be

strong

Charm

16.

in the

thy juice,

is

Vihalha

abayu

thy father's

is

We

go away

Go

This howling one


brown one, and brown-eared

out,

Alasala thou art

Charm

1.

Of

to

not such, as to

ala

first,

sila?^^alala

next, nilagalasala (thou art third

VI, 21.

eat a gruel,

name, Madavati thy

Tauvilika, do be quiet

has become quiet.

4.

receptacle

thee.

Thou art verily


have consumed thy own self.

one,

no

thou art not abayu,

if)

mother's name.

3.

is

against ophthalmia.

abayu, (and even

compounded of
2.

thy mouth there

in

tail,

tail ?

VI,
1.

as

?)

thou art the

promote the growth of

these three earths (our) earth verily

highest.

From

the surface of these

hair.

is

the

have now

plucked a remedy.
2.

Thou

art the

best of plants, as

most excellent of remedies, the


(the moon) is the lord in

Soma

the watches of the night, as Varu/^a

(is

king)

among

the gods.
3.

ye

wealthy,

irresistible

generously bestow benefits.


hair,

and, moreover, promote

And
its

(plants),

ye

do

ye strengthen the

increase.

CHARMS TO CURE

I.

DISEASES.

VI, 136. Charm with the plant nitatni


to promote the growth of hair.
1.

As

a goddess upon the goddess earth thou

wast born,

plant

We

dig thee up,

nitatni, that

thou mayest strengthen (the growth) of the hair.


2.
Strengthen the old (hair), beget the new

That which has come forth render more luxurious


3. That hair of thine which does drop off, and
that which is broken root and all, upon it do
I

sprinkle here the all-healing herb.

Charm

VI, 137.

to

1.

The

(plant) that

2.

With

reins they

promote the growth of

hair.

6"amadagni dug up to promote


the growth of his daughter's hair, Vitahavya has
brought here from the dwelling of Asita.

had

to

be measured, with out-

stretched arms they had to be measured out.

thy hairs grow as reeds,


about thy head
3.

Make

expand

may

IV,
1.

they

4.

Thee, the

for Varu;/a,

plant,

when

herb

to

had decayed,

The

thee, that

dig up.
(the sun),

and

this

charm

the bull Pra^apati (the lord of creatures)

shall with his lusty fire arouse


^

virility.

which the Gandharva dug up

Ushas (Aurora), Surya

of mine

their ends,

thy hairs grow

about thy head

promote

his virility

we

(cluster), black,

May

(cluster), black,

Charm

causest strength \
2.

they

draw out

firm their roots,

their middle,

as reeds,

may

May

original,

more

changes and omissions

drastically,

him

^epaharsha;/im.

in stanzas 3, 6,

of the original has been similarly veiled.

and

By

few-

7 the direct simplicity

! !

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

32

This herb

3.

shall

make

lusty strength, that thou shalt,

exhale heat as a thing on

The

4.

fire

thee

so very

when thou

of

art excited,

fire

of the plants, and the essence of the

bulls shall arouse

him

Do

thou,

Indra, con-

men

troller of bodies, place the lusty force of

this

full

into

person

5.

Thou (O

herb) art the first-born sap of the

Moreover thou

waters and also of the plants.

Soma, and the

the brother of

art

lusty force of the

antelope buck
6.

Now,

Agni, now,

Sarasvati, now,

the pasas as a
7.

bow.

stiffen

Savitar, now,

O goddess

Brahma;^aspati, do thou stiffen

bow
thy pasas as a bowstring upon the

Embrace thou (women)

as the antelope

buck

the gazelle with ever unfailing (strength)


8.

The

strength of the horse, the mule, the goat

and the ram, moreover the strength of the bull


bestow upon him, O controller of bodies (Indra)
VI, III.

Charm

against mania.

1. Release for me, O Agni, this


person here,
Then
who, bound and well-secured, loudly jabbers
shall he have due regard for thy share (of the offering), when he shall be free from madness
2. Agni shall quiet down thy mind, if it has been
disturbed
Cunningly do I prepare a remedy, that
thou shalt be freed from madness.
3. (Whose mind) has been maddened by the sin
of the gods, or been robbed of sense by the Rakshas,
(for him) do I cunningly prepare a remedy, that he
!

shall
4.

be free from madness.


May the Apsaras restore thee, may Indra, may

I.

Bhaga

CHARMS TO CURE

restore thee

may

all

Charm

DISEASES.

2i3

the gods restore thee,

that thou mayest be freed from

IV, 37.

madness

with the plant a^air/ngi to drive

out Rakshas, Apsaras and Gandharvas.


1.

With

thee,

herb, the Atharvans

first

slew

the Rakshas, with thee Kajr3'apa slew (them), with

thee Ka;^va and Agastya (slew them).


2.

With thee do we

dharvas.

scatter the

the Rakshas, drive them


3.

The

Apsaras and Gan-

a^ai-rmgi (odina pinnata), goad


all

(a.f^a)

away with thy smell


Pila, Naladi, Auksha-

Apsaras, Guggulu,

gandhi, and Pramandani (by name), shall go to the


river, to the ford of the waters, as if

blown away

Thither do ye, O Apsaras, pass away,


have been recognised
4.

Where grow

(since)

ye

the ai'vattha (ficus religlosa) and

the banyan-trees, the great trees with crowns, thither

do

ye,

Apsaras, pass away, (since) ye have been

recognised
5. Where your gold and silver swings are, where
cymbals and lutes chime together, thither do ye,
O Apsaras, pass away, (since) ye have been recog-

nised.
6. Hither has come the mightiest of the plants
and herbs. May the a^airmgi ara/aki pierce with
her sharp horn (tikshmai";^mgi)
7. Of the crested Gandharva, the husband of the
Apsaras, who comes dancing hither, I crush the
two mushkas and cut off the 5-epas.
8.

Terrible are the missiles of Indra, with a hun-

dred points, brazen

with these he shall pierce the

Gandharvas, who devour oblations, and devour the


avaka-reed.
[42]

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA,

34
9.

Terrible are the missiles of Indra, with a hun-

dred points, golden

with these he shall pierce the

Gandharvas, who devour oblations, and devour the


avaka-reed.
All the

10.

Pii-a/^as

that devour the avaka-reeds,

that burn, and spread their

do thou,

herb, crush and

One

11.

like

is

a dog,

little

light in the waters,

overcome
one like an

As

ape.

a youth, with luxuriant locks, pleasant to look upon,


the Gandharva hangs about the woman.
Him do

we

drive out from here with our powerful charm.

The

12.

Apsaras, you know, are your wives

the Gandharvas, are their husbands.

ye,

Speed away,

ye immortals, do not go after mortals!

II, 9.

1.

Possession by demons of disease, cured


by an amulet of ten kinds of wood.
(amulet) of ten kinds of wood, release this

man from

demon

the

(rakshas) and the

fit

(grahi)

which has seized upon (^agraha) his joints


Do
thou, moreover, O plant, lead him forth to the world
!

of the

livinof

He

has come, he has gone forth, he has joined


community of the living. And he has become
the father of sons, and the most happy of men
3. This person has come to his senses, he has
come to the cities of the living. For he (now) has
a hundred physicians, and also a thousand herbs.
4. The gods have found thy arrangement, (O
amulet); the Brahmans, moreover, the plants.
All
the gods have found thy arrangement upon the earth.
5. (The god) that has caused (disease) shall per2.

the

form the cure

he

is

himself the best physician.

CHARMS TO CURE

I.

DISEASES.

35

Let him indeed, the holy one, prepare remedies

for

thee, together with the (earthly) physician

Charm

IV, ^6.

demons

against

{pisa.^a.)

conceived

as the cause of disease.


1.

May Agni

strength, burn

harm

desires to

the bull of unfailing

Vai-s-vanara,

up him that is evil-disposed, and


and him that plans hostile deeds

us,

against us

Between the two rows of teeth of Agni Valsvanara do I place him that plans to injure us, when
we are not planning to injure him and him that
plans to injure us, when we do plan to injure him.
3. Those who hound us in our chambers, while
shouting goes on in the night of the new moon, and
2.

who

the other flesh-devourers


of them do
4.

slay
5.

all

overcome with might.


I overcome the Pi^a/C'as, rob them
all evil-disposed (demons) do
property
I

With might

of their
I

plan to injure us,

may my

device succeed

With the gods who

vie with,

and measure

their

swiftness with this sun, with those that are in the


rivers,

and

in

the mountains, do

I,

along with

my

cattle, consort.

plague the Pi^a/'as as the tiger the cattleowners.


As dogs who have seen a lion, these do
6.

not find a refuge.


7.

My

strength

does not

lie

with thieves, nor with prowlers

From

the forest.

From

enter the F'lsMas vanish away.


the village which my fierce power has

the village which


8.

in

with Pi^a/'as, nor

entered the Pi^ai'as vanish away


evil.

they do not devise

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

36

They who

9.

me

irritate

with

their jabber,

them

(buzzing) mosquitoes the elephant,

wretched

regard as

vermin upon people.


goddess of destruction) take

(creatures), as small

May

10.

Nirr/ti (the

hold of this one, as a horse with the halter

who

fool

as

wroth with

is

me

The

not freed from (her)

is

snare.

II, 25.

Charm with
the demon of

The goddess

1.

the plant przsmpa.r/ii against


disease, called ka;/va.

Frisniparni has prepared pros-

perity for us, mishap for

For she

destruction).

Ka;^vas
2.

ful

The

her, the mighty,

N'lrrh'i

(the

goddess of

a fierce devourer of the

have

Frismparm was

with her do

is

employed.

begotten

first

power-

lop off the heads of the evil

brood, as (the head) of a bird.


3.

The

to rob

blood-sucking demon, and him that


health,

(our)

offspring, destroy,
4.

tries

Ka;^va, the devourer of our


P;7'i-nipar;^i,

These Ka;/vas, the

and overcome

effacers of

life,

drive into

go thou burning after them like fire,


goddess PrzVnipar;^!
5. Drive far away these Ka7^vas, the effacers of

the mountain

Where
made these

life
1

VI,

32.

the

dark

flesh-eaters

Charm

Do

ye well

are,

there

have

q-q.

for driving

and
I.

regions

away demons (Rakshas

Fisa.^a.s).

offer within the fire this oblation

with ghee, that destroys the spook!

Do

thou,

Agni, burn from afar against the Rakshas, (but) our

houses thou shalt not consume

CHARMS TO CURE

I.

2.

Yama

'T^'J

ye

necks,

also break your ribs, ye spooks

whose power
3.

DISEASES.

Rudra has broken your

may he

Pi-9a/'as

The

plant

everywhere has united you with

is

(death).

Exempt from

may we

here be

devouring

danger,

Mitra and Varu/^a,

drive back with your flames the

demons

(Atrin)

support do they find

Neither

aider,

nor

smiting one another they go

to death.

II, 4.

Charm

^ahgi^a

with an amulet derived from the

tree,

against diseases and demons.

delights, for ever


1. Unto long life and great
unharmed and vigorous, do we wear the ^angirt'a, as

an amulet destructive of the vishkandha.


convulsions, from tearing pain, from
2. From
vishkandha, and from torturing pain, the ^aiigi^/a
shall protect us on all sides
an amulet of a thousand

virtues

This ^angi^a conquers the vishkandha, and


smites the Atrin (devouring demons) may this all3.

healing ^aiigi^a protect us from adversity!


4. By means of the invigorating ^ahgi^/a, bestowed
by the gods as an amulet, do we conquer in batde
the vishkandha and all the Rakshas.
5. May the hemp and may the^ahgic/a protect me

against vishkandha

The one

(fahgi<^a)

is

brought

hither from the forest, the other (hemp) from the

sap of the furrow.


6.

Destruction of witchcraft

this amulet, also

may the powerful


powers
therefore extend far our lives

destruction of hostile
gdihgxddi.

is
:

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

38

XIX,

Charm

34.

with an amulet derived from the

^ahgi^a-tree, against diseases and demons.

Thou

1.

art thou,

art

an Angiras,

O ^aiigi^a.

,^arigi^a,

a protector

All two-footed and four-footed

creatures that belong to us the ^angi^'a shall protect

The

2.

sorceries

fifty-three

hundred performers of sorcery,


their

force,

the

in
all

shall

^angirt'a

number, and the


these having lost
render

bereft

of

strength
Bereft of strength

3.

the gotten-up clamour,

is

bereft of strength are the seven debilitating (charms).

Do

O ^angi^a,

thou,

hurl

away from here poverty,

as an archer an arrow
4.

This

-2ihg\da. is

a destroyer of witchcraft, and

also a destroyer of hostile powers.

May

then the

powerful ^arigi^a extend far our lives


5.

May

about on

the greatness of the ^ahgi^/a protect us

all sides,

(the greatness) with which he has

overcome the vishkandha (and) the

sai'/^skandha,

(overcoming) the powerful (disease) with power!


6. Thrice the gods begot thee that hast grown up
upon the earth. The Brahma;zas of yore knew thee
here by the name of Angiras.
7.

Neither the plants of olden times, nor they of

recent times, surpass thee

a fierce

slayer

is

the

and a happy refuge.


8. And when, O ^aiigirt'a of boundless virtue, thou
didst spring up in the days of yore, O fierce (plant),

^arigifl'a,

Indra at
9.

first

placed strength in thee.

Fierce Indra, verily, put might into thee,

lord of the forest!

the Rakshas,
10.

Dispersing

all

diseases, slay thou

plant!

The breaking

disease and the tearing disease,

CHARMS TO CURE DISEASES.


the balasa, and the pain in the Hmbs, the takman

comes every autumn, may the ^ahgi^a render

that

devoid of force

XIX,

Charm

35.

with an amulet derived from the

and demons.

jrahei^a-tree, against diseases

While utterine Indra's name the seers bestowed


(upon men) the ^angi^^a, which the gods in the
beginning had made into a remedy, destructive of
1.

the vishkandha.
2.

May

that ^angi^a protect us as a treasurer his

made

whom

he

treasures,

the gods and the Brahma;/as

into a refuge that puts to

naught the hostile

powers
3.

The

evil-doer

eye of the hostile-minded, (and) the


have approached. Do thou, O thousand-

evil
I

eyed one, watchfully destroy these


thou,

refuge art

O ^arigifl^a.

May
protect me

me

from heaven,
from earth, protect (me) from the atmosphere, protect me from the plants, protect me from
may he protect us
the past, as well as the future
4.

the ^angida.

protect

from every direction of space


also
5. The sorceries performed by the gods, and
!

those performed by men,

render them

VI, 85.

1.

all

may

the all-healing ^ahgirtfa

devoid of strength

Exorcism of disease by means of an amulet


from the vara7/a-tree.

This divine

tree,

the vara;^a, shall shut out

have shut out (a vi varan)


the disease that hath entered into this man!
Indra's command, by Mitras and by
2. By

(varayatai).

The

gods, too,

40

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

Varu;za's,

by the command of

all

the gods do

we

shut out thy disease.


3.

As

Vrztra did hold fast these ever-flowing


do I shut out (varaye) disease from

waters, thus

thee with (the help of) Agni Vai^-vanara.

VI, 127.
1.

Of

The

the abscess, of the balasa, of flow of blood,

plant

of neuralgia,

even a speck
2. Those two
that are fixed
for that
3.

/6ipudru-tree as a panacea.

herb, thou shalt not leave

know

the /'ipudru-tree takes care of

The

balasa,

the

remedy

boils (testicles) of thine,

upon the arm-pits

neuralgia that

is

the ears and in the eyes

in

we

it.

the limbs, that


tear

them

is

in

out, the

and the pain in the heart.


That unknown disease do we drive away downward.

neuralgia, the abscess,

XIX,
1.

38.

The

healing properties of bdellium.

[Neither diseases, nor yet a curse, enters this


O arundhati !] From him that is pene-

person,
trated

by the sweet fragrance of the healing bdellium,

diseases flee in every direction, as antelopes and as


horses run.
>

Whether, O bdellium, thou comest from the


Sindhu (Indus), or whether thou art derived from the
sea, I have seized the qualities of both, that this
person shall be exempt from harm.
2.

^
Q

VI, 91.

Barley and water as universal remedies.

This barley they did plough vigorously, with


yokes of eight and yokes of six. With it I drive ofl"
I.

to a far distance the ailment from thy body.

1!

I.

CHARMS TO CURE

Downward blows

2.

shall thy ailment pass

The

3.

away

downward burns
downward
milked

the wind,

downward the cow

the sun,

DISEASES.

is

waters verily are healing, the waters chase

disease,

the waters cure

(disease)

all

may

they prepare a remedy for thee

VIII,

Hymn

magic and medicinal


used as a universal remedy.

7.

The

1.

white

to all

plants that are brown,

May

whose mother

is

the

do we invoke.

(these)

all

man from

they protect this

sent by the gods, the herbs


sky,

and those that are

the red ones and the speckled ones

sable and the black plants,


2.

plants,

the disease

whose father
whose root

the earth,

is

the

is

the

ocean.

The

3.

most

waters and the heavenly plants are forethey have driven out from every limb thy

disease, consequent

The

4.

upon

sin.

plants that spread forth, those that are

bushy, those that have a single sheath, those that


creep along, do

address

call

in

thy behalf the

plants that have shoots, those that have stalks, those

that divide their branches, those that are derived

from
life

all

to

the gods, the strong (plants) that furnish

man.

With the might that is yours, ye mighty ones,


with the power and strength that is yours, with that
5.

do
I

('

ye,

plants, rescue this

now prepare a remedy.


6. The plants ^ivala ('
which removes

this disease

quickening'), na-gha-risha

forsooth-no-harm '),^ivanti

dhati,

man from

('

living

'),

and the arun-

(disease), is full of blossoms,

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

42

and

do

rich in honey,

exempt him from

to

call

injury.

Hither shall come the intelligent (plants) that


understand my speech, that we may bring this man
7.

into safety out of misery


8.

They

Agni (the fire), the


grow ever renewing

that are the food of

offspring of the waters, that

themselves, the firm (plants) that bear a thousand

names, the healing


9.

The

octandra),

(plants), shall

be brought hither
is the avaka (blyxa

plants, whose womb


whose essence are the waters,

shall with

their sharp horns thrust aside evil


10.

The

plants which release,

exempt from Varu/za

and destroy poison those, too,


remove (the disease) balasa, and ward off witchcraft shall come hither
11. The plants that have been bought, that are
right potent, and are praised, shall protect in this
village cow, horse, man, and cattle
12. Honied are the roots of these herbs, honied
(dropsy), are strong,

that

their tops,

honied their middles, honied their leaves,

honied their blossoms


food of immortality.
food,

and

13.

they share

May

In

honey, are the

they yield ghee, and

cattle chief of all

As many

in

number and

In

kind the plants

may they, furnished with


release me from death and

here are upon the earth,


a

thousand leaves,

misery
14.

Tiger-like

Is

the

amulet (made

of)

a saviour, a protector against hostile schemes


it

drive off far

away from us

all

diseases

herbs,
:

may

and the

Rakshas
15.

As

if

at the roar of the

fright, as if (at the roar) of fire

Hon they

start with

they tremble before

CHARMS TO CURE

I.

DISEASES.

43

The

the (plants) that have been brought hither.


diseases of cattle and

the herbs

The

16.

let

men have been

them pass

driven out by

into navigable streams

plants release us from

Spreading over the earth, go

ye,

Agni Vaii-vanara.
whose king is the

tree

The

plants,

The

herbs which

descended from Arigiras, that


grow upon the mountains and in the plains, shall be
for us rich in milk, auspicious, comforting to the
1

7.

heart

know, and those which


I see with my sight
the unknown, those which we
know, and those which we perceive to be charged
18.

with (power),
All plants collectively shall note

19.

we may bring

that

this

man

my

words,

into safety out of mis-

fortune,

The

20.

among

ai"vattha (ficus religiosa),

the plants

and the oblation

rice

and

immortal children of heaven

Ye

21.

arise:

you,

(his)

seed (water).

22.

we

it

is

barley, the

two healing,

thundering and crashing, ye

Par^anya (the god of

plants, since

and the darbha

king Soma, amr/ta (ambrosia)

rain)

is

favouring

children of Frzsni (the spotted cloud), with

The

strength of this

man

amma

(ambrosia) do

Moreover, I prepare
hundred years
23. The boar knows, the ichneumon knows the
healing plant.
Those that the serpents and Gandharvas know, I call hither for help.
24. The plants, derived from the Arigiras, which
the eagles and the heavenly ragbag's (falcons) know,
which the birds and the flamingos know, which all
give this

a remedy, that he

to drink.

may

live a

! !

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

44

winged (creatures) know, which all wild animals


know, I call hither for help.
25. As many plants as the oxen and kine, as many
as the goats and the sheep feed upon, so many plants,

when

applied, shall furnish protection to thee

As many

26.

know

(plants), as the

human

physicians

remedy, so many, endowed with


every healing quality, do I apply to thee
27. Those that have flowers, those that have
to contain a

fruit, and those that are


from the same mother they shall
suck sap, to exempt this man from injury
28. I have saved thee from a depth of five
fathoms, and, too, from a depth of ten fathoms
moreover, from the foot-fetter of Yama, and from
every sin against the gods.

blossoms, those that bear

without

fruit,

as

if

VI, 96.
1.

king

The many

Plants as a panacea.

whose
Soma, which have been begotten by Bri-

is

plants of hundredfold aspect,

haspati, shall free us from calamity!


2. May they free us from (the calamity) consequent upon curses, and also from the (toils) of

Varu;^a

moreover, from the foot-fetter of Yama,

and every sin against the gods


3. What laws we have infringed upon, with the
eye, the mind, and speech, either while awake, or
asleep

may Soma by his (divine) nature clear these

(sins)

away from us
II, 32.

Charm

to secure perfect health.

From

thy eyes, thy nostrils, ears, and chin


from thy
the disease which is seated in thy head
I.

brain and tongue

do tear

it

out.

CHARMS TO CURE DISEASES.

I.

From

2.

spine

thy neck, nape of the neck,

the disease which

45
ribs,

and

seated in thy fore-arm

is

from thy shoulders and arms I do tear it out.


3. From thy heart, thy kmgs, viscera, and sides
from thy kidneys, spleen, and liver we do tear out
the disease.

From

4.

men

thy

from thy

entrails,

canals, rectum,

and navel

belly, guts,

and abdodo tear out

the disease.
5.

From

thy feet

thy thighs, knees, heels, and the tips of


thy hips I do tear out the disease

from

seated in thy buttocks, from thy bottom the disease


seated in thy buttocks.
6.

From

thy bones, marrow., sinews and arteries

from thy hands,

and

fingers,

nails

do

tear out the

disease.
7.

The

every

hair,

disease

that

in

is

thy every joint

thy every limb, thy

that which

is

seated in

thy skin, with Ka^yapa's charm, that tears out, to


either side

IX,

8.

we do

tear

Charm

it

out.

to procure

immunity from

all

diseases.
T.

Headache and

the ears and

Jtlow

suffering in the head, pain in

of blood, every disease of the

we charm forth from thee.


From thy ears, from thy kahkushas

head, do
2.

the ear-

and the neuralgia every disease of the head


do we charm forth from thee.
3. (With the charm) through whose agency disease
hastens forth from the ears and the mouth
every
disease of the head do we charm forth from thee.
4. (The disease) that renders a man deaf and
pain,

HVMXS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

46
blind

from

every disease of the head


thee.

Pain

5.

do we charm forth

the

in

hmbs,

fever

neuralgia that affects every limb

the head do

we charm

forth

the

in

hmbs. the

every disease of
from thee.

(The disease) whose frightful aspect makes


takman (fever) that comes every
autumn, do we charm forth from thee.
6.

man

tremble, the

The

7.

disease that creeps along the thighs, and

then enters the canals, out of thy inner parts do

charm

If

8.
it

we

forth.

from the heart, from love, or from diso;ust,


from thy heart and from thy limbs the

arises,

we charm

balasa do

forth.

Jaundice from thy limbs, diarrhoea from within

9.

thy bowels, the core of disease from thy inner soul

do we charm
10.

To

ashes (asa) the balasa shall turn: what

diseased

shall turn

diseases
11.

run

forth.

urine

to

The

have charmed forth from

poison of

is

all

thee.

Outside the opening (of the bladder)

it

shall

the rumbling shall pass from thy belly!

off;

The

poison of

from

thee.

From

all

diseases

have charmed forth

and heart the


poison of all diseases I have charmed forth from thee.
crown {o( the
13. (The pains) that split the
head), pierce the head, without doing injur}", with12.

th\- belly,

lungs, navel,

out causing: disease, thev shall run off outside the

opening
14.
ribs,

(of the bladder)

They

that pierce the heart, creep along the

without doing injury, without causing disease,

they shall
bladder)

run

off

outside

the

opening

(of

the

CHARMS TO CUKE

I.

They that

15.

DISEASES.

47

pierce the sides, bore along the ribs,

without doing injury, without causing disease, they


shall run off outside the opening (of the bladder)

They

16.

pierce

that

abdomen, without

burrow

crosswise,

doing

w^ithout

injury,

disease, they shall run off outside the

in

thy

causing

opening (of

the bladder)

They

17.

that creep along the rectum, twist the

bowels, without doir^ injury, without causing disease,

they shall run off outside the opening (of the bladder)

They

18.

that suck the marrow, and

split

the

without doing injury, without causing disease, they shall run off outside the opening (of the

joints,

bladder)
19.

The

diseases and the injuries that paralyse

thy limbs, the poison of

all

diseases

have charmed

forth from thee.


20.

Of

neuralgia, of abscesses, of inflation, or of

inflammation of the eyes, the poison of


I

have driven

forth

all

diseases

from thee.

2 1. From thy feet, knees, thighs, and bottom;


from thy spine, and thy neck the piercing pains,
from thy head the ache I have removed.

22.

Firm are the bones of thy

At thy

of thy heart.

skull,

rising,

and the beat

sun, thou

didst

remove the pains of the head, quiet the pangs

in

the limbs.

II, 29.

Charm
perity

I.

for obtaining

long

by transmission of

In the essence of earthly

strength of

body (may he

live)

B/Vhaspati bestow upon him

and pros-

disease.

bliss,

life's

life

May

ye gods, in

Agni, Surja,

vigour

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

48

Give

2.

life

to

him,

O Savitar,

bestow

6^atavedas,

addition progeny upon him,

Tvash^'ar

in

procure,

him may this one,


who belongs to thee, live a hundred autumns
3. May our prayer bestow upon us vigour, and
possession of sound progeny ability and property
do ye two, (O heaven and earth), bestow upon us
increase of wealth for

May he,

conquering lands with might,

(live),

Indra,

subjecting the others, his enemies


4.

Given by

Indra, instructed

come

the Maruts, strong, he has


the lap of ye two, heaven

hunger and not from

by Varu/^a, sent by

and

to us

may

he, in

earth, not suffer

from

thirst

may ye two, that are rich in strength,


bestow upon him milk may ye two, that are rich
in milk, bestow upon him
Strength heaven and
5.

Strength

earth did bestow upon

him

strength

all

the gods,

the Maruts, and the waters.


6.

With the gracious

do

(waters)

delight thy

mayest thou, free from disease, full of force,


Clothed in the same garment do ye two
drink this stirred drink, taking on as a magic form
the shape of the two Ai"vins
7. Indra, having been wounded, first created this
vigour, and this ever fresh divine food
that same
heart,

rejoice

belongs to thee.
force, live (a

of thee

By means

of that do thou,

hundred) autumns

may

physicians have prepared

it

It

full

of

not flow out

for thee

II.

PRAYERS FOR LONG LIFE AND HEALTH


(AYUSHYANI).
Ill, II.
1.

Prayer for health and long

release

thee

unto

life

of this

by means of (my)
and from consump-

from unknown decline,


If Grahi (seizure) has caught hold (^^agraha)
person here, may Indra and Agni free him

oblation,
tion.

life.

from that
2.

If his life

away,

he has been brought to

if

death,

he has passed
the very vicinity of

has faded, even

if

snatch him from the lap of Nirr/ti

(the

goddess of destruction)
I have freed him unto a
life of a hundred autumns.
:

3. I have snatched him (from death) by means of


an oblation which has a thousand eyes, hundredfold
strength, and ensures a hundredfold life, in order
that Indra may conduct him through the years across

to the other side of every misfortune.

Live thou, thriving a hundred autumns, a hundred winters, and a hundred springs! May Indra,
Agni, Savitar, Br/haspati (grant) thee a hundred
4.

have snatched him (from death) with an


life of a hundred years.
5. Enter ye, O in-breathing and out-breathing, as
Away shall go the other deaths,
two bulls a stable
of which, it is said, there are a hundred more
Remain ye here, O in-breathing and out6.

years

oblation that secures a

[42]

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

50

away from here

breathing, do not go

do ye carry

age his body and his Hmbs


over, into old age
7. To old age I make thee
may a happy old age guide thee
urge thee

anew
I

to old

Away

go the other deaths, of which, it is said,


more
8. Upon thee (life unto) old age has been deposited,
as a rope is tied upon a bull. That death which has
shall

there are a hundred

fettered thee at thy birth with a firm rope, Br/haspati with the

hands of the truth did

from

strip off

thee.

Prayer for long

II, 28.

life

pronounced over

a boy.

For thee alone, O (death from) old age, this


the other hundred kinds of
(boy) shall grow up
Like a provident mother
death shall not harm him
in her lap Mitra shall befriend him, shall save him
1.

from misfortune
Mitra
2. May

all

the

illustrious,

him death from old age

operating, grant

Agni, the

or Varu;^a,

who knows

priest,

co-

Then

the ways, promulgates

the races of the gods.

Thou, (O Agni), rulest over all the animals of


the earth, those which have been born, and those
which are to be born may not in-breathing leave
3.

nor yet out-breathing,

this one,

may

neither friends

nor foes slay him


4.

May

(earth),

Dyaus

father

co-operating,

winters,

breathing
5.

and mother Pr/thivi


death from old

thee

mayest live in the lap of Aditi a


guarded by in-breathing and out-

age, that thou

hundred

(sky)

grant

Lead

this

dear child to

life

and vigour,

Agni,

II.

PRAYERS FOR LONG LIFE AND HEALTH.

Varu/^a, and king Mitra

protection,

attain to old

age

all

The gods

free thee

may

are

from

all

life.

from decrepitude; thou,

free

demon of

Agni, art removed from the


thee with

a mother afford him

ye gods, that he

Prayer for health and long

III, 31.
1.

As

and

Aditi,

and

evil

hostility.

disease, (and) unite

life.

(Vayu), the purifying (wind), shall free thee

2.

from misfortune, ^'akra (Indra) from evil sorcery


I
free thee from all evil and disease, (and) unite
thee with

life.

The tame

3.

wild

the

apart from

animals are separate from

(village)

animals)

(forest
thirst.

disease, (and) unite thee with


4.

go

Heaven and

free thee

disease, (and) unite thee with


5.

'

Tvash/ar

is

free thee

unite thee with


6.

with

Agni
(life's)

from

all evil

(life's)

breath.

By means

and

from

all evil

and

wedding for his


whole world pass
and disease, (and)

life.

unites

breaths, the
free thee

disease, (and) unite thee with


7.

evil

life.

preparing

daughter,' thus (saying) does this

through.

all

life.

here go apart; the paths

earth

every direction.

in

from

thee

free

water has flowed

the

of

(life's)

moon

from

all

is

united

evil

and

life.

breath the gods aroused

the everywhere mighty sun.

free thee

from

all

and disease, (and) unite thee with life.


Live thou by the (life's) breath of them that
have life, and that create life do not die
I free
thee from all evil and disease, (and) unite thee with
evil

8.

life.

E 2

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

52

Breathe thou with the (Hfe's) breath of those


I free thee from all evil
do not die

9.

that breathe

disease, (and) unite thee with

and

10.

Do

thou

up with

life,

life.

unite thyself with

I free
up with the sap of the plants
and disease, (and) unite thee with

(rise)

life,

(rise)

thee from

all evil

life.
1

1.

From

immortal.

the rain of Par^anya

thee from

free

(and) unite thee with

VII,
1.

When,

all

we have
evil

and disease,

life.

Prayer for long

53.

risen up,

life.

Br/haspati, thou didst liberate (us)

from existence in yonder world of Yama, (and)


from hostile schemes, then did the A^vins, the
physicians of the gods, with might sweep death
from
2.

us,

Agni
out-breathing, go

in-breathing and

may they be thy


autumns
hundred
Live and thrive a
be thy most excellent shepherd and

with the body, do not leave


allies

Agni

here

along

shall

it

overseer
3.

Thy

has been dissipated

vital force that

thy in-breathing and thy out-breathing, shall

afar,

come

Agni has snatched them from the lap


of Nirmi (the goddess of destruction), and I again
introduce them into thy person.

back again

Let not his in-breathing desert him, nor his


out-breathing quit him and depart! I commit him
may they convey him in
to the Seven 7?/shis
4.

health to old age


5.

two

Enter,
bulls

flourish,

O
into

in-breathing and out-breathing, like

a stable

an unmolested

this

person shall

repository for old

age

here

TI.

PRAYERS FOR LONG LIFE AND HEALTH.

Life's breath

6.

! !

we do

53

drive into thee, disease

we

do drive away from thee. May this excellent Agn'i


endow us with life from every source
7. Ascending from the darkness of death to the
highest firmament, to Surya (the sun), the god
among gods, we have reached the highest light.

VIII,

Prayer for exemption from the dangers

I.

of death.
1.

To

the

May

Ender,' to Death be reverence!

'

thy in-breathing and thy out-breathing remain here

United here with


sharing in the

(life's)

sun,

spirit

man

this

the world

in

shall

be,

of immortality

(amr/ta)

Bhaga has raised him up, Soma with his rays


(has raised) him up, the Maruts, the gods, (have
raised) him up, Indra and Agni (have raised) him
2.

up unto well-being.
3.

Here

(shall be)

breathing, here thy

thee from the

toils

thy

(life's)

here thy

spirit,

in-

We

rescue

of Nir;Vti (destruction) by

means

life,

here thy mind

of our divine utterance.


4.

Rise up hence,

O man

shackles of death, do not sink

from

Casting off the foot-

down

Be not

cut off

from the sight of Agni and the sun


5. The wind, Matarii-van, shall blow for thee, the
waters shall shower amr/ta (ambrosia) upon thee,
the sun shall shine kindly for thy body
Death
this world,

do not waste away


6. Thou shalt ascend and not descend,
Life and alertness do I prepare for thee.

shall pity thee

forsooth, this

imperishable, pleasant car

O man

Mount,
then

old age thou shalt hold converse with thy family

in

! !

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

54

Thy mind

7.

appear

Do

go

shall not

thither, shall not dis-

not become heedless of the living, do

not follow the Fathers

All the gods shall preserve

thee here

Do

8.

not long after the departed,

(men) afar
light

9.

We

who conduct

Ascend from the darkness, come

to the

lay hold of thy hands.

The two dogs

of

Yama,

the

black and the

brindled one, that guard the road (to heaven), that

have been despatched, shall not (go after) thee


Come hither, do not long to be away; do not tarry
here with thy mind turned to a distance
10.

Do

not follow this path:

of that by which

Darkness
is

is this,

thou

it is

hast

terrible

not

speak

hitherto

man, do not enter

it

gone.

Danger

beyond, security here for thee.


11.

May

the

that

fires

guard thee, may (the

fire)

thee,

may

to

men) guard thee

all

are

within

which

men

G'atavedas Vai-rvanara (the


!

the

waters

kindle guard
fire

common

Let not the heavenly

(fire)

together with the lightning burn thee


12.

thee:

Let not the flesh-devouring (fire) menace


move afar from the funeral pyre! Heaven

guard thee, the earth shall guard thee, the sun


and moon shall guard thee, the atmosphere shall
guard thee against the divine missile
13. May the alert and the watchful divinities
guard thee, may he that sleeps not and nods not
guard thee, may he that protects and is vigilant
guard thee
14. They shall guard thee, they shall protect
thee.
Reverence be to them. Hail be to them
15. Into converse with the living Vayu, Indra,
Dhatar, and saving Savitar shall put thee
breath
shall

PRAYERS FOR LONG LIFE AND HEALTH.

11.

55

Thy (life's)
and strength shall not leave thee
spirit do we call back to thee.
16. Convulsions that draw the jaws together,
darkness, shall not come upon thee, nor (the demon)
!

that tears out the tongue

waste away

(?)

How

The Adityas and

shalt thou then

Vasus, Indra and

Agni shall raise thee up unto well-being

The

17.

heavens,

The

rescued thee.

the

Pra^apati, have

earth,

plants with

Soma

their king

have delivered thee from death.


1 8.
Let this man remain right here, ye gods, let
him not depart hence to yonder world We rescue
him from death with (a charm) of thousandfold
!

strength.
19.

have delivered

from

thee

death.

The

(powers) that furnish strength shall breathe upon


thee.
The (mourning women) with dishevelled
lugubriously,

they that wail

hair,

shall

not wail

over thee
20.

have snatched thee (from death),

obtained thee

youth.

It

have

thou

thou, that art (now) sound of limb, for

thee sound sight, and sound


21.

hast returned with renewed

has shone

upon

life

have

thee,

light

obtained.

has arisen,

darkness has departed from thee. We remove from


thee death, destruction, and disease.

VIII,

Prayer for exemption from the dangers

2.

of death.
I.

Take hold

immortality

may

thy

life

that

subjects to

unto old age not be

anew breath and life: go


mist and darkness, do not waste away

cut off!

not to

(life),

of this (charm)

bring to thee

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

56
2.

Come

hither to the Hght of the Hving;

thee unto a Hfe of a hundred autumns

rescue

Loosing the

bands of death and imprecation, I bestow upon thee


long hfe extended very far.
3. From the wind thy breath I have obtained,
from the sun thine eye thy soul I hold fast in thee
be together with thy limbs, speak articulating with
thy tongue
4. With the breath of two-footed and four-footed
creatures I blow upon thee, as on Agni when he is
born (as on fire when kindled). I have paid rever:

ence,
5.

death, to thine eye, reverence to thy breath.

This (man)

rouse this

man

shall live

(to life)

death, do not slay the


6.

The

plant ^ivala

and

shall not die

make
man

('

we

him a remedy

for

quickening

na-gha-risha

'),

('living'), a victo'), and ^vanti


mighty saviour-plant do I invoke, that he may
be exempt from injury.
7. Befriend him, do not seize him, let him go,
(O death) though he be thy very own, let him
abide here with unimpaired strength
O Bhava and
('

forsooth-no-harm

rious,

K^arva, take pity, grant protection

away, and
8.

life

bestow

misfortune drive

Befriend him, death, and pity him

here arise!

Unharmed, with sound

may he from

limbs, hearing

through old age carrying a hundred years,


him get enjoyment by himself (unaided)
9. The missile of the gods shall pass thee by

perfectly,
let

1
I

pass thee across the mist (of death)

have rescued

thee.

Removing

devouring Agni, a barrier do


that thou mayest live.
10.

From

set

far

from death
the

around

flesh-

thee,

thy misty road that cannot be withstood.

PRAYERS FOR LONG LIFE AND HEALTH.

II.

death, from this path (of thine)

(man), and

57

we guard

this

make our charm a

protection for him.


In-breathing and out-breathing do I prepare
for thee, death in old age, long life, and prosperity.
11.

All the messengers of

Yama,

Arati

12.

(grudge),

roam about,

that

patched by Vivasvant's son, do

Nirmi

dis-

drive away.

Grahi

(destruction),

and the flesh-devouring Pi^aZ'as (do we


drive) away to a distance, and hurl all wicked
Rakshas away into darkness as it were.
(seizure),

13.

crave thy

life's

breath from the immortal,

Agni C'atavedas.

life-possessing

That thou

shalt

in (Agni's)

com-

not take harm, shalt be immortal


pany, that do
fulfilled for

procure for thee, and that shall be

thee

May heaven and

14.

earth, the bestowers of hap-

be auspicious and harmless to thee may


the sun shine, and the wind blow comfort to thy
heart may the heavenly waters, rich in milk, flow
upon thee kindly!
piness,

15.

May the

plants be auspicious to thee!

raised thee from the lower to the upper earth

may

I
:

have
there

both the Adityas, the sun and the moon, pro-

tect thee.

Whatever garment

for clothing, or whatever


thou makest for thyself, agreeable to thy
body do we render it not rough to thy touch shall
it be
16.

girdle

7.

When

thou, the barber, shearest with thy sharp

well-whetted razor our hair and beard, do not, while


cleansing our face, rob us of our

life

Rice and barley shall be auspicious to thee,


causing no balasa, inflicting no injury
They two
18.

drive

away

disease, they

two release from calamity.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

58
19.

Whatever thou

eatest or drinkest, the grain

of the plough-land or milk, whatever

is

or

not to

is

be eaten, all that food do I render for thee free


from poison.
20. To day and to night both do we commit thee
from the demons that seek to devour, do ye preserve
:

this

me

(man) for

hundred years, ten thousand years, two,


three, four ages (yuga) do we allot to thee
Indra
and Agni, and all the gods without anger shall
21.

favour thee
22.

To autumn
;

23.

Death

From

rescue thee

in

rules over bipeds,

quadrupeds.

do

and summer,
which grow the plants

thee, to winter, spring

do we commit the rains


shall be pleasant to thee

death rules over

that death, the lord of cattle,

do not fear

Free from harm thou shalt not die


thou
do not fear
Verily, they do not
die there, they do not go to the nethermost dark24.

shalt not die

ness

25. Verily,

every creature lives there, the cow,

the horse, and man, where this charm


as the (protecting) barrier for
26.

May

it

27.

From

performed,

life.

preserve thee from sorcery, from thy

equals and thy kin


ingly vital

is

Undying

be, immortal, exceed-

thy spirits shall not abandon thy body


the one and a hundred deaths, from

the dangers that are surmountable, from that Agni


Vaij^vanara (the funeral pyre

?)

may

the gods deliver

thee
28. Thou, the remedy called putudru, art the body
of Agni, the deliverer, slayer of Rakshas, slayer of
rivals,

moreover thou chasest away

disease.

PRAYERS FOR I-ONG LIFE AND HEALTH.

II.

59

Prayer for exemption from disease and

V, 30.

death.

From

1.

near thy vicinity, from near thy distance

remain here, do not follow


do not
Firmly do I fasten thy
follow the Fathers of yore
(do

call)

life's
2.

breath.

Whatever sorcery any kinsman or stranger has

practised against thee, both release and deliverance

with
3.

my

man

with
4.

voice do

declare for thee.

woman

thou hast deceived or cursed a

If

in

my
If

thy

thou

both release and deliverance

folly,

voice do

or

declare for thee.

liest (ill) in

consequence of a sin com-

mitted by thy mother or thy father, both release

and deliverance with

my

voice

do

declare for

thee.
5.

Fight shy of the medicine which thy mother

and thy

and thy brother

father, thy sister

against thee

shall

out

let

cause thee to live unto old

age!
6.

Remain

here,

man, with thy entire soul

not follow the two messengers of

Yama

come

do
to

the abodes of the living


7.

Return when

called,

knowing the

outlet of the

path (death), the ascent, the advance, the road of

every living
8.

Fear

man

not,

thou shalt not die

thee to live unto old age

shall

cause

have charmed away

from thy limbs the disease that wastes the limbs.


9. The disease that racks and wastes thy limbs,
and the sickness in thy heart, has flown as an eagle
to a far distance,

overcome by

my

charm.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

60

The two

10.

sages Alert and Watchful, the sleep-

less

and the

life's

breath, are

1 1.

Agni here

here for thee

these two guardians of thy

vigilant,

awake both day and


is

rise

to

be revered

night.

the sun shall rise

thou from deep death, yea from

black darkness

Reverence be

12.

to

Yama, reverence

to death;

reverence to the Fathers and to those that lead

(to

them) [death's messengers ?] That Agni who knows


the way to save do I engage for this man, that he
be exempt from harm
13. His breath shall come, his soul shall come,
!

his sight shall come, and, too, his strength

body
upon

shall

collect itself:

His

then shall he stand firm

his feet

Unite him, Agni, with breath and

14.

vide him with a body and with


hast a knowledge of immortality
depart, let

sight, pro-

Thou
him not now

strength
:

let

him not now become a dweller

in a

house

of clay
15.

Thy

in-breathing

breathing shall

supreme

not cease, thy out-

shall

not vanish

lord, shall raise thee

Surya (the sun), the


from death with his

rays
16.

This tongue

(of mine),

bound

(in the

mouth,

yet) mobile, speaks within


with it I have charmed
away disease, and the hundred torments of the
takman (fever).
:

This world

most dear to the gods, unconquered.


For whatever death thou wast destined
when thou wast born, O man, that (death) and we
call after thee
do not die before old age
1

7.

is

IV,

II.

PRAYERS FOR LONG LIFE AND HEALTH.

9.

Salve (a;7^ana) as a protector of

life

and

limb.
1.

Come

Thou

hither!

art the living, protecting

eye-ointment of the mountain, given by


as a safeguard, unto
2.

Thou

for cattle,

all

the gods

life.

art a protection

men, a protection

for

thou didst stand for the protection of

horses and steeds.

Thou

both a protection that


crushes the sorcerers, and thou hast knowledge of
3.

art,

salve,

immortality (amr/ta).
the

living,

Moreover, thou art food for

and thou

art,

too,

remedy against

jaundice.
4.

From him over whose every limb and every

joint thou passest,


intercepter, drive
5.

Him

salve, thou dost, as a

away

disease.

that bears thee,

salve, neither curse,

nor sorcery, nor burning pain does reach


the vishkandha

mighty

nor does

come upon him.

From

evil scheme, from troubled dream, from


and also from foulness from the evil eye
of the enemy, from this protect us, O salve
7. Knowing this, O salve, I shall speak the truth,
avoid falsehood.
May I obtain horses and cattle,
and thy person, O serving-man
8. Three are servants of the salve
the takman
(fever), the balasa, and the serpent.
The highest
of the mountains, Trikakud (' Three-peaks ') by
name, is thy father.
9. Since the salve of Trikakud is born upon the
Himavant, it shall demolish all the wizards and all
6.

evil deed,

the witches.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

62

lo. Whether thou art derived from the (mountain)


Trikakud, or art said to come from the (river)

Yamuna, both these names of


with these,

IV, 10.

The

pearl

and

bestowing long
1.

ning,

thine are auspicious

salve, protect us

its

life

shell as

an amulet

and prosperity.

Born of the wind, the atmosphere, the lightand the light, may this pearl shell, born of

gold, protect us from straits


2.

With

the shell which was born in the sea, at

the head of bright substances,

we

Rakshas
and conquer the Atrins (devouring demons).
shell (we conquer) disease and
3. With the
slay the

poverty; with the

shell, too, the Sadanvas.


The
our universal remedy; the pearl shall protect us from straits

shell

is

Born in the heavens, born


on from the river (Sindhu), this
4.

is

in

the sea, brought

shell,

born of gold,

our life-prolonging amulet.

5. The amulet, born from the sea, a sun, born


from Vmra (the cloud), shall on all sides protect
us from the missiles of the gods and the Asuras

Thou

one of the golden substances, thou


art born from Soma (the moon).
Thou art sightly
on the chariot, thou art brilliant on the quiver.
[May it prolong our lives !]
7. The bone of the gods turned into pearl
that,
6.

art

animated, dwells

in

the waters.

That do

fasten

upon thee unto life, lustre, strength, longevity, unto


a life lasting a hundred autumns.
May the (amulet)
of pearl protect thee

PRAYERS FOR LONG LIFE AND HEALTH.

II.

XIX,
1.

The

Gold as an amulet

26.

gold which

is

born from

2.

deserves

it

for long

fire,

they bestowed upon the mortals.


this

of old age dies he

63

life.

the immortal,

He who knows
who wears it.

The

gold, (endowed by) the sun with beautiful


which the men of yore, rich in descendants,

colour,

did desire,

may

it

gleaming envelop thee


who wears it

in lustre

Long-lived becomes he
3.

(May

lustre,

it

envelop) thee unto (long)

life,

unto

unto force, and unto strength, that thou shalt

by the

brilliancy of the

gold shine forth

among

people
4. (The gold) which king Varu/^a knows, which
god Br/haspati knows, which Indra, the slayer of
Vrttra., knows, may that become for thee a source
of life, may that become for thee a source of lustre
!

!!

III.

IMPRECATIONS AGAINST DEMONS, SORCERERS,


AND ENEMIES (ABHIA'ARIKANI AND
K;?7TYAPRATIHARAA^ANI).
I,

1.

7.

The

Against sorcerers and demons.

sorcerer (yatudhana) that vaunts himself,

and the Kimidin do thou, O Agni, convey hither


For thou, O god, when lauded, becomest the destroyer of the demon.
2.

Partake of the ghee, of the sesame-oil,

6'atavedas,
thyself!
3.

The

Agni
conquerest by

the sorcerers howl

and the devouring

sorcerers

howl

din shall

on high,

standest

that

Make

Do

(atrin)

moreover,

ye,

Kimi-

Agni and

Indra, receive graciously this our oblation

Agni

be the first to seize them, Indra


with his (strong) arms shall drive them away
Every wizard, as soon as he comes, shall proclaim
himself, saying, I am he
dis5. We would see thy might, O 6^atavedas
4.

shall

'

'

close to us the wizards,

May

they

all,

themselves,
6.

make
7.

come

Seize hold,

wast born

thou that beholdest

driven forth by thy

fire,

men

disclosing

to this spot

Catavedas

for our

Become our messenger,

good thou
Agni, and

the sorcerers howl

Do

bound

in

thou,

shackles

shall cut off their

Agni, drag hither the sorcerers,


then Indra with his thunderbolt

heads

!!

IMPRECATIONS AGAINST DEMONS, ETC.

III.

I, 8.

May

1.

65

Against sorcerers and demons.

this oblation carry hither the sorcerers, as

a river (carries) foam

who has performed

The man

woman

or the

person shall

this (sorcery), that

here proclaim himself!

This vaunting (sorcerer) has

2.

receive him with alacrity


subjection

into

come

hither:

Br/haspati, put

Agni and Soma,

pierce

him
him

throuo^h

Slay the offspring of the sorcerer,

3.

somaMake drop

drinklng (Indra), and subject (him)!

out the farther and the nearer eye of the braggart

(demon)

Agni 6^atavedas, thou perceivest


(atrin), do thou,
mightily strengthened by our charm, slay them slay
their (brood), O Agni, piercing them a hundredfold!
Wherever,

4.

the brood of these hidden devourers

I,

Charm

16.

with lead, against

demons and

sorcerers.

Against the devouring demons who, in the


night of the full-moon, have arisen in throngs, may
Agni, the strong, the slayer of the sorcerers, give us
1.

courapfe

To

2.

the lead Varu;^a gives blessing, to the lead

Agni gives
ingly
3.

it

Indra gave

help.

This

(lead)

have overwhelmed
If
[42]

the lead

unfail-

overcomes the vishkandha,

smites the devouring

4.

me

dispels sorcery.

all

demons

(atrin)

the brood of the

thou slayest our cow,


F

if

this

with this

Pi^a/C'as.

our horse or our

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

66

we

domestic,

pierce thee with the lead, so that thou

shalt not slay our heroes.

VI,

The

2.

soma-oblation directed against

demons

(rakshas).

Press the soma, ye priests, and rinse

1.

renewed

pressing),

behalf of Indra

in

who

to the song of the worshipper, and

listen

(for

it

shall

my

to

call
2.

of

Do

thou,

doughty

brood of the Rakshas

who
ruler

soma

Press ye the

for Indra, the soma-drinker,

Charm

against a variety of female demons,

conceived as hostile to men,


1.

Nissala,

sha/^a),

the bold, the

and (the

the Sadanvas do

We

(of the

cattle,

and home.

greedy demon

dhi-

(?

female demon) with long-drawn

howl, the bloodthirsty

2.

youthful victor and

by many men.

he, praised

II, 14.

the drops

wields the thunderbolt


is

whom

enter as birds a tree, beat off the hostile

soma
3.

(Indra),

we

the daughters of K^nd^.,

all

destroy.

drive you out of the stable, out of the axle

wagon), and the body of the wagon

chase you,

we

ye daughters of Magundi, from the

house.
3.

In yonder house below, there the grudging

demons
and

all

(arayi) shall exist

the witches

there ruin shall prevail,

4. May (Rudra), the lord of beings, and Indra,


drive forth from here the Sadanvas those that are
seated on the foundation of the house Indra shall
;

overcome with

his thunderbolt

IMPRECATIONS AGAINST DEMONS, ETC.

III.

Whether ye belong to

6/

demons) of inherited
whether ye have been dispatched by men,
or whether ye have originated from the Dasyus
(demon-like aborigines), vanish from here, O ye
Sadanvas
5.

(the

disease,

About

6.

dwelling-places

their

did

swiftly

on a race-course. I have won all


contests with you
vanish from here, O ye Sadanvas
course,

as

if

Against vishkandha and kabava

Ill, 9.

(hostile

demons).
1.
Of kari'apha and vi^-apha heaven is the father
and earth the mother.
As, ye gods, ye have
brought on (the trouble), thus do ye again re-

move

it

Without fastening they (the protecting plants?)


held fast, thus it has been arranged by Manu.
The
vishkandha do I render impotent, like one who
2.

gelds
3.

cattle.

talisman tied to a reddish thread the active

(seers) then

do fasten on

impotent the eager,

fiery

may

the fastenings render

kabava

since, O ye eager (demons), ye walk like


4.
gods by the wile of the Asuras, the fastening (of the

And

amulet)

is

destructive to the kabava, as the ape to

the dog.
5.

revile thee,

the

kabava,

unto misfortune,

work harm for thee. Accompanied with


curses ye shall go out like swift chariots
6. A hundred and one vishkandha are spread out
(and) shall

along the earth


for these at the beginning they
brought out thee, the amulet, that destroys vi;

shkandha.
F 2

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

68

Charm

IV, 20.

with a certain plant (sada?;2pushpa)

which exposes demons and enemies.

He

1.

sees here, he sees yonder, he sees in the

he sees

distance,

as the earth,

The

2.

six

through thee,

Thou

eagle

goddess, he sees.

severally

art

all

into

creatures

may

see

divine plant
verily

of

eyeball

the

the

divine

thou didst ascend the earth as a weary

woman a palanquin.
4. The thousand-eyed god

my

atmosphere as well

sky, the

three heavens, the three earths, and these

directions

3.

the

all that,

right

hand

shall

with that do

put this plant


see every one,

the KS"udra as well as the Arya.

Reveal (all) forms, do not hide thy own self;


moreover, do thou, O thousand-eyed (plant), look
the Kimidins in the face
the
6. Reveal to me the wizards, and reveal
purpose
do
for
this
Pii-a/'as
all
reveal
the
witches,
5.

take hold of thee,

plant

eye of Ka^-yapa, and the eye of


7. Thou
Like the sun, moving in the
the four-eyed bitch.
Visaka. evident to me
the
thou
day,
make
bright
8. I have dragged out from his retreat the sorThrough this (charm) do I
cerer and the Kimidin.
art the

see every one, the ^'udra as well as the Arya.


9.

Him

that

flies in

the

air,

him that moves across

the sky, him that regards the earth as his resort,


that

Pi^a/('a

do thou reveal

(to

me)

III.

IV,

17.

IMPRECATIONS AGAINST DEMONS, ETC.

Charm

We

69

take hold,

mistress of remedies.

and enemies.

victorious one, of thee, the


I

have made thee a thine


o of

thousandfold strength for every one,

plant

Her, the unfailingly victorious one, that wards


is powerful and defensive
(her and)

2.

off curses, that

the plants have

all

with the apamarga-plant, against

sorcery, demons,
1.

shall save us

from

assembled, intending that she

this (trouble)

3. The woman who has cursed us with a curse, who


has arranged dire misfortune (for us), who has taken
hold of our children, to rob them of their strength

may

she eat (her own) offspring

The magic

which they have put into the


unburned vessel, that which they have put into the
blue and red thread, that which they have put into
raw flesh, with these slay thou those that have
prepared the spell
4.

spell

Evil dreams, troubled

life, Rakshas, gruesomeand grudging demons (arayi), all the evilnamed, evil-speaking (powers), these do we drive
out from us,
6. Death from hunger, and death from thirst,
poverty in cattle, and failure of offspring, all that,
O apamarga, do we wipe out (apa mr/^mahe) with

5.

ness,

thee.
7.

Death from

moreover,

thirst,

and death from hunger,


O apamarga, do

ill-luck at dice, all that,

we wipe out with thee.


8. The apamarga is sole ruler over all plants,
with it do we wipe mishap from thee do thou then
:

live

exempt from disease

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

-O

IV,

with the apamarga-plant, against

Charm

8.

sorcerers and demons.


1.

Night

is

unto the sun, the (starry) night is


The truth do I engage for help:

like

similar to day.

the enchantments shall be devoid of force


ye gods, who prepares a spell, and
2. He,

carries

it

to the

upon him the

house of one that knows not (of

it),

spell, returning, shall fasten itself like

a suckling calf

upon

its

mother

person that prepares evil at home, and


desires with it to harm another, she is consumed by
a loud
fire, and many stones fall upon her with
3.

The

crash.

Bestow curses, O thou (apamarga), that hast


a thousand homes, upon the (demons) vi^Ikha
and vigriva ('crooked-neck')! Turn
(' crestless '),
back the spell upon him that has performed it, as
a beloved maid (is brought) to her lover
put to naught all spells,
5. With this plant I have
4.

those that they have put into thy


and into thy domestics.
6.

He

that has undertaken

thy

cattle,

them has not been

he broke his foot, his toe.


performed a lucky act for us, but for himself

able to accomplish

He

field,

them

an injury.
7.

The

apamarga-plant

shall

wipe

out

(apa

marsh/u) inherited ills, and curses; yea, it shall


wipe out all witches, and all grudging demons
(arayi)

Having wiped out

all

ing demons, with thee,

8.

that (evil) out.

and all grudgapamarga, we wipe all

sorcerers,

IMPRECATIONS AGAINST DEMONS, ETC.

III.

IV,

Mystic power of the apamarga-plant,

19.

against
1.

On

demons and

sorcerers.

the one hand thou deprivest of kin, on the

other thou

now

Do

procurest kinfolk.

him

over, cut the offspring- of

that practises spells,

as a reed that springs up in the rain


2.

By

Brahma;^a thou

been

hast

a strong

army

plant, there there


3.

Thou

is

where thou hast

no

by

blest,

Thou

Ka;^va, the descendant of Nr/shad.


like

thou, more-

o-oest

arrived,

fear.

goest at the head of the plants, spread-

ing lustre, as

with a

if

light.

Thou

on the one

art

hand the protector of the weak, on the other the


slayer of the Rakshas.
4.

When

of yore, in the beginning, the gods drove

out the Asuras with thee, then.

begotten as apamarga
5.

Thou

('

wiping out

plant, thou

wast

').

cuttest to pieces (vibhindatt),

and hast

a hundred branches; vibhindant ('cutting to pieces')


is thy father's name.
Do thou (turn) against, and
cut

to

pieces (vi bhindhi)

him that

is

hostile to-

wards us
6. Non-being arose from the earth, that goes to
heaven, (as) a great expansion.
Thence, verily,
that,

spreading vapours, shall turn against the per-

former (of spells)


7.

Thou

which

is

curses,
8.

didst

grow backward, thou hast

turned backward.

ward

Protect

off

very

me

Ward

far destructive

off

weapons

with a hundredfold, guard

a thousandfold (strength)!

put strength into thee,

fruit

me

from

all

me

with

Indra, the strong, shall

prince of plants

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

72

Charm

VII, 65.
curses,

with the apamarga-plant, against

and the consequences of

sinful deeds.

With fruit turned backward thou


grow, O apamarga
do thou drive all
far away from here
1.

verily didst

curses quite

2. The evil deeds and foul, or


the sinful acts
which we have committed, with thee, O apamarga,
whose face is turned to every side, do we wipe them

out (apa m?'?^mahe).


3.

If

we have

sat

formed, with thee,

who has
who is de-

together with one

black teeth, or diseased

nails,

or one

apamarga, we wipe

that

all

out (apa mr/^mahe).

X,
1.

I.

The

bride

Charm
(spell)

for

the

to repel sorceries or spells.

which they skilfully prepare, as


wedding, the multiform (spell),

fashioned by hand, shall go to a distance


it

we

drive

away
2.

The

(spell) that

has been brought forward by

endowed with
head, endowed with nose, endowed with ears, and
multiform, shall go to a distance we drive it away
3. (The spell) that has been prepared by a ^'lidra,
prepared by a Ra^a, prepared by a woman, prepared
by Brahmans, as a wife rejected by her husband,
shall recoil upon her fabricator, (and) his kin
4. With this herb have I destroyed all spells, that

the fashioner of the spell, that

is

which they have put into thy field, into thy cattle,
and into thy men.
5. Evil be to him that prepares evil, the curse shall
recoil

upon him

that utters curses

back do we hurl

IMPRECATIONS AGAINST DEMONS, ETC.

III.

it

against him, that

it

may

!:

him

slay

73

that fashions

the spell.
Prati/v'ina

6.

('

Back-hurler

the

'),

descendant of

is our overseer and officiator (purohita)


do thou drive back again (prati/i/z) the spells, and
slay yonder fashioners of the spells
go on
7. He that has said to thee (the spell)

Angiras,

'

'

upon that enemy,

spell

He

8.

that antagonist do thou turn,


do not seek out us, that are harmless
that has fitted together thy joints with

wagoner (I^zhhu) the

as the

skill,

to

him

go, there

is

thy course

joints of a chariot,

this

person here

remain unknown to thee


9. They that have prepared thee and taken hold
this is what cures it,
of thee, the cunning wizards
shall

it back the opposite way


do we bathe thee.
10. Since we have come upon the wretched (spell),
as upon (a cow) with a dead calf, flooded away (by
a river), may all evil go away from me, and may

destroys the spell, drives

with

it

possessions
11.

come

to

me

If (thy enemies)

have made

Fathers, or have called thy

may

name

(offerings) to

thy

at the sacrifice,

these herbs free thee from every indigenous

evil
12.

From

the sin of the gods, and that of the

from mentions of (thy) name, from (evil


schemes) concocted at home, may the herbs free
thee with might, through (this) charm, (and these)

fathers,

stanzas, (that are) the milk of the T^/shis


13.

As

the wind stirs up the dust from the earth,

and the cloud from the atmosphere, thus may all


misfortune, driven by my charm, go away from me!
14.

Stride

away (O

spell),

like a loudly

braying

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

74

been loosened (from the tether)


reach those that have fabricated thee, driven from
here by (my) forceful charm
This is the way, O spell,' with these words
15.
do we lead thee. Thee that hast been sent out

she-ass, that has

'

against us do

we send back

Go

again.

this

way

crushing army, with heavy carts, thou that art


multiform, and crowned by a crest (?)!

like a

In the distance there

16.

ward there

is

thy course

no road

is

for thee

light for thee, hither-

away from us take

By another road

cross thou ninet)'

navigable streams, hard to cross!

Do

not injure,

go away
17.

As

down and

the wind the trees, crush

fell

(the enemy), leave

them neither cow, nor horse, nor


Turn from here upon those that
have fabricated thee, O spell, awaken them to
serving-man

childlessness
18.

The

or

spell

the

burled against thee in the


In

the

field,

superior

(or)

skill

thee, that art

hold

in

magic which they have


straw (barhis).

sacrificial

the burial-ground, or

they have

if

with

practised sorcery against

simple and innocent, in thy house-

fire,

The

hostile, insidious instrument which they


have brought hither has been discovered that which
has been dug In we have detected.
It shall go
whence It has been brought hither there, like a
horse, it shall disport itself, and slay the offspring of
him that has fashioned the spell
20. Swords of good brass are in our house
we
19.

know how many


to

rise,

joints thou hast,

go away from hence

seekest thou here

O spell Be sure
O stranger, what
!

feet

1.
:

IMPRECATIONS AGAINST DEMONS, ETC.

III.

75

hew off, O spell, thy neck, and thy


run away
May Indra and Agni, to whom
shall

belong the children (of men), protect us


22. King Soma, who guards and pities

us,

and

the lords of the beings shall take pity on us


23.

May Bhava and

^'arva cast the lightning, the

upon him that performs evil, fashions


a spell, and does wrong
24. If thou art come two-footed, (or) four-footed,
prepared by the fashioner of the spell, multiform,
do thou, having become eight-footed, again go away
divine missile,

from here,

misfortune

25. Anointed, ornamented, and well equipped, go


away, carr) ing every misfortune
Know, O spell,
!

thy maker, as a daughter her


26.

Go

away,

own

father

do not stand

spell,

enemy) as a wounded (animal)


game, thou the hunter he is not able
down.
(the

still,

He

track
is

the

to put thee

27. Him that first hurls (the arrow), the other,


laying on in defence, slays with the arrow, and while
the first deals the blow, the other returns the blow.

Hear, verily, this speech of mine, and then


return whence thou earnest, against the one that
28.

fashioned thee

Slaughter of an innocent is heinous, O spell


slay our cow, horse, or serving-man!
Wherever thou hast been put down, thence thee do
29.

do

not

we remove.
30.

If ye are

by a net

lighter than a leaf!

enveloped

we tear

back again
31.

Be

in darkness,

all spells

covered as

if

out from here, send them

him that fashioned them.


The offspring of them that fashion the

spell,

spell,

to

practise magic, or plot against us, crush thou,

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

76

leave none of them

Slay those that fashion the

spell

As

32.

the sun

is

released from darkness, abandons

the night, and the streaks of the dawn, thus every


misery, (every) device prepared by the fashioner of

the

spell, (every)

misfortune, do

leave behind, as

an elephant the dust.

V, 31.

The

Charm

to repel sorceries or spells.

which they have put for thee into an


unburned vessel, that which they have put into
mixed grain, that which they have put into raw
meat, that do I hurl back again.
2. The spell which they have put for thee into
a cock, or that which (they have put) into a goat,
into a crested animal, that which they have put into
a sheep, that do I hurl back again.
3. The spell which they have put for thee into
1.

spell

solipeds, into animals with teeth

which they have put into an

on both sides, that


do I hurl back

ass, that

again.
4.

The magic which

they have put for thee into

moveable property, or into personal possession, the


spell which they have put into the field, that do
I hurl back again.
5. The spell which evil-scheming persons have put
for thee into the garhapatya-fire, or into the housefire,

do

that which they have put into the house, that


hurl back again.

The

which they have put for thee into


the assembly-hall, that which (they have put) into
the gaming-place, that which they have put into the
dice, that do I hurl back again.
6.

spell

III.

IMPRECATIONS AGAINST DEMONS, ETC.

The

spell

']']

which they have put for thee into


the army, that which they have put into the arrow
and the weapon, that which they have put into the
7.

drum, that do

The

hurl back ag-ain.

which they have placed down for


thee in the well, or have buried in the burial-ground,
that which they have put into (thy) home, that do
I hurl back again.
8.

spell

That which they have put for thee into human


bones, that which (they have put) into the funeral
9.

consuming, burning, flesh-eating


hurl that back again.

fire,
I

to the

fire

do

By an unbeaten path he has brought it (the


hither, by a (beaten) path we drive it out from
The fool in his folly has prepared (the spell)

10.

spell)

here.

against those that are surely wise.


11.

He

that has undertaken

has not been able

it
he broke his foot, his toe.
He,
performed an auspicious act for us, that

to accomplish
luckless,

it

are lucky.

Him

12.

that fashions spells, practises magic, digs

after roots, sends out curses, Indra shall slay with

his

mighty weapon, Agni

shall pierce with his hurled

(arrow)

V,
1.

14.

An

Charm

to repel sorceries or spells.

eagle found thee out, a boar dug thee out

with his snout.

Seek thou,

that seeks to injure (us), strike

plant, to injure

down him

him

that pre-

pares spells (against us)


2.

Strike

down

the wizards, strike

prepares spells (against us)

plant,

him

down him

slay thou,

that seeks to injure us!

that

moreover,

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

78

Cutting out from the skin (of the enemy) as

3.

(from the skin) of an antelope, do ye, O gods,


fasten the spell upon him that prepares it, as (one
if

an ornament
Take hold by the hand and lead away the

fastens)
4.

spell

back to him that prepares

very presence, so that

it

shall slay

it

Place

him

it

in his

that prepares

the spell

The

5.

spells

prepares the

spells,

nounces the curse


the

wheels,

spell

upon him that


the curse upon him that protake

shall

As

effect

a chariot with easy-going


turn back upon

shall

him

that

prepares the spell

Whether a woman,

6.

pared the

spell for evil,

or whether a

we

man

has pre-

lead that spell to

him as

a horse with the halter.

Whether thou hast been prepared by the gods,


or hast been prepared by men, we lead thee back
7.

with the help of Indra as an

8.

ally.

Agni, gainer of battles, do thou gain the

With a counter-charm do we hurl back the


upon him that prepares the spell.
Hold ready, (O plant,) thy weapon, and strike

batdes
spell
9.

him, slay the very one that has prepared (the spell)

We

do not whet thee for the destruction of him that

has not practised


10.

Go

(spells).

as a son to his father, bite like an adder

that has been stepped upon.


to him that prepares the
comes his fetters
11.

Return thou, O spell,


as one who over-

spell,

the shy deer, the antelope, goes out to

As

the mating (buck), thus the spell shall reach

prepares
12.

him

that

it!

Straighter than an arrow

may

it

(the spell) fly

IMPRECATIONS AGAINST DEMONS, ETC.

III.

against him,

ye heaven and earth


take hold again of him that prepares
of his rame
Like

13.

fire

of obstacles,

may

it,

70

that spell

as (a hunter)

(the spell) shall progress in the teeth

water along its course


As a
chariot with easy-going wheels the spell shall turn
back upon him that prepares the spell

VIII,

5.

man

Prayer for protection addressed to a


made from wood of the sraktya-tree.

This

1.

like

attacking

fastened upon the

talisman,

man

it

is

man,

(itself)
full

talis-

is

of force, slays

makes heroes of men, furnishes


provides good luck,
enemies,

shelter,

This talisman slays enemies, makes strong

2.

men,

is

powerful, lusty, victorious, strong

as a

man

advances against sorceries and destroys them.


3. With this talisman Indra slew Vmra, with it
he, full of device, destroyed the Asuras, with it
he
conquered both the heaven and earth, with it he
conquered the four regions of space.
it

This talisman of sraktya

4.

With might
us on
5.

all

assails

controlling the enemies,

sides

Agni has

it

and

attacks.

shall protect

said this,

and Soma has said

Brzhaspati, Savitar, Indra (have said)

this.

this

These

divine purohitas (chaplains) shall turn back for me


(upon the sorcerer) the sorceries with ao-oressive

amulets
6.

day,

have interposed heaven and earth, also the


and also the sun. These divine purohitas

(chaplains) shall turn

back for

me

(upon the sorcerer)

the sorceries with agorressive amulets

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

8o
7.

(For)

8.

make an armour

the folk that

tahsman of sraktya
it subjects and beats

like the

off the sorceries.

With the amulet of sraktya,

powerful

spirit,

of the

sun ascending the sky,

have gained

as

if

with a seer of

all battles, I

slay the

enemies, the Rakshas.

The

9.

come from the Ahgiras, the


come from the Asuras, the sorceries

sorceries that

sorceries that

that prepare themselves,

by

and those that are prepared


go away to a distance

others, both these shall

across ninety navigable streams

As an armour upon him

10.

the gods shall

tie

the

amulet, Indra, Vish;^u, Savitar, Rudra, Agni, Pra^apati, Paramesh/Z/in, Vira^, Vaii'vanara,

and the seers all.

of

Thou art the most superb of plants, as if a


among the cattle, as if a tiger among beasts
(The amulet) that we did seek, that have
prey.

we

found, a guardian at our side.

11.

steer

12.

He

that wears this talisman, verily

a lion as well, and, too, a bull

is

moreover a

tiger,

curtailer

of enemies.
13.

Him

slay

not the

dharvas, nor mortal

men

Apsaras,
all

nor the Gan-

regions does he rule,

that wears this talisman.


14.

Ka.Tyapa has created thee, Kai"yapa has pro-

Indra wore thee in human (battle)


duced thee.
wearing thee in the close combat he conquered.
The orods did make the talisman an armour of
;

thousandfold strength.
15.

wM*th

He

that plans to

harm thee with

(unholy) consecrations and sacrifices

thou back,

sorceries,

him beat

Indra, with thy thunderbolt that hath

a hundred joints
16.

This talisman verily does

assail, full

of might.

! !

IMPRECATIONS AGAINST DEMONS, ETC.

III.

Offspring and wealth

victorious.

it

shall

protect,

provide defence, abound in luck!


1

Remove our enemies

7.

our enemies

enemies
(east)

in

the north

the west

in

light,

the south, remove

in

remove,

Indra, our

hero, place in front

of us

18. An armour for me be heaven and earth, an


armour day, an armour the sun
An armour for me
be Indra and Agni Dhatar shall bestow (dadhatu)
an armour upon me
19. The armour of Indra and Agni, that is thick
and strong, all the gods united do not pierce. This
great (armour) shall protect my body on all sides,
that I may obtain long life, and reach old age
20. The divine talisman has ascended upon me
unto complete exemption from injury. Assemble
!

about

post that protects the body, furnishes

this

threefold defence, in order to (secure) strength

Into

21.

Indra

it

ye,

life

lasting a

shall

manliness:

deposit

gods, assemble about

it

for

long

life,

do
for

hundred autumns, that he may reach

old age.
22.

May

Indra

who bestows

welfare, the lord of

the people, the slayer of Vr/tra, the controller of

enemies, he that conquereth and

is

unconquered,

the soma-drinking bull that frees from danger, fasten

the amulet upon thee

and every

X,

side,

may

it

protect thee on each

by day and by night

Praise of the virtues of an amulet

3.

derived from the vara/za-tree.


I.

Here

the rivals

is

my

with

it

vara;m-amulet, a bull that destroys

do thou close

in

upon thy enemies,

crush them that desire to injure thee


[42]

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

82

Break them, crush them, close in upon them


With
shall be thy van-guard in front
the vara;^a the Devas (gods) did ward off (avarayanta) the onslaught of the Asuras (demons) day
2.

the amulet

after day.
3.

thousand-eyed, yellow,

This

amulet

a universal cure

is

enemies

be thou the

it

golden varaua.-

shall

lay low thy

to injure those that hate

first

thee

This vara7^a will ward off (varayishyate) the


this will
spell that has been spread against thee
protect
will
this
danger,
human
from
protect thee
4.

thee from
5.

all evil

This divine

(varayatai)

The

the vara;^a, shall shut out

tree,

gods, too, have shut out (avivaran)

the disease that has entered into this (man).

behold an evil
shall run an
dream as
inauspicious course; from (ominous) sneezing, and
6.

when

If

asleep

often

from the

evil

as

thou

shalt

wild

beast

shriek of a bird, this vara?^a-amulet

thee (varayishyate).
(grudge), Nirr/ti (misfortune), from
Arati
7. From
sorcery, and from danger; from death and over-

will protect

strong weapons the vara;^a will protect thee.


8. The sin that my mother, that my father, that
my brothers and my sister have committed the sin
;

that

we

(ourselves) have committed, from that this

divine tree will protect us.

my

enemies
and my (rival) kin. To untraversed gloom they have
gone they shall go to the nethermost darkness
10. (May) I (be) unharmed, with cows unharmed,
9.

Through the

vara^^a are confused

lono--lived,

amulet

with undiminished

shall

guard

me

in

men

This vara;/a-

every region (of space)

! !

IMPRECATIONS AGAINST DEMONS, ETC.

III.

This

11.

my

upon

va.r3.n2L

divine tree, shall smite asunder

breast,

my

the

83

kingly,

enemies, as Indra

the Dasyus, the Asuras (demons)

Long-lived, a hundred autumns old, do

12.

wear

kingdom and rule, cattle and strength,


bestow upon me
13. As the wind breaks with might the trees, the
lords of the forest, thus do thou break my rivals,
those formerly born, and the latter born
The
vara^^a shall watch over thee
14. As the wind and the fire consume the trees,
the lords of the forest, thus do thou consume my
rivals, those formerly born, and the latter born
The vara;/a shall watch over thee
15. As, ruined by the wind, the trees lie prostrate,
thus do thou ruin and prostrate my rivals, those
formerly born, and the latter born
The vara?^a
shall watch over thee

this vara;^a

this shall

Do

16.

thou

cut

off,

vara/^a,

before

their

appointed time and before old age, those that aim

him

to injure

reignty

As

17.

in his cattle,

and threaten

his sove-

the sun

is

resplendent, as in him brilliance

has been deposited, thus shall the amulet of vara/^a

hold fast for


sprinkle

me

me

reputation and prosperity, shall

with

brilliance,

and anoint me with

splendour

As splendour

moon, and in the sun,


the beholder of men, thus shall the amulet of vara/za
18.

hold

fast,

19.

As

&c.

splendour

vedas (the
fast,

in the

is

fire),

is

in the earth, as in this 6"ata-

thus shall the amulet of vara;^a hold

&c.

20.

As splendour

in

is

the maiden, as in this

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

84

appointed chariot, thus shall the amulet of vara;za


hold

fast,

As

21.

dour

&c.

splendour

in the

is

is

in the

honey-mixture

the amulet of vara;^a hold

As

22.

splendour

splendour
is

23.

fast,

thus shall the amulet

&c.

splendour

is

amulet of vara?2a hold

As

thus shall

&c.

in the agnihotra-oblation, as

is

in the sacrificer, as (splendour)

has been deposited in the

24.

(for guests),

fast,

in the call vasha/,

of vara;^a hold

As

soma-draught, as splen-

splendour

is

fast,

sacrifice,

thus shall the

&c.

in Pra^apati, as in this Para-

mesh//zin (the lord on high), thus shall the amulet of


vara/ea hold fast, &c.

As

25.

immortality

been deposited
vara;^a hold

X,

in the gods, as truth

has

them, thus shall the amulet of

in

&c.

fast,

Praise of the virtues of amulet of khadira-

6.

wood
1.

is

the shape of a ploughshare.

in

The head

of the hostile

that hates me, do

rival,

of the

enemy

cut off with might.

This amulet, produced by the ploughshare,


will prepare an armour for me
full of stirred drink
it has come to me, together with sap and lustre,
2.

3.

his

If the skilful

hand or with

shall purify thee

workman has

injured thee with

his knife, the living bright waters

from

that, (so that

thou shalt be)

bright
4.

faith

guest
5.

This amulet has a golden wreath, bestows


and sacrifice and might in our house as a
;

it

shall dwell

Before

it

(the

amulet as a guest) ghee, sura

;;

IMPRECATIONS AGAINST DEMONS, ETC.

III.

85

honey, and every kind of food we place.


amulet having gone to the gods shall, as a

(liquor),

The

father for his sons, plan for us ei"owine

eood more

and more day after day


6. The amulet which Br/haspati

tied, the ploughshare dripping with ghee, the strong khadira, unto
strength, that Agni did fasten on that yields him
;

ghee more and more day after day


that hate me do thou slay
Brzhaspati
7. This amulet which

with

tied

Indra did fasten on, for strength and heroism


yields him might more and more, &c.
8. The amulet which Br/haspati tied

that

that

that
did fasten on unto perfect hearing and seeing
.

Soma

those

it

that verily yields

him

lustre

more and more, &c.

9. The amulet which B/Vhaspati tied


that
Surya did fasten on, with that he conquered these
directions of space
that yields him prosperity more
and more, &c.
10. The amulet which Br/haspati tied
wearing that amulet A'andramas (the moon) conquered
the golden cities of the Asuras and the Danavas
that yields him fortune more and more, &c.
11. The amulet which Br/haspati tied for swift
Vata (wind), that yields him strength more and
.

more, &c.
12.

The amulet which

Vata, with that amulet,

plough-land
Ai-vins)
13.

Br/haspati tied for swift


A^vins, do ye guard this

that yields the

two physicians

might more and more, &c.

The amulet which

Br/haspati tied for swift

Vata, wearing that, Savitar through


this

(the

light

more, &c.

that

yields

it

conquered

him abundance more and

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

86

The amulet which

14.

Brzhaspati tied for swift

Vata, wearing that, the waters ever run undiminished


that verily yields them ambrosia more and
;

more, &c.
15.

Vata,

The amulet which BWhaspatI


that

fasten on

comforting

amulet

that verily yields

tied for swift

king Varu/^a

did

him truth more and

more, &c.
16.

The amulet which

Br/haspati tied for swift

Vata, wearing that the gods did conquer

worlds

in battle

that verily yields

all

the

them conquest

more and more, &c.


17.

The amulet which

Br/haspati tied for swift

Vata,

that

comforting amulet

the

fasten

on

that verily yields

them

did

divinities
all

more and

more, &c.
18.

The

seasons did fasten

(of the year) did fasten

fasten
19.

it

on,

The

it

it

on; the divisions

it

Since the year did

on.

guards every being.

intermediate directions did fasten

the directions did fasten

it

The amulet

on.

it

on;

created

by Pra^apati has subjected those that hate me.


20. The Atharvans did tie it on, the descendants
of the Atharvans did

tie

it

on

with these

the Angiras cleft the castles of the Dasyus.


it

those that hate

me do

allied,

With

thou slay

That Dhatar did fasten on (then) he shaped


the being. With it those that hate me do thou slay
21.

22.

The amulet which

Brzhaspati

tied

gods, destructive of the Asuras, that has

me

for the

come

to

together with sap and lustre.

23.

The amulet

has come to

me

together

with cows, goats, and sheep, together with food and


offspring.

IMPRECATIONS AGAINST DEMONS, ETC.

III.

The amulet

24.

with rice

has come to

me

87

together

and barley, together with might and pros-

perity.

The amulet

25.

has come to

me

with a stream

of honey and ghee together with sweet drink.

The amulet

26.

has come to

me

together

with nourishment and milk, together with goods and


fortune.

The amulet

27.

has come to

me

together

with brilliance and strength, together with glory and


reputation.

The amulet

28.

with

all

has come to

me

together

kinds of prosperity.

This amulet the gods shall give me unto


prosperity, the mighty amulet that strengthens
29.

sovereignty and injures the rivals

An

30.

(amulet) auspicious

shalt

upon (me), together with brahma


Free from rivals, slaying
and brilliance

fasten

31.

thou

(spiritual

exaltation)
rivals,

me

for

it

has subjected

my

rivals.

This god-born amulet, the sap milked from

which these three worlds revere,


superior to him that hates

my

me

it

shall

render

shall ascend

me

upon

head unto excellence


The amulet upon which the gods, the Fathers,
and men ever live, shall ascend upon my head unto
!

32.

excellence
33.

As

the seed grows in the

field, in

the furrow

drawn by the ploughshare, thus in me offspring,


cattle, and every kind of food shall grow up
34.

Upon whom,

sacrifice,

him,

O thou amulet that prosperest the

have fastened thee (that

art) propitious.

amulet, that yieldest a hundredfold sacrificial

reward, thou shalt inspire unto excellence

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

88

This fire-wood that has been laid on together


oblations do thou, Agni, gladly accept

35.

with the

may we
(this)

and

in this kindled 6^atavedas (fire), through


charm, find favour, well-being, offspring, sight,

cattle

Prayer to Varu;ea for protection against

IV, 16.

treacherous designs.
1.

as

if

The

He

from anear.

stealthily
2.

great guardian

If a

these (gods) sees


is

movine

the gods know.

all this

man

among

that thinketh he

if he
he goes into his hiding-place
together and scheme, king Varu/za

stands, walks, or sneaks about,

goes slinking away,

if

if

two persons

is

there as a third, and

sit

knows

it.

3. Both
and also yonder broad sky whose boundaries are far
away. Moreover these two oceans are the loins of
yea, he is hidden in this small (drop of)
Varu;^a

this earth

here belongs to king Varu;^a,

water.
4.

He

that should

flee

away would not be free


spies come hither (to the

beyond the heaven far


from king Varu/za. His
earth) from heaven, with

a thousand eyes do they watch over the earth.


5.

King Varu;m

heaven and

earth,

sees through

and

all

that

all

is

that

is

beyond.

between

He

has

counted the winkings of men's eyes. As a (winning)


gamester puts down his dice, thus does he establish
these (laws).
6.

May

all

thy fateful

toils

which, seven by seven,

threefold, lie spread out, ensnare

falsehood
let

go

him

that speaks

him that speaks the truth they shall

him,

IMPRECATIONS AGAINST DEMONS, ETC.

III.

7.

With a hundred

snares,

Varu//a, surround

the h'ar not go free from

let

men

that observest

hanging

The rogue

89

thee,

shall

sit,

thou

his belly

loose, like a cask without hoops, bursting-

about

all

8.

With

(the snare of) Varujia which

is

fastened

lengthwise, and that which

(is fastened) broadwise,


with the indigenous and the foreign, with the divine
and the human,

9. With all these snares do I fetter thee, O N. N.,


descended from N. N., the son of the woman N. N.:
all these do I design for thee.

Imprecation against enemies thwarting


holy work.

II, 12.

1. Heaven and earth, the broad atmosphere, the


goddess of the field, and the wonderful, far-striding
(Vish;m) moreover, the broad atmosphere guarded
by Vata (the wind) may these here be inflamed,
;

when
2.

va^a

am

inflamed

Hear

this,

recite for

ye revered gods

me

songs of praise

Let Bharadhe who

May

our plan be bound in the fetter (of


disease) and joined to misfortune
injures this

3.

Hear,

burning heart

soma-drinking
I

shout to thee

cleaves a tree with an axe,

Indra,
!

him

what

cleave, as

with

one

that injures this

our plan.

With

4.

(the aid of) thrice eighty saman-singers,

with (the aid of) the Adityas, Vasus, and Ahgiras

may

our father's sacrifices and gifts to the priests


aid us
do I seize this one with fateful fervour.

5.

the

May heaven and earth look after me, may all


gods support me
O ye Aiigiras, O ye fathers
!

!!

HYMxNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

90

may he who does harm

devoted to Soma,
misfortune

enter into

6. He who perchance despises us, O ye Maruts,


he who abuses the holy practice which is being
performed by us, may his evil deeds be firebrands
to him, may the heavens surround with fire the

hater of holy practices

Thy

seven in-breathings and thy eight marrows, these do I cut for thee by means of my charm.
7.

Thou

shalt

go

to the seat of

Yama,

fitly

prepared,

with Agni as thy guide


8.

set thy footstep

upon the kindled

fire.

May

Agni surround thy body, may thy voice enter

into

breath

VII,
1.

with

Frustration of the sacrifice of an enemy.

70.

Whenever yonder person


his

speech,

offers

sacrifice

may

oblations and benedictions,

and
accompanied by

in his thought,

Nirr/ti (the goddess

of destruction), allying herself with death, smite his


offering before
2.

May

his true

by

it

takes effect

sorcerers,

work with

Nirmi, as well as Rakshas, mar

error

May the

gods, despatched

Indra, scatter (churn) his sacrificial butter;

that which yonder person offers not succeed

may

3. The two agile supreme rulers, like two eagles


pouncing down, shall strike the sacrificial butter of
the enemy, whosoever plans evil against us
4. Back do I tie both thy two arms, thy mouth
I

shut.

With

the fury of

god Agni have

destroyed

thy oblation,
5.

tie

thy two arms,

fury of terrible

Agni have

shut thy mouth.


I

With

the

destroyed thy oblation.

IMPRECATIONS AGAINST DEMONS, ETC.

III.

Charm

II, 7.

against curses and hostile plots,

undertaken with a certain plant.

The

1.

god-begotten plant, hated by the wicked,

which wipes away the curses (of the enemies),


water a foul spot

has washed away

it

all

like

curses

from me.
2. The curse of the rival and the curse of the
kinswoman, the curse which the Brahman shall utter
in wrath, all that (do thou put) under our feet
3. From heaven her root is suspended, from the
with her that has a thousand
earth it rises up
shoots do thou protect us on all sides
4. Protect me, protect my offspring, protect our
goods let not ill-will overcome us, let not hostile
schemes overcome us
joint pos5. The curse shall go to the curser
Of the
session shall we have with the friend.
enemy who bewitches with (his) eye we hew off
;

the

ribs.

The

Ill, 6.

a^vattha-tree as a destroyer of

enemies.

male has sprung from a male, the a.rvattha


(ficus religiosa) from the khadira (acacia catechu).
May this slay my enemies, those whom I hate and
1.

those
2.

who

hate

me

Crush the enemies, as they rush on,

'displacer,' allied with


(allied)
3.

4.

thou didst break forth,

great flood (of the


those

Indra, the slayer of Vr/'tra,

with Mitra and Varu;^a

As

whom
Thou

O a^vattha,

air),

a^vattha, into the

thus do thou break up

hate and those

who

hate

all

me

that goest conquering as a conquering

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

92
bull,

with thee here,

a^vattha,

may we conquer

our rivals

May

goddess of destruction),
O ai-vattha, bind in the toils of death that cannot
be loosened those enemies of mine whom I hate
and who hate me
6. As thou climbest up the trees, O a^-vattha, and
5.

Nirr/ti

(the

renderest them subordinate, thus do thou split in two


the head of
7.

ship

They

my
(the

loose

cut

enemy, and overcome him


enemies) shall

from

returning again for

by the
8.

'

like

There is no
those that have been driven out
its

moorings

displacer.'

drive

my

out with

We

down

float

drive

my

them out with

mind, drive them

thought, and also with

my

incantation.

them out with a branch of the

ai^vattha-

tree.

VI, 75.

Oblation for the suppression of enemies


(nairbadhya?;^

1.

Forth from his home do

yonder,
the

who

drive that person

as a rival contends with us

devoted

oblation

broken him
2.

h.a.v'1/1).

to

through

Indra

suppression

has

to pieces.

Indra, the slayer of Vr/tra, shall drive

the remotest distance, from which in

him

to

successive

all

years he shall not again return


3.

He

shall

go beyond the

go

to the three

five

peoples

he shall
go beyond

distances,

he

shall

the three ethers, whence he shall not aeain in


successive years return, while the sun

heavens

is

all

upon the

IMPRECATIONS AGAINST DEMONS, ETC.

III.

VI,

93

Curse against one that practises hostile

;^j.

charms.
1.

The thousand-eyed

chariot has

come

curse

having-

hither, seeking out

him

yoked

his

that curses

me, as a wolf the house of him that owns sheep.


2.

Avoid

a lake

us,

curse, as a burning fire (avoids)

him

Strike here

that

curses us, as the

lightning of heaven the tree


3. He that shall curse us when we do not curse,
and he that shall curse us when we do curse, him
do I hurl to death as a bone to a dog upon the

ground.

VII,

13.

Charm

to deprive

enemies of their

strength.
1.

stars,

As

the rising sun takes

thus do

take

away the

lustre of the

away the strength of both the

women and the men that hate me.


2. As many enemies as ye are, looking out against
me, as I come on of those that hate me do I take

away the

strength, as the sun takes

of persons asleep (while

it

rises).

away the strength

IV.

CHARMS PERTAINING TO WOMEN (STRIKARMAM).


Charm

II, 36,
1.

May,

to obtain a husband.

Agni, a suitor after our

may he come

own

heart

maiden with our


May she, agreeable to suitors, charming
fortune
at festivals, promptly obtain happiness through a
husband
Agreeable to Soma, agreeable to Brahma,
2.
arranged by Aryaman, with the unfailing certainty
of god Dhatar, do I bestow upon thee good fortune,

come

to us,

to this

the acquisition of a husband.


3.

woman

This

Soma makes her


become a queen

shall obtain a

husband, since king

May

she, begetting sons,

lovely

may

she, going to her husband,

shine in loveliness
4.

As

this

comfortable cave,

furnishing a safe abode, hath

may

mals, thus

this

O Maghavan (Indra),

become pleasing

woman be

to ani-

a favourite of fortune

(Bhaga), beloved, not at odds with her husband


5.

Do

Bhaga

who
6.

thou ascend the

(fortune)

shall

full,

inexhaustible ship of

upon this bring hither the suitor

be agreeable

(to thee)

Bring hither by thy shouts,

lord of wealth,

the suitor, bend his mind towards her; turn thou the
right side of every agreeable suitor towards (her)
7.

This

gold

and bdellium,

this

balsam,

and

CHARMS PERTAINING TO WOMEN.

IV.

Bhaga

(fortune), too

95

these have prepared thee for

husbands, that thou mayest obtain the one that

is

agreeable.

Hither to thee Savitar shall lead the husband


agreeable
Do thou, O herb, bestow (him)

8.

that

is

upon her

Charm

VI, 60.

for obtaining a husband.

This Aryaman (wooer) with

1.

of hair comes hither

loosened

crest

front (of the procession),

in

seeking a husband for this spinster, and a wife for


this wifeless

man.

This maid,

2.

Aryaman, has wearied of o-oinowomen. Now shall,


Aryaman, other women go to her

to the wedding-feasts of other

without

fail,

weddinof-feast
3.

Dhatar (the creator) supports (dadhara) this


Dhatar supports the heavens, and the sun.
Dhatar furnish this spinster with a husband

earth,

May

after her

own

VI, 82.
1.

call

the

heart

Charm
name

hath come here, and


of Indra,

Vmra's

for obtaining a wife.

of
is

him that comes

arriving

slayer,

here, that

crave (the name)

the Vasava of hundred-

fold strenoth.

The road by which

the A.cvins carried away


as a bride Surya, Savitar's daughter, 'by that road,'
2.

Bhaga
wife

(fortune) told me, 'thou shalt bring here a

'

With thy wealth-procuring, great, golden hook,


Indra, husband of SslM, procure a wife for me

3.

that desireth a wife

!!

!;

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

96

VI,

Blessing for a married couple.

78.

Through

1.

may

man

this

this oblation, that causes prosperity,

flourish

anew may he excel the


him with his sap

wife

that they have brought to


2.

May

May

he excel

this

couple be

in

strength, excel in royalty

inexhaustible

in

wealth that

bestows thousandfold lustre

Tvash/ar begot (for thee) a


for her begot thee as a husband.
bestow upon you two a thousand
bestow upon you long life
3.

wife,

Tvash/ar

May

Tvash^'ar

lives,

may he

Love-charm spoken by a bridal couple.

VII, 36.

The eyes of us two shine like honey, our foreheads


gleam like ointment. Place me within thy heart
may one mind be in common to us both
Charm pronounced by

VII, 37.

the bride over

the bridegroom.
I

envelope thee

by Manu

in

(the first

garment that was produced


man), that thou shalt be mine

even discourse of other

alone, shalt not

VI, 81.

my

women

bracelet as an amulet to ensure

conception.
1.

off

A
the

holder art thou, boldest both hands, drivest

Rakshas.

An

wealth this bracelet hath become


2.

be put

bracelet,

(into

it)

of offspring and

acquirer
!

open up the womb, that the embryo

Do

thou,

limit (-setting bracelet),

CHARMS PERTAINING TO WOMEN.

IV.

him here

furnish a son, bring

97

gamaya), thou that

(a

comest here (agame)

The

3.

when she
upon this woman,

bracelet that Aditi wore,

a son, Tvash/ar shall fasten

desired
intend-

ing that she shall beget a son.

Charm

Ill, 23.

for obtaining a

son (pu;;2savanam).

That which has caused thee to miscarry do we


away from thee, that very thing do we deposit
outside of thee, away in a far place.
1.

drive

2.

Into thy

womb

male germ, as an
a man be born there,

shall enter a

arrow into a quiver


May
a son ten months old
3. A male son do thou produce, and after him
a male shall be born
Thou shalt be the mother
of sons, of those who are born, and those whom
thou shalt bear
!

4.

By

the effective seed which bulls put forth do

thou obtain a son


5.
I

be a

Pra^apati's (the

perform for thee

womb

lord of creatures)

may

milch-cow

fruitful

the

germ enter

Obtain thou, woman, a son who

work do
into thy

shall bring

prosperity to thee, and bring thou prosperity to him!


6.

The

plants

mother the

may

whose father was the sky, whose


whose root the (heavenly) ocean

earth,

those

herbs aid thee

divine

in

obtaining

a son

VI,
I.

i-ami

II.

The

for obtaining a

That, forsooth,

do we bring
[4-^]

son (pu7;2savanam).

aivattha (ficus religiosa) has mounted the

(mimosa suma)

duced.
that

Charm

then a male child was prois

the

way

to (our) wives.
II

to obtain a son

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

gS

In the male, forsooth, seed doth grow, that is


poured into the female. That, forsooth, is the way
2.

by Pra^apati.
Sinivali have fashioned
3. Pra^apati, Anumati, and
May he (Pra^apati) elsewhere afford the birth
him.
of a female, but here he shall bestow a man

to obtain a son

that has been told

VII,

An

35.

incantation to

make

woman

sterile.

1.

back,

The

Enrich

other enemies conquer with might; beat


C'atavedas, those that are not yet born!

this

gods acclaim

kingdom unto happiness, may


this

man

the

all

these hundred entrails of thine, as well as


of the thousand canals, of all these have I closed the
2.

Of

openings with a stone.


womb do I place below,
3. The upper part of the
there shall come to thee neither offspring nor birth
I

render thee sterile and devoid of offspring

do

make

VI,
1.

As

a stone

into a cover for thee.

17.

Charm

to prevent miscarriage.

this great earth conceives the

beings, thus shall thy

embryo be held

germs of the

fast, to

produce

a child after pregnancy!


2.

As

this

shall thy

after
^.

great earth

embryo be

holds

these

trees,

thus

held fast, to produce a child

pregnancy

As

this efeat earth

the peaks, thus shall thy

holds the mountains and

embryo be held

fast,

to

produce a child after pregnancy


4.

As

this great earth holds the

animals scattered

CHARMS PERTAINING TO WOMEN.

IV.

thus shall thy embryo be held

far,

99

produce

fast, to

a child after pregnancy

Charm

II.

I,

Aryaman

1.

for easy parturition,

as active hotar-priest shall utter for

the vasha/-call

thee

Pushan

May

(this)

at

the proper way, be delivered,


that she shall bring; forth

Four

2.

the earth

May

(soma-) pressing,

this

woman,

(herself) begotten in

may

her joints relax,

directions has the heaven,

and also four

(from these) the gods created the embryo.

they open her, that she shall bring forth

May Sushan open her womb do we cause


gape.
Do thou, O Susha//a, loosen the womb,

3.

to

do thou, O Bishkala, let go (the embryo)


4. Attached not at all to the flesh, nor to the fat,
not at all to the marrow, may the splotched, moist,
placenta come down to be eaten by a dog
May
!

the placenta
split

5.
I

fall

down

open thy vagina, thy womb, thy canals

separate the mother and the son, the child along

with the placenta.

As

6.

May

the placenta

the wind, as

flies

winged

birds,

old, fall

along with the placenta

fall

down

I,

34.

so do thou,

fall

down

the mind, as

flies

fly

the

embryo, ten months


!

May

the placenta

Charm

with

licorice,

to secure the love

of a woman.

This plant

1.

dig for thee.

make
2.

my

us

At

full

is

born of honey, with honey do we


art begotten, do thou

Of honey thou
of honey

the tip of

my

tongue may

have honey,

tongue's root the sweetness of honey

In

at

my

!!

power alone

my

wish

may

am

4.

than

Is

my entrance,

With my voice do
become Hke honey

departure.

honey,

sweeter than honey,

sweet as honey
speak sweet as

fuller

Mayest thou, without

licorice.

of sweetness

long for

fail,

alone, (as a bee) for a branch full of

honey

have surrounded thee with a clinging sugarremove aversion, so that thou shalt not be

5.

come up

shalt thou then be, thou shalt

Sweet as honey

3.

my

me

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

lOO

to

!!

cane, to

averse to

Charm

II, 30.

As

1.

me
to secure the love of a

the wind tears this grass from the surface

of the earth, thus do

woman,

tear thy soul, so that thou,

shalt love, shalt not

If ye,

2.

woman.

two A^vins,

together the loving pair

be averse to
shall

united

unite

me
and bring

are the fortunes of

both of you (lovers), united the thoughts, united the


purposes

When

3.

chirp,

birds desire to chirp, lustily desire to

may my

call

go

there, as

an arrow-point upon

the shaft
4.

What

is

within shall be without, what

soul of the maidens

is

Take
endowed with every charm

out shall be within

captive,

with-

herb, the
!

5. Longing for a husband this woman hath come,


As a loudly neighI have come longing for a wife.
good
fortune
ing horse I have attained to my

VI,

8.

I.

As

thus

Charm

to secure the love of a

woman.

the creeper embraces the tree on all sides,


do thou embrace me, so that thou, woman.

CHARMS PERTAINING TO WOMEN.

IV.

to

me
2. As

01

me, so that thou shalt not be averse

love

shalt

when he

the eagle

forth presses his

flies

wings against the earth, thus do

fasten

down thy

mind, so that thou, woman, shalt love me, so that

thou shalt not be averse to me.

As

3.

and

the sun day by day goes about this heaven

thus do

earth,

thou,

woman,

go about thy mind, so that

shalt love me, so that thou shalt not

be averse to me.
VI,
1.

after

Charm

9.

to secure the love of a

Hanker thou

my

after

my

eyes,

my

thighs

woman.

body,

my

The

eyes of thee, as

hanker

feet,

thou lustest after me, and thy hair shall be parched


with love
2.

make

heart, so that thou shalt

up

to
3.

my

wish

The

my arm, cling to my
in my power, shalt come

thee cling to

be

cows, the mothers of the ghee,

who

whose heart love is planted,


make yonder woman bestow love upon me
their young, in

Charm

VI, 102.

to secure the love of a

lick

shall

woman.

draught animal, O ye A^vins, comes


on, and proceeds, thus may thy soul come on, and
1.

As

this

proceed to
2.

stallion

me

draw
the

to

myself thy mind, as

female

side-horse.

As

the leading
the

stalk

grass torn by the wind, thus shall thy mind


itself

upon

of

fasten

me

coaxing mixture of salve, of sweet wood, of


kush//^a, and of spikenard, do I deftly pick out wath
3.

the hands of Bhaga (good fortune).

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

I02

Charm

Ill, 25.

to arouse the passionate love

of a woman.
1.

May

arrow of
2.

(love), the disquieter, disquiet thee;

out upon

not hold

Kama

The

With

shaft

Kama

well-aimed,
3.

do

(love)

do

the terrible

pierce thee in the heart.

is

undeviating desire, with that,

shall pierce thee in the heart

Kama

that well-aimed arrow of

parches the spleen, whose plume

burns up, do
4.

With

arrow, winged with longing, barbed with

whose

love,

thy bed

flies

which

forward, which

pierce thee in the heart.

Consumed by burning

with

ardour,

mouth, do thou (woman) come to me,

parched

pliant, (thy)

pride laid aside, mine alone, speaking sweetly and


to

me
5.

devoted
I

drive thee with a

goad from thy mother and

my

thy father, so that thou shalt be in

come up
6.

to

my

wish.

All her thoughts do ye,

drive out of her


will,

Mitra and Varu;ia,

Then, having deprived her of her

put her into

my power

Charm

VI, 139.

power, shalt

alone

to arouse the passionate love

of a woman.
1.

Clinging to the ground thou didst grow, (O

plant),

that

producest bliss

for

me

a hundred

branches extend from thee, three and thirty grow

down from

thee

with

leaves thy heart do


2.

Thy

this

plant

of a thousand

parch.

heart shall parch (with love) for me, and

thy mouth shall parch (with love for me)

Languish,,

CHARMS PERTAINING TO WOMEN.

IV.

IO3

moreover, with love for me, with parched mouth


pass thy days

Thou

3.

that

causest

affection,

kindlest (love),

draw (us) together; draw


together yonder woman and myself, our hearts make
the same
4. As the mouth of him that hath not drunk dries
brown,

up,

lovely

(plant),

me, with

thou with love for

languish

thus

parched mouth pass thy days


5.

As

the ichneumon tears the serpent, and joins

him together

again,

thus,

potent (plant), join

together what hath been torn by love

VII,
1.

me

;^S,

Charm

to secure the love of a

This potent herb do


the eye, causes

him who has gone

dig out:

(love's)

It

tears.

It

man.

draws toward
brings back

to a distance, rejoices

him

that

approaches me.

By

2.

(the plant) with which the Asuri allured

Indra away from the gods, by that do


that
3.

Is

we do

To me

the gods

speech, not
In the

't is

thee here that

thine,

(in

this

matter) hath

assembly, forsooth, do thou speak

alone shalt

discourse of other
5.

all

Invoke.

My

weight

(the moon),

turned towards Surya (the sun), thy face

turned towards

4.

subject thee,

may be well-beloved of thee


Thy face Is turned towards Soma

thy face
is

thou

women

Whether thou

art

belong, shalt not even

beyond the haunts of men,

or whether across the river, this very herb, as


a captive bound, shall bring thee back to

me

if

!!

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

I04

Charm

VI, 130.

to arouse the passionate love

of a man.

This yearning love comes from the Apsaras,

1.

Ye gods, send
may yonder man burn

the victorious, imbued with victory.


forth the yearning love

me

after

My

2.

wish

3.

he

is,

me

shall long for

him nevermore, ye gods, send


love
4.

me, devoted he

Ye gods, send forth the yearning


may yonder man burn after me
That yonder man shall long for me, (but) for

shall long for

love

may yonder man burn

Do

do thou,

ye,

intoxicate

VI, 131.

me

after

Maruts, intoxicate him (with love)

May

Charm

do thou, O Agni,
yonder man burn after me

mid-air, intoxicate

him

forth the yearning

him

to arouse the passionate love

of a man.

From

1.

(love's)

thy head unto thy feet do

yearning love
2.

Favour

Akuti

Ye

this

(plan),

If

Anumati

gods, send forth the

may yonder man burn


3.

implant

Ye gods, send forth


may yonder man burn after me

longing into thee.

after

fit

it

the

together,

yearning love

me

thou dost run three leagues away, (or even)

by a horseman,
from there thou shalt again return, shalt be the
five

leagues, the distance coursed

father of our sons

VI, 132.

Charm

to arouse the passionate love

of a man.
I.

Love's consuming longing, together with yearn-

!!

CHARMS PERTAINING TO WOMEN.

IV.

IQC

which the gods have poured into the waters,


that do I kindle for thee by the law of Varu;;a
2. Love's consuming longing-, together with yearning-,

ing,

which the all-gods (vi^ve deva//) have poured


do I kindle for thee by the law

into the waters, that

of Varuna.

Love's consuming longing, together with yearning, which Indra;^i has poured into the waters, that
3.

do

kindle for thee by the law of Varu;^a

Love's consuming longing, together with yearnwhich Indra and Agni have poured into the
waters, that do I kindle for thee by the law of
4.

ing,

Varu;/a
5.

ing,

Love's consuming longing, together with yearnwhich Mitra and Varu//a have poured into the

waters, that

do

5.

Charm

kindle for thee by the

law of

Varu;za
IV,

at

an assignation.

1. The bull with a thousand horns who rose out


of the sea, with the aid of him, the mighty one, do
we put the folks to sleep.

2.

The wind blows

looks on.
all

not over the earth.

No

one

Do

thou then, befriended of Indra, put


and dogs to sleep

women
3. The women

that

lie

upon couches and upon

beds, and they that rest in

litters,

that exhale sweet fragrance, do

the

we put

women

all

to sleep.

Every moving thing I have held fast. Eye


and breath I have held fast. I have held fast all
limbs in the deep gloom of the night.
5. Of him that sits, and him that walks, of him
that stands and looks about, of these the eyes we do
4.

shut, just as these premises (are shut).

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

I06

The mother

6.

the

dog

shall sleep, the father shall sleep,

shall sleep, the lord of the

house

shall sleep

All her relations shall sleep, and these people round

about shall sleep

7.

sleep, put

thou to sleep

all

people with the

Put the others to sleep


magic that induces sleep
may I be awake until the dawn
until the sun rises
appears, like Indra, unharmed, uninjured!
!

VI,

Charm

']'].

to cause the return of a truant

woman.

The heavens have

1.

have

creatures

all

stood, the earth has stood,

stood.

The mountains have

stood upon their foundation, the horses in the stable


I

have caused
2.

Him

to stand.

that has control of departure, that has

coming home,
shepherd do I also call.

control of

3.

return,

and turning

in,

that

6^atavedas (Agni), cause thou to turn in;

a hundred ways hither shall be thine, a thousand


modes of return shall be thine with these do thou
:

restore us again

VI,
1.

The

18.

first

Charm

to allay jealousy.

impulse of jealousy, moreover the

one that comes after the first, the fire, the heartburning, that do we waft away from thee.
2. As the earth is dead in spirit, in spirit more
dead than the dead, and as the spirit of him that
has died, thus shall the spirit of the jealous (man)
be dead
3.

Yon

fluttering little spirit that has

been fixed

IV.

CHARMS PERTAINING TO WOMEN.

into thy heart,


air

from

it

the jealousy do

I07

remove, as

from a water-skin.

Charm

VII, 45.

to allay jealousy.

1.
From folk belonging to all kinds of people,
from the Sindhu (Indus) thou hast been brought
hither
from a distance, I ween, has been fetched
the very remedy for jealousy.
:

As

2.

burns

if

fire is

in various directions, this

thou quench, as a
I,

14.
1.

burning him, as

fire (is

if

the forest-fire

jealousy of his do

quenched) with water

woman's incantation against her

rival.

have taken unto myself her fortune and her


Like a mountain with

glory, as a wreath off a tree.

broad foundation

may

she

sit

a long time with her

parents

This woman shall be subjected to thee as thy


O king Yama (till then) let her be fixed to
the house of her mother, or her brother, or her
2.

wife,

father

This woman shall be the keeper of thy house,


king (Yama), and her do we make over to thee

3.

May

she long

sit

with her relatives, until (her hair)

drops from her head

With the incantation of Asita, of Kajyapa, and


Gaya do I cover up thy fortune, as women cover

4.

of

(something) within a chest.


Ill, 18.

Charm

of a

woman

against a rival or

co-wife.
I. I dig up this plant, of herbs the most potent,
by whose power rival women are overcome, and
husbands are obtained.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

I08
2.

thou (plant) with erect leaves, lovely, do

by the gods, full of might, drive


away my rival, make my husband mine alone
3. He did not, forsooth, call thy name, and thou
shalt not delight in this husband
To the very
thou, urged on

do we drive our

farthest distance
4.

Superior

am

truly, to superior

I,

rival.

superior (plant), superior,

Now

(women).

shall

my

rival

be

inferior to those that are inferior

am

overpowering, and thou, (O plant), art


completely overpowering.
Having both grown full
of power, let us overpower my rival
5.

6.

About thee (my husband)

overpowering

I have placed the


upon thee placed the very
May thy mind run after me as

(plant),

overpowering one.

a calf after the cow, as water along

VI, 138.

Charm

its

course

man

for depriving a

of his

virility.
1.

As

herb

the best of the plants thou art reputed,

turn this

man

2.

Turn him

into

me

for

that wears his hair dressed

to-day into a eunuch

a eunuch that wears his hair

dressed, and into one that wears a

hood

Indra with a pair of stones shall break his


both

eunuch, into a eunuch thee

Then
testicles

have turned
O
into a castrate thee I have turned;
O weakling, into a weakling thee I have turned
A hood upon his head, and a hair-net do we place.
4. The two canals, fashioned by the gods, in
which man's power rests, in thy testicles
I break them with a club.
3.

castrate,

As women break

a stone, thus do

I,

Charm

18,

1.

The

CHARMS PERTAINING TO WOMEN.

IV.

5.

to

(foul)

reeds for a

mattress

Then

with

member

break thy

remove evil bodily


from a woman.

characteristics

mark, the lalami (with spot on the

forehead), the Arati (grudging demon), do


out.

IO9

the (signs) that

remain) with us

are

auspicious

drive
(shall

we

beget offspring do

to

(yet)

we

Arati

brinof the
2.

May

Savitar drive out uncouthness from her

feet,

may

Varu//a, Mitra,

out from her hands


out for us
this
3.

and Aryaman (drive it)


may Anumati kindly drive it

For happiness the gods have created

woman.

The

fierceness that

or in thy look,

charm.
4.

all

May god

The

is

in thyself, in

we

that do

strike

thy body,

away with our

Savitar prosper thee

goat-footed,

the

bull-toothed,

scares the cattle, the snorting one, the

her

vilic//ii

who
(the

driveling one), the lalami (with spot on the forehead), these

VI, no.

do we drive from

us.

Expiatory charm for a child born

under an unlucky
1.

Of

yore,

star.

(O Agni), thou wast worthy of

sup-

thou wast the priest in


olden times, and now anew shalt sit (at our sacrifice)
plication at

Delight,

the sacrifice

Agni, thy own body, and,

sacrificing,

bring good fortune here to us


2.

Him

that hath been born under the (constella-

tion) ^yesh///!aghni ('she

that slays the oldest'), or

! !

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

IIO

under the vi/'r/tau ('they that uproot'), save thou


from being torn up by the root by Yama (death)
May he (Agni) guide him across all misfortunes to
lone life, to a life of a hundred autumns
born
3. On a tiger (-like) day the hero was born
under a (good) constellation he becometh a mighty
Let him not slay, when he grows up, his
hero.
father, let him not injure the mother that hath
;

him
beeotten
't>
VI, 140.

Expiation for the irregular appearance


of the

1.

forth,

Those two

first

pair of teeth.

teeth, the tigers, that

have broken

eager to devour father and mother, do thou,

Brahma/mspati 6^atavedas, render auspicious


Do ye eat rice, eat barley, and eat, too, beans,

2.

as well as

sesamum

That,

teeth,

is

the share

Do not injure
your enrichment.
father and mother
3. Since ye have been invoked, O teeth, be ye in
Elsewhere, O teeth,
unison kind and propitious
shall pass away the fierce (qualities) of your body
Do not injure father and mother!
deposited

for

V.

CHARMS PERTAINING TO ROYALTY


(RAGAKARMAAT).
IV,
1.

Prayer at the consecration of a king.

8.

Himself prosperous (bhuto), he does put strength


he became the chief lord

into the beings (bhuteshu)

death does come

kingdom

may

he, the

consecration

his

king,

favour this

Come

2.

To

(bhutanam).

beings

of the

hither

forth

do

not glance

away

as

Step hither,
a mighty guardian, slayer of enemies
the gods shall
thou who prosperest thy friends
!

bless thee
3.

in grace,

This

lustre.

Asura

step hither

did

Clothed

him.

own

As he

is

all

he moves, shining by his

the great

endowed with

(men) did attend

name

of the manly

every form

he

(quality)

entered upon immortal (deeds).

Thyself a

4.

stride

the

tiger,

clans

this tiger-skin

The heavenly

waters, rich in sap, flow joyously,

(and too) those in the sky and upon the earth


the lustre of
6.

all

All

wish for thee, and the heavenly

shall

waters, rich in sap


5.

do thou upon

through the great regions

(victorious)

of these do

They have

with

sprinkle thee.

sprinkled thee with their lustre,

the heavenly waters rich in sap.

May

Savitar thus

fashion thee, that thou shalt prosper thy friends

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

112

7. (The waters) thus embracing him, the tiger,


promote him, the Hon, to great good fortune. Him,
the leopard in the midst of the waters, as though

standing

in the ocean,

the beneficent (floods, or the

vigorous priests) cleanse thoroughly

Ill, 3.

Charm

for the restoration of

an exiled

king.

may he here well


Spread thyself out, O Agni, over
the far-reaching hemispheres of the world
The allpossessing Maruts shall engage thee
bring hither
1.

(Agni) has shouted loud:

perform his work

who devoutly spends the offering


However far he be, the red (steeds) shall urge

that (king)
2.

hither Indra, the seer, to friendship, since the gods,

(chanting) for

him the

gayatri, tl\e br/hati,

arka (songs),

infused

courage into him with the

and the

sautrama;n-sacrifice
3. From
Soma shall

cite

the waters king Varu;2a shall call thee,

thee from the mountains, Indra shall

call

thee to these clans

Turn

into

an eagle and

fly

to these clans
4.

An

him that

eagle shall bring hither from a distance


is

to

fit

a strange land

be

The

5.

Do

ye, his kinfolk,

6.

Thy opponents

The kinsman
him,

gather

him
shall call thee

chosen thee! Indra, Agni, and


kept prosperity with this people.
call,

in

Ai"vins shall prepare for thee

a path, easy to travel


close about

wanders exiled

called, (yet)

all

thy friends have


the gods have

or the stranger that opposes thy

Indra, drive

(king) accepted here

away; then render

this

! !

CHARMS PERTAINING TO ROYALTY.

V.

(Thy) kingdom hath come to thee:

dowed with

lustre

Go

arise, en-

the lord of the

forth as

people, rule (shine) thou, a universal ruler

regions

II3

Prayer at the election of a king.

III, 4,

1.

;;!

compass

of the

shall

thee,

call

All the

king

attended and revered be thou here

Thee

2.

five,

shall

the clans, thee these regions, goddesses

choose for empire

Root thyself upon

the height, the pinnacle of royalty

among

mighty, distribute goods


3.

Thy kinsmen

with calls

then do thou,

us

come

shall

to thee

Thy
go with them as messenger
being
wives, thy sons shall be devoted to thee
a mighty (ruler) thou shalt behold rich tribute
4. The Ai^vins first, Mitra and Varu;-;a both, all
Then fix
the gods, and the Maruts, shall call thee
thy mind upon the bestowal of wealth, then do thou,
Agni

agile

shall

among

mighty, distribute wealth

Thus
hither

'

he himself did

if,

Indra,

Indra,

for

thou
if,

hast
'

come thou

'

come thou

own domain

The

He

(thinking)

'
:

rich divinities of the

diverse forms,

all

a broad domain.
[43]

to the

agreed, concordant

the electors').

'

tribes of

with

the

did call thee to

him revere the

let

gods, and manage, too, the people


7.

'the chooser')

thee

call

Varu;^as (as

thy

be propitious to thee

shall

did this king Varu;/a (as

decree that

men,

Hither hasten forth from the farthest distance

5.

heaven and earth, both,

6.

us

roads, of manifold

coming together have given thee

They

shall all concordantly call


I

! !!

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

114
thee

the tenth decade (of thy

life)

designed to strengthen royal power.

tree,

1.

Hither hath come this amulet of par;2a-wood,


might mightily crushing the enemy. (It is)

its

the strength of the gods, the sap of the waters


it

assiduously enliven
2.

The power

me

fast) in

me

become the

may

with energy

to rule thou shalt hold fast in me,

amulet of par^^a-wood

3.

to

Praise of an amulet derived from the par/^a-

Ill, 5.

with

up

rule here, a mighty, benevolent (king),

May I,

wealth (thou shalt hold

rooted in the domain of royalty,

chief!

Their very own amulet which the gods de-

posited secretly in the tree, that the gods shall give

us to wear, together with


4.

The parwa

life

has come hither as the mighty

strength of the soma, given

by

Indra, instructed

by

Varu;za.

May

long

during a hundred autumns


of para-wood has ascended upon

5.

me

life,

I,

shining brilliantly, wear

The amulet

unto complete exemption from injury, that

rise superior (even) to friends


6.

The

skilful builders

and

7.

par;za,

The

Thou

art

8.

me

make my aids
who (themselves) make

and leaders of

do thou,

par;^a,

hosts, the folk

make my

all,

do

kings, the

about

me

aids

the body-protecting par;/a, a hero,

brother of me, the hero.


of the year do

may

of chariots, and the inge-

kings

charioteers,
all,

alliances

nious workers of metal, the folk about


thou,

unto

it,

Along with the

fasten thee on,

amulet

brilliancy

CHARMS PERTAINING TO ROYALTY.

V.

IV,

Charm

2 2.

!!!

I 1

to secure the superiority of

a king.

This warrior, O Indra, do thou strengthen for


me, do thou install this one as sole ruler (bull) of
emasculate all his enemies,
the Vii- (the people)
1.

subject
2.

and

them

To him
cattle

subject to him,
3.

this

May

in (their)

contests

deprive of his share the one that

May

enemy!

him

to

apportion his share of villages, horses,

this

is

his

king be the pinnacle of royalty;

this

O Indra, every enemy!


one be the treasure-lord of riches, may

king be the tribal lord of the Vis (the people)

Upon

this one,

Indra, bestow great lustre, devoid

of lustre render his

enemy

4. For him shall ye, O heaven and earth, milk


ample good, as two milch-cows yielding warm milk

May

king be favoured of Indra, favoured of

this

cows, of plants, and cattle


5.

unite with thee

through

whom

conquered,

who

and

Superior

who has supremacy,

one conquers and

is

not (himself)

shall install thee as sole ruler of the

people, and as chief of the


6.

Indra

art

whatsoever

thou,

human

adversaries

Sole ruler, befriended

kings.

inferior

are

are

thy

thine,

rivals,

king

of Indra, victorious, bring

thou hither the supplies of those

who

act as thy

enemies
7.

Presenting the front of a lion do thou devour

all (their)

people, presenting the front of a tiger do

thou strike down the enemies

Sole

ruler,

befriended

of Indra, victorious, seize upon the supplies of those

who

act as thy

enemies
I

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

Il6

Prayer for earthly and heavenly success.

I, 9.

1.

Upon

this (person) the

Varu;m, Mitra, and Agni,

The
him
2.

Vasus, Indra, Pushan,

bestow goods (vasii)


all the gods shall hold

shall

Adityas, and, further,

the higher light

in

Light, ye gods, shall be at his bidding

(the sun),

Agni

(fire),

or even gold

Surya

Inferior to us

Cause him to ascend to the


be our rivals
highest heaven
that most potent charm with which,
3. With
O 6^atavedas (Agni), thou didst bring to Indra the
(soma-) drink, with that, O Agni, do thou here
strengthen this one grant him supremacy over his

shall

kinsmen
4. Their sacrifice and their glory, their increase
of wealth and their thoughtful plans, I have usurped,
O Agni. Inferior to us shall be our rivals Cause
him to ascend to the highest heaven
!

Prayer for lustre and power.

VI, 38.

The

1.

brilliancy that

and the serpent


(shall be ours)

in

(The

2.

and

in

come
3.

in

us,

Agni, the Brahma;za, and Surya


the lovely goddess that bore

endowed with

to us,

endowed with

brilliancy) that

in

the

fire

and

men

in

(shall

the lovely goddess that bore Indra


lustre
is

the strength of the bull

and

lustre!

in the waters, cattle,

May

(The

the tiger,

lion,

brilliancy) that is in the elephant, panther,

gold

be ours)

the

in

May

Indra come to

is

in

the chariot, the dice,

Par^anya,

in the wind,

of Varu;^a (shall be ours)

May

the

CHARMS PERTAINING TO ROYALTY.

V.

lovely goddess that bore Indra

with lustre

(The

4.

that

brilliancy)

endowed

the

man

of royal

(shall

be ours)

come

Prayer for glory

May the

to us,

endowed

oblation that yields

(ya^as).

glory,

sped on by

of thousandfold strength, well offered, pre-

pared with might, shall prosper!


offers

of the

VI, 39.

The

to us,

in the strength

lovely goddess that bore Indra

1.

come
in

is

drum,

men

horse, in the shout of

Indra,

caste, in the stretched

with lustre

I I

the

oblation,

continue

to

Cause me, that


long:

beholding

and to rise to supremacy


(That he may come) to us, let us honour with
obeisance glory-owning Indra, the glorious one with
glory-yielding (oblations)
Do thou (the oblation)
grant us sovereignty sped on by Indra may we in
thy favour be glorious
(light),
2.

3.

Glorious was Indra born, glorious Agni, glorious

Soma.

am

Glorious, of

I.

VIII,
1.

beings the most glorious,

all

Battle-charm.

8.

Ma)' Indra churn (the enemy), he, the churner,

^'akra (mighty), the hero, that pierces the forts, so

that

we

shall

armies of the enemies a

slay the

thousandfold
2.

May

the

rotten

rope,

wafting

itself

against

When the
yonder army, turn it into a stench.
enemies see from afar our smoke and fire, fear shall
they lay into their hearts
3.

Tear asunder

those

(enemies),

ai'vattha

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

Il8

devour (khada) them, O khadira


Like the ta^ad(acacia catechu) in lively style
bhahga (ricinus communis) they shall be broken
(bha^yantam), may the vadhaka (a certain kind of
tree) slay them with his weapons (vadhai//)
religiosa),

(ficus

4. May the knotty ahva-plant put knots upon


yonder (enemies), may the vadhaka slay them with
Bound up in (our) great trap-net,
his weapons
they shall quickly be broken as an arrow-reed
5. The atmosphere was the net, the great regions
!

(of space) the (supporting) poles of the net

with

these 6'akra (mighty Indra) did surround and scatter

the

army of the Dasyus.


Great, forsooth,

6.
is

rich in steeds

is

with

the net of great 6"akra,

who

infold thou all the enemies,

it

so that not one of them shall be released

Great

7.

the net of thee, great Indra, hero, that

is

art equal to a thousand,

With

that

(net)

and hast hundredfold might.

6'akra slew a hundred, thousand,

ten thousand, a hundred million foes, having surrounded them with (his) army.
8. This great world was the net of great 6akra
:

with this net of Indra

yonder

in darkness.

With great

9.

misfortune

do

infold all those (enemies)

with fatigue,

surround

To

all

and irrefragable
lassitude, and confusion,

dejection, failure,

those (enemies) yonder.

I
hand them over, with the
have been bound. To the evil
messengers of death do I lead them captive.
1 1.
Guide ye those (foes), ye messengers of death
Let more
ye messengers of Yama, infold them
than thousands be slain
may the club of Bhava

10.

death do

fetters of death they

crush them

!!

CHARMS TERTAINING

V.

The

12.

!!

ROYALTY.

T(3

II9

Saclhyas (blessed) go holding- up with

might one support of the

net, the

the Vasus another.

another

(Still)

Rudras another,
is upheld by the

Adityas.

All the gods shall go pressing from above

13.

with might

the Aiigiras shall go on the middle (of

the net), slaying the mighty

The

14.

and (growths) that are

trees,

the plants and

army

the herbs as well

four-footed creatures do

like trees,

two-footed and

impel, that they shall slay

yonder army

The Gandharvas and Apsaras,


and the gods, holy men and (deceased)
15.

and invisible (beings), do


slay yonder army

visible
shall

the serpents

Fathers, the

impel, that they

Scattered here are the fetters of death

16.

when

thou steppest upon them thou shalt not escape

May

this

hammer

slay (the

men) of yonder army by

the thousand
17.

The gharma

(sacrificial

been heated by the


thousands

Do

are mottled, slay


18.

fire,

this

hot drink) that has


sacrifice

Bhava and
yonder army
ye,

^'arva,

(shall)

slay

whose arms

Into the (snare of) death they shall

fall,

into

O Indra and
do ye with trap and net slay yonder army
19. Conquered, O foes, do ye flee away; repelled
by (our) charm, do ye run
Of yonder host, repulsed by Br/haspati, not one shall be saved
20. May their weapons fall from their (hands),
may they be unable to lay the arrow on (the bow)
hunger, exhaustion, slaughter, and fear

^'arva,

And

then (our) arrows shall smite them, badly

frightened, in their vital


21.

Heaven and

members

earth shall shriek at them, and

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

I20

atmosphere, along

the

with

the

one another they

The

2 2.

shall

go

to death

powers

divine

Neither aider, nor support did they find

smiting

four regions are the she-mules of the

god's chariot, the purodasas (sacrificial rice-cakes)


the hoofs, the atmosphere the seat (of the wagon).

Heaven and

earth are

two

its

the seasons

sides,

the reins, the intermediate regions the attendants,


VaJ: (speech) the road.

The

23.

year

body of the

is

chariot,

part of the chariot.

ing on the

the chariot, the

left

full

year

is

the

Viraf the pole, Agni the front


Indra is the (combatant) stand-

of the chariot, A'andramas (the moon)

the charioteer.

Do

24.

thou win here, do thou

conquer here,

These here shall conquer,


overcome, win, hail
Hail to these here,
those yonder be conquered!
Those yonder do I
perdition to those yonder
!

envelop

19.

I,

1.

The

shall the
us,

in blue

and red

Battle-charm against arrow- wounds.


piercing (arrows)

shall

striking arrows hit us

not hit

us,

nor

Far away from

Indra, to either side, cause the arrow-shower

to fall
2.

To

either side of us the arrows shall

fall,

those

be shot
Ye divine
and ye human arrows, pierce ye mine enemies
3. Be he our own, or be he strange, the kinsman,
that

have been shot and

shall

who bear enmity towards us, those


enemies of mine Rudra shall pierce with a shower
of arrows
4. Him that rivals us, or does not rival us, him

or the foreigner,

may all
me from within

that curses us with hate,

my charm

1.

CHARMS PERTAINING TO ROYALTY.

V.

Ill,

protects

12

the gods injure

Battle-charm for confusing the enemy.

I.

Agni

shall skilfully march against our oppoburning against their schemes and hostile

nents,

plans
G"atavedas shall confuse the army of our
opponents and deprive them (of the use) of their
hands
;

2.

Ye Maruts

are mighty in such matters

vance

ad-

ye, crush ye, conquer ye (the enemy)


These
Vasus when implored did crush (them).
Agni,
verily, as their vanguard shall skilfully attack
3. O Maghavan, the hostile army which contends
against us
do ye, O Indra, Vrz'tra's slayer, and
Agni, burn against them
!

Thy

4.

driven

thunderbolt,

forward

advance, crushing

shall

that resist, pursue, or

Indra,

who

by thy two

swiftly

the

flee,

hast

bay

been

steeds,

Slay them

enemies.

deprive their schemes of

fulfilment
5.

army of the enemy; with


and the wind scatter them to

Indra, confuse the

the impact of the

fire

either side
6.

slay

Indra shall confuse the army, the Maruts shall


it

with might

vanquished
Ill, 2.
1.

it

Agni

shall turn

shall rob

it

of

its

about

Battle-charm for confusing the enemy.

Agni, our

skilful

vanguard, shall attack, burn-

ing against their schemes and hostile plans

vedas

shall bewilder

This

fire

6"ata-

the plans of the enemy, and

deprive them (of the use) of their hands


2.

sight

has confused the schemes that are

in

!
;

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

122

bloW you from your home, blow


you away from everywhere
your mind

3.

it

shall

bewildering

Indra,

hither with thy (own) plan


fire

their

come

schemes,

with the impact of the

and the wind scatter them to either side

O ye plans of theirs, fly ye away O ye schemes,

4.

Moreover, what now is in their


be ye confused
mind, do thou drive that out of them
5. Do thou, O (goddess) Apva, confusing their
plans, go forth (to them), and seize their limbs
!

Attack them, burn with flames into their hearts


strike the enemy with fits, (strike our) opponents
with darkness

That army yonder of the enemy,

6.

against us fighting with might, do ye,


strike with planless darkness, that

not

know

VI,

97.

comes

that

Maruts,

one of them

shall

the other

Battle-charm of a king upon the eve of


battle.

1.

Superior

the sacrifice, superior Agni, superior

is

Soma, superior Indra.


superior to

all

To

the end that

hostile armies

do we

shall

be

thus, offering

the agnihotra, reverently present this oblation

with
2. Hail be, ye wise Mitra and Varu;/a
honey swell ye our kingdom here, (so that it shall)
Drive far to a distance misabound in offspring
sin, even after it has been
strip
off
from
us
fortune,
committed
3. With inspiration follow ye this strong hero
:

ye friends, to Indra (the king), who


conquers villages, conquers cattle, has the thunderbolt in his arm, overcomes the host arrayed (against
cling

close,

him), crushing

it

with might

CHARMS PERTAINING TO ROYALTY.

V.

23

Battle-charm of a king on the eve of

VI, 99.

battle.
1.

call

upon

thee,

upon thee

Indra, from afar,

for protection against tribulation.

avenger that has many names, and

call
is

the strong

of unequalled

birth.
2.

Where

the hostile

weapon now

threatening to slay, there do

we

rises against us,

place the two

arms

of Indra round about.


3.

The two arms

place round about us


Savitar,

let

him protect us

and king Soma, render

mind, that

XI,

of Indra, the protector, do

9.

may

me

of

we
god

confident

prosper

Prayer to Arbudi and Nyarbudi for help


in battle.

The

arms, the arrows, and the might of the


bows; the swords, the axes, the weapons, and the
artful scheme that is in our mind; all that, O Arbudi,
1.

do thou make the enemies see, and spectres also


make them see
friends are ye, O
2. Arise, and arm yourselves
divine folk!
May our friends be perceived and
protected by you, O Arbudi (and Nyarbudi)
With fetters
3. Arise (ye two), and take hold
and shackles surround ye the armies of the enemy,
O Arbudi (and Nyarbudi)
4. The god whose name is Arbudi, and the lord
Nyarbudi, by whom the atmosphere and this great
earth has been infolded, with these two companions
;

of Indra do

army.

pursue the conquered (king) with

my

!!

! !

!!

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

124

O Arbudi, together
Crushing the army of the enemy,
encompass them with thy embraces
6. Thou, Arbudi, makest appear the sevenfold
Do thou, when the oblation has
spectral brood.
Arise, thou divine person,

5.

with thy army

been poured,
the

rise

up with

all

these, together with

army

7.

(The female mourner), beating

herself,

tear-stained face, with short (mutilated

dishevelled hair, shall lament,

?)

with

ears, with

when a man has been

pierced by thee, O Arbudi


She curves her spine while longing in her
heart for her son, her husband, and her kin, when
(a man) has been pierced by thee, O Arbudi
9. The aliklavas and the ^ashkamadas, the vultures, the strong-winged hawks, the crows, and the
Let them
birds (of prey) shall obtain their fill
make evident to the enemy, when (a man) has been
pierced by thee, O Arbudi
10. Then, too, every wild beast, insect, and worm
shall obtain his fill on the human carcass, when
(a man) has been pierced by thee, O Arbudi
11. Seize ye, and tear out in-breathing and outbreathing, O Nyarbudi (and Arbudi): deep-sounding
groans shall arise
Let them make it evident to
the enemy, when (a man) has been pierced by thee,
O Arbudi
12. Scare them forth, let them tremble; bewilder
With thy broad embrace,
the enemies with fright
with the clasp of thy arms crush the enemies, O
Nyarbudi
13. May their arms, and the artful scheme that is
Not a thinof shall remain
in their mind be confused
of them, pierced by thee, O Arbudi

slain,
8.

!!

CHARMS PERTAINING TO ROYALTY.

May

14.

25

mourning women) beating themrun together, smiting their breasts and their

selves,

(the

thighs, not anointed, with dishevelled hair, howling,

when

thee,

man has been


Arbudi

has been pierced by

slain,

15. The dog-like Apsaras, and also the Rupakas


(phantoms), the plucking sprite, that eagerly licks
within the vessel, and her that seeks out what has
been carelessly hidden, all those do thou, O Arbudi,
make the enemies see, and spectres also make

them see
16. (And also make them see) her that strides
upon the mist, the mutilated one, who dwells with
the mutilated the vapoury spooks that are hidden,
and the Gandharvas and Apsaras, the serpents, and
other brood, and the Rakshas
17. (And also) the spooks with fourfold teeth,
;

black teeth, testicles like a pot, bloody faces,


are inherently frightful, and terrifying

Frighten thou,

who

Arbudi, yonder lines of the


the conquering and the victorious (Arbudi
Nyarbudi), the two comrades of Indra, shall

18.

enemy

and
conquer the enemies
19.

Dissolved, crushed, slain the

enemy

shall

lie,

Nyarbudi
May victorious sprites, with fiery
tongues and smoky crests, go with (our) army
20. Of the enemies repulsed by this (army), O
!

Arbudi, Indra, the spouse of Sali, shall slay each


picked man not a single one of those yonder shall
escape
:

May

may their life's breath


dryness of the mouth overtake (our) enemies, but not (our) allies
21.

their hearts burst,

escape upward
22.

Those

May

who

are

bold

and those who are

!!

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

126

cowardly, those

who

turn

(in

flight)

and those who

those who are (Hke) dark


who bleat like goats, all those,
do thou, O Arbudi, make the enemies see, and
spectres also make them see

are deaf (to danger


goats,

23.

and

and

Arbudi

enemies, so that,
of

?),

those, too,

Trisha7;/dhi

shall

Indra, slayer of

our

pierce

Vmra,

spouse

we may slay the enemy by thousands


The trees, and (growths) that are like

Sa.^i,

24.

trees,

the plants and the herbs as well, the Gandharvas

and the Apsaras, the serpents, gods, pious men, and


(departed) Fathers, all those, O Arbudi, do thou
make the enemies see, and spectres also make
them see
25. The Maruts, god Aditya, Brahma^^aspati did
Indra and Agni, Dhatar, Mitra, and
rule over you
Pra^apati did rule over you the seers did rule over
Let them make evident to the enemies when
you.
(a man) has been pierced by thee, O Arbudi
26. Ruling over all these, rise ye and arm yourYe divine folk are (our) friends w^n ye
selves
the battle, and disperse to your various abodes
;

XI,

Prayer to Trisha;;^dhi for help

10.

in

battle.
1.

Arise and arm yourselves, ye nebulous spectres

together with

fiery

portents

ye serpents,

other

brood, and Rakshas, run ye after the enemy


2. He knows how to rule your kingdom together

with the red portents (of the heavens).

brood that

human

is

in

The

evil

the air and the heaven, and the

(powers) upon the earth, shall be obedient to

the plans of Trishawdhi

!!

CHARMS PERTAINING TO ROYALTY.

V.

3.

The brazen-beaked

12 J

(birds of prey), those with

beaks pointed as a needle, and those, too, with


thorny beaks, flesh-devouring, swift as the wind,
shall fasten themselves upon the enemies, together
with

the

Trisha;;/dhi-bolt

(the

bolt

with

three

joints)
4.

Make away

carcasses

voted to
5.

with,

my

bidding

army

shall

be de-

Arise thou divine person,

with thy

many

6^atavedas Aditya,

This army of Trisha;;2dhi

Arbudi, together

This tribute has been offered to


an offering pleasing

you (Arbudi and

Trisha;;/dhi),

to Trishawdhi.
6.

fetter

This
(?).

white-footed,

Do

four-footed

O magic

thou,

arrow

spell, operate,

shall

together

army of Trishawdhi, against the enemies


May (the mourning woman) with suffused eyes

with the
7.

hurry on,

may

when

she that hath short (mutilated

?)

ears

man) has been overcome by the army


Red portents shall be (visible)
8. May the winged birds that move in the air and
in the sky descend
beasts of prey and insects shall
seize upon them
the vultures that feed upon raw
flesh shall hack into (their) carcasses
9. By virtue of the compact which thou, O Br/haspati, didst close with Indra and Brahman, by
virtue of that agreement with Indra, do I call
hither all the gods on this side conquer, not over
yonder
shout

(a

of Trisha?;/dhi

10. Brz'haspati, the descendant of Ahgiras, and


the seers, inspired by (our) song, did fix the threejointed (Trisha?;2dhi) weapon upon the sky for the

destruction of the Asuras.


11.

Trishawdhi, by

whom

both

yonder Aditya

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

128

and Indra are protected, the gods did


destine for (our) might and strength.
12. All the worlds the gods did conquer through
this oblation, (and) by the bolt which Br/haspati,
the descendant of Aiigiras, did mould into a weapon
sun)

(the

for the destruction of the Asuras.

With the bolt which Br/haspati, the descendant


did mould into a weapon for the destrucAhgiras,
of
1 3.

Asuras do

tion of the

yonder army
14.

the

All

I,

Br/haspati, annihilate

smite the enemies with force.

gods that eat the oblation offered


Receive this
side, not over

vasha/ are coming over.


with the
oblation graciously conquer on this
call

yonder
15.
is

May

pleasing

all

the gods

come over: the oblation


Adhere to the great

to Trisha?;/dhi.

compact under which of yore the Asuras were


conquered
16. Vayu (the wind) shall bend the points of the
enemies' bows, Indra shall break their arms, so that
they shall be unable to lay on their arrows, Aditya
(the sun) shall send their missiles astray, and A'andramas (the moon) shall bar the way of (the enemy)
that has not (as yet) started
17.

If

they have come on as citadels of the gods,

they have constituted an inspired charm as their


armour, if they have gathered courage through the
if

protections for the

body and the bulwarks which

they have made, render all that devoid of force


Placing (our) purohita (chaplain), together with
1 8.
the flesh-devourer (Agni) and death, in thy train, do
Trishawdhi, go forth with thy army, conquer
thou,

the enemies, advance


19.

Trisha;?2dhi, envelop thou the

enemies

in

! !!

CHARMS PERTAINING TO ROYALTY.

V,

may not a single one of


by the speckled ghee, be saved

darkness
forth

May

29

those, driven

?) fly to yonder
enemy, may yonder armies of the
enemies be to-day put to confusion, O Nyarbudi
21. The enemies have been confused, O Nyarbudi
slay each picked man among them, slay them

20.

the white-footed (arrow

of the

lines

with this army

The enemy

22.

throttled

with coat-of-mail, he that has no

and he that stands

coat-of-mail,

by the

in

the battle-throng,

strings of their bows,

by the

fasten-

ings of their coats-of-mail, by the battle-throng, they


shall lie

Those with armour and those without armour,


the enemies that are shielded by armour, all those,
O Arbudi, after they have been slain, dogs shall
devour upon the ground
24. Those that ride on chariots, and those that
23.

have no

mounted, and those


after they have
vultures and strong-winged hawks shall

chariots, those that are

that are not mounted,

all

those,

been slain,
devour
25. Counting its dead by thousands, the hostile
army, pierced and shattered in the clash of arms,
shall lie

Pierced in a vital spot, shrieking in concert

26.

with the birds of prey, wretched, crushed, prostrate,


(the

birds of prey)

shall

devour the enemy who

attempts to hinder this oblation of ours directed


against (him)
27.

which

With
is

(the oblation) to

free

from

failure,

which the gods

with

it

flock,

Indra, the slayer

of Vr/tra, shall slay, and with the Trisha;;^dhi-bolt


(the bolt with three joints)

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

130

V,

Hymn

20.

to the battle-drum.

High sounds the voice of the drum, that acts


wooden (drum), equipped with the

1.

the warrior, the

Whetting thy voice, subduing the


enemy, Hke a Hon sure of victory, do thou loudly
thunder aorainst them
skin of the cow.

The wooden

2.

thundered as a

ing) has

cow

(instrument) with fastened (cover-

longs

that

enemies are eunuchs


subduinof

Pierce

with

In

may

a bull, thy
Indra's

foe-

in the herd, full of might, lusty,

fire

the

victorious

shall run

battles

and

raise
;

enemy

with

scatter

What

thy roar!

sound

do

them

against

roar

of the

heart

be captured, capture

Favour,

art

thou ownest

snatcher of booty,

broken ranks the foe


4.

Thou

fire

Like a bull

3.

thou,

as a bull roars to the

lion,

mate.

to

many

in

places

drum, (our deeds) with thy divine voice

bring to (us)

with

strength

the

property of the

enemy

When

5.

the wife of the

enemy hears

the voice of

the drum, that speaks to a far distance,

may

she,

aroused by the sound, distressed, snatch her son


to her arms, and run, frightened at the clash of

arms
6.

Do

brilliantly

thy

maw

joyously,
7.

drum, sound the first sound, ring


over the back of the earth
Open wide
at the enemies host
resound brightly,

thou,

drum

Between

this

heaven and earth thy noise

shall

spread, thy sounds shall quickly part to every side

Shout thou and thunder with swelling sound

make

CHARMS PERTAINING TO ROYALTV.

V.

I^I

music at thy friend's victory, having (chosen) the

good

side

Manipulated with

8.

Make

bristle

forth

care, its voice shall

Indra do thou

Allied to

resound

the weapons of the warriors


hither the warriors

call

with thy friends beat vigorously

down

the enemies

shouting herald, followed by a bold army,


spreading news in many places, sounding through
9.

the village, eager for success,

knowing the way, do

thou distribute glory to many in the battle


I o.
Desiring advantage, gaining booty, full mighty,
thou hast been made keen by (my) song, and
winnest battles.
As the press-stone on the gather!

ing skin dances upon the soma-shoots, thus do thou.

drum,

dance upon the booty


A conqueror of enemies, overwhelming, foesubduing, eager for the fray, victoriously crushing,
as a speaker his speech do thou carry forth thy
soimd
sound forth here strength for victory in
lustily

11.

battle

Shaking those that are unshaken, hurrying to


strife, a conqueror of enemies, an unconquerable
leader, protected by Indra, attending to the hosts,
do thou that crusheth the hearts of the enemies,
1

2.

the

quickly go

V, 21.

Hymn

to the battle-drum, the terror

of the enemy.

Carry with thy voice, O drum, lack of heart,


and failure of courage amone the enemies
Disagreement, dismay, and fright, do we place into the
1.

enemies
2.

beat them down,

Agitated

in

drum

minds,

their

their

sight,

their

!!

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

132

enemies shall run, frightened with terror,


when our oblation has been offered
3. Made of wood, equipped with the skin of the
cow, at home with every clan, put thou with thy
voice terror into the enemies, when thou hast been

hearts, the

anointed with ghee

As

4.

the wild animals of the forest start in fear

from man, thus do thou,

drum, shout against the

enemies, frighten them away, and

bewilder their

minds

As

5.

goats and sheep run from the wolf, badly

frightened, thus do thou,

enemies, frighten them

away,

drum, shout against the

and bewilder

their

minds
6. As birds start in fear from the eagle, as by
day and by night (they start) at the roar of the
lion, thus do thou, O drum, shout against the
enemies, frighten them away, and bewilder their

minds
7.

all

With

drum and
that sway the

the

the gods,

the skin of the antelope


battle,

have scared away

the enemies.

At

8.

Indra

the noise of the beat of the

disports

enemies

yonder,

that

feet

and

at

his

come

in

successive

himself,

when

shadow, our
ranks,

shall tremble
9.

The

whirring of the bowstring and the drums

shout at the directions where the conquered


armies of the enemies go in successive ranks
shall

10.

sun, take

away

their sight;

rays, run

clinging to their feet, fasten yourthem


selves upon them, when the strength of their arms
is gone
after

1.

Ye

strong Maruts, Frisnis children, with Indra

V.

CHARMS PERTAINING TO ROYALTY.

as an ally, crush ye the enemies


(shall crush them),

Soma

33

the king

Varu/^a the king, Mahadeva, and

Mrityu (death), and Indra!


These wise armies of the gods, having the
sun as their ensign, shall conquer our enemies
also
1

2.

Hail!

VI.

CHARMS TO SECURE HARMONY, INFLUENCE


THE ASSEMBLY, AND THE LIKE
(SAJ/MANASYANI,
Ill, 30.

Charm

IN

ETC.).

to secure

harmony.

Unity of heart, and unity of mind, freedom from


I procure for you.
Do ye take dehght
in one another, as a cow in her (new-) born calf!
2. The son shall be devoted to his father, be of
the same mind with his mother the wife shall speak
honied, sweet, words to her husband
3. The brother shall not hate the brother, and the
Harmonious, devoted to the
sister not the sister!
same purpose, speak ye words in kindly spirit
4. That charm which causes the gods not to disagree, and not to hate one another, that do we
prepare in your house, as a means of agreement for
your folk,
5. Following your leader, of (the same) mind, do
Do ye come here,
ye not hold yourselves apart
co-operating, going along the same wagon-pole,
I
speaking agreeably to one another
render you
1.

hatred, do

of the

same aim, of the same mind.

6. Identical shall be your drink, in common shall


I yoke you together in the
be your share of food
same traces do ye worship Agni, joining together,
!

hub
render you of the same aim, of the same

as spokes around about the


7.

my

all

CHARMS TO SECURE HARMONY,

VI.

mind,

ETC.

35

paying deference to one (person) through

harmonisuig charm.

guarding the ambrosia,

Like the gods that are

may he

be well-

(the leader)

disposed towards you, night and day

Charm

VI, 73.
1.

to allay discord.

Hither shall come Varu/^a, Soma, Agni

come

haspati with the Vasus shall

hither

Bri-

Come

ye kinsmen all, of one mind, to the


glory of this mighty guardian
2. The fire that is within your souls, the scheme
that hath entered your minds, do I frustrate with my
together,

oblation, with

my

ghee: delight

in

me

shall

ye take,

kinsmen

(the
go not away from us
roads) at a distance Pushan shall make impassable
Vastoshpati shall urgently call you back
for you
delight in me shall ye take, O kinsmen
3.

Remain

right here,

Charm

VI, 74.
1.

May

to allay discord.

your bodies be united,

may your minds

Brahma;^aspati here
and your purposes (be united)
has brought you together, Bhaga has brought you
!

together.

mind (I procure) for you, and also


Moreover with the aid of
harmony of heart.
2.

Harmony

of

I cause you to agree.


are united with the Vasus, as
the
Adityas
As
fierce (Rudras), free from grudge, with the

Bhaga's exertions do
3.

the

Maruts, thus,

three-named (Agni), without grudge,

do thou render
mind

these

people here of the same

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

I';6

VII,

52.

Charm

against strife and bloodshed.

in harmony with our kinfolk, in


1. May we be
harmony with strangers do ye, O Ai-vins, estabhsh
;

among

here agreement
2.

May we

us

agree in mind and thought,

may we

not struggle with one another, in a spirit displeasing


to the gods

carnage

May

arise,

may

not the din of frequent battle-

the arrow not

fly

when

the day

of Indra has arrived!

Charm

VI, 64.
1.

Do

to allay discord.

ye agree, unite yourselves,

may your minds

in harmony
down to their share
2. Same be their counsel, same their assembly,
same their aim, in common their thought
The
same oblation do I sacrifice for you do ye enter
upon the same plan
3. Same be your intention, same your hearts
Same be your mind, so that it may be perfectly in

be

in

harmony, just as the gods of old

sat

'

'

common

to

you

Charm

VI, 42.
1.

As

off thy

of the
2.

to appease anger.

the bowstring from the bow, thus do I take


anger from thy heart, so that, having become

same mind, we

shall associate like friends

Like friends we shall associate

anger.

Under

a stone that

is

take off thy

heavy do we

cast

thy anger.
3.

step upon thy anger with

fore-foot, so that, bereft of will,

shalt

come up

to

my

wish

my

heel and

my

thou shalt not speak,

!!

CHARMS TO SECURE HARMONY,

VI.

Charm

VI, 43.

ETC.

37

to appease anger.

This darbha-Q^rass removes the anoer of both


kinsman and of stranofer.
And this remover of
I.

wrath,

appeaser of wrath

'

it is

'

called.

This darbha-grass of many roots, that reaches


into the ocean, having risen from the earth,
appeaser of wrath it is called.
2.

down
'

'

3.

jaw,

Away we
away

take the offensiveness that

my

in

thy

(the offensiveness) in thy mouth, so that,

bereft of will, thou shalt not speak, shalt


to

is

wish

Charm

II, 27.

come up

against opponents in debate,

undertaken with the pa/a-plant.


1.

May

the

enemy not win

mighty and overpowering.

the debate

Overcome

Thou

art

the debate

of those that debate against us, render them devoid


of force,
2.

An

with his

plant

eagle found thee out, a boar


snout.

Overcome

the

that debate against us, render

dug thee out

debate of those

them devoid of

force,

plant
3.

Indra placed thee upon his arm

in

order to

Overcome the debate of


overthrow the Asuras.
those that debate against us, render them devoid
of force,
4.

plant

Indra did eat the pa/a-plant,

throw the Asuras.


that debate against

in

order to over-

Overcome the debate of those


us, render them devoid of force,

plant!
5.

By means

of thee

shall

conquer the enemy,

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

138

Overcome

Indra (conquered) the Salavr/kas.

as

!!

the debate of those that debate against us, render

them devoid of
6.

force,

plant

Rudra, whose remedy

is

the urine, with

black crest of hair, performer of (strong) deeds

overcome thou the debate of those that debate


against us, render them devoid of force, O plant
Overcome thou the debate of him that is
7.
Encourage us with thy
hostile to us, O Indra
Render me superior in debate
might
!

VII,

Charm

12.

to procure influence in the

assembly.

May

assembly and meeting, the two daughters


May he with
of Pra^apati, concurrently aid me
whom I shall meet co-operate with me may I, O ye
1

Fathers, speak agreeably to those assembled


2.

We

thy

verily, is

name

may

all

bled in thee utter speech in


3.

know, thy name,

Of them

assembly

those that

'
:

harmony with me

that are sitting together

Indra,

me

take to

myself the power and the understanding


entire sfatherinor render,

mirth,'

assem-

sit

in this

successful

your mind has wandered to a distance, or


has been enchained here or there, then do we turn
4.

it

If

hither

VI, 94.

may your mind


Charm

take delight in

to bring

me

about submission to

one's will.
1.

Your minds, your

cause to bend.

Ye

to other purposes,
2.

With my

purposes, your plans, do

we

persons yonder, that are devoted

we

cause you to comply

mind do

seize

your minds

do ye

VI.

CHARMS TO SECURE HARMONY,

with your

thoughts follow

your hearts

way

after

in

my

my

control

my
come

thought

ETC.

ye, directing

39

place

your

course

have called upon heaven and earth, I have


called upon the goddess Sarasvati, I have called
upon both Indra and Agni may we succeed in this,
3.

Sarasvati

!!

VII.

CHARMS TO SECURE PROSPERITY

IN HOUSE, FIELD,
CATTLE, BUSINESS, GAMBLING, AND KINDRED

MATTERS.
Prayer at the building of a house.

Ill, 12.

Right here do

1.

erect a firm house

may

it

stand upon a (good) foundation, dripping with ghee

Thee may we

inhabit,

house, with heroes

all,

with strong heroes, with uninjured heroes

Right here, do thou,

2.

full

of horses,

of sap,

full

full

of cattle,

of ghee,

house, stand firmly,

of abundance

full

Full

full

of milk, elevate thyself unto

great happiness
3.

roof,

calf

supporter art thou,

containing purified grain

come, to thee the

when they
4.

O
!

house, with broad

To

thee

may

the

child, to thee the milch-cows,

return in the evening

May Savitar, Vayu, Indra, Br/haspati cunningly


May the Maruts sprinkle it with

erect this house

moisture and with ghee

may

king Bhaga

let

our

ploughing take root


5.

mistress

of dwelling, as a sheltering and

kindly goddess thou wast erected by the gods in


the beginning

posed
6.

give

Do

clothed in grass, be thou kindly dis-

us,

thou,

moreover, wealth along with heroes

cross-beam, according to regulation

ascend the post, do thou, mightily ruling, hold off


the enemies

May

they that approach thee rever-

live a

Hither to

this (house)

may we

hither the vessel

Carry

with

all

forth,

hath come the tender


of liquor, together

(full)

woman,

this

of orhee

mixed with ambrosia

drinkers

supply with

the gifts

along with (the other) domestic

with bowls of sour milk


8.

hundred autumns

child, hither the calf

animals

house, not suffer injury,

our heroes
7.

CHARMS TO SECURE PROSPERITY,

VII.

ently,

full jar,
!

Do

a stream

thou

these

ambrosia
the sacrifice and
the Brahmans) shall it (the house)

(to

protect
9.

These waters,

disease,
in

do

upon together with the immortal Agni

Raise thyself up, grow thick by thy own might,

grain

dost

Burst every vessel

heavens
2.

(fire).

Blessing during the sowing of seed.

VI, 142.

from disease, destructive of


The chambers do I enter
carry forth.
free

The

lightning in the

shall not destroy thee

When we
listen,

invoke thee, god grain, and thou


then do thou raise thyself up like the

be inexhaustible as the sea


that attend to
3. Inexhaustible shall be those
They who give thee
thee, inexhaustible thy heaps
as a present shall be inexhaustible, they who eat
thee shall be inexhaustible

sky,

VI,
1.

the

79.

Charm

May

this

cloud)

measure
2,

Do

in

for procuring Increase of grain.

bounteous Nabhasaspati (the lord of

preserve

for

us

(possessions)

without

our house

thou,

Nabhasaspati, keep strengthening

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

142

food in our house,

may

prosperity and goods

come

hither

bounteous god, thou dost command thouof that do thou bestow upon
sandfold prosperity

3.

us,

may we

of that do thou give us, in that

share

with thee

Exorcism of vermin

VI, 50.

the

Slay ye the

1.

('hook'),

heads, and

field.

and the mole,


crush their ribs

O
!

Ai-vins

Shut

they shall not eat the barley;

2.

Ho

tarda

the

('borer'),

tarda

the grain from danger

infesting grain in

samaiika

cut off their

their mouths, that

free ye,

moreover,

('borer'),

As

ho
a

locust,

Brahman

ho ^abhya
an

(eats not)

(' snapper
'), upakvasa
uncompleted sacrifice, do ye, not eating this barley,
without working injury, get out!
(-female), O husband
3. O husband of the tarda
sharp teeth, listen
the
of
of the vagha (-female), ye
The vyadvaras (' rodents ') of the forest,
to me
and whatever other vyadvaras (there are), all these
!

we do
VII,

crush.

II.

Charm

to protect grain

With thy broad thunder, with

from lightning.

the beacon, elevated

by the gods that pervade this all, with the lightning


do thou not destroy our grain, O god nor do thou
;

destroy

it

II, 26.
I.

with the rays of the sun

Charm

for the prosperity of cattle.

come the cattle which have


distance, whose companionship Vayu

Hither shall

strayed to a

CHARMS TO SECURE PROSPERITY.

VII.

(the wind) enjoys

(The

cattle)

form Tvash/ar knows, Savitar

43

whose structure of

shall hold in place in

this stable!

To

2.

skilfully

shall

them

conduct

hither!

conduct hither their van


do thou,
Anumati, hold them in place after they have

Sinivali

stable the cattle shall flow tocrether,

this

Br/haspati

shall

arrived

May

3.

may

the cattle,

domestics flow together


grain flow together!

may

the horses, and

may

the

the increase of the

sacrifice

with an oblation

that causeth to flow together

pour together the milk of the cows, I pour


together strength and sap with the ghee.
Poured
together shall be our heroes, constant shall be the
cows with me the owner of the cows
4.

5.

bring hither the milk of the cows,

brought

hither

the

sap

of the

grain.

hither are our heroes, brought hither to


are our wives
Ill, 14.

With a

1.

Charm

I have
Brought
this house

for the prosperity of cattle,

firmly founded stable, with wealth, with

name of that which is born on


we unite you (O cattle)
May Aryaman unite you, may Pushan, Br/-

well-being, with the

a lucky day do
2.

haspati,

and Indra, the conqueror of booty, unite

Do ye prosper my possessions
Flocking together without fear, making ordure
in this stable, holding honey fit for soma, free from
disease, ye shall come hither
4. Right here come, ye cows, and prosper here
you

3.

like

the i-aka-bird

(your young)

May

And

right here

ye be

in

do ye beget

accord with

me

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

144
5.

May

your stable be auspicious to you, prosper

And right
ye like the ^ari-birds and parrots
With us do we
here do ye beget (your young)
!

unite you.
6.

Attach yourselves,

sessor

Upon

may

this stable

cows, to

me

as your pos-

here cause you to prosper

you, growing numerous, and living,

may

we,

increasing in wealth, alive, attend

VI,

Prayer to the plant arundhati for pro-

59.

tection to cattle.
1. Thy foremost protection, O Arundhati, do thou
bestow upon steer and milch-kine, upon (cattle of)
the age when weaned from their mother, upon (all)

four-footed creatures
2.

May

Arundhati, the herb, bestow protection

along with the gods, render


free from disease our men
3.
I

The

invoke.

70.

May

she carry away for

As

us, far

from the

hurled by Rudra

Charm

to secure the attachment of a

cow
1.

of sap the stable,

variegated, lovely, life-giving (plant) do

cattle, the missile

VI,

full

to her calf.

meat, and liquor, and dice (abound) at the

heart of the lusty male


hankers after the woman, thus shall thy heart, O
cow, hanker after the calf!

gambling-place,

2.

As

as

the

the elephant

directs

his

steps after

the

steps of the female, as the heart of the lusty male

hankers after the woman, thus shall thy heart,


cow, hanker after the calf!
3.

As

the

felloe,

and as the spokes, and as the

CHARMS TO SECURE PROSPERITY.

VII.

nave (of the wheel

is

Formula

Ill, 28.

45

joined) to the felloe, as the

woman,

heart of the lusty male hankers after the

thus shall thy heart,

cow, hanker after the calf!

expiation of the birth of

in

twin-calves.
1.

Through one creation at a time this (cow) was


when the fashioners of the beings did create
cows of many colours. (Therefore), when a

born,

the

cow doth beget twins

portentously, growling and

cross she injureth the cattle.

This (cow) doth injure our cattle a flesh-eater,


devourer, she hath become.
Hence to a Brahman
he shall give her in this way she may be kindly
and auspicious
3. Auspicious be to (our) men, auspicious to (our)
cows and horses, auspicious to this entire field,
2.

auspicious be to us right here


4.

Here be

here be sap!

prosperity,

Be thou

here

one

Make

the cattle prosper, thou mother of twins

5.

left

that

especially

gives

thousandfold

Where our pious friends live joyously, having


behind the ailments of their bodies, to that

world the mother of twins did attain

may

she not

men and our cattle


Where is the world of our

injure our

pious friends, where


them that sacrifice with the agnihotra,
may
to that world the mother of twins did attain
she not injure our men and our cattle
6.

the world of

Charm

VI, 92.
I.

Swift

joined

(to

[42]

as

to

the

endow

a horse with

wind be thou,

the chariot)

swiftness.

steed,

when

at Indra's urging go, fleet as

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

146

The

Maruts, the all-possessing, shall harness thee,Tvash/ar shall put fleetness into thy feet!
2. With the fleetness, O runner, that has been
the mind

deposited

in

thee in a secret place, (with the fleetness)

made over

that has been

moves

them, with

in

and

to the eagle, the wind,

that,

strong with

steed,

strength, do thou win the race, reaching the goal in

the contest
3.

run,

A
he

Thy
a

body,

pleasure

steed, leading (our) body, shall

ourselves,

to

to thyself!

delight

god, not stumbling, for the support of the great,


shall, as if

upon the heaven, found

Charm

Ill, 13.

his

own

light!

new

for conducting a river into a

channel.

Because of yore, when the (cloud-) serpent was


slain (by Indra), ye did rush forth and shout (ana(nadya/^
shouters
data), therefore is your name
that is your designation, ye streams
rivers ')
2. Because, when sent forth by Varu;2a, ye then
1

'

'

'

quickly did bubble up; then Indra

met (apnot) you,

as ye went, therefore anon are ye


'

waters

meeters

'

(apa^

')

When

3.

'

reluctantly ye flowed, Indra, forsooth,

did with might choose (avivarata) you as his own,

Therefore choice
ye goddesses
been given you as your name
'

'

One god

4.

ing to
are

will.

known

breather
5.

ghee.

as

The

water

has

')

stood upon you, as ye flowed accordUp breathed (ud anishu//) they who
'

the great

'

(mahi//).

(udakam water ') are they


'

'

(var

Therefore
called

truly,

up-

were
do support Agni and

waters are kindly, the waters in truth

These waters,

'

CHARMS TO SECURE PROSPERITY.

VI!.

May

Soma.

!!

!!

47

the readily flowing, strong sap of the

honey-dripping (waters) come to me, together with


hfe's

breath and histre

Then do

6.

see

them and

come

their sound, their voice doth

ye golden-coloured,
you, then

way

this

VI, 106.

Charm

Where thou

1.

is
!

by which

here,

to

hear them

When,

to me.

am

ween, ambrosia (amr/ta)

ye righteous ones

calf,

have refreshed myself with

Here, ye waters,

7.

do

also

your

heart,

tasting

here

is

your

Come ye, mighty ones, by


am conducting you here

ward

off

comest, (O

danger from

fire),

fire.

and where thou

goest away, the blooming durva-plant shall grow

a well-spring there shall rise up, or a lotus-laden pool

Here

2.

(shall

the gathering

be)

place of the

waters, here the dwelling-place of the sea!

midst of a pond our house shall be

turn,

In the

(O

fire),

away thy jaws


3. With a covering of coolness do we envelop
thee, O house
cool as a pond be thou for us Agni
shall furnish the remedy
!

IV,

3.

Shepnerd's charm against wild beasts and


robbers.

Three have gone away from here, the tiger,


man, and wolf. Out of sight, forsooth, go the
1.

rivers,

out

banyan-tree
2.

?)

move

the

divine tree (the

out of sight the enemies shall retreat

The 'wolf

robber one
shall

of sight (grows)

still

shall tread a distant path,

more

distant!

On

and the

a distant path

the biting rope (the serpent), on a distant

path the plotter of evil


L

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

148

Thy

3.

eyes and thy jaw

we

crush,

tiger,

and

also all thy twenty claws.

We

4.

crush the tiger, the foremost of animals,

armed with

Next, too, the

teeth.

thief,

and then

the serpent, the wizard, and also the wolf.

The

5.

thief that approacheth to-day, crushed to

Where

pieces he goeth away.

he

pitate

the paths are preci-

Indra shall slay him with his

shall go,

bolt

The

6.

teeth of the wild beast are dulled,

broken are his


shall

down

go,

Out

ribs.

tumble

shall

and

of thy sight the dragon


the

hare-hunting

beast

The

7.

(jaw,

beast,) that

thou shalt not open up

thou shuttest together,

that which thou openest up,

thou shalt not shut together!

Born of Indra, born

of Soma, thou, (my charm), art Atharvan's crusher


of tigers.

Ill, 15.

merchant's prayer.

Indra, the merchant, do

1.

summon: may he

come to us, may he be our van driving away the


demon of grudge, the waylayers, and wild beasts,
;

may

he, the possessor,

May

2.

the

many

bestow wealth upon

me

paths, the roads of the gods,

which come together between heaven and earth,

gladden

me

gather

wealth from

3.

ghee

in

Desirous do
offer

strength

my

4.

I,

oblations

my

may

purchases

Agni, with firewood

(to

thee),

for

success

and
and

according to ability praising (thee) with

prayer, do

iiain

milk and ghee, so that

with

sing this divine song, that

may

a hundredfold

(Pardon,

Agni,

this

sin

of ours [incurred

CHARMS TO SECURE

VII.

PROSI'ERITV.

I49

Upon] the far road which we have travelled !)


May
our purchases and our sales be successful for us;
may what I get in barter render me a gainer May
ye two (Indra and Agni) in accord take pleasure in
!

this oblation
May our transactions and the accruing gain be auspicious to us
!

The

wealth with which

go to purchase, deye gods, to gain wealth through wealth, may


that grow more, not less
Drive away, O Agni, in
5.

siring,

return for the oblation, the crods

The

6.

wealth with which

Indra, Pra^^apati, Savitar,

We

8.

and

Do

(in

ment

thou

the stable).

harm

IV, 38.

The

2.

priest (Agni)

if

we

bring (oblations to

fodder) to a horse stand-

we,

Agni, thy neighbours,

A. Prayer for success


successful,

of dice, do

The

lustre

In growth of wealth and nutri-

may

Apsara, that Apsara

game

may

over our children, selves,

breath watch

6^atavedas, (as

rejoicing,

not take

1.

life's

Daily, never failing, shall

thee),

ing

Soma, Agni, place

praise with reverence thee,

Vai^vanara.
cattle,

me

for

it

7.

shut off eain

to purchase, de-

ye gods, to gain wealth through wealth,

siring,

into

who
go

victorious,

who makes

in

gambling.

skilfully

gaming

the winnings in the

call hither.

gaming Apsara who sweeps and


stakes), that Apsara who takes the

skilfully

heaps up (the

game of dice, do I call hither.


3. May she, who dances about with
the dice,
when she takes the stakes from the game of dice,
when she desires to win for us, obtain the advantage
winnings

in the

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

150

by

(her)

dance

magic

May

she come to us

Let them not win

The

4.

grief
I

(Apsaras)

and wrath

who

that

this

of abun-

full

wealth of ours

rejoice in dice, w^ho carry

and exulting Apsara, do

joyful

call hither.

Prayer to secure the return of calves that

B.

have strayed

They

5.

who wander along


who wander along the

(the cattle)

of the sun, or they


light,

to a distance.

they whose bull (the sun),

may he

of strength, from

come

to us together with

atmosphere
6. Together with the atmosphere,

(of ghee) for thee

come

calf (karki) of thine,


7.

may

Here

hither

are

many

May

this

the

who

thou

thy mind, be here

calf,

drops

white

thou

who

of strength, protect the white (karki)

calf,

Together with the atmosphere,


full

of strength, protect the white (karki)

thou swift steed (the sun)

art

the

all

(the bull), full of strength, delight-

ing in this offering,

art full

flood of

day wanders about

afar protecting, with the

worlds

full

the rays

Here is the fodder,


we tie down the calf WhatHail
names, we own you.

thou swift steed (the sun)!

here the

stall,

here do

ever (are your)

VII,
1.

As

50.

Prayer for success at

the lightning at

the tree, thus would

gamesters with
2.

my

Whether they be

times smites irresistibly

to-day irresistibly beat the

dice

all

dice.

alert,

or not alert, the fortune

of (these) folks, unresisting, shall assemble from


sides, the gain (collect) within

my

hands

all

CHARMS TO SECURE PROSPERITY.

VII.

15!

invoke with reverence Agni, who has his


own riches here attached he shall heap up gain
for us
I
procure (wealth) for myself, as if with
chariots that win the race.
May I accomplish auspiciously the song of praise to the Maruts
I

3.

May we by

4.

troop
test

help us (to obtain) our share in every con-

Make

road

crush,

thy aid conquer the (adversary's)

for us,

a good and ample

Indra,

Maghavan, the

power of our

lusty

enemies
5.

have conquered and cleaned thee out

(?)

have also gained thy reserve. As the wolf plucks


to pieces the sheep, thus do I pluck thy winnings.
6. Even the strong hand the bold player conquers,
as the skilled gambler heaps up his winnings at
the proper time.
Upon him that loves the game
(the god), and does not spare his money, (the game,
the god) verily bestows the delights of wealth.
I

7.

Through

(the

would suppress

possession

of)

we

cattle

all

wretched poverty, or with


grain our hunger, O thou oft implored (god)
May
we foremost among rulers, unharmed, gain wealth
by our cunning devices
(our)

8.

my

Gain

is

horses, wealth,
9.

rich in

bow

and gold

right hand, victory in

conqueror of

milk

(is

Bind

me

cattle,

dice, yield play, profitable as a

cow

that

is

to a streak of gain, as the

bound) with the string

VI, 56.
I.

in my
me become a

deposited

Let

left.

May

Exorcism of serpents from the premises.


the serpent, ye gods, not slay us along

with our children and our

men

The

closed (jaw)

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

152
shall not

snap open, the open one not close

ence (be) to the divine folk

Rever-

Reverence be to the black serpent, reverence


the one that is striped across
To the brown

2.

to

sva^a reverence

reverence to the divine folk

3. I clap thy teeth upon thy teeth, and also thy


jaw upon thy jaw I press thy tongue against thy
tongue, and close up, O serpent, thy mouth.
;

X,

Charm

4.

against serpents, invoking the

horse of Pedu that slays serpents.

To

1.

Indra belongs the

chariot, to the

first

gods

the second chariot, to Varu?^a, forsooth, the third.

The

serpents' chariot

and come
the

tail

foot

shall hit a post,

it

darbha-grass burns (the serpents

of the horse, the

wagon

seat of the

tail

and thy hind-foot

?),

of the shaggy one, the

(burns the serpents

Strike down,

3.

the last

to grief!

The young

2.

is

?).

white (horse), with thy fore!

As

timber floating

the poison of the serpents, the fierce

in water,

fluid, is

devoid

of strenorth.

Neighing loudly he dived down, and, again


As timber floating in water, the
poison of the serpents, the fierce fluid, is devoid of
4.

diving up, said

strength.'

The

5.

horse

of Pedu slays the kasar;^ila, the

horse of Pedu slays the white (serpent), and also


the black.

The

horse of Pedu cleaves the head of

the ratharvi, the adder.

6.

thee

horse of Pedu, go thou

Thou

we come

shalt cast out the serpents

road upon which


7.

first

we come

after

from the

Here the horse of Pedu was born

from here

CHARMS TO SECURE

VII.

is

his departure.

killing,

15^

are the tracks of the serpent-

powerful steed

May

8.

Here

PROSI'ERITY.

the closed (serpent's jaw) not snap open,

may

the open one not close

this

field,

man and

wife,

The two

serpents

in

they are both bereft of

strength.

Without strength here are the serpents, those


that are near, and those that are far.
With a club
do I slay the vr/^/ika (scorpion), with a staff the
9.

serpent that has approached.


10.

Here

is

the sva^a!

the

remedy

for

both the aghajrva and

Indra (and) Pedu's horse have put to

naught the evil-planning (aghayantam) serpent.


11. The horse of Pedu do we remember, the
strong, with strong footing: behind lie, staring forth,
these adders.

Deprived are they of life's


poison, slain by Indra with his
slain them
we have slain them.
12.

spirit,

bolt.

deprived of
Indra hath

13.

Slain are they that are striped across, crushed

are the adders

Slay thou the one that produces


a hood, (slay) the white and the black in the darbhagrass
14.

The maiden

of the Kirata-tribe, the

digs up the remedy, with golden

little

spades, on

one
the

mountain's back.
15.

slays

Hither has come a youthful physician


speckled (serpent), is irresistible.

the

he
He.

and the vrzs^ika. both.


Indra did set at naught for me the serpent,
(and so did) Mitra and Varu;^a, Vata and Par^anya

forsooth, crushes the sva^'a


16.

both.
17.

Indra did set at naught for

me

the serpent,

the adder, male and female, the sva^a, (the serpent)

!
!

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

154
that

striped

is

the

across,

and

kasar;/ila,

the

dai'onasi.
1

Indra slew thy

8.

be

theirs
19.

man

what strength,

and

serpent,

forsooth, can

have gathered up

their heads, as the fisher-

I
(fish).
have gone off into the
and washed out the serpent's poison.

the karvara

river's midst,

The

20.

poison of

crushed are the adders

As

21.

serpents the rivers shall

all

Slain are they that are striped across,

carry off!

ancestor,

first

since they are crushed,

skilfully

guide the mares,

cull

(thus),

the fibre of the plants, as

serpent, shall thy poison

go away

The

22.

poison that

is

in the fire, in the sun, in

the earth, and in the plants, the kanda-poison, the

kanaknaka, thy poison shall go

The

23.

forth,

and come

serpents that are sprung from the

that are sprung from

fire,

the plants, that are sprung

from the water, and originate from the lightning


they from whom great brood has sprung in many
;

ways, those serpents do

Thou

24.

name
is

art,

(O

we

plant),

Ghn'ia/d, forsooth,

thy place

revere with obeisance.

is

maiden, Taudi by

thy name.

Underfoot

take in hand what destroys the

poison.
25.
it

From

every limb

out from the heart

poison shall go
26.

shut

The
it

out

make

Now

the poison start

shut

the force that is in

thy

down below

he has
he has fused the poison with poison.

poison has gone to a distance


;

Agni has put away the poison of the serpent, Soma


The poison has gone back to the
has led it out.
biter.

The

serpent

is

dead

VII.

XI,

CHARMS TO SECURE PROSPERITY.

!!

55

Prayer to Bhava and ^'arva for protection

2.

from

dansfers.

Bhava and 6arva, be

do not attack
reverence be
to you twain
Discharge not your arrow even after
it has been laid on (the bow), and has been drawn
Destroy not our bipeds and our quadrupeds
2. Prepare not our bodies for the dog, or the
1.

(us)

merciful,

ye lords of beings, lords of

cattle,

jackal
birds

for the aliklavas, the vultures,

Thy greedy

insects,

and the black

lord of cattle (pa^u-

and thy birds shall not get us to devour


Reverence
we offer, O Bhava, to thy roaring,
3.
to thy breath, and to thy injurious qualities
reverence to thee, O Rudra, thousand-eyed, impate),

mortal
4.

We

offer

reverence to thee from the east, from

the north, and from the south

and from heaven.


5.

To

thy

face,

from (every) domain,


Reverence be to thy atmosphere

lord

of

cattle,

to

thy eyes,

Bhava, to thy skin, to thy form, thy appearance,

(and to thy aspect) from behind, reverence be


6.

thy

To thy limbs, to thy


mouth, to thy teeth,

thy tongue, to

belly, to

to

thy

smell

(nose),

reverence be
7.

May we

with the dark


the slayer of
8. Bhava
Bhava shall

May
to

not conflict with


crest,

Rudra, the archer

the thousand-eyed, powerful one,

Ardhaka

shall steer clear

from us on

all

sides,

steer clear from us, as fire from water

he not bear malice towards us reverence be


him
9. Four times, eight times, be reverence to Bhava,
:

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

T56

ten times be reverence to thee,

To

!
:

lord of cattle

thy (charge) have been assigned

(kinds

of)

cattle

cows,

these

five

men, goats and

horses,

sheep.
10.

Thine,

strong god (ngra),

are

the

four

thine the earth, and thine


broad atmosphere thine is this all that has
a spirit and has breath upon the earth.
1 1
Thine is this broad, treasure-holding receptacle
within which all worlds are contained.
Do thou
regions, thine the sky,
this

spare us,

lord of cattle

reverence be to thee

Far from us shall go the jackals, evil omens, dogs


go (the mourning women) who bewail mis;

far shall

fortune with dishevelled hair


12.

Thou,

crested (god), earnest in (thy hand),

that smites thousands, a yellow, golden

hundreds
flies

tion

abroad reverence be to
from here (it flies)
:

13.

come

bow that

slays

Rudra's arrow, the missile of the gods,


it,

in

whatever direc-

The adversary who


thee,

lurks and seeks to overRudra, upon him thou dost fasten

thyself from behind, as (the hunter) that follows the


trail

wounded (animal).
Bhava and Rudra,

of a

14.

united

and concordant,

both strong (ugrau), ye advance to deeds of heroism


reverence be to both of them,
(they are) from here
15.

Reverence be

in

whatever direction

to thee coming, reverence to

thee going; reverence,

Rudra, be to thee standing,

and reverence, also, to thee sitting


16. Reverence in the evening, reverence in the
morning, reverence by night, reverence by day I have
offered reverence to Bhava and to 6"arva, both.
!

7.

Let us not with our tongue

off^end

Rudra, who

rushes on, thousand-eyed, overseeing


(his shafts) forward,

We

horses,
casts
19.

!!

CHARMS TO SECURE PROSPERITY.

VII,

18.

approach
black,

is

down

who

hurls

the (god) that has dark


destructive,

the car of Ke^^in

Do

who

57

manifoldly wise

is

first

sable,

all,

terrible,

who

reverence be to him

not hurl at us thy club, thy divine bolt;

be not incensed at us, O lord of cattle


Shake over
some other than us the celestial branch
!

20.

Injure us not, interpose for us, spare us, be

not angry with us


21.

Let us not contend with thee


not covet our cattle, our men, our goats

Do

and sheep
Bend thy course elsewhere, O strong
(ugra),
god
slay the offspring of the blasphemers
22. He whose missile, fever and cough, assails
!

the single (victim), as the snorting of a stallion,

snatches

away

(his victims)

one by one,

to

who

him be

reverence
23.

He

M^ho dwells fixed in the atmosphere, smit-

god that do not sacrifice,


him be reverence with ten j-akvari-stanzas
24. For thee the wild beasts of the forest have

ing the blasphemers of the


to

been placed in the forest


of prey, and fowls.
Thy

flamingoes, eagles, birds


spirit,

lord of cattle,

is

within the waters, to strengthen thee the heavenly

waters flow.
25.

The

dolphins, great serpents (boas), purikayas

(water-animals),

sea-monsters,

ra^asas,

fishes,

at

which thou shootest there exists for thee, O Bhava,


no distance, and no barrier. At a glance thou lookest
around the entire earth
from the eastern thou
;

slayest in the northern ocean.


26.

Do

not,

Rudra. contaminate us with fever,

or with poison, or with heavenly

fire

cause this

lightning to descend elsewhere than upon us

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

158

Bhava

27.

Bhava has
be to him

Bhava

rules the sky,

filled

in

rules the earth

the broad atmosphere.

Reverence

whatever direction from

here

(he

abides)
28.

king Bhava, be merciful to thy worshipper,

He who

thou art the lord of living beasts!

for

believes the gods exist, to his quadruped and biped

be merciful
Slay neither our great nor our small

29.

neither

those of us that are riding, nor those that shall ride

Cause no

neither our father, nor our mother.

injury,

Rudra, to our own persons


30.

To

made
31.

who swallow their


who have wide jaws, I have

Rudra's howling dogs,

food without blessing,


this obeisance.

Reverence,

reverence

thy

to

god, be to thy shouting hosts,


long-haired,

reverence

to

reverenced, reverence to thy devouring hosts

thy

May

well-being and security be to us

Prayer to Bhava and 6arva for

IV, 28.

protection from calamities.


1.

Take

Bhava and 6arva,

am

devoted to you.

note of that, ye under whose control

which shines (the visible universe)


all

2.

ful

Ye who

this

rule

these two-footed and four-footed creatures, deliver

us from calamity

all

is all

Ye

that

to
Is

archers

whom

belongs

is

near by, yea,

who are known as


among bowmen ye who

the most skil-

far

all

that

ye

rule

all

these

two-footed and four-footed creatures, deliver us from


calamity
3.

The thousand-eyed

slayers of

Vmra

both do

!!

VII.

CHARMS TO SECURE PROSPERITY.

59

I invoke.
I go praising the two strong gods (ugrau)
whose pastures extend far. Ye who rule all these
two-footed and four-footed creatures, deliver us from

calamity

Ye

who, united, did undertake many (deeds) of


and, moreover, did visit portents upon the
people
ye who rule all these two-footed and fourfooted creatures, deliver us from calamity
5. Ye from whose blows no one either among
gods or men escapes
ye who rule all these two4.

old,

footed and four-footed creatures, deliver


calamity

The

6.

sorcerer

who

prepares a

spell,

from

us

or manipu-

lates the roots (of plants) against us, against him,

ye strong gods, launch your thunderbolt


rule

Ye who

these two-footed and four-footed creatures,


deliver us from calamity.
all

Ye

7.

strong gods, favour us in battles, bring into

contact with your thunderbolt the Kimidin

you,

distress

Bhava and
:

VII,
1.

On

^'arva, call fervently

deliver us from calamity

9.

Charm

praise

upon you

in

for finding lost property.

the distant path of the paths Pushan was

born, on the distant path of heaven, on the distant


path of the earth.
Upon the two most lovely places

both he walks hither and away, knowing (the way).

Pushan knows these regions all he shall lead


by the most dangerless (way). Bestowing well-

2.

us

of radiant glow, keeping our heroes undi-

being,

minished, he shall, alert and


3.

harm
4.

O
:

skilful,

go before us

may we never
we here

Pushan, under thy law


as praisers of thee are

Pushan

shall

suffer

from the east place his right hand

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

l60

about
lost

we

shall

VI, 128.
1.

bring again to us what has been

shall

US,

come upon what has been

lost

Propitiation of the weather-prophet.

When

the stars

made 6'akadhuma

they bestowed good weather upon him

their king
*

This

shall

be his dominion,' they said.


us have good weather at noon, good
2. Let
weather at eve, good weather in the early morning,
good weather in the night
3. For day and night, for the stars, for sun and
moon, and for us prepare good weather, O king

^akadhuma

To

vSakadhuma, ruler of the stars, that


gavest us good weather in the evening, in the night,
and by day, let there ever be obeisance
4.

XI,

thee,

Prayer for deliverance from calamity,

6,

addressed to the entire pantheon.

N
1.

To Agni we

speak and to the

plants and to the herbs

Surya

to Indra,

trees,

to the

Brz'haspati,

they shall deliver us from calamity

and

We

speak to king Varu;za, to Mitra, Vish^m


and Bhaga. To Amssi and Vivasvant do we speak
they shall deliver us from calamity
2.

3.

We speak

Pushan

to Savitar, the god, to Dhatar,

to first-born

Tvash/ar do we speak

and
:

to

they

from calamity
speak
to the Gandharvas and the Apsaras,
We
4.
to the Ai"vins and to Brahma^mspati, to the god
whose name is Aryaman they shall deliver us from

shall deliver us

calamity
5.

Now

do we speak

to

day and

night, to 3<^rya

!!
!

and

CHARMS TO SECURE PROSPERITY.

VII.

(sun)

A'andramas (moon), the twain

to

l6l

to all

we speak

the Adityas

they shall deliver us from

calamity

We

6.

speak to Vata (wind) and Par^anya, to the

atmosphere and the directions of space. And to all


we speak they shall deliver us from

the regions do

calamity

Day and

7.

and Ushas (dawn),

night,

deliver thee from curses

To

8.

Soma the god, whom


me

Alindramas (moon),

call

too, shall

they

shall deliver

the animals of the earth and those of heaven,

winged birds,
do we speak they shall deliver us from calamity
9. Now do we speak to Bhava and ^'arva, to Rudra
and Pai^upati their arrows do we know well these
(arrows) shall be ever propitious to us
10. We speak to the heavens, and the stars, to
earth, the Yakshas, and the mountains
to the seas,
the rivers, and the lakes
they shall deliver us from
to the wild beasts of the forest, to the
:

calamity
1

1.

To

now do we

speak, to the

To

the Fathers with

?>

they shall

deliver us from

the seven ^/shis

divine waters and Praf-apati.

Yama

at their

head

calamity
12.

The gods

that dwell in heaven,

dwell in the atmosphere

and those that

the mighty (gods) that

are fixed upon the earth, they shall deliver us from

calamity
13.

vans

The

Adityas, Rudras,Vasus, the divine Athar-

heaven, and the wise Angiras

in

deliver us from calamity


14.

We

speak to the

they shall

sacrifice

and the

sacrificer, to

the riks, the samans, and the healing (Atharvan)

charms

[42]

we speak

to

the ya^us-formulas and the

!!

:
;

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

62

invocations (to the gods)

they shall deliver us from

calamity
15.

We

speak to the

with soma the most

kingdoms of the plants

five

darbha-grass, hemp, and mighty barley


deliver us from calamity
16.

We

speak to the Arayas (demons of grudge),


and Fathers to the

one and a hundred deaths


from calamity

To

they shall

Rakshas, serpents, pious men,

17.

The

among them.

excellent

the seasons

we

they shall deliver us

speak, to the lords of the

seasons, and

to the sections of the year

years, years,

and months

to the half-

they shall deliver us from

calamity

Come, ye gods, from the south and the west


From the east, from
ye gods in the east come forth
18.

the north the mighty gods,

all

the gods assembled

they shall deliver us from calamity


19. 20.

We

speak here to

all

the gods that hold to

their agreements,

promote the order

together with

their wives

all

from calamity
21. We speak to being,

(of the universe),

they shall deliver us

also to
all

him that

assembled
22.

The

to the lord of being,

controls the beings

and

to the beings

they shall deliver us from calamity

five

divine regions, the twelve divine

seasons, the teeth of the year, they shall ever be


propitious to us
23.

The am;7ta (ambrosia), bought for

the price of

a chariot, which Matali knows as a remedy, that Indra


stored

ye as

away in the waters


a remedy
!

that,

O ye waters,

furnish

VIII.

CHARMS

IN EXPIATION OF SIN

Prayer against mental delinquency.

VI, 45.
1.

AND DEFILEMENT.

Pass far away,

sin of the

thou utter things not to be uttered


I

love thee not

With
2.

To

Why

mind!
?

dost

Pass away,

the trees, the forests go on

the house, the cattle,

is

my

mind.

What wrongs we have committed

through

imprecation, calumny, and false speech, either awake,


or

asleep

Agni

shall

put

far

away from us

all

offensive evil deeds


3.

may

What,

Pra/'etas

Indra Brahma/^aspati,
('

care-taker

from misfortune, and from

VI,

26.

')

we do

Ahgirasa

falsely

protect

us

evil

Charm

to avert evil.

Let me go, O evil; being powerful, take thou


on us
Set me, O evil, unharmed, into the
world of happiness
2. If, O evil, thou dost not abandon us, then do
we abandon thee at the fork of the road. May evil
follow after another (man)
3. Away from us may thousand-eyed, immortal
(evil) dwell
Him whom we hate may it strike, and
him whom we hate do thou surely smite
1.

pity

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

164

VI, 114,

Expiatory formula for imperfections

in

the sacrifice.

The god-angering

(deed),

ye gods, that we,

the (Brahman) gods, have committed, from that do


ye,

Adityas, release us, by virtue of the order of

the universe
2.

By

virtue of the order of the universe do ye,


A

reverend Adityas, release us here,

of the sacrifice,

ye carriers
though desirous of accomplishing
if,

we did not accomplish (it)


3. (If), when sacrificing with the fat (animal), when
offering oblations of ghee with the spoon, when
desiring to benefit you, O all ye gods, we have
(the sacrifice),

contrary to desire, not succeeded

VI, 115.

Expiatory formulas for

sins.

1. From the sins which knowingly or unknowingly


we have committed, do ye, all gods, of one accord,

release us
2.

If

awake, or

if

asleep, to sin inclined,

have

committed a sin, may what has been, and what shall


be, as if from a wooden post, release me
3. As one released from a wooden post, as one in
a sweat by bathing (is cleansed) of filth, as ghee is
clarified by the sieve, may all (the gods) clear me
from sin
!

VI, 112.

Expiation for the precedence of a


younger brother over an older.

I.

May

this

O Agni protect him that he be not


by the root
Do thou here cunningly

one of them,
torn out

(younger brother) not slay the oldest


;

!!

VIII.

CHARMS

!!

IN EXPIATION OF SIN ETC.

165

loosen the fetter of Grahi (attack of disease)

may

orods o
orlve thee leave
all the o

Free these three, O Agni, from the three fetters


with which they have been shackled
Do thou
2.

cunningly loosen the fetters of Grahi

release

them

and mother
with which the older brother, whose
younger brother has married before him, has been
bound, with which he has been encumbered and
shackled limb by limb, may they be loosened since
all,

father, sons,

3.

The fetters

fit

for loosening they are

Wipe

off,

Pushan, the

misdeeds upon him that practiseth abortion


VI, 113.
1.

On

wiped

it

Expiation for certain heinous crimes.

Tr/ta the gods wiped off


off

on human beings

of disease) has seized thee,

her by means of their charm


2.

Enter

may

into

the

Tma

Grahi (attack

these gods remove

O sin go into
Lose thyself on

smoke,

fog

Wipe

the foam of the river!

if

into the rays, into

the vapours, and

hence

this sin,

off,

Pushan, the

misdeeds upon him that practiseth abortion


3. Deposited in twelve places is that which has

been wiped

off Tr/ta, the sins

Hence if Grahi has


remove her by means
VI, 120.

belonging to humanity.

seized thee,
of their

may

these gods

charm

Prayer for heaven after remission of


sins.

and heaven, if mother or father,


we have injured, may this Agni Garhapatya (household fire) without fail lead us out from this (crime)
I.

If air, or earth

to the world of well-doing

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

66
2.

The

earth

is

our mother, Aditi (the universe)

our kin, the air our protector from hostile schemes.

May father sky bring prosperity to us


of the Fathers may I come to my

from the world

and not

(departed) kin,

heaven
3. In that bright world where our pious friends live
in joy, having cast aside the ailments of their own
bodies, free from lameness, not deformed in limb,
there may we behold our parents and our children
lose

VI, 27.

Charm

against pigeons regarded as

ominous
1.

ye gods,

birds.

the pigeon, despatched as the

if

messenger of Nirr/ti

(the

goddess of destruction),

hath come here seeking (us


praises,

and prepare

out),

we

(our) ransom.

shall sing his

May

our two-

footed and four-footed creatures be prosperous


2. Auspicious to us shall be the pigeon that has
been despatched harmless, ye gods, the bird shall
be to our house
The sage Agni shall verily take
pleasure in our oblation the winged missile shall
;

avoid us
3.

The winged

missile shall not do us injury

upon our hearth, our


his steps

fireplace

he (the pigeon) takes

Propitious he shall be to our cattle and

our domestics

may

not,

ye gods, the pigeon here

do harm to us

Charm

VI, 29.
I.

Upon

shall fall
if

against ominous pigeons and owls.

those persons yonder the winged missile


If the

owl shrieks,

futile shall this be,

the pigeon takes his steps upon the

fire

or

To

CHARMS

VIII.

2.

!;

IN EXPIATION OF SIN ETC.

thy two messengers,

Nirrni,

67

who come

here, despatched or not despatched, to our house, to

the pigeon and to the owl, this shall be no place to


step upon
3.

He

shall not fly hither to slaughter (our)

men

keep (our) men sound he shall settle here Charm


him very far away unto a distant region, that (people)
shall behold you (i.e. him) in Yama's house devoid of
strength, that they shall behold you bereft of power
to

VII, 64.

Expiation when one

is

by a

defiled

black bird of omen.

What this black bird flying forth towards (me)


has dropped here may the waters protect me from
1.

all

that misfortune
2.

What

mouth,

and

evil

this black bird

O Nirmi (goddess

has brushed here with thy


of misfortune)

Garhapatya (the god of the household


from this sin
VI, 46.

Exorcism of

evil

may Agni

fire)

free

me

dreams.

1. Thou
who art neither alive nor dead, the
immortal child of the gods art thou, O Sleep!
Varu/^ani is thy mother, Yama (death) thy father,
Araru is thy name.

We

2.
know,
Sleep, thy birth, thou art the son
of the divine women-folk, the instrument of Yama

(death)

Thou

art the ender,

do we know thee, O Sleep


us from evil dreams

As one pays

thou art death

do thou,

Thus

Sleep, protect

an eighth, or an
(entire) debt, thus do we transfer every evil dream
upon our enemy.
3.

off a sixteenth,

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

68

VII, 115.
istics,

Charm for the removal of evil characterand the acquisition of auspicious ones.

Fly forth from here, O evil mark, vanish from


Upon him that
here, fly forth to yonder place
hates us do we fasten thee with a brazen hook.
2. The unsavoury mark which flying has alighted
upon me, as a creeper upon a tree, that mayest thou
put away from us, away from here, O golden-handed
(golden-rayed) Savitar (the sun), bestowing goods
1.

upon us
3. Together with the body of the mortal, from
his birth, one and a hundred marks are born.
Those that are most foul do we drive away from
here

the auspicious ones,

thou hold

(9atavedas (Agni), do

fast for us

These (marks) here I have separated, as cows


upon the heather. The pure marks shall
remain, the foul ones I have made to disappear
4.

scattered

IX.

PRAYERS AND IMPRECATIONS IN THE INTEREST


OF THE BRAHMANS.
V,

Imprecation against the oppressors of

8.

Brahmans.

The

1.

gods,

Do

king, did not give to thee this

devour the
cow of the Brahma/^a, which is unfit to be eaten
2. The
prince, beguiled by dice, the wretched
one who has lost as a stake his own person, he may,
(cow) to eat.

perchance, eat the


'

let

me

3.

Enveloped

of the

4.

(if)

do

not to-morrow

(thinking),

'

she) in her skin, as an adder

(is

Brahma;^a

prince, seek to

cow of the Brahma;^a,

live to-day

with evil poison

that

not,

not,

sapless,

prince, (eat the


unfit

to

cow)

be eaten,

is

cow

Away

does (the Brahma;ea) take regal power,


like fire which has caught does

destroys vigour

He that regards the


he burn away everything.
Brahma/^a as fit food drinks of the poison of the
taimata-serpent.

He who

5.

him,

slays

thinks

he who

him

(the

reviles

Brahman)

the

gods,

mild,
lusts

and
after

wealth, without thought, in his heart Indra kindles

fire

him both heaven and earth hate while he

lives.
6.

The Brahma;za must

not be encroached upon,

lyO

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

any more than fire, by him that regards his own body!
For Soma is his (the Brahma;^a's) heir, Indra protects
him from hostile plots.

He

swallows her (the cow), bristling with a


hundred hooks, (but) is unable to digest her, he,
7.

the fool who, devouring the food of the Brahmans,


thinks,

'

am

eating a luscious (morsel).'

(The Brahman's) tongue turns into a bowstring, his voice into the neck of an arrow
his
windpipe, his teeth are bedaubed with holy fire
8.

Brahman strikes those who revile


means of bows that have the strength
to reach the heart, discharged by the gods.
9. The Brahma;eas have sharp arrows, are armed

with these the


the gods, by

with missiles, the arrow which they hurl goes not


in vain
pursuing him with their holy fire and their
;

wrath, even from afar, do they pierce him.

They who ruled over a thousand, and were


themselves ten hundred, the Vaitahavya, when they
10.

devoured the cow of the Brahma;^a, perished.


11.

The cow

down upon

the

themselves the

when slaughtered, came


Vaitahavyas, who had roasted for
herself,

Kesaraprabandha.
12. The one hundred and one persons whom the
earth did cast off, because they had injured the
offspring of a Brahma?^a, were ruined irretrievably.
1

3.

As

last she-goat of

a reviler of the gods does he live

among

mortals, having swallowed poison, he becomes more


bone (than flesh). He that injureth a Brahma/^a,
whose kin are the gods, does not reach heaven by

the road of the Fathers.


14.

Agni

is

called

Indra slays those


(sages) know.

who

our guide.
curse (us):

Soma

our

heir,

that the strong

PRAYERS AND IMPRECATIONS FOR BRAHMANS.

IX.

Like

15.

adder,

poisoned

lord of cattle,

Brahma/^a

arrow,

is

king,

an

the terrible arrow of the

with that he smites those

like

who

revile

(the gods).

V,

Imprecation against the oppressors of

19.

Brahmans.
1.

short

Beyond measure they waxed


of touching

the

strong, just

When

heavens.

they

fringed upon Bh;7gu they perished, the

fell

in-

SmT^aya

Vaitahavyas.
2.

The

persons

who

pierced Br/hatsaman, the

descendant of Aiigiras, the Brahma;^a

two rows of
3.

teeth, a

They who

spat

a ram with
sheep devoured their offspring.

upon the Brahma;/a, who desired

tribute from him, they sit in the middle of a pool of

blood, chewing hair.


4.

The cow

of the Brahman,

when

roasted, as far

as she reaches does she destroy the lustre of the

kingdom

no lusty hero

is

born (there).

cruel (sacrilegious) deed is her slaughter,


5.
her meat, when eaten, is sapless when her milk
is drunk, that surely is accounted a crime against
the Fathers.
;

6.

When

sires to

the king, weening himself mighty, dedestroy the Brahma7^a, then royal power is

where the Brahma;^a is oppressed.


Becoming eight-footed, four-eyed, four-eared,

dissipated,
7.

four-jawed, two-mouthed, two-tongued,

she dispels
the rule of the oppressor of the Brahman.
8. That (kingdom) surely she swamps, as water
a leaking ship misfortune strikes that kingdom, in
which they injure a Brahma7/a.
;

9.

The

trees chase

away with

the words

'
:

do not

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

172

come within our

shade,'

him who covets the wealth


O Narada

that belongs to a Brahma^^a,

King Varu/ea pronounced

10.

this (to be) poison,

no one who has devoured


the cow of a Brahma;^a retains the charge of a
kingdom.
11. Those full nine and ninety whom the earth
prepared by the gods

did cast

off,

because they had injured the offspring

of a Brahma;2a, were ruined irretrievably.

The

12.

away the

kudi-plant

(Christ's

thorn)

that

wipes

track (of death), which they fasten to the

dead, that very one,

gods did declare

The

(to be)

oppressor of Brahmans, the


thy couch.

which have rolled from (the eyes


of) the oppressed (Brahman), as he laments, these
very ones, O oppressor of Brahmans, the gods did
13.

tears

assign to thee as thy share of water.

The water

14.

with which they bathe the dead,

with which they moisten his beard, that very one,

oppressor of Brahmans, the gods did assign to

thee as thy share of water.

The

15.

rain

of Mitra

and Varuna. does not


the assembly

moisten the oppressor of Brahmans


is

not complacent for him, he does not guide his

friend according to his will.

V,

Prayer to appease Arati, the

7.

demon

of

grudge and avarice.


do not stand In our way,
O Arati do not keep from us the sacrificial reward
Adoration be to the
as It is being taken (to us)
power of grudge, the power of failure, adoration to
I.

Bring (wealth) to

us,

Arati

!!

PRAYERS AND IMPRECATIONS FOR BRAIIMANS.

IX.

To

2.

thy advising minister,

make

didst

thy agent, do

not bring failure to

May

3.

my

wish

our wish, instilled

by day and night

We

whom

we make

73

thou, Arati,

obeisance.

Do

by the gods, be fulfilled


go in quest of Arati.

Adoration be to Arati
Sarasvati (speech),

4.

words
have spoken on the occasions when the gods were

we go

(fortune)
I

Anumati (favour), and Bhaga

to invoke.

Pleasant, honied,

invoked.

Him whom

5.

implore with Va^^ Sarasvati (the

goddess of speech), the yoke-fellow of thought,


shall find to-day, bestowed by the brown soma
6. Neither our wish nor our speech do thou
trate

Do

May

ye

ofain

to-day desire to

make

gifts to us

favour with Arati

Go

7.

avert.

frus-

Indra and Agni both bring us wealth!

who

all

faith

far

away, failure

know

Thy

missile

do we

thee (to be) oppressive and piercing,

Arati
8.

Thou

dost even transform thyself into a naked

woman, and attach


frustrating,

thyself to people in their sleep,

Arati, the thought

and intention of

man,

To

her who, great, and of great dimension,


did penetrate all the regions, to this golden-locked
Nirr/ti (goddess of misfortune), I have rendered
9.

obeisance.

the gold-complexioned, lovely one, who


rests upon golden cushions, to the great one, to
10.

To

that Arati

obeisance.

who wears golden

robes,

have rendered

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

174

XII,

The

4.

necessity of giving

away

sterile

cows to the Brahmans.


1.

'

give,'

he

shall surely say,

the begging Brahmans'

'

the sterile

cow

to

and they have noted her

that brings progeny and offspring


2. With his offspring does he trade, of his cattle
he deprived, that refuses to give the cow of the
gods to the begging descendants of the 7?/shis.
3. Through (the gift of) a cow with broken horns
his (cattle) breaks down, through a lame one he
tumbles into a pit, through a mutilated one his
house is burned, through a one-eyed one his property
is

is

given away.

Flow of blood attacks the cattle-owner from


the spot where her dung is deposited
this under4.

standing there

is

about the

va.sa.

for thou (sterile cow) art said to

(the sterile cow)

be very

difficult to

deceive
5.

From

the resting-place of her feet the (disease)

called viklindu overtakes (the owner, or the cattle).

Without sickness breaks down


sniffs upon with her nose.
6.

He

(the cattle) which she

that pierces her ears

He

the gods.

thinks

'
:

is

estranged from

am making

mark (upon

he diminishes his own property.


any
one for whatsoever purpose cuts her
7.
tail then do his colts die, and the wolf tears his

her),'

(but)

If

calves.
8.
is

If a

crow has injured her

hair, as

long as she

with her owner then do his children die

decline

overtakes them without (noticeable) sickness.


9.

If the serving-maid

sweeps together her dung.

PRAYERS AND IMPRECATIONS FOR BRAHMANS.

IX.

75

that bites as lye, there arises from this sin disfigurement that passeth not away.

The

10.

cow

sterile

in

her very birth

the gods and Brahma;ms.

she

to be given

is

own

security of one's

that,

Hence

is

to the

born for

Brahmans

they say, guarantees the

property.

For those that come requesting her the cow


been created by the gods.
Oppression of
Brahmans it is called, if he keeps her for himself.
11.

has

He that refuses to give the


the descendants of the J^ishis

12.

to

upon

infringes

the

gods,

cow of the o-ods


who ask for it,

and the wrath of the

Brahma;^as.

Though he

13.

derives benefit from this sterile

cow, another (cow) then shall he seek

she injures

(his) folk, if

he refuses

When

kept

to give her after

she has been asked for

The

14.

sterile

the Brahma;/as

soever she
15.

is

as a treasure deposited for


they come here for her, with whomis

born.

The Brahma;^as come

when they come


her

cow

here

for

as though he were oppressing

is,

their

The

for the sterile cow.

own,

refusal of

them

in

other

concerns.
If she

herds up to her third year, and no


discovered in her, and he finds her to be
a sterile cow, O Narada, then must he look for the
16.

disease

is

Brahma/<jas.
17.

If

he denies that she

is sterile,

a treasure de-

posited for the gods, then

Bhava and ^arva, both,


come upon him, and hurl their arrow upon him.
18. Though he does not perceive upon her either
udder, or

tits,

yet both yield him milk,

prevailed upon himself to give

away

if

he has

the sterile cow.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

176
19.

to cheat, she oppresses him,

Hard

when

if,

he refuses to give her. His desires are


not fulfilled, if he aims to accomplish them without
giving her away.
20. The gods did ask for the sterile cow, making

asked

the

for,

Brahma;^a their mouthpiece.

The man

that

does not give (her) enters into the wrath of all of


these.
21.

Into the wrath of the cattle enters he that

oives not the sterile

cow

to the

Brahma;^as

if

he,

the mortal, appropriates the share deposited for the


ofods.

22.

owner

hundred other Brahma?^as beg the


the sterile cow, yet the gods did say
The cow belongs to him that knoweth

Even
for

anent her

if

'

thus.'

23.

He

that refuses the sterile

cow

to

him that

knoweth thus, and gives her to others, difficult to


dwell upon is for him the earth with her divinities.
24. The gods did beg the sterile cow of him with
whom she was born at first. That very one Narada
recognised and drove forth in company with the
oods.
25.

The

sterile

cow renders

childless,

and poor

in

him that yet appropriates her, when she has


been begged for by the Brahma;^as.
26. For Agni and Soma, for Kama, for Mitra, and
for Varu;/a, for these do the Brahma;ms beg her
cattle,

upon these he
27.

As

infringes,

if

he gives her

the stanzas referring to (the giving

she

may herd among


may she

his cattle

heard (them)
28.

He

not.

long as the owner does not himself hear

away

(only)

pass the night

if

of) her,

he has not

in his

house.

that has listened to the stanzas, yet has

PRAYERS AND IMPRECATIONS FOR BRAHMANS.

IX.

permitted her to herd

among

the cattle, his

life

77

and

prosperity the angry gods destroy.


29.
is

The

cow, even

sterile

when she rambles

a treasure deposited for the gods.

when thou

thy true nature

freely,

Make

evident

go

to thy

desirest to

(proper) stable

She makes evident her nature when she


desires to go to her (proper) stable.
Then indeed
the sterile cow puts it into the minds of the Brahmans
to beg (for her).
31. She evolves it in her mind, that (thought)
reaches the gods.
Then do the Brahmans come to
beg for the sterile cow.
32. The call svadha befriends him with the
Fathers, the sacrifice with the gods.
Through the
gift of the sterile cow the man of royal caste incurs
30.

not the anger of

The

33.

(her), his

sterile

royal caste: thus

cow
was

mother.

is

the mother of the

it

from the beginning.

said to be no (real) deprivation

if

she

is

man

of

It

is

given to the

Brahmans.

As

34.

Agni

if

(the

he were to rob the ghee ladled up for


from the (very) spoon, thus, if he

fire)

gives not the sterile cow to the Brahmans, does he


infringe
35.

upon Agni.

The

sterile

cake) for her


this world,

her

(to the

The

calf,

cow has the puro^a^^a

(sacrificial

she yields plentiful milk, helps

and fulfils all wishes


Brahmans).

for

in

him that gives

cow fulfils all wishes in the kinghim that gives her. But they say
that hell falls to the lot of him that withholds her,
when she has been beo-o;ed for.
1
,7. The sterile cow, even if she should become
O,
N
[42]
36.

dom

'

of

sterile

Yama

for

'

'

HYMNS OF

178

in

fruitful, lives

me

regard

as

Brahmans), he

THP:

ATHARVA-VEDA.

anger at her owner

'

(without giving

sterile

be bound

shall

'

in

since he did

me

the

the

to

of

fetters

death
38.

He who

cow

thinks that the

is

sterile,

and

(yet) roasts her at home, even his children and


grandchildren Br/haspati causes to be importuned
(for her).

39.

when

Fiercely does the (supposed) sterile cow burn


she herds with the cattle, though she be a

(fruitful)

cow.

She

verily, too, milks

poison for the

owner that does not present her.


40. It pleases the cattle

Brahmans;

moreover, the

when she is given to the


sterile cow is pleased,

when she is made an offering to the gods (Brahmans).


41. From the sterile cows which the gods, returnine from the

sacrifice,

out as (most) terrible the

created,

Narada picked

vilipti.

In reference to her the gods reflected: 'Is she


And Narada in reference to
a sterile cow, or not ?
Of sterile cows she is the most sterile
her said
42.

'

'

cows (are there), O Narada, which thou knowest to be born among men ?
About these do I ask thee, that knowest Of which
43.

'

How many

sterile

'

'

may

the non-Brahma;za not eat


a sterile
44. Of the vilipti, of her that has born

cow, and of the sterile cow (herself), the non-Brahma;/a, that hopes for prosperity, shall not eat

Reverence be to thee, O Narada, that knowest


thoroughly which sterile cow is the most terrible, by
withholding which (from the Brahmans) destruction
45.

is

incurred.
46.

The

vilipti,

Br/haspati, her that has be-

gotten a sterile cow, and the sterile cow (herself),

IX.

PRAYERS AND IMPRECATIONS FOR BRAHMANS.

79

the non-Brahma/m, that hopes for prosperity, shall

not eat

Three

47.

there

kinds,

of sterile

forsooth,

cows are

the viHpti, she that has begotten a sterile

cow, and the sterile cow (herself).


give to the

Brahmans

These he

shall

(then) does he not estrange

himself from Pra^apati.


48.

'

This

he

shall

your oblation,

is

reflect, if

he

Brahma;ms,' thus
if they ask him
house of him that

supplicated,

is

for the sterile cow, terrible in the

refuses to give her.

The gods animadverted

49.

and the
her,

sterile

these

in

reference to

in

Bheda

cow, angry because he had not given


verses

and

he (Bheda)

therefore

perished.
50.

Bheda did not present the

requested by Indra

him

sterile

for this sin the

cow, though

gods crushed

in battle.

51.

The

counsellors that advise the withholding

(of the sterile cow), they, the rogues, in their folly,


conflict with the

They who

52.

say to him:

wrath of Indra.
lead the

'do not give,'

into the missile hurled

And

owner of

cattle aside,

then

their folly they run

in

by Rudra.

he roasts the sterile cow at home,


whether he makes a sacrifice of her, or not, he sins
against the gods and Brahma;^as, and as a cheat
falls from heaven.
53.

XI,

I.

if

The

preparation of the brahmaudana, the

porridge given as a fee to the Brahmans.


I.

throes,
for

the

Af^ni,

come

into beincr

longing for sons,

Brahmans.

is

cooking the porridge

The seven
N

Aditi here in her

/iishis,

that

did

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

l8o

create the beings, shall here churn thee, along with

progeny
unharmed
2. Produce the smoke, ye lusty friends
by wiles go ye into the contest! Here is the Agni
(fire) who gains battles, and commands powerful
warriors, with whom the gods did conquer the
;

demons.
3.

Agni,

to

great heroic deed thou wast

cook the Brahman's porridge, O 6"ataThe seven Rhh'is, that did create the beings,
vedas
Grant her (the wife) wealth
thee.
produced
have
aroused, to
!

together with undiminished heroes

4. Burn, O
the firewood, bring skilfully hither the gods that are
Causing the oblation to cook for
to be revered

Agni, after having been kindled by

these (Brahmans), do thou raise this (sacrificer) to

the highest firmament


5.

The

threefold share which

was of yore assigned

you (belongs) to the gods, the (departed) Fathers,


and to the mortals (the priests). Know your shares
the (share) of the gods shall
I divide them for you
protect this (woman)
6. O Agni, possessed of might, superior, thou
Bend down to the ground
dost without fail prevail
This measure, that is being
our hateful rivals

to

measured, and has been measured, may constitute


thy kin into (people) that render thee tribute
7.

Mayest thou together with thy kin be endowed

Elevate her (the wife) to great heroism


Ascend on high to the base of the firmament, which
they call the world of brightness

with sap

'

'

8.

This

great goddess

shall receive the (sacrificial) skin

go

kindly

earth,
!

disposed,

Then may we

to the world of well-doing (heaven)

PRAYERS AND IMPRECATIONS FOR BRAHMANS.

IX.

Lay these two

9.

the skin

those

upon

crush skilfully the (soma-) shoots for the

sacrificer

press-stones, well coupled,

l8l

Crush down, (O

who

earth),

and beat down,


lift up high,

are hostile to her (the wife)

and elevate her offspring

O man, the press-stones


work together the gods that are to be revered
have come to thy sacrifice
Whatever three wishes
10.

Take

into thy hands,

that

thou dost choose,

shall here

procure for thee unto

fulfilment.
11.

and

this

take

(O winnowing-basket), is thy purpose,


thy nature may Aditi, mother of heroes,

This,

hold of thee

hostile to this

Winnow

(woman)

out those

who

are

and un-

afford her wealth

diminished heroes
12.

Do

ye,

(O

grains),

remain

in the

basket, while (the wind) blows over you

(winnowing-)

be separated,

who are fit for the sacrifice, from the chaff! May
we in happiness be superior to all our equals I bend
down under our feet those that hate us.
The
13. Retire, O woman, and return promptly!

ye

stable of the waters (water-vessel) has settled


thee, that thou

mayest carry

thou shalt take such as are


intelligently divided

rest

behind

them

it

fit

off,

upon

of these (the waters)


for sacrifice

having

thou shalt leave the

14. These bright women, (the waters), have come


hither.
Arise, thou woman, and gather strength
To thee, that art rendered by thy husband a true
wife, (and) by thy children rich in offspring, the
sacrifice has come
receive the (water-) vessel
15. The share of food that belongs to you of yore
has been set aside for you. Instructed by the T^^shis
May this
bring thou (woman) hither this water
:

! ;

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

82

win advancement for you, win protection,


win offspring for you may it be mighty, win cattle,
and heroes for you
6. O Agni, the sacrificial pot has settled upon
thee: do thou shining, brightly glowing, heat it with
thy glow
May the divine descendants of the i?/shis,
assembled about their share (of the porridge), full of
sacrifice

fervour, heat this (pot) at the proper time


1

7.

may

Pure and clear

the waters bright, flow into the pot

given us abundant offspring and

go

that cooks the porridge

women,

these sacrificial
!

They have

May

cattle.

he

world of the pious

to the

(heaven)
18.

Purified

by

(our) prayer,

and

clarified

by the

ghee are the soma-shoots, (and), these sacrificial


grains.
Enter the water may the pot receive you
When ye have cooked this (porridge) go ye to the
!

world of the pious (heaven)


19.

Spread out

sand surfaces,

far

unto great extent, with a thou-

in the

world of the pious

fathers, fathers, children, grandchildren

Grand-

am

the

one that did cook thee.


20. The porridge has a thousand surfaces, a hundred streams, and is indestructible it is the road of
the gods, leads to heaven.
Yonder (enemies) do I
place upon thee
injure them and their offspring

fifteenth

(but) to
21.

me

that brings gifts thou shalt be merciful

Step upon the altar (vedi)

thrive in her progeny

her

equals

repel the

make this woman


demons advance
;

May we
!

in happiness be superior to all our


bend down under our feet all those that

hate us.
22.

Turn towards her with

cattle,

(thou

face towards her, together with the divine

pot),

powers

PRAYERS AND IMPRECATIONS FOR BRAHMANS.

TX.

83

Neither curses nor hostile magic shall reach thee


rule in thy dwellino^ free

Properly

23.

built,

from disease

placed with care, this altar (vedi)

has been arranged of yore for the Brahmans porridge.

Put

it,

woman, upon the

purified a?;^sadhri

place

there the porridge for the divine (Brahma//as)

May

24.

hand of

this

Aditi,

sacrificial

ladle

which the seven

of the beings, did fashion,

may

the limbs of the porridge, heap


25.

The

the second

(sru/t),

7?/shis, the creators

this spoon,
it

upon the

divine (Brahma;<5as) shall

sit

knowing
altar!

down

to

cooked sacrifice do thou again descending


Clarified by soma
from the fire, approach them
the descendsettle in the belly of the Brahma/^as
thee, the

who

ants of the 7?/shis


26.

Brahma/^as who
I

harm

Eagerly do
descended from
that are born of religious fervour, and gladly
shall sit

about thee

invite to the porridge the 7?/shis,

-/?/shis,

obey the call.


27. These pure and
waters)

severally.

you,
this

may
to me

28.

women

clear sacrificial

put into the hands of the

With whatever wish

pour

(the

Brahma/^as
this

upon

Indra accompanied by the Maruts grant

This gold

of the field
I

eat thee shall not take

king Soma, infuse harmony into the good

is

my

is

my

immortal

light, this ripe fruit

wish-granting cow.

present to the Brahma/^as

This treasure

prepare for myself

a road that leads to the Fathers in the heavens.


29.

Scatter the spelt into

Agni 6^atavedas

(the

sweep away to a far distance the chaff! This


we have heard, is the share of the ruler of the
house (Agni), and we know, too, what belongs to
fire),

(chaff)

Nirr/ti (destruction) as her share.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

184

Note, (O porridge), him that takes pains, and

;o.
3^

cooks and presses the soma

him up

lift

the

to

heavenly road, upon which, after he has reached the


fullest age,

he

shall ascend to the highest firmament,

the supreme heavens

Anoint (with ghee),

31.

adhvaryu

a place for the melted butter


anoint

all

limbs

its

skilfully

with ghee do thou

prepare for myself a road

the

(priest),

make

surface of this sustaining (porridge),

that leads to the Fathers in the heavens.

32.

sustaining (porridge), cast destruction and

among such

strife

not Brahma;^as

as are sitting about thee, and are


(But) the descendants of the7?/shis,

that eat thee, being full of substance, spreading forth,

harm

shall not take

To

2);^.

over,

y?/shis

the descendants of the T^/shis

porridge

those

guardian,

may

34.

Thee

make

thee

are not descended from

it

May Agni

my

as

the gods watch

all

(the porridge) that milkest the sacrifice,

evermore abundant, the male milch-cow, the seat

of wealth,

and

in

the Maruts, and

all

over the cooked food


art

who

have no share

we beseech

35.

Thou

thou to the
in the

art a lusty male, penetratest


Tv/shis,

two

there

is

a well-prepared

Pack thyself up, go forth

may we

the roads, that lead to the gods

prepared (roads)

heaven go
Dwell

descended from /?/shis

world of the pious

(place) for us
36.

for immortality of offspring

with abundance of wealth.

lonof life

reach the

Agni, prepare

By

these well-

sacrifice,

standing

seven rays
T^y. With the light with which the gods, having
cooked the porridge for the Brahma//as, ascended

upon the firmament

(that shines) with

PRAYERS AND IMPRECATIONS FOR BRAHMANS.

IX.

85

to heaven, to the world of the pious, with that

would
world of the pious, ascending to the
to the highest firmament

we go
light,

XII,

to the

The

3.

preparation of the brahmaudana, the

porridge given as a fee to the Brahmans.


1.

male

(Thyself) a male, step thou upon the hide of the


(steer)

go, call thither

all

that

is

dear to thee

At whatever age ye two formerly did first unite


marriage), may that age be your common lot
Yama's kinodom
2. Your sight shall be

(in

in

as clear (as formerly), your

strength as abundant, your


vitality

as manifold

pyre, fastens himself

ye shall
3.

to

rise

Come

When

as

lustre

Agni,

great,

the

your

(funeral-)

upon the corpse, then as a pair

from the (cooked) porridge


ye together

the gods, and in

upon the road

in this world,

Yama's realms

By

purifica-

tions purified call ye together the offspring that has

sprung from you


4.

Around

children

the

around

water united,

this living (father)

that refresh the living

ye down, O
and the waters

sit

Partake of these (waters),

and of that porridge which the mother of you two


cooks, and which is called am/z'ta (ambrosia)
5. The porridge which the father of you two, and
which the mother cooks, unto freedom from defilement
and foulness of speech, that porridge with a hundred
streams (of ghee), leading to heaven, has penetrated
with might both the hemispheres of the world.
6.

In that one of the two hemispheres and the

two heavenly worlds, conquered by the


especially abounds in light, and is rich

pious,
in

which

honey, in

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

86

come together with

that do ye in the fulness of time

your children

Keep ever on

7.

an easterly direction

in

the region that the faithful cling to

this

When

is

your

cooked porridge has been prepared on the fire, hold


together, O man and wife, that ye may guard it
8. When ye shall have reached the southerly
direction, turn

ye to

with the

associated

this vessel

protection to your cooked porridge

Yama,

In that

shall

fathers,

give abundant

9. This westerly direction is especially favoured


To this hold,
in it Soma is ruler and consoler.
then as a pair ye
attach yourselves to the pious
:

from the cooked porridge

shall rise
10.

The

the very uppermost, in offspring

purusha

make our realm


The
uppermost

northerly direction shall

is

metre pahkti

the

with

all

(our kin),

all their limbs, may we be united


This 'firm' direction (nadir) is Vira^ (brilreverence be to her may she be kind to
liancy)
Mayest thou, O goddess
my children and to me
Aditi, who boldest all treasures, as an alert guardian

endowed with

11.

guard the cooked porridge


12.

As

a father his children do thou, (O earth),

embrace us may gentle winds blow upon us here


Then the porridge which the two divinion earth
ties (the sacrificer and his wife) are here preparing
for us shall take note of our religious fervour and
;

our truth
13.

hither

Whatever

the

black

bird,

that

has touched of that

stealthily,

has come

which has

stuck to the rim, or whatever the wet-handed slavegirl

does pollute

may

mortar and pestle

ye,

waters, purify (that)

IX.

PRAYERS AND IMPRECATIONS FOR BRAHMANS.

14.

May

this sturdy press-stone, with

8?

broad bot-

tom, purified by the purifiers, beat away the Rakshas

Settle upon the skin, afford firm protection


may
man and wife not come to grief in their children
15. The (pestle of) wood has come to us together
;

with the gods

Up

Pi.saX'as.

through
16.

let

it

The

it

it

drives

away the Rakshas and


resound

shall rise, shall let its voice

us conquer

all

the worlds

cattle clothed itself in sevenfold strength,

those amono- them that are sleek and those that


are

The

poor.

thirty-three

mayest thou, (O

gods

them

attend

guide us to the heavenly

cattle),

world
1 7.

us
I

To

the bright world of heaven thou shalt lead

(there) let us

be united with wife and children

may

take her hand,

she follow

me

there

neither

Nirr/ti (destruction), nor Arati (grudge), shall gain

mastery over us
1

8.

May we

get past the evil Grahi (seizure)

Casting aside darkness do thou, (O


lovely voice resound; do not,
raised,

to the

pestle), let

wooden

tool,

thy

when

do injury; do not mutilate the grain devoted

gods

19. All-embracing, about to be covered with ghee,

enter,

(O

pot), as a co-dweller this

space

Take hold

of the winnowing-basket, that has been


the rain
20.

the spelt and the chaff

Three

reoions

are

it

grown by

shall sift out

constructed

after

the

yonder heaven, the earth,


and the atmosphere. Take the (soma-) shoots, and
They (the
hold one another, (O man and wife)
shoots) shall swell (with moisture), and again go
back into the winnowino-basket

pattern of the Brahma;/a

21.

Of manifold

varieo^ated

colours

are

the

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

88

animals, one colour hast thou,


successfully prepared.

Push

(O

when

porridge),

these (soma-) shoots

the press-stone
upon this red skin
them as the washer-man his clothes
;

purify

shall

Thee, the (pot

2 2.

earth

(O

of)

your substance

pot),

is

is

earth,

the same, though thine,

Even though

modified.

upon the

place

blow has

cracked or scratched thee, do not therefore burst


with this verse do

cover that up

Gently as a mother embrace the son

23.

thee, (pot of) earth, with the earth

the hollow pot, not totter upon the


art pressed

by the

tools of sacrifice

May Agni who

24.

unite

Mayest thou,

altar,

when thou

and the ghee

cooks thee protect thee on the

east,

Indra with the Maruts protect thee on the south!

May

Varu;^a on the west support thee upon thy foun-

dation,
25.

may Soma on
by the

Purified

the north hold thee together


purifiers, the (waters) flow

pure

from the clouds, they reach to the spaces of heaven,


and of the earth. They are alive, refresh the living,
and are firmly rooted may Agni heat them, after
they have been poured into the vessel
26. From heaven they come, into the earth they
from the earth they penetrate into the
penetrate
atmosphere.
May they, now pure, yet purify themselves further may they conduct us to the heavenly
:

world
27.

Whether ye

cient,

ye are surely

ye waters,

are over-abundant or just

suffi-

and immortal cook,


instructed by the husband and wife,
clear, pure,

obliging and helpful, the porridge

28. Counted drops penetrate into the earth, commensurate with the breaths of life and the plants.
The uncounted golden (drops), that are poured into

! !

PRAYERS AND IMPRECATIONS FOR BRAHMANS.

IX.

189

(the porridge), have, (themselves) pure, established

complete purity.

The

29.

boiling waters rise and sputter, cast up

foam and many bubbles.


this grain, as a

woman who

the proper season

The water

measured was the

in

let

the waters

cups

beholds her husband

up (the grains) as they settle at the


them mingle their inmost parts with

30. Stir

bottom

Unite, ye waters, with

here

have measured with


be according

grain, so as to

to these regulations.

Hand

31.

over

the

sickle,

with

haste

bring

promptly (the grass for the barhis); without giving

them cut the plants at the joints


They
whose kingdom Soma rules, the plants, shall not
pain

let

harbour anger against us


32. Strew a new barhis for the porridge
!

to
it

its

heart,

and lovely

to

its

sight

it

shall

pleasing

be

Upon

the gods together with the goddesses shall enter

settle

eat

down

to this (porridge) in

proper order, and

it

33.

strewn barhis,

agnish/oma

in

rites

the

keeping with the divinities and the


Well shaped, as if by a carpenter

(Tvash/ar) with his axe,


this

down upon

(instrument of) wood, settle

is

thy form.

Longing

for

(porridge) the (gods) shall be seen about the

vessel
34.

In sixty autumns the treasurer (of the porridge)

shall fetch

heaven
it.

it,

by the cooked grain he

shall

obtain

the parents and the children shall live upon

Bring thou

this

(man) to heaven, into the presence

of Aorni
35.

(Thyself) a holder,

foundation of the earth

(O

pot),

hold on to the

thee, that art

immoveable

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

190

Man and

the gods (alone) shall move!

wife, alive,

with living children, shall remove thee from the

hearth of the

fire

36. Thou hast conquered and reached all worlds


as many as are our wishes, thou hast satisfied them.

Dip ye

in,

and spoon

stirring stick

porridge) upon a single dish

Lay

37.

(ghee) upon

this dish with

ghee

it,

As

Place

(the

it

let

it

spread forth, anoint

cow her young

the lowing

ye gods shall greet with


sounds of satisfaction this (porridge)
38. With ghee thou hast covered it, hast made

that craves the breast,

this place (for the porridge)

Upon

afar to heaven!

eagle

gods

shall offer

it

it

may
shall

it,

peerless, spread

rest

the

to the divinities

mighty

Whatever the wife cooks aside from thee,


(O husband), or the husband (cooks) unbeknown of
thee, O wife, mix that together
to both of you it
39.

shall

belong

bring

it

together into a single place

As many of her children as dwell upon the


and the sons that have been begotten by him,
all those ye shall call up to the dish
on shall come
the youiig knowing their nest
41. The goodly streams, swelling with honey,
mixed with ghee, the seats of ambrosia, all these
40.

earth,

does he obtain, ascends to heaven.

In sixty autumns

the treasurer (of the porridge) shall fetch


42.

The

it

treasurer shall fetch this treasure

outsiders round about

shall

not control

it

all

The

heaven-directed porridge, that has been presented

and deposited by

us, in three

divisions has reached

the three heavens.

May Agni

burn the ungodly Rakshas


the
flesh-devouring Pi5a/'a shall have nothing here to
43.

IX.

!!

PRAYERS AND IMPRECATIONS FOR BRAHMANS.

We

partake of!

IQI

drive him away, hold him afar from

US

the Adityas and Ahgiras shall stay near

it

44.

To

the Adityas and the Ahgiras do

this (food of)

(man and

Do

honey, mixed with ghee.

offer

ye two,

without having

wife), with clean hands,

injured a Brahma;/a, performing pious deeds, go to


that heavenly world

would obtain this highest part of it (the


porridge), the place from which the highest lord
permeates (the all).
Pour butter upon it, anoint it
with plentiful ghee
this here is our share, fit for
the Ahgiras
46. For the sake of truth and holy strength do
w^e make over this porridge as a hoarded treasure
to the gods
it shall not be lost to us in gaming or
in the assembly
do not let it go to any other
45.

person before
47.
too,

my

me

cook, and

wife, at

my

give

(to

the Brahmans), and so,

religious rite

and

practice.

With

the birth of a son the world of children has arisen


(for you)
do ye two hold on
beyond (your years)
:

48.

to a

life

that extends

In that place exists no guilt, and no duplicity,

he goes conspiring with his friends.


This full dish of ours has here been deposited the
cooked (porridge) shall come back again to him that
not even

if

cooks
49.
all

it

Kind deeds we

shall

that hate us shall

(fruitful)

go

perform for our friends


to

darkness

cow, and (strong) steer,

they

(hell)

As

(man and

wife) shall during every successive period of their


lives drive
50.

The

away man-besetting death


fires (all)

lives in plants,

and

know

one another, that which

lives in the waters,

and

all

the

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

192

gods that glow upon the heaven. The gold


becomes the light of him that cooks (the

(light-)

(here)

porridge).

This (naked

51.

upon man

(alone), all other

yourselves,

Clothe

among

skin)

the hides

born

animals are not naked.

Brahmans),

(ye

is

sheltering

in

garments (even) the face of the porridge is a homespun garment


52. What falsehood thou shalt speak at play
:

and

the assembly, or the falsehood that thou

in

shalt speak through lust for gain

(O man and
it

put

on together,

same garment, deposit upon

wife), this

every blemish

Produce

53.

go

rain,

to the gods, let

smoke

arise

all-embracing, about to
from (thy) surface
covered with ghee, enter as a co-dweller
;

be
this

place

In

54.

many ways heaven assumes

within itself

It (the
a different form, according to circumstances.
purifying
itself
heaven) has laid aside its black form,

to a bright (form)

thee into the

the red form do

tion, to

Agni

as sovereign lord, to the black serpent

we

arrive

lead us, to old age

death

for

to the eastern direc-

bowman do ye guard it
To the goal here he shall

as guardian, to Aditya as
for us, until

sacrifice

fire.

Thee here we hand over

55.

then shall

hand us over to
we be united with the cooked

old age shall

(porridge)
56.

Thee here we hand over

southern

to the

direction, to Indra as sovereign lord, to the serpent

that

man

is
:

striped across as guardian, to

do ye guard

goal here, &c.

it

for us, until

we

Yama

arrive

as

bow-

To

the

PRAYERS AND IMPRECATIONS FOR BRAHMANS.

IX.

Thee here we hand over

57.

serpent as guardian, to food as


for us, until

to the western direc-

we

bowman

To

arrive.

direction, to

Soma

do ye guard

the goal here, &c.

Thee here we hand over

58.

guard

it

northern

the

to

as sovereign lord, to the sva^^a-

serpent as guardian, to the lightning as

do

93

Varu;^a as sovereign lord, to the pr/dakii-

tion, to

it

we

for us, until

bowman

To

arrive.

the goal

here, &c.

Thee here we hand over

59.

to the direction of the

nadir, to Vish;^u as sovereign lord, to the serpent

with black-spotted neck as guardian, to the plants


as

bowmen

To

do ye guard

for us, until

it

we

arrive.

the goal here, &c.

Thee here we hand over

60.

to the direction of

the zenith, to B/Vhaspati as sovereign lord, to the


light-coloured serpent as guardian,

bowman

To

do ye guard

it

the rain as

to

for us, until

we

arrive.

the goal here, &c.

IX,

Removal of

3.

a house that has been presented

to a priest as sacrificial reward.


1.

The

fastenings of the buttresses, the supports,

and also of the connecting beams of the house, that


abounds in treasures, do we loosen.
2.

(house)

rich

in

all

treasures

the

fetter

which has been bound about thee, and the knot


which has been fastened upon thee, that with my
charm do I undo, as Br/haspati (undid) Vala.

(The

drawn thee together, pressed


Skilthee together, placed firm knots upon thee.
3.

fully,

as

builder) has

the

animal), do
[42]

we

priest

who

butchers

(the

sacrificial

with Indra's aid disjoint thy limbs.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

194

From

4.

thy thatch
treasures,

The

5.

thy beams, thy boks, thy frame, and


from thy sides, (O house) abounding in

do we loosen the fastenings.


fastenings of the dove-tailed (joints), of

we

the reed (-covering), of the frame-work, do

here from the

The

6.

'

ropes which they have tied within thee

for comfort, these

do we loosen from thee

propitious to our persons,

receptacle for

be thou

mistress of dwelling,

after thou hast (again) been erected


7.

loosen

mistress of dwelling.'

Soma, a house

for Agni, a seat

for the mistresses (of the house), a seat (for the priests),

a seat for the gods art thou,

Thy

8.

eyes, stretched out

and

laid on,

9.

and

goddess house

covering of wicker-work, with thousand

upon thy crown, fastened down

do we loosen with

(this)

charm.

He who receives thee as a gift, O house,


he by whom thou hast been built, both these,

mistress of dwelling, shall live attaining old age

Return

10.

to

him

in

other world, firmly

the

bound, ornamented, (thou house), which

we

loosen

limb by limb, and joint by joint

He who

11.

built thee,

O house, brought

(thy) timbers, he, a Pra^apati

thee,

on high, did construct

house, for his progeny (pra^ayai).

We

12.

together

render obeisance to him (the builder);

house
and
obeisance to Agni who serves (the sacrifice)
obeisance

to

the

giver,

the

lord

of the

obeisance to thy (attendant)

man

Reverence to the cattle and the horses, and


Thou that hast
is born in the house
produced, art rich in offspring, thy fetters do we
13.

to that which

loosen.
14.

Thou

dost

shelter

Agni

within,

(and)

the

PRAYERS AND IMPRECATIONS FOR BRAHMANS.

IX.

domestics together with the

Thou

cattle.

95

that hast

we

produced, art rich in offspring, thy fetters do


loosen.

The expanse which

between heaven and


earth, with that do I receive as a gift this house of
thine
the middle region which is stretched out
from the sky, that do I make into a receptacle for
treasures
with that do I receive the house for
15.

is

this one.
16.

Full of nurture,

full

earth, erected, holding

of milk, fixed upon the

food for

all,

house, do

thou not injure them that receive thee as a


17.

Enveloped

night does

in

grass, clothed

house

the

lodge

the

in

gift

reeds,

cattle

like

erected

thou dost stand upon the earth, like a she-elephant,


firm of foot.
18.

The

of thee

part

mats unfolding do

that

was covered with


that hast been

Thee

loosen.

by Varu/^a may Mitra uncover

enfolded

in

the

built

by
two

mornincr
19.

seers,

The house built with pious word,


erected
may Indra and Agni,

immortals, protect the house, the seat of


20.

basket

Chest
;

is

crowded upon

there mortal

man

is

the

Soma

begotten from

upon

chest, basket

whom

things spring.

all

21.

In the house which

four facades, six facades

is

in

built with

facades, with ten facades, in the


ing,'

Agni

rests as if in the

22. Turning^

me,

For

house,

two facades,

the house with eight


'

mistress of dwell-

womb.

towards thee that art turned towards

come

to thee that injurest

Ao^ni and the waters, the

order, are within.

first

me

not.

door to divine

!!

!!

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

196
23.

The chambers do
do I bring here.
with
the immortal
company
in
upon

enter in

Agni

waters, free from disease, destructive

These

of disease,
I

(fire).

Do

thou not fasten a fetter upon us though


As a bride do we
a heavy load, become thou light
24.

carry thee,
25.

From

house,
the

wherever we

please.

easterly direction

reverence (be) to greatness, hail to


are to be addressed with hail
26.
27.

28.

29.

house
who
gods
the
of the

From the southerly direction of the house, &c.


From the westerly direction of the house, &c.
From the northerly direction of the house, &c.
From the firm direction (nadir) of the

house, &c.
30.

From

the

upright direction (zenith) of the

house, &c.

From

every direction of the house reverence


(be) to greatness, hail to the gods who are to be
31.

addressed with hail

Brahmanical prayer at the receipt of

VI, 71.

gifts.
1.

The

places,

varied food which

my gold, my horses,

and sheep

ceived as a

many

and, too,

my cows,

goats,

everything whatsoever that


gift

may Agni, the

an auspicious offering
2. The gift that has come to
without

In

consume

sacrifice,

priest,

me by

have

re-

render that

sacrifice,

or

bestowed by the Fathers, granted

by men, through which my heart, as it were, lights


up with joy may Agni, the priest, render that an

auspicious offering!
3.

The

food that

I,

gods, improperly consume,

IX.

PRAYERS AND IMPRECATIONS FOR BRAIIMANS.

(the food)

97

promise, intending to give of it (to the


Brahmans), or not to give of it, by the might of
mighty Vai.?vanara (Agni) may (that) food be for

me

auspicious and

XX,

of honey!

full

127.

kuntapa-hymn.

A.
1.

Listen, ye folks, to this: (a song) in praise of

a hero shall be sung


(cows) did

we

Six thousand and ninety

get (when

among the Ru^^amas,


2. Whose twice ten

we were)

move

buffaloes

together with their cows

with

Kaurama

right along,

the height of his chariot

heaven which recedes from its touch.


3. This one (Kaurama) presented the seer with
a hundred jewels, ten chaplets, three hundred steeds,
and ten thousand cattle.

just misses the

B.
4.

Disport thyself,

a bird

chanter, disport thyself as

upon a flowering

tree

thy tongue glides

quickly over the lips as a razor over the strop.


5.

The

chanters with their pious song hurry on

cows at home are their children, and at


home the cows do they attend.
6. Bring hither, O chanter, thy poem, that which
earns cattle and earns good things
Among the
gods (kings) place thy voice as a manly archer his.
arrow
blithely as

C.
7.

Listen ye to the high praise of the king

rules over all peoples, the

of Vai^vanara Parikshit

god who

is

who

above mortals,

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

198
8.

ing,

'

Parikshit has procured for us a secure dwell-

when

most excellent one, went to his


(Thus) the husband in Kuru-land, when he

seat.'

he, the

founds his household, converses with his wife.


'

9.

What may

drink, or liquor
in the
10.

the

bring to

thee,

curds,

stirred

(Thus) the wife asks her husband

'

kinordom of kino- Parikshit.

Like light the ripe barley runs over beyond

mouth

(of

the

vessels).

The

people thrive

merrily in the kingdom of king Parikshit.

D.
1 1.

move

Indra has awakened the poet, saying


about, and sing

the praises

12.

full

reward)

(sacrificial

Here,

every pious one shall

cattle,

13.

May

and may

And Pushan

14.

we

also,

sacrificial

who

reward,

here.

these cattle,

their

hostile folk,

sion of

offer thee

ye shall be born, here, ye

bestows a thousand (cows) as

down

'Arise,

horses, here, ye domestics

settles

of me, the strong, verily, sing

Indra, not suffer harm,

owner not
Indra,

may

suffer

harm; nay the

the thief not gain posses-

them

We

shout to the hero with

(shout) with a pleasing song.

our songs

may we

not ever suffer

hymn and
Take
harm

song,

delight in
!

X.

COSMOGONIC AND THEOSOPIilC HYMNS.


XII,
1.

Hymn

I.

to

goddess Earth.

Truth, greatness, universal order

(/v'ta),

strength,

consecration, creative fervour (tapas), spiritual exaltation (brahma), the sacrifice, support the earth.

May

this earth, the mistress of that

shall be, prepare for us a


2.

The

which was and

broad domain

earth that has heights, and slopes, and

great plains, that supports the plants of manifold


virtue, free

from the pressure that comes from the

midst of men, she shall spread out for

us,

and

fit

herself for us
3. The earth upon which the sea, and the rivers
and the waters, upon which food and the tribes of
men have arisen, upon which this breathing, moving

life exists,

4.

The

shall afford us

earth

precedence

in

drinking

whose are the four regions of

space,

upon which food and the tribes of men have arisen,


which supports the manifold breathing, moving
things, shall afford us cattle and other possessions
also

upon which of old the first men


unfolded themselves, upon which the gods overcame
5.

The

earth

the Asuras, shall procure for us


horses,
6.

and

The

fowls,

good

fortune,

earth that supports

(all)

kinds of cattle,

and glory
all,

furnishes wealth,

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

200

the foundation, the golden-breasted resting-place of


all living

creatures, she that supports

nara (the

fire),

Agni Vai^va-

and mates with Indra, the

bull, shall

furnish us with property

The broad

7.

which the sleepless gods

earth,

ever attentively guard, shall milk for us precious


honey, and, moreover, besprinkle us with glory

That earth which formerly was water upon

8.

the ocean (of space), which the wise (seers) found

out by their skilful devices

whose heart

is

in

the

highest heaven, immortal, surrounded by truth, shall

bestow upon us brilliancy and strength, (and place


us) in supreme sovereignty
9. That earth upon which the attendant waters
jointly flow by day and night unceasingly, shall
pour out milk for us in rich streams, and, moreover,
besprinkle us with glory

The earth which the A>jvins have measured,


which
Vish;2u has stepped out, which Indra,
upon
10.

made

the lord of might, has

friendly to himself; she,

the mother, shall pour forth milk for me, the son
1

1.

Thy snowy mountain

earth, shall be kind to us

heights,
!

and thy

The brown,

forests,

the black,

the red, the multi-coloured, the firm earth, that

protected by Indra,

is

have settled upon, not supwounded.


Into thy middle set us, O earth, and into thy
I

pressed, not slain, not


12.

navel, into the nourishing streno^th that has grrown

up from thy body purify thyself for us


The earth
is the mother, and I the son of the earth
Par^anya
!

is

the father
13.

The

he, too, shall save us

earth upon which they (the priests)

close the altar (vedi),


all

(holy) works,

upon which

unfold the

they,

sacrifice,

in-

devoted to

upon which

!!

COSMOGONIC AND TtlEOSOPHIC HYMNS.

X.

20I

are set up, in front of the sacrifice, the sacrificial


posts, erect

and

briUiant, that earth shall prosper us,

herself prospering
14.

Him

that hates us,

against us,

him that

mind and

his

The

him that

battles

hostile towards us with his

is

subject

to

us,

by deed

mortals born of thee live on thee, thou

supportest both

earth,

weapons, do thou

anticipating (our wish)


15.

and quadrupeds. Thine,


men, the mortals,
sun sheds undying light with

bipeds

earth, are these five races of

upon

whom

the rising

his rays.
1

us

6.

These creatures

do thou,

all

together shall yield milk for

honey of speech

earth, give us the

17. Upon the firm, broad earth, the all-begetting


mother of the plants, that is supported by (divine)
law, upon her, propitious and kind, may we ever

pass our lives


18.

great gathering-place thou, great (earth),

become great haste, commotion, and agitation


Great Indra protects thee unceasare upon thee.
hast

Do

ingly.

thou,

at the sight of gold


19.

Agni

(fire)

is

earth, cause us to brighten as


:

not any one shall hate us


in

the earth, in the plants, the

waters hold Agni, Agni


within men, Agnis

if

(fires)

is

in

the stones

Agni

is

are within cattle, within

horses.
20.

Agni glows from the

belongs the broad

air.

sky, to Agni, the god,

The

mortals kindle Agni,

the bearer of oblations, that loveth ghee.

The earth, clothed in Agni,


make me brilliant and alert
22. Upon the earth men give

21.

with dark knees,

shall

sacrifice,

the

prepared oblation

the gods the


upon the earth

to

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

202

men

mortal

May this
me to

reach

earth, that has arisen

upon

live pleasantly

give us breath and

by

may

life,

food.

she cause

earth

old age

The

23.

fragrance,

which the plants and the waters hold, which


and the Apsaras have partaken
with that make me fragrant
not any one shall

thee,

the Gandharvas
of,

hate us

That fragrance of

24.

thine which has entered

which the
immortals of yore gathered up at the marriage of
Surya, with that make me fragrant
not any one
into the lotus,

that fragrance,

earth,

shall hate us

That fragrance of thine which is in men, the


loveliness and charm that is in male and female,
25.

that which

is

and heroes, that which

in steeds

is

in

the wild animals with trunks (elephants), the lustre


that

in the

is

blend us

maiden,

not any one shall hate us

Rock, stone, dust

26.

earth, with that

is

this earth

To

supported, held together.

do thou

this earth

is

this golden-breasted

have rendered obeisance.


earth, upon whom the forest-sprung trees
ever stand firm, the all-nourishing, compact earth, do

earth

The

27.

we

invoke.

Rising or

28.

sitting,

we not stumble with our


earth
29.
soil

right or left foot

may

upon the

To

the pure earth

that has

exaltation).

speak, to the ground, the

grown through the brahma

Upon

prosperity, food,

standing or walking,

(spiritual

thee, that boldest nourishment,

and ghee, we would

settle

down,

earth
30.

Purified the waters shall flow for our bodies;

!!

COSMOGONIC AND THEOSOPIIIC HYMNS.

X.

what flows

we dishke

203

from us that do we deposit upon him


O earth, do I purify

off

with a purifier,

myself!
31.

Thy

easterly regions,

southerly (regions),

be kind to

me

as

earth,

and thy northern, thy


and thy western, shall

walk (upon thee)

into the world not

have been placed

May

that

down

foil

32. Do not drive us from the west, nor from the


east
not from the north, and not from the south
waylayers shall
Security be thou for us, O earth
!

not find us, hold far


33.

As long

as

away

my

with Siir}^ (the sun) as

my

sight not

34.

side,

ribs

earth

as
;

35.

shall

earth,

companion, so long shall

upon

my

right or left

stretched out

we

when

lie

do

not,

turn

lie,

upon thee pressing against

that liest

murderous weapon

as year followeth upon year

fail,

When,

(their)

look out upon thee,

(us),

with our

earth,

close to everything, there injure us

What, O earth,
that grow again

dig out of thee, quickly

may

not,

pure one,

pierce thy vital spot, (and) not thy heart


36.

Thy summer, O

earth, thy rainy season, thy

autumn, winter, early spring, and spring thy decreed


yearly seasons, thy days and nights shall yield us
;

milk!
^j.

The

pure earth that starts

from the serpent, upon

whom

in

away

fright

were the

fires

that

are within the waters, she that delivers (to destruction)

the blasphemous Dasyus, she that takes the

side of Indra, not of

Vmra,

(that earth) adheres to

^'akra (mighty Indra), the lusty bull.

Upon whom

rests the sacrificial hut

(sadas)

and the (two) vehicles that hold the soma

(havir-

38.

dhane), in

whom

the

sacrificial

post

is

fixed,

upon

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

204

whom

Brahma;ms praise (the gods) with riks


and samans, knowing (also) the ya^ur-formulas upon
whom the serving-priests (mvi^) are employed so
that Indra shall drink the soma
the

Upon whom

39.

the seers of yore, that created

the beings, brought forth with their songs the cows,

they the seven active

offerings, the sacrifices,

(tapas)

and

(their) creative

we

may

Indra come here as (our)

crave

The

41.

and dance,

may Bhaga

enemies, shall

To

42.

make

upon

whom

fight,

shall

whom

forth

re-

our

are food, and rice

live these five races of


is

men,

fattened

be reverence

The

43.

whom

upon
drive

to the earth, the wife of Par^anya, that


rain,

his help,

the noisy mortals sing

us free from rivals

the earth upon

barley,

add
champion

(fortune)

whom
upon whom they
earth upon

sounds the roaring drum,

by

fervour

earth point out to us the wealth

this

that

and

satra-

May

40.

by means of the

(priests),

earth

upon whose ground the

citadels

constructed by the gods unfold themselves, every

region of her that


shall

make

The

44.

is

the

womb

me

all,

Pra^apati

earth that holds treasures manifold in

secret places, wealth, jewels,


to

of

pleasant for us

and gold

shall she give

she that bestows wealth liberally, the kindly

goddess, wealth shall she bestow upon us


45.

The

earth

that

holds

people of

manifold

varied speech, of different customs, according to


their habitations, as a reliable milch-cow that does

not kick, shall she milk for

me

a thousand streams

of wealth
46.

The

serpent, the scorpion with thirsty fangs,

!!

COSMOGONIC AND THEOSOPIIIC HYMNS.

X.

upon thee the worm,


O earth, moves in the
creeps, not creep upon

that hibernating torpidly lies

and whatever

living thing,

rainy season, shall,

us

when

it

205

is

auspicious (on thee) be gracious

Thy many

paths upon which people go, thy

with what

to us
47.

and wagons to advance, upon


which both good and evil men proceed, this road,
free from enemies, and free from thieves, may we
gain
with what is auspicious (on thee) be gracious
tracks for chariots

to us
48. The earth holds the fool and holds the wise,
she
endures that good and bad dwell (upon her)
;

keeps company with the boar, gives herself up to


the wild

hoQf.

Thy

49.

forest animals, the wild animals

homed

woods, the man-eating lions, and tigers that


roam; the ula, the wolf, mishap, injury (rzkshika),
and demons (rakshas), O earth, drive away from us
in the

50. The Gandharvas, the Apsaras, the Arayas


and Kimidins; the Pi^aZ'as and all demons (rakshas),

these,

earth, hold

The

51.

from us

earth upon

whom

the biped birds

together, the flamingoes, eagles, birds of prey,

fowls

whom

upon

fly

and

Matari^van, the wind, hastens,

and tossing the trees as the wind


and back the flame bursts after
52. The earth upon whom day and night jointly,
black and bright, have been decreed, the broad
earth covered and enveloped with rain, shall kindly
place us into every pleasant abode
53. Heaven, and earth, and air have here given
me expanse Agni, Surya, the waters, and all the
raising the dust,

blows forth

gods together have given

me

wisdom.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

206
54.

am

Mighty

upon the

earth,

I,

'Superior' (uttara) by name,

conquering

am

I,

all-conquering,

completely conquering every region.


55.

At

that time,

(prathamana)

forth,

goddess, when, spreading

named

(pr/thivi

'broad') by

the gods, thou didst extend to greatness, then prosperity did enter thee, (and) thou didst fashion the

four regions.
56.

In the villages and in the wilderness, in the

assembly-halls

that

are

upon the earth

may we

gatherings, and in the meetings,

in

the

hold forth

agreeably to thee
57.

born,

As

dust a steed did she, as soon as she was


these

scatter

people,

that dwelt

upon the

earth, she the lovely one, the leader, the guardian

of the world, that holds the trees and plants.


58.

The words

the things
I

am and

do

speak, honied do

see they furnish

alert

me

speak them

with.

Brilliant

the others that rush (against me)

beat down.

59.

Gentle, fragrant, kindly, with the sweet drink

her udder, rich

broad earth
together with (her) milk shall give us courage
60. She whom Vii-vakarman (the creator of all)
(kilala) in

in

milk, the

did search out by means of oblations, when she had


entered the surging (flood of the) atmosphere, she,
the vessel destined to nourish, deposited in a secret
place,

became

visible (to the gods)

and the (heavenly)

art the scatterer of

men, the broadly

mothers.
61.

Thou

expanding Aditi that yields milk according to wnsh.


is wanting in thee Praf-apati, first-born of the

What

divine order (ma), shall supply for thee


62.

Thy

laps,

earth, free

from ailment, free

COSMOGONIC AND THEOSOPHTC HYMNS.

X.

from disease,
attentively,

shall

be produced

through our

bali-offerings to thee

6t,.

mother

a well-founded
operating,

long;

May we

for us!

lives,

207

be bearers of

me down upon

earth, kindly set

place!

With

(father)

heaven

thou wise one, do thou place

me

co-

into

happiness and prosperity

XIII,

I.

Prayer for sovereign power addressed to

the god Rohita and his female Rohi/^i.


1.
Rise up, O steed, that art within the waters,
enter this kingdom, rich in liberal gifts
Rohita
!

(the red sun)

who has begotten

this

thee well-supported for sovereignty

all,

shall

keep

The steed that is within the waters has risen


ascend upon the clans that are sprung from
thee
Furnishing soma, the waters, plants, and cows,
2.

up

cause thou four-footed and two-footed creatures to


enter here

Do

Vrism (the
cloud), allied with Indra, crush the enemies
Rohita
shall hear you, that give abundant gifts, the thrice
3.

ye, strong Maruts, children of

seven Maruts,
ment)

who

take delight in sweet (nourish-

has climbed the heights, he has


4. Rohita
ascended them, he, the embryo of women, (has
ascended) the womb of births.
Closely united with

women

these
tions)

they found out the six broad (direc-

spying out a road he has brought hither

sovereignty.
5. Hither to thee Rohita has brought sovereignty;
he has dispersed the enemies freedom from danger
has resulted for thee. To thee heaven and earth
:

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

208

together with the revati and j^akvari-stanzas shall


yield gifts at will

Rohita produced heaven

6.

ParameshZ/^in (the

and earth
there
lord on high) extended the thread

(of the sacrifice).

There A^a Ekapada

footed goat, the sun) did

fix

himself; he

(the one-

made

firm

the heavens and earth with his strength.

Rohita made firm heaven and earth, by him

7.

the (heavenly) light was established, by him the

firmament.

By him

were measured

out,

the atmosphere and the spaces

through him the gods obtained

immortality.

Rohita did ponder the multiform (universe)

8.

while preparing (his) climbings and advances. Having


ascended the heaven with great might, he shall

anoint thy royalty with milk and ghee


All thy climbings, advances, and

9.

which

with

thou,

(Rohita,

the

all

sun),

thy ascents
fillest

the

heavens and the atmosphere, having strengthened


thyself with their brahma and payas (spiritual and
physical essence) do thou keep awake (do thou
watch over) among the people
the (earthly) Rohita (the king)
10.

The

in

the kingdom of

peoples that have originated from thy

tapas (heat, or creative fervour), have followed here


the

calf,

They

the gayatri.

kindly spirit

shall

the calf Rohita with

enter thee with


its

mother

shall

come on
11. High on the firmament Rohita has stood,
a youth, a sage, begetting all forms.
As Agni he
shines with piercing light, in the third space he did

assume lovely
12.
(fire),

bull

(forms).

with

endowed with

thousand horns, C'atavedas


sacrifices

of ghee,

carrying

COSMOGONIC AND TI1E0S0PHIC HYMNS.

X.

soma upon
abundance

he

his back, rich in heroes,

implored, not abandon me, nor

may

and abundance

in cattle

2O9

shall,

when

abandon thee:

in

heroes procure

me

for

Rohita is the generator of the sacrifice, and


mouth to Rohita I offer oblations with voice,
ear, and mind.
To Rohita the gods resort with
glad mind he shall cause me to rise through eleva13.

its

from the assembly

tion derived
14.

from

Let

Rohita arranged a
it

Vi^-vakarman

sacrifice for

these brilliant qualities have

me announce

come

to

me.

thy origin over the extent of the

world
15.

Upon

thee have ascended the br/hati and the

upon thee the kakubh with splendour,


Upon thee the vashaAcall, whose
make an ush/ziha, has ascended, upon thee

paiikti (metres),

6^atavedas.

syllables

Rohita with his seed has ascended.


16. This one clothes himself in the

womb

of the

one clothes himself in heaven, and in


the atmosphere.
This one at the station of the
brown (sun) did attain unto the worlds of light.
earth,

17.

this

Va/['aspati (lord of speech), the earth shall

be pleasant to us, pleasant our dwelling, agreeable


our couches
Right here life's breath shall be to
our friend
thee, O
ParameshMin, Agnl shall
envelop in life and lustre
!

18.

Va/^aspati, the five seasons that

we

have,

which have come about as the creation of Vii^vakarman, right here (they and) life's breath shall be
to our friend
thee, O Paramesh//zin, Rohita shall
;

envelop
19.

in life

and

Va/t-aspati,

our stable, children


[42]

lustre!

good cheer and

in

our

wombs
1'

spirit, cattle in

beget thou

Right

!:

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

2IO
here

breath shall be to our friend

life's

Paramesh//^in,
20.

God

envelop

and

in life

Savitar and Agni shall envelop

Mitra and Varuna. surround thee with lustre


ing

down

all

Thou,

thee,

Tread-

powers of grudge come thou hither

thou hast made this kingdom rich


21.

thee,

lustre.

whom

Rohita,

harnessed at the

side, carries,

in liberal gifts.

brindled

the

cow,

goest with brilliance,

causing the waters to flow.

Devoted

22.

to

Rohita

is

Rohi;^t

his

mistress,

with beautiful colour (complexion), great, and lustrous:

may we conquer booty

through her

This

2T,.

is

seat, Rohi;d,

belongs to Rohita; yonder

the path on which the

Her

of every descrip-

through her win every battle

tion,

the

brindled (female) goes

Gandharvas and the Ka<ryapas lead

forth,

her the sages guard with diligence.

The

24.

radiant bay steeds of the sun, the im-

mortal, ever

draw the

delightful

chariot.

Rohita,

the drinker of ghee, the shining god, did enter the

variegated heavens.
Rohita, the sharp-horned bull,

25.

who

surpasses

Agni and surpasses Surya, who props up the earth


and the sky, out of him the gods frame the creations.
26. Rohita ascended the heaven from the great
flood
27.

Rohita has climbed

Create (the cow) that

with crhee

she

does not refuse!


shall

all

is

heights.
is

rich in milk, drips

the milch-cow of the tjods that

Indra shall drink the Soma, there

be secure possession

Agni

shall sing praises

the enemies do thou drive out


28.

Agni

kindled, spreads his flames, fortified

ghee, sprinkled with ghee.

Agni

shall slay

by

Victorious, all-conquering

them that are my

rivals

He

shall slay them, shall

battles ao-ainst us

With

do we burn our rivals.


30. Smite them down,

powered

my

31.

1 I

burn the enemy that

the flesh-devourino- Agni

Indra, with the thunder-

with thy (strong) arm

bolt,

COSMOGONIC AND THEOSOPHIC HYMNS.

X.

29.

Then have

over-

rivals with Agni's brilliant strengths.

Agni, subject our rivals to us;

confuse,

is puffed up
O
and Varu;^a, subjected they
shall be, unable to vent their wrath against us
32. Do thou, god Surya (the sun), when thou
risest, beat down my rivals, beat them down with
a stone they shall go to the nethermost darkness

Br/haspati, the kinsman that

Indra and Agni,

O Mitra

The

33.

calf of Vira^^, the bull of prayers, carry-

ing the bright (soma) upon his back, has ascended


the atmosphere.

A song accompanied

by ghee they
brahma (spiritual exaltahim with their brahma (prayer).

sing to the calf; himself


tion) they swell

Ascend

34.

the

heavens,

sovereignty ascend thou,

thou

ascend

the

earth

and possessions ascend

Offspring ascend thou, and immortality ascend

thou, unite thy

body with Rohita

The gods

35.

that

hold

sovereignty,

who go

about the sun, with these allied, Rohita, kindly


disposed, shall bestow sovereignty upon thee

The

36.

forth

thee

37.
cattle,

fixed.

sacrifices

purified

by prayer lead thee

the bay steeds that travel upon the road carry

thou shinest across the swelling ocean.


In Rohita who conquers wealth, conquers

and conquers booty, heaven and earth are


Of thee that hast a thousand and seven

births, let

me announce

the origin over the extent

of the world
2,8.

Glorious thou goest to the intermediate direcr 2

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

212

and the directions (of space), glorious (in the


sight) of animals and the tribes of men, glorious in

tions

the lap of the earth, of Aditi

may

like Savitar

be lovely
place)
39. Being yonder thou knowest (what takes
here; being here thou beholdest these things. Here
(men) behold the inspired sun that shines upon the
sky.

40.

god thou

within the flood.

praisest the gods, thou

They

movest

kindle (him), a universal

him the highest sages know.


41. Below the superior (region), above the inferior
(region) here, the cow has arisen supporting (her)
Whither is she turned to which
calf by the foot.
half (of the universe), forsooth, has she gone away

fire

where, forsooth, does she beget

Verily not in this

herd
42. One-footed,

two-footed,

eight-footed, nine-footed

four-footed

became

is

she

she, the thousand-

syllabled (consisting of thousand elements) pankti

(quinary stanza) of the universe

her flow forth upon (the world).


43. Ascending the heaven,

the oceans from

immortal,

receive

The sacrifices purified by prayer


kindly my song
the bay steeds that travel upon the
lead thee forth
!

road carry thee.


44. That do I

know

of thee,

immortal, where

thy march is upon the sky, where thy habitation is


in the highest heaven.
45. Surya (the sun) surveys the sky, Surya the
Surya is the single eye of
earth, Surya the waters.

he has ascended the great heavens.


46. The broad (directions) where the fagots that

being

fence in (the

fire),

the earth turned itself into a

fire-

COSMOGONIC AND THEOSOPIIIC HYMNS.

X.

T,

There Rohita laid on for himself these two


fires, cold and heat.
47. Laying on cold and heat, using the moun-

altar.

tains as sacrificial posts, the

knows the (heavenly)

two

light,

fires

into

who

of Rohita

which (the

fires)

rain (flowed) as ghee, carried out the sacrifice.


48.
light

The

49.

it

who knows the (heavenly)


by prayer. From it heat, from it

of Rohita

kindled

is

from

cold,

fire

the sacrifice was produced.

The two

fires

swelling

through prayer,

in-

creased through prayer, sacrificed into with prayer


the two

of Rohita

fires

through

kindled

light,

who knows
prayer,

the (heavenly)

out

carried

the

sacrifice,

50.

One

is

deposited in truth, the other

in the waters.

The two

fires

of Rohita

is

kindled

who knows

the (heavenly) light, kindled through prayer, carried

out the

sacrifice.

The

which the wind brightens up, and


that which Indra and Brahma/^aspati (brighten up),
the two fires of Rohita who knows the (heavenly)
51.

light,

fire

kindled

through

prayer,

carried

out

the

sacrifice.

Having fashioned the earth into an altar,


having made the heavens (his) sacrificial reward,
then having made heat into fire, Rohita created all
52.

that has breath through rain (serving) as ghee.

Rain fashioned itself into ghee, heat into fire,


Then Agni by (his) songs
the earth into an altar.
53.

fashioned the hio-h mountains.


54.

Having fashioned by means of songs

(mountains), Rohita spake to the earth


shall
55.

be born, what

The

is

and what

sacrifice first,

the high

In thee

all

shall be.

(and then) what

is

and

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

214

be was born. From that this all was


born, and whatever here appears, brought hither by

what

shall

the sage Rohita.

He who

56.

kicks a

cow with

who

micturates towards the sun

out

the

root

and he
of thee do I tear
his foot,

thou shalt henceforth not cast a

shadow

Thou

57.

that

passest

me, casting thy

across

shadow against me, between me and the


thee do

tear out the root

fire

of

thou shalt henceforth

not cast a shadow

He, O god Surya, that to-day passes between


thee and me, upon him our evil dream, our foulness,
and our misfortunes do we wipe off.
58.

May we

59.

soma

60.

may we

not miss our way,

him

Indra, miss the sacrifice of

may not the powers of grudge


The (guiding) thread stretched

not,

presses the

that

intercept us

out

among

the

gods, that accomplishes the sacrifice, that, by pour-

ing oblations,

XI,

5.

may we

attain

Glorification of the sun, or the primeval


principle, as a

1.

The

Brahman

disciple.

Brahma/'arin (Brahmanical disciple) moves

inciting both

him the
holds the heavens and

hemispheres of the world

in

gods are harmonised. He


the earth, he fills the teacher with creative fervour
(tapas).
2,

The

and

fathers, the divine folk,

severally follow the Brahma/'arin

all

the gods

the Gandharvas

did go after him, six thousand three hundred and


thirty-three.

fervour.

He

fills

all

the gods with

creative

COSMOGONIC AND THEOSOPHIC HYMNS.

X.

When

3.

the teacher receives the

as a disciple, he places

He

his body).

when he

bellv:

carries
is

21

Brahma/^'arin

him as a foetus inside


him for three nights in

(of
his

born the grods o-ather about to

see him.

This earth is (his first) piece of firewood, the


heaven the second, and the atmosphere also he fills
4.

with (the third) piece of firewood.


/l-arin

The Brahma-

the worlds with his firewood, his girdle,

fills

his asceticism,

and

his creative fervour.

brahma (spiritual exaltation) the


was born clothed in heat, by creative
fervour he arose. From him sprung the brahma/^am
(Brahmanic life) and the highest brahma, and all the
gods together with immortality (amrzta).
6. The Brahma/'arin advances, kindled by the
5.

Prior to the

Brahma/^'arin

firewood, clothed in the skin of the black antelope,

consecrated, with long beard.

Within the

passes from the eastern to the northern sea

clay

he

gather-

ing together the worlds he repeatedly shapes them.


7.

The

Brahma/{'arin, begetting the brahma, the

waters, the world, Pra^^apati Paramesh/Z/in (he that


in the highest place), and Vira^'', having
become an embryo in the womb of immortality,
having, forsooth, become Indra, pierced the Asuras.

stands

8.

The

teacher fashioned these two hemispheres

of the world, the broad and the deep, earth and

heaven.

These the Brahma/arin guards with his


in him the gods are har-

creative fervour (tapas)

monised.
9.
/C'arin

This broad earth and the heaven the Brahmafirst brouoht hither as alms.
Havins: made

these into two sticks of firewood he reveres them

upon them

all

beings have been founded.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

2l6

One

10.

is

on the hither

other on the

side, the

farther side of the back of the heavens

secretly are

deposited the two receptacles of the

(Brahmanic

by

life).

brahma;/am
These the Brahma/'arin protects

his tapas (creative fervour)

understandingly he

performs that brahma (spiritual exaltation) solely.

One on

away from
come together between
these two hemispheres (of the world).
To them
adhere the rays firmly; the Brahma/'arin by his
11.

the hither side, the other

the earth, do the two Agnis

tapas (creative fervour) enters into the (rays).

Shouting

12.

forth,

thundering,

carries a great penis along the earth.


/^arin

sprinkles seed

through
1

3.

it

Into

white

he

The Brahma-

upon the back of the earth

the four directions


fire,

red,

live.

the sun, the moon, Matari^-van (wind),

and the waters, the Brahma/'arin places the firewood;


the lights from these severally go into the clouds,
from them come sacrificial butter, the purusha
(primeval man), rain, and water.
14. Death is the teacher, (and) Varu;/a, Soma, the
plants, milk
the clouds were the warriors by these
this light has been brought hither.
15. Varu?^a, having become the teacher, at home
prepares the ghee solely.
Whatever he desired
:

from Pra^apati, that the Brahma/i'arin furnished, as


Mitra (a friend) from his own atman (spirit, or
person).
16.
/'arin

ra^ati)

The

Brahma/^arin

Pra^apati.
;

is

the teacher, the Brahma-

Pra^apati rules (shines forth, vi

Vira^ (heavenly power, or

light)

became

Indra, the ruler.


1

7.

Through holy disciplehood (brahma/'aryam),

through tapas (creative fervour), the king protects

COSMOGONIC AND THEOSOPHIC HYMNS.

X.

his

kingdom.

Mryam

The

21 7

teacher by (his own) brahma-

(holy Hfe) seeks (finds) the Brahma/'arin.

Through holy disciplehood the maiden obtains


a young husband, through holy disciplehood the
18.

steer, the
19.

horse seeks to obtain fodder.

Through holy

disciplehood, through creative

away death. Indra, forsooth,


by his holy disciplehood brought the light to the gods.
20. The plants, that which was and shall be, day
and night, the tree, the year along with the seasons,
fervour, the gods drove

have sprung from the Brahma/^arin.


21. The earthly and the heavenly animals, the
wild and the domestic, the wingless and the winged
(animals), have sprung from the Brahmai'arin.
22.

All the creatures of Pra^apati (the creator)

severally carry breath

in

their souls.

All

these

the brahma, which has been brought hither in the


Brahma/'arin, protects.
23.

that

This, that was set into motion by the gods,

insurmountable, that moves shining, from

is

has sprung the brahma;^am (Brahmanical


highest brahma, and

all

the

gods,

life),

it

the

together with

immortality (amr/ta).
24. 25.

brahma

The

Brahma/'arin

into this all the

carries

the

shining

gods are woven.

Pro-

ducing in-breathing and out-breathing, as well as


through-breathing speech, mind, heart, brahma, and
;

wisdom, do thou furnish us with


food, semen, blood, and belly
26.

sight, hearing, glory,

These things the Brahma/^arin fashioned upon

the back of the (heavenly) water.

He

stood

in

the

sea kindled with tapas (creative fervour). He, when


he has bathed, shines vigorously upon the earth,
brown and ruddy.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

21

XI,

or breath, personified as the

life

Fra.ua.,

4.

supreme
1.

is

Reverence

2.

to Pra;^a, to

who has become

subject,

whom

spirit.

the

all is

all this

(universe)

the lord of the

all,

on

supported

Reverence,

reverence,

whom

Pra/^a,

to

thy roaring (wind),

thy thunder, reverence,

Pra/^a, to

Pra;^a, to thy lightning, reverence,

Pra;^a, to thy

rain
3.

When

Pra;/a calls aloud to the plants with his

they are fecundated, they conceive, and

thunder,

then are produced abundant


4.

When

(plants).

the season has arrived, and Pra;^a calls

aloud to the plants, then everything rejoices, whatsoever


5.

rain,

is

When

earth.

Pra/^a has watered the great earth with

then the beasts rejoice

forsooth,
6.

upon the

we

When

shall

now

(they think)

'
:

strength,

obtain.'

they had been watered by Pra;^a, the

plants spake in concert

longed our

life,

'
:

thou hast

thou hast, forsooth, pro-

made

us

all fragrant.'

Reverence be, O Fra.ua, to thee coming, reverence to thee going


reverence to thee standing,
and reverence, too, to thee sitting
8. Reverence be to thee, O Pra;^a, when thou
7.

when thou breathwhen thou art turned

breathest in (pra/mte), reverence

Reverence be

est out

away,

reverence

hither
9.

Of

to thee

be here

to thee, entire, reverence

thy dear form,

Praz-^a,

form, of the healing power that


us, that

thou

thee w^hen

to

we may

live

art

turned

of thy very dear

is

thine, give

unto

COSMOGONIC AND THEOSOPIIIC HYMNS.

X.

219

Pra;^a clothes the creatures, as a father his

10.

dear son.

Pra;^a, truly, is the lord of

all,

of

all

that

breathes, and does not breathe.


Pra;^a

11.

death,

is

worship Pra;^a.
in the
1

Pra//a

is

is

o-ods

Vira^ (power,

(the divinity that guides):


verily

The

fever.

is

Pra;^a shall place the truth-speaker

highest world

2.

Pra/-!a

lustre), Pra//a is

all

worship

They

sun and moon.

Desh/ri

Pra;^a.

Pra/^a

call Pra?^a Prac^apati.

Rice and barley are in-breathing and out-

13.

breathing.
forsooth,

Pra;/a

is

is

called a steer.

founded upon barley

In-breathing,

rice

is

called out-

breathingf.

Man breathes
womb. When

14.

the

then

he born

is

15.

They

out and breathes


thou,

in

when

within

Pra;^a, quickenest him,

aofain.

call

Prawa, forsooth,

Pra;/a
is

Matarii"van

called

past and the future, the

all,

Vata
verily

(the

(the wind).
is

wind);

The

supported upon

Frafia.
16.

The

holy (atharva;^a) plants, the magic (ahgi-

rasa) plants, the divine plants,

by men, spring

forth,

when

and those produced

thou,

Pra?^a, quick-

enest them.
1

7.

rain,

When

Pra;za has watered the great earth with

then the plants spring forth, and also every sort

of herb.

Whoever, O Pra;^a, knows this regarding


and (knows) on what thou art supported, to
him all shall offer tribute in yonder highest world,
18.

thee,

19.

As

these creatures,

Pra;^a, offer thee

yonder world)
him who hears thee, O far-famed one
20. He moves as an embryo within the gods

tribute, so

to

all

they shall offer tribute

(in

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

2 20

having arrived, and being in existence, he is born


again.
Having arisen he enters with his mights the
present and the future, as a father (goes to) his son.

When

swan he

from the water he


he were
to withdraw it, there would be neither to-day, nor
to-morrow, no night and no day, never would the
2

1.

as a

does not withdraw his one

dawn

rises

If in truth

foot.

appear.

With

2 2.

eight wheels, and one felloe he moves,

containing a thousand sounds (elements), upward in


the east,

downward

With

in the west.

produced the whole world

what

is

(his) half

he

the visible sign

of his (other) half?

He who

23.

rules over this

(all)

derived from

every source, and over everything that moves


reverence be to thee,

bow

Pra7za, that wieldest a swift

against others (the enemies)

May

24.

Pra/za,

who

rules over this

(all)

derived

from every source, and over everything that moves,


(may he) unwearied, strong through the brahma,
adhere to me
25. Erect he watches in those that sleep, nor does
he lie down across.
No one has heard of his sleeping in those that sleep.

26.

Pra/za,

be not turned away from me, thou

shalt not be other than myself!

the waters
I

may
IX,

(fire),

thee,

Pra^^a,

As

the

embryo of

do bind to me, that

live.

2.

Prayer to

Kama

(love), personified as

a primordial power.
I.
I

To

the bull that slays the enemy, to

render tribute with ghee, oblation, and

Kama, do
(sacrificial)

COSMOGONIC AND THEOSOPHIC HYMNS.

X.

Do thou, since thou hast


down my enemies by thy great

melted butter.
tolled, hurl

The

22

been exmight
my mind

dream which is offensive to


and eye, which harasses and does not please me,
that (dream) do I let loose upon my enemy.
Having praised Kama may I prevail
3. Evil dreams, O Kama, and misfortune, O Kama,
childlessness, ill-health, and trouble, do thou, a strong
lord, let loose upon him that designs evil against us
4. Drive them away, O Kama, thrust them away,
2.

evil

Kama may they that are my


When they have been
trouble
;

enemies

nethermost darkness, do thou,

fall

into

driven into the

up

Agni, burn

their dwelling-places
5.

call

That milch-cow,

Kama, whom

enemies
breath,
a wide birth
;

cattle,

sages

resplendent speech),

Va/^ Virac^ (ruling, or

said to be thy daughter

the

is

by her drive away my


and life shall give them

6.

With

the

strength

of

Kama,

Indra,

king

Varu;m, and Vish;Ri, with the impelling force (savena)


of Savitar, with the priestly power of Agni, do
1

drive forth the enemies, as a skilled steersman

a boat.
7.

My

sturdy guardian, strong

Kama,

shall pro-

May the
cure for me full freedom from enmity
gods collectively be my refuge, may all the gods
respond to this, my invocation
pleasure in this (sacrificial) melted
8. Taking
!

butter,
is

and ghee, do

ye,

(O

gods), of

whom Kama

the highest, be joyful in this place, procuring for

me

freedom from enmity


Indra and Agni, and Kama, having formed
9.
an alliance, do ye hurl down my enemies; when
full

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

222

they have fallen into the nethermost darkness, do


thou, O Agni, burn up after them their dwellingplaces
10.

mies, hurl

of vigour,

Kama, those that are my enethem down into blind darkness. Devoid
without sap let them all be they shall

Slay thou,

not live a single day


11.

Kama

has slain those that are

a broad space has he furnished

May

the four directions of space

and the
12.

broad (regions) carry

six

They

(the

its

returning again for those

enemies,

me to thrive in.
bow down to me,
ghee to me

enemies) shall float

boat cut loose from

my

moorings

down
There

who have been

like a
is

struck

no

by

our missiles.
13.

Agni

14.

a defence, Indra a defence.

May

defence.
off (the

is

enemy), ward him

With

(enemy)

his

men

shall go,

down upon

Soma

the gods, w^ho by their defence

ward

off!

reduced, driven out, the hated

shunned by

his

own

friends

the earth do the lightnings alight

the strong god crush your enemies

And
may

This mighty lightning supports both moveable and immoveable things, as well as all thunders.
May the rising sun by his resources and his majesty
hurl down my enemies, he the mighty one
15.

16.

With

that triple-armoured powerful covering

O Kama,

with the charm that has been


an invulnerate armour spread (over thee),
with that do thou drive away those who are my
enemies may breath, cattle, and life give them a

of thine,

made

into

wide berth
17.

forth

With

weapon with which the god drove


the Asuras, with which Indra led the Dasyus
the

X.

to

COSMOGONIC AND TIIEOSOPHIC HYMNS.

223

nethermost darkness, with that do thou,


Kama, drive forth far away from this world those
the

who
1

are

8.

my

As

enemies

the gods drove forth the Asuras, as Indra

demons into the nethermost darkness,


thus do thou, O Kama, drive forth far away from
forced the

world those

this

who

Kama was

are

my

enemies

him neither the gods,


To these
equalled.
have
nor the Fathers, nor men
to thee, O Kama,
art thou superior, and ever great
do I verily offer reverence.
20. As great as are the heavens and earth in
extent, as far as the waters have swept, as far as
19.

born at

first

fire

to these art thou superior, &c.

Great as are the directions (of space) and the


intermediate direction on either side, great as are
the regions and the vistas of the sky to these art
21.

thou superior, &c.


22.

As many

bees, bats, kururu-worms, as

many

vaghas and tree-serpents as there are to these art


thou superior, &c.
23. Superior art thou to all that winks (lives),
;

superior to

all

that stands

to the ocean art thou,


art thou superior,

not

still (is

alive), superior

Kama, Manyu

To

these

&c.

Not, surely, does the wind equal


the fire, not the sun, and not the moon.
24.

Kama, not

To

these

art thou superior, &c.


25.

thine,

With those auspicious and gracious forms of


O Kama, through which what thou wilst

becometh

real,

with these do thou enter into

elsewhere send the evil thoughts

us,

and

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

24

XIX,

Prayer to Kala (time), personified as

53.

a primordial power.
1.

Time, the steed, runs with seven reins

(rays),

The

seers,

thousand-eyed,

ageless, rich

thinking holy thoughts,

seed.

in

mount him,

the beings

all

(worlds) are his wheels.

With seven wheels does

2.

naves has he, immortality


hither

these beings

all

now

god,
3.

verily,

away

we

jar has

been placed upon Time

see existing in

He

(worlds),

carries

Time, the

(worlds).

many

these beings (worlds)

in the hio;hest
4.

He

his axle.

is

seven

ride,

first

hastens onward.

full

all

Time

this

He

forms.

they

him,

carries

him Time

call

heaven.

surely

bring hither

did

all

he surely did encompass

all

the

beings

the beings

Being their father, he became their son


there is, verily, no other force, higher than he.
5. Time begot yonder heaven. Time also (begot)
these earths.
That which was, and that which shall
be, urged forth by Time, spreads out.
6. Time created the earth, in Time the sun burns.
In Time are all beings, in Time the eye looks
(worlds).

abroad.
7.

Time mind is fixed, in Time breath (is


in Time names (are fixed)
when Time has

In

fixed),

arrived
8.

Time

In

all

these creatures rejoice.

Time

tapas (creative fervour)

the highest (being

(spiritual exaltation)

is

is

fixed)

fixed

Time

is

fixed;

in

Time brahma

in

is

the lord of

everything, he was the father of Pra^apati.


9.

By him

this (universe)

was urged

forth,

by him

COSMOGONIC AND THEOSOPHIC HYMNS.

X.

it

225

was begotten, and upon him this (universe) was


Time, truly, having become the brahma

founded.

(spiritual

exaltation),

supports

Paramesh///in

(the

highest lord).

Time

10.

Time

created the creatures (pra^a/^), and

beginning (created)

the

in

the

lord of creatures

(Pra^apati); the self-existing Kai-yapa and the tapas


(creative fervour)

XIX,

from Time were born.

Prayer to Kala (time), personified as

54.

a primordial power.

From Time

1.

brahma

the

Through

fervour), the regions (of space did arise).

Time
2.

Time he goes down

the sun rises, in

Through Time

(exists)

Time

the waters did arise, from

(spiritual exaltation), the tapas (creative

again.

the wind blows, through

the great earth

the great sky

is

Time

fixed in

Time. In Time the son (Pra^apati) begot of yore


that which was, and that which shall be.
3. From Time the Z^^'ks arose, the Ya^is was
born from Time Time put forth the sacrifice, the
;

imperishable share of the gods.


4.

Upon Time

are founded, upon


in

Time

this

the Gandharvas

Time

and Apsarases

the worlds (are founded),

Angiras and Atharvan rule over the

heavens.

Having conquered

world and the highest


Avorld, and the holy (pure) worlds (and) their holy
divisions having by means of the brahma (spiritual
5.

this

exaltation)

conquered

all

the

worlds. Time,

highest God, forsooth, hastens onward.

[4-']

the

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

2 26

XI,

7.

Apotheosis of the wkk/nshtd., the leavings


of the sacrifice.

In the u/'/7^ish/a are deposited name (qiiahty)


and form, in the ukk/nshtd. the world is deposited.
Within the u/'Mish/a Indra and Agni, and the all
1.

are deposited.

In the wkkkisht^ heaven and earth, and all


beings, are deposited in the ukk/nshtdi are deposited
2.

the waters, the ocean, the moon, and the wind.


being and non-being,
3. In the ukkh\s\\t^ are both
death, strength (food), and Pra^apati. The (creatures)
of the world are founded upon the u/^/^/zish/a (also)
;

that which

erace
4.

is

confined and

that which

is free,

and the

me.

He who

fastens

what

is

firm, the strong, the

brahma, the ten creators of the all, the


divinities, are fixed on all sides to the nkk/i\s\\tA as
the (spokes of the) wheel to the nave.
the singing of the
5. Rik, Saman, and Ya^us,

leader, the

samans, their introductions, and the stotras are in


the

\ikkk\s\\t2i.

The sound him


'

'

is

in the u>('/'//ish/a,

and the modulations and the music of the saman.


That is in me.
6. The prayer to Indra and Agni (aindragnam),
the call to the soma, as

it

is

being purified (pava-

manam), the mahanamni-verses, the singing of the


mahavrata, (these) divisions of the service are
u/{'/7/ish/a, as the embryo in the mother.

in the

of the consecration of the king


(ra^asuya), the va^apeya, the agnish/oma, and the
cattle-sacrifice belonging to it, the arka and the
7.

The ceremony

horse-sacrifice,

and the most delightful

which fresh barhis

is

(sacrifice) for

strewn, are in the u/'/'/nsh/a.

COSMOGONIC AND THEOSOPHIC HYMNS.

X.

The

8.

preparation

of the

sacred

fire

227

(agnya-

dheyam), the consecration for the soma-sacrifice


(diksha), the sacrifice by which (special) wishes are
fulfilled,

together with the metres, the sacrifices that

have passed out, and the extended


are founded upon the u/'/t7/ish/a.

The

9.

sacrifices (satra),

agnihotra, faith, the call vasha/,

asceticism, sacrificial rewards,

what

vows and

sacrificed (to

is

the gods) and given (to the priests) are contained in


the uH7nshfa..

The

10.

(ekaratra),

(soma-sacrifice)

and that which

that

lasts

lasts

one

two nights

night

(dviratra),

the (condensed soma-sacrifice called) sadya//kri, and


(that

which

is

called) prakri, the (songs called) ukthya,

woven and deposited

are

in

the

u/'/'/^ish/a

(also

the parts) of the sacrifice subtle through (higher)

knowledge.

The

11.

that

soma-sacrifice

nights

lasts

(pa/^/aratraX

four

nights

six

nights

(/aturatra),

five

(sha^ratra),

and along (with them) those that

double the time

and

the

that

soma-sacrifice

(saptaratra),

all

last

the sixteenfold stotra (sho^^a^in),


lasts

seven

nights

the sacrifices which w-ere founded

upon immortality (amr/ta), were begotten of the


u/^/7/ish/a.

The

12.

and

pratlhara-passages

(in

the saman-songs),

their final syllables, the (soma-sacrifices called)

and abhi^'it, the soma-sacrifice that ends


day (sahna), and that which lasts into
the
the next day (atiratra), are in the u/77ish/a

vi^va^'it

with

the

soma-sacrifice also that lasts twelve days.


in

That

is

me.
1

call

3.

Liberality,

accomplishment,

possession,

the

svadha, nurture, immortality (amr/ta), and might,

HYiMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

28

inner desires are satisfied according to wish in

all

the u^^/nsh^a.
14.

The

nine earths, oceans, heavens, are founded

upon the u/'/'//ish^'a. The sun shines in the


and day and night also. That is in me.
1

5.

The

u/'Z7nsh/a,

(soma-sacrifice called) upahavya, the offer-

ing on the middle day of a sacrifice lasting a year


(vishuvant), and the sacrifices that are secretly presented, U/'/'/nsh/a, the sustainer of the universe, the
father of the generator (Pra^apati), supports.
16.

U>('/7/ish/a,

grandson of the

the father of the generator, the


spirit

the primal ancestor

(asu),

universe, the lusty

(grandfather), the ruler of the

upon the
Order (ma),

bull dwells
17.

(tapas),

past,

earth.

truth

future,

fervour

creative

law and works


are in the
prosperity,
and
strength,

sovereignty,

uX7'/Ash/a

(satya),

force

asceticism,

in force.

Success, might, plans, dominion, sovereignty,


the six broad (regions), the year, libation (i7a), the
orders to the priests (praisha), the draughts of soma
18.

(graha), oblations (are founded)

upon the

u/'/^7/ish^a.

The

(liturgies called) /^aturhotara//, the apri-

hymns, the

triennial sacrifices, the (formulas called)

19.

nivid, the sacrifices, the priestly functions, the cattlesacrifice

and the soma-oblations connected with

it,

are in the u/'/(7ish/a.

half-months and months, the divisions


of the year together with the seasons, the resounding
waters, thunder, the great Vedic canon (.sTuti) are in
20.

The

the u/^/7^ish/a.
21.

clouds,

Pebbles,

sand,

lightning,

founded upon the

stones,

herbs,

are

attached

rain,

u/'/(7ash/a.

plants,
to,

grass,

and are

COSMOGONIC AND THEOSOPIIIC HYMNS.

X.

2 2.

229

Success, attainment, accomplishment, control,

greatness, prosperity,

being rest upon, rest

supreme attainment, and wellhave been deposited in the

in,

U/('/7/ish/a.

23.

sight, all gods in


were born of the

24.

and sees with


the heavens, founded upon heaven,

Whatever breathes with

The

breath,

u/i-Mish/a.

r/ks and the samans, the

metres, the

ancient legends (pura/^am) together with the ya^us,

gods in the heavens, founded upon heaven, were


born of the u/'/'/zish/'a.
25. In-breathing and out-breathing, sight, hearing,
imperishableness and perishableness, all gods in the
heavens, founded upon heaven, were born of the
all

uM/iish/a..

and merrithe heavens, founded upon heaven,

26. Joys, pleasures, delights, jubilation

gods in
were born of the
ment,

all

u/('/'//ish/a.

the (deceased) Fathers, men,


all gods in the heavens,
Apsaras,
and
Gandharvas
founded upon heaven, were born of the u/'/7/ish/a.
27.

IX,

The

I.

gods,

Hymn

to the honey-lash of the

Awins.

heaven, from earth, from the atmosphere,


from the sea, from the fire, and from the wind,
This, clothed in
the honey-lash hath verily sprung.
amma (ambrosia), all the creatures revering, acclaim
1.

From

in their hearts.

Great sap of all forms (colours) it hath they


Where
call thee moreover the seed of the ocean.
life's
gifts,
there
the honey-lash comes bestowing
breath, and there immortality has settled down.
2.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA,

230

Men

3.

behold

severally, contemplating

upon the earth

action

its

it

profoundly,

from the

fire

and

from the wind the honey-lash hath verily sprung, the


strong child of the Maruts.
4.

Mother of the Adityas, daughter of the Vasus,


life of created beings, nave of immortality,

breath of

the honey-lash, golden-coloured, dripping ghee, as


a great embryo,
5.

moves among

The gods begot

the lash of honey, from

came an embryo having

all

forms (colours).

soon as born, (while yet) young


this,
6.

as soon as born, surveys

Who

knows

it

mortals.

its

all

it

This, as

mother nourishes;

the worlds.

and who perceives it, the inexcup that has come from the

haustible, soma-holding

heart of

he

(the honey-lash)

it

'Tis the wise priest

from it
knows them, and he perceives them, the

shall derive inspiration


7.

He

inexhaustible breasts of

it

(the honey-lash), that yield

Nourishment they pour out

a thousand streams.

without recalcitration.
8.

The

sound

'

great (cow) that loudly gives forth the

him,' that bestows strength,

loud shouts to the holy

act,

the three (male) gharmas

and goes with

bellowing with lust for

(fires),

she lows, and drips

with (streams) of milk.


9.

When

reign, wait

the waters, the mighty bulls, self-sove-

upon

they, the waters,

(the cow), swollen with milk, (then)

pour nourishment (upon

her),

and

cause her to pour nourishment at will for him that

knoweth
10.

this,

The thunder

is

the

fire,

thy voice,

Pra^^pati

as

upon the earth. From


and from the wind the honey-lash hath

a bull thou hurlest thy

fire

verily sprung, the strong child of the Maruts.

As

the

soma

at the morning-pressure

my own

to the A^vins, thus in


lustre shall

As

12.

COSMOGONIC AND THEOSOPHIC HYMNS.

X.

11.

person,

the

soma

my own

Indra and Agni, lustre shall be sustained


the

soma

in

person,

at the third pressure (evening)

dear to the yc*/bhus, thus

is

dear

at the second (mid-day) pressure

dear to Indra and Agni, thus

As

is

Ai'vins,

be sustained

is

13.

2^1

my own

in

person,

^zbhus, lustre shall be sustained


14. May I beget honey for myself; may I obtain
honey for myself! Bringing milk, O Agni, I have
!

come

endow me with

Endow

15.

me,

lustre

Agni, with

with oft'spring and with

life

note of this (prayer) of mine


with the i?/shis (take note of
16.

thus

the gods take

Indra together

it)

7.

As

the bees pile this honey

my own

strength,
18.

person,

and force

The honey

heights

which

is

in

19.

shall

that

is

Ai"vins,

sura (brandy) as

be

Ai'vins,

in

me

is

it

is

in the

the honey

being poured

lords

among men
The thunder

brilliance,

be sustained
in the mountains,

of brightness,

with the honey of the bee, that

speech

upon honey, thus


lustre,

the cows, and in the horses

in the

out, that shall

20.

May
may

As bees carry together honey upon honey,


in my own person, O A^vins, lustre shall be

sustained

in

endow me

lustre,

may speak

thy speech,

me

anoint

forceful

Pra^apati

as

upon earth and heaven.


All animals live upon it (the earth), and she with it
(Pra^apati's fire) fills nourishment and food.
21. The earth is the staff, the atmosphere the

a bull thou hurlest thy

fire

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

7,2

embryo, the heaven the whip (itself?), the Hghtning


the whip-cord of gold is the tip (of the whip ?).
2 2. He that knoweth the seven honies of the whip
;

becomes

honey

rich in

(to wit), the Brahma;/a, the

and honey as the

king, the cow, the ox, rice, barley,

seventh.
23.

Rich

become

in

honey becomes

24.

When

'

in

thus.

a bright sky

it

thunders, then Pra^a-

manifests himself to (his) creatures (praoa/i).

Therefore do

from

in

honey
honey does

rich

his appurtenances, worlds rich in

he win, he that knoweth


pati

he,

the

stand with the sacred cord suspended

right

shoulder

saying,

watch over me
The creatures
watch over him, Pra^apati watches over

Pra^apati,

(pra^a//)

(pra/^inopavita),

him, that knoweth thus.

'

EXTRACTS FROM THE RITUAL


TEXTS AND COMMENTARY.

I,

The

Commentary to page

2.

ritual application of this

hymn

a medical charm and,

is

8.

a twofold one.

It is

again, as a battle-charm,

employed as
owing to the belief that certain diseases are inflicted upon
mortals by the arrows of Par^'-anya, a belief which introduces into the context a large number of words redolent of
battle, as well as

this the

some designations

double treatment,

charm the present hymn


of

list (ga//a)

this list is

in

I,

12.

As

with

Cf.

a battle-

figures in Ka.us. 14, 7 in a lengthy

hymns called

employed

of diseases.

AV.

e.g., of

sa;gramika;^i (or apara^itaga//a)

connection with warlike practices in

the subsequent Sutras (14, 8-13, and more especially Sutra


Still more secondarily, the entire list (apara^ita) is
13).

employed in Kau.y. 139, 7, along with certain other gaas,


at the ceremonies connected with the beginning of the study

Veda (up^karma)^

of the

and

18

In

also

Cf.

the ^^ntikalpa

17

2.

its

medicinal construction the

diarrhoea, being followed

by AV.

hymn
I, 3,

is

a charm against

a charm against dis-

eases of the opposite character, constipation and retention of


urine.

It is

AV.

with

handled

II, 3,

in this sense at Kauj-. 25, 6-9,

directed against diarrhoea (atisara)

construe

it

along

in a practice which, according to Darila,

more broadly

is

Ke^-ava and Saya;;a

as against fever, diarrhoea, exces-

'

See the introduction to VI, 97.

Quoted erroneously by Sayawa

as the Nakshatrakalpa.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

2 34
sive urine,

and even flow of blood,

i.e.

against excessive or

body in general. The practices


While reciting the two hymns I, 2

unnatural flows from the


are as follows

and

25, 6.

'

3 the (practising priest) ties the head of a stalk of


mu;7^a-reed (saccharum munja) with a cord (made from the
II,

same

plant, as an amulet, upon the patient ^).


7. Having
ground up a natural lump of earth, and earth from an
ant-mound ^, he gives (a solution of this to the patient)

to drink.

upon

He

8.

smears him with ghee.

(the rectum of the patient

The hymn has been

9.

He

blows

^).'

and analysed by Weber,

translated

Ind. Stud. IV, pp. 394-5 and the present writer, in Seven
Hymns of the Atharva-veda,' Amer. Journ. Phil. VII,
'

pp. 467-9.

XIV,

pp. 178

Cf. also
fl".

Florenz

in

Bezzenberger's Beitrage,

and, as a specimen of an interpretation

which assumes that no Vedic passage has previously been


correctly understood, Regnaud, LAtharva-Veda et la
methode d'interpretation de M. Bloomfield, pp. 8-10.
Stanza
a.

Par^anya

is

1.

the god of rain (hence his epithet bhuri-

dhayas), and his outpourings upon the earth seem to be

compared with a shower of arrows


15 the arrow

is

(par^anyaretasa

said to

come from

hence

in

RV. VI,

Possibly, however, the arrow

I'shvai).

75,

the semen of Par^anya

Par^anya's child, because arrow-reeds

(j-ara)

grow

in

is

conse-

quence of the rain. It seems further that the discharges


from the body are compared with Par^anya's rain, and are
therefore under his control
cf. I, 3, 1 below.
Hence the
;

The

passage in brackets

is

derived from the Commentaries.

For the role of the ant-mound, see the note on II, 3, 4, and
more especially VI, 100.
^ So according to Darila, apane dhamati
Ke^ava and Sayawa,
in accordance with their more liberal construction, cause the blowing to be performed upon the particular opening in the body from
^

which the excessive discharge flows (Sa}'a;m, apanajii'nanaf/ivrawa-

mukhanam dhamanam).

For apana, a euphemism

see Kaujika, Introduction, p.

Iv,

bottom.

for

'

rectum,'

I,

COMMENTARY.

3.

double construction of this


a

remedy

hymn

235

as a battle-charm,

against excessive discharges.

and as

For the knowledge

which imparts power and control, cf. VII, 12, 2 76, 5, and
elsewhere. Also vS"at. Br. IX, i, i, 17, 'no damage comes
from him who has been recognised and addressed.'
;

The

b.

earth as mother of the plants yields the shafts

for the arrows.

Stanza
a.

Weber's translation

Bogenschnur

schlinge dich

um

Sayawa, quite correctly, asman parihr/tya

verb pari nam.


.

2.

not in accordance with the quotable uses of the

uns,' is

'

ma?;^ vihaya anyatra strain preraya.

Cf. II, 13,

4b

Tait. S. IV, 6, 6, 4.

Saya;/a,

c.

who throughout

nya and Indra

(cf.

Bergaigne, III,

p. 25), refers

bowstring

to the

similarly,

Biihler, Orient

cf.

RV. VI,

v\d"\

'

identifies Par^a-

und Occident, I,
But

vuK\k to Indra.

ayudha,

RV.

39, 2

I;

for tree in the sense of 'bow,' occur also

Cf with

the

The

some word

RV. VI,

47, 26;

I,

4.

amulet

in

the practices

Saya//a, mu;7^''eshika-nirmita ra^u//.

the introduction to

The

tree.'

prerayanti.

this the tying of the

of the Sutra.

urine

and

anusphuraw pratisphura;zaw, sphur sawZ'a-

ar/^anti

Stanza
d.

27, 22.

Saya;/a,

b.

lane

X,

refers

3.

when the cows embracing

singular or plural of the stem go for 'sinew,' and

75, II

229

p.
it

47, 26.

Stanza
Literally,

a.

hymn

this

3.

I,

12.

Commentary to page

Kauj'ika prescribes this

and constipation

Cf.

hymn

io.

against retention of

the stanzas themselves seem to refer

to difficulties in micturation only,

Sutra adds the other feature.

and very possibly, the


is the pendant

The hymn

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

236
to

I,

which aims to obviate the opposite difficulties.


in Kauj-. 25, 10-19 ^.re as follows: 10.

2,

The

practices

'While reciting AV. i, 3 (the practitioner) ties on (as an


amulet upon the patient) a substance promoting micturation^

He

II.

him

gives

drink a solution of earth

to

from a molehill, of putika

(a stinking

bonduc), of pulverised, dried pramanda

plant, guilandina

each mixed with

^,

While reciting the


of the hymn, he gives him an enema.
13.

(wood-) shavings

^.

1 2.

take a ride in a vehicle.

He

opens the urethra.

last

two stanzas

He makes him
He shoots off an arrow. 15.
He probes the bladder*. 17.

14.
16.

Having poured twenty-one barley-grains with water into


a milk-pail, placing an axe behind (the patient), he pours
the water from the grain

He

him

gives

ula'^.

(upon the suffering

to drink a decoction of ala

part).

lotus-root,

^,

18.

and

The same treatment is prescribed for one sufferThe performances are in part

19.

ing from

constipation.'

therapeutic, in part symbolic (the shooting of the arrow).


Cf. Wise,

Hindu System

The hymn has been


pp. 395-6.

Cf. also

of Medicine, pp. 364

translated

Bergaigne

et

ff.

by Weber, Ind. Stud. IV,


Henry, Manuel Vedique,

p. 130.

Stanza
Cf.

I,

to the

'

2,

According

pura,

'

The

above.

abundant semen
to the

expression .fatav/-/shya refers

(rain) of

commentators, haritaki,

Darila, at Ka.us. 8,

The

'

cf.

especially

gall-nut,'

1 7,

and kar-

glosses this with induka.

sense and the construction of the long

Sutra are not altogether clear.

According to Saya;za,

in

Cf.

The

text,

phalato

this

compound

Kaujika, Introduction,

the

bladder with a copper instrument.


^

Par^anya

camphor,' are such substances.

1.

introduction,

So

seems

he

in this

p. Ixii

flf.

probes the

also Ke^-ava.
to

refer

to the

twenty-one

barley-grains.
*

'

Apparently a kind of creeper or weed in


Ke^ava, yavagodhumavalli.

godhiamavyadhi/z
duction, p.
'

grain-fields.'

xlvii.

Darila, kasturikajaka,

'

musk

;
'

Darila,

See Kaujika, Intro-

Kejava, pavika.

I,

RV.

VI, 75,

sion with

COMMENTARY.

7.

Hence the

15.

four other gods

The medicine man wants

237

repetition of the

to

same expres-

secondary and mechanical.

is

make

sure that he does not

Saya/^a justifies the mention of Mitra

neglect and offend.

and Varu;/a by a reference to Tait.

S. II, 4?

^o?

of

A'andra by saying, asya oshadhijratvat j-arasya pitr/tvena


and of Surya by relying again upon Tait. S.
vya.padesa./i
;

II, 4, 10, 2.

Stanza

6.

Saya;za explains gavinyor by, antrebhyo vinirgatasya

a.

mutrasya mutr^.fayapraptisadhane parjrvadvayasthe na^^yau


The urethra and the ureter? Cf.
gavinyau ity ukyate.
and gavinike,
the dual gavinyau in Tait. S. Ill, 3, 10, 1
;

AV.

11,5; IX, 8, 7.
majority of the
The
b.
I,

MSS. read sa^z/^rutam


MSS. has sa;srutam. For

of Shankar Pandit's

but one
the root

Bloomfield and Spieker, Proc. Amer. Or. Soc,


May, 1886 (Journal, vol. xiii, p. cxx). For years I have
had sawi-ritam written as a possible emendation on the

SYU, 'flow,^ see

margin of

my

copy of the text, and now Sayawa persiscomments upon the same reading.

tently (three times)

Stanza

The MSS.

b.

7.

are divided between the readings vartram

Sayawa comments upon the latter, vartam


vartate pravahati ^alam atre^^ti varto marga//, and some of
and vartam.
the

MSS.

of Kaus.

25,

16, a

Sutra coined with evident

reference to this stanza (vartiw bibhetti, see the translation

above), also read vartam.


trabilam.

word

do not

for the text

see Tait. S.

'

I, 6, 8, i

I,

7.

Darila comments, vartaw

feel certain that this is

For

like the outlet of a lake.'


;

Maitr. S.

I,

mu-

not the correct


vartra,

4, 10.

Commentary to page

64.

This and the following hymn are directed chiefly against


the species of beings called yatudhana, a term which oscillates

between the meaning

'

human

sorcerer

'

and

'

hostile

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

238

The

demon.'

entire tradition, Sutras

and Commentaries,

we can see from RV.


V, 12, 3 VII, 104, 15, 16, that men might practise yatu,
Both hymns are catalogued
and, therefore, be yatudhana.
driving away (demons, &c.),'
called
Mtana,
(ga;/a)
in a series
word the

give the

latter bent,

but

'

in Kaui'. 8, 35, and the Gawamala, Ath. Parij-. 33, 3 {ka.tanagawa) for their employment, see Kau^ika, Index B,
under Htanani, and vSantikalpa 16. With the subjectmatter of these hymns cf. in general RV. VII, 104, and
Both hymns have been rendered by Weber,
III, 30, 14 ff.
Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III,
Indische Studien, IV, 398 ff.
also Bergaigne et Henry, Manuel Vedique,
cf.
^'Z'^
:

p.

131

ff.

Stanza

Throughout
root stu in

this

its

1.

and the next hymn Sayawa takes the

ordinary holy sense of

'

praise,' a

mistake

which leads to the most contorted renderings, and to an


utter disregard of grammatical construction, excused by
assuming interchanges of inflections (vibhaktivyatyaya).
He seems to be shy to attach any sinister sense to the root,
For kimidin,
or to connect it in any way with evil beings.
see the note

on IV,

30, 5.

Stanza

2.

an emendation of the MS.


reading taulasya (Saya;/a, tulavat huyamana-dravyasya).
d. VI lapaya, make howl,' obviously includes as a double
c. tailasya in the vulgata

is

'

entente the other possible sense of the word


causative from the root

great deal of stress

is

4, 5.

their true nature

and the note on

I, 3, i.

the active pra bruhi in

= AV.

VIII,

3, 8),

of the yatudhana.

hymns upon the


Half the battle is

laid in these

confession of the yatudhana himself.

won when

annihilate,' as

li.

Stanzas

'

is

made

apparent.

Cf. I, 8,

Hence the neat difference between


5 b, said of Agni (cf. RV. X, 87, 8

and the middle

prabruva;/a7^ in 5 d, said

Stanzas S~7 ^^e perhaps of a later

I,

hymns

hand, since the

only four stanzas

I,

cf.

COMMENTARY.

9.

of the

book

first

239
ordinarily present

the introduction to

I, 1 3.

Commentary to page

8.

65.

For the employment of this hymn in the Atharvanic


and previous translations, see the introduction to
the preceding hymn.
practices,

Stanza

4.

we may

In order to obtain a trish/ubh line

c.

either

resolve both ta;s or tvam, or insert ^ahi after tvam.

I,

Commentary to page

9.

The hymn has been


III, 456,

a king.'

by Ludwig. Der Rigveda,


and entitled ra^abhisheke^ 'at the coronation of
Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 163, renders it

same

in the

116.

spirit.

translated

The

Kauj-ika, however, in

its

descrip-

tion of the coronation (chapter 17), does not rubricate this

hymn, but rather IV,

8 (cf. also Vait. Su. 36, 7), and the


Ga;/amala, Ath. Parij. 32, 30, again only counts IV, 8 as
the abhishekagawa (see Kauj-. 1 7, 1 note).
Weber, Ind.

Stud. IV, 401, entitles

it

'

Segensspruch

but this also seems to be too narrow

fiir

einen Fursten,'

the Sutra, advisedly

no doubt, employs it in practices designed to confer glory,


upon any one at all.

lustre

At
I,

hymn

Kaui-. II, 19. 20, the

^^ and V, 28

ful (sa;;/patkarma), to

wit

'
:

employed along with


make one success-

is

designed to

in a practice

an amulet made of a pair of

kr/sh;/ala-berries (abrus precatorius linnaeus)

Or

the weight of

two

k;-/sh;/ala in

explain yugmakr/shz/alam as 'gold.'

Lex.) prasiddhabhidhana aya?

/^'a

m3.mh, hirayamai/z (here, and


hirawya in I, 9, 2
35, i; V, 28,
;

which has

gold? All the commentators


Darila, raktike^ti (see Pet.

sauvarwama;;!/^
at Ka.us.
6.

^,

Kexava, suvarwa-

52, 20).

Cf. the

word

very similar performance

undertaken with the same three hymns is stated at Ka.us. 52, 20.
21, being a rite which bestows long life (ayushyakarma).
See also

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

240

honey during certain three days, Kauj-. 7,


a mess of porridge, cooked in the milk
19), is tied on.
of a cow with a calf of the same colour, is shaped in the
figure of a man, enriched during twelve days with the
dregs of ghee, and consumed with averted face ^.

been steeped

(in

Then

Further, at Kaui-. 16, 37. 28, the

hymn

is

associated with

a practice intended to restore the loyalty of a disaffected


people ^ the king is given to eat a porridge prepared from
:

an after-growth of

same

a calf of the

rice

cooked

^,

colour,

in the

upon a

fire

milk of a cow with

of kampila-branches

(crinum amaryllacee), which have grown out where they


neat bit of symbolism the
have been previously cut.

milk of the cow with a calf of the same colour represents


complete harmony the after-growth of rice and kampila
;

represents the resumption of the sharply interrupted rela-

between the king and


Once more the hymn is

tions

Kau.y. 5^, 17, along with a

his people.

recited for obvious reasons at

list

of others at the investiture of

the young twice-born (cf. also the scholiast at 17, 31),


and it figures in one of the two var/^asyaga;/as, series of
'

'

'

hymns which

confer lustre,' in

32, 10 (see Kauj-. 13,

the Ga;zamala, Ath.

Parij-.

note).

Stanza

2.

of person in Pada c suggests the posemending asmat to asmat, inferior to him.' But
the same formula in st. 4 c.

The abrupt change


sibility of
cf.

'

^^antikalpa 17
trakalpa).
'

As

live in
^

the

and 19 (quoted by Sayawa erroneously

Cf. also Tait. Br.

I, 3, 6,

as

Naksha-

7.

porridge-man drips with ghee, thus the

real

man

shall

abundance.

rash/ravagamanam.
anuragakaram.

Darila, ^anapada/^ tasya^-^vagamanakaram

Sayawa, 'a performance designed to restore

kingdom by an enemy.' Cf. the hymns


and
III, 3
4.
^ The commentators state explicitly that rice which has grown
anew upon the place, where it has previously been cut, is to be used.
See Darila, Kejava, and Sayawa (lunapunarutthita^am odanam).
a king, driven from his

I,

COMMENTARY.

lO.

Stanza

to the rape of the soma


heavenly eagle (j-yena).

behalf by Agni, the

Indra's

According to our interpretation,


eagle,

Contributions, Fifth
1

ff.,

this

Agni, the

the lightning.

is

Commentary to page

10.

I,

Varuwa punishes crime,


16; Tait. Br.

(cf.

AV.

IV,

with his disease, the 'water-

The performance

^.

ii.

especially falsehood

&c.),

I, 7, 2, 6,

dropsy

belly,'

in

Amer. Or. Soc. XVI,

Series, Journ.

24

3.

made here

Allusion seems to be
in

':

the

of

Kau.yika

is

25,37. 'While reciting the hymn (the


priest) sprinkles the patient over the head (with water) by

purely symbolic:

means

of twenty-one tufts of darbha-grass together with

body

is

The water in the


supposed to be washed out by the water sprinkled

upon

it

(attractio similium).

reeds taken from the thatch of a house'

The hymn has been

by Weber,

translated

403-4 Ludwig, Der Rigveda,


et Henry, Manuel Vedique, p.
;

III,

445

cf.

Ind. Stud. IV,


also Bergaigne

133,

Stanza

1.

Whitney, in the
b. Weber regards va.ya as fem. sing.
Index Verborum, as nom. plur. masc. Sayawa, as neut. plur.,
vaj'a va.fani.
Varu;/a and Asura are, of course, the same
;

divinity.

Weber, durch mein gebet von da herauss dich reissend


Ludwig, mit meinem brahma hervor mich tuend
Saya;/a, brahma;^i mantrena
sasadana/i atyarthani
'

c.

'

'

tiksh;^a//

Stanza
c, d.

The passage

6"una//i-epa

Varuwa

the dropsy

[42]

is

praptabala/^.

is

2.

a reverberation from the legend of

cf Ait. Br, VII, 15.

is

the lord of the waters (see the note on IV, 16, 3)

therefore conceived to be due to his infliction.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

242

20

d.

that the sufferer, being a kshatriya,

is

For tava-yam,

d.

cf.

VIII,

2,

Ludwig suggests
said to

Weber

of Varuwa, the king (kshatriya).

man

be the

construes

it

as

were an ethical dative, dieser lebe dir (i. e. durch


Sayawa, identically the
deine gnade) hundert Herbste.'
same way, tava anugrahat.

though

'

it

Stanza

Ludwig, rendering

a, b.

'

4.

von dem grossen meere

Vaij--

vanara,' thinks that the lower regions are alluded

to, since

by

Varu;/a.

him that has been

death overtakes

Sayawa
digestive

fire (^a///arigni),

is

i.

e. in

But AV. VIII,

disturbance.

more

connects

over-ingeniously

2,

27 shows
fire.

Cf

the

that

nothing

for the entire

i.

Commentary to page

II.

I,

with

this connection, digestive

intended than the funeral

stanza, Vait. Su. 38,

seized

vai^-vanara

99.

The ceremonies connected with this hymn are described


They are in part intended to procure
I

in KsLUS. ^^,

fif.

easy and natural parturition, but the attention of the sutra-

kara seems to be engrossed even more by certain oracles

which shall tell whether the woman is in danger, and


whether or not she will give birth to a male child. As
the practices, in spite of their unusual length, do not exhibit

any very

close connection with the

only present the


reciting

AV.

I,

six

first

hymn, we may

Sutras, as follows:

11, four portions of the

i.

'While

dregs of ghee are

poured into a water-pail, and four mu%a-reeds are plucked


(and placed) eastward upon the head (of the pregnant

woman ^).

2.

westward.

3.

The

sheaths (of the mu/T^a-reeds) are placed

If (these

danger.

reeds and stalks) should break,

(The

practitioner)

washes her with

there

is

warm

water, beginning with the braid of hair to the right.

4.

Cf. the four directions

hymn.

mentioned

in the

second stanza of the

The

5.

COMMENTARY.

II.

I,

243

joints of the house are loosened ^

sides of her a cord

and a wagon-rope

is

6.

On

both

The

fastened.'

remaining Sutras are not all of them clear they seem to


be devoted wholly to oracles for finding out whether it is
;

to be a

boy

or not.

Practices similar to the above, in part built up

upon

mantra-materials of a similar character, are known in the


GrAya-sutras and elsewhere by the name of soshyanti-

karma; see
Par. Gr/Ti.
^

13

7,

ff-

I,

XIV,

5at. Br.
16,

fif.

Khad. G;7h.

Apast. Grih. VI,

14,

22 = Br/h. Ar. VI,

9, 4,

5ankh. Grih.
II,

13

28

2,

ff.

I,

23

4,

Gobh. Grih.

Hin Grzh.

II, 2, 8

23:
II,
ff.

fif.

The hymn

has been treated by Roth, Ueber den Atharvaveda (Tubingen, 1856), pp. 15 ff. Weber, Indische Studien.
;

IV, 404-5; Ludwig, Der Rigveda,

Stanza
a, b.

The

point of the

comparison of the birth


soma. This makes of

first

(suti)

III, 478.

1.

hemistich

is

the punning

with the act of pressing the

Aryaman, as the
Pushan who is, as
it were, the adhvaryu-priest
cf. Ind. Stud. X, 324.
Ludwig's surmise that Sushan is to be read for Pushan (cf
stanza 3) is untenable.
The association of the two in
matters connected with marriage (RV. X, 85, ^^6, 37) is
well known ^.
For hota vedha/i, see Ludwig, Der Rigveda,
it

sacrifice

hotar-priest, utters the vasha/-call for


;

III,

pp.

223-4; vedha//, however, is not derivable from


is equal to Avestan vazdaiih (Geldner,

the root vidh, but

zum Avesta, p. 58).


The Pada is very difificult.

Studien
c.

Roth emends

freely, si'srz-

nary r/tapra^ato, (a child) begotten at the proper time


shall detach itself, O woman!'
He compares, for this use
of si'sr/tam, Va^. S. VIII, 28, eva-ya;;^ da.5-amasyo asrat.

tain

'

'

Symbolic action calculated to loosen the foetus;

cf.

in general

AV. IX, 3.
^ The
mantra quoted in Kauj. 33, 7 is also based upon
same hymn, RV. X, 85, 40 (the surya-sukta).

the

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

244
where asrat

Weber

however, to be derived from

is,

sra;;/s,

fall.'

'

regards nary r/tapra^atA as parenthetic, and com-

nachgeben mog die frau


richtig gebaut sein!
lass weichen die glieder!'
Ludwig,
es lose sich die frau als eine richtig gebarende.'
We have
adhered closely to the text, but sisratam as a third singular
middle imperative is problematic, and perhaps Roth's emendation (sisrz'tam) is to be adopted.
Possibly some derivabines sisratam with parva;n,

'

lass

'

tive of sra;s stood in place of the

she cause the child to

fall

'

word

(sisrasat,

'

may

?).

Stanza

2.

d. The editio princeps reads ta;;z vyurwuvantu sutave


Shankar Pandit, following the minority of his MSS. and
Saya;/a, reads ta;, which was also proposed by Roth, 1. c,
I have transp. 15, and adopted by Weber, I.e., p. 405.
lated taw, because the womb and not the foetus (cf. AV.
IV, 2, 8) is opened at birth.

Stanza

We

a.

3.

never be able to unravel

shall, in all probability,

the tangle of mixed, punning notions which have given

here to the
with the

title

the proper

Key.,

a-n.

impressed with

it

much

so

Sushan.

rise

name Sushan. Ludwig is


endow the entire hymn

as to

In the

place

first

it is

a modification

of Pushan, suggesting the future or desiderative of the root


'beget;'

su,

cf.

sushyanti,

RV. V,

Then, there

78, 5.

surely an allusion to usha(//) vyur^vatr in


that
cf.

is,

susha

is

dimly

Tait. S. IV,

felt

7, 3, 2.

to be su

+ usha,

'

RV.

I,

beautiful

is

92, 11,

Ushas ;'

Saya//a plainly and mechanically

offers this as one of three explanations, j-obhana usha/?

susha.

may

And

also

siisha;/e in

again the words su 'well' and san 'obtain'

have

Pada

flitted
c.

before the eyes of the versifex,

tion to the above, susha savitri pra^anayitri devata,

suvaw

cf.

Saya/^a offers two explanations in addi-

sanoti^ti susha.

The Pada

stands in need of emendation


des Rigveda, pp. 34

ff.

cf.

is

catalectic,

and

but scarcely

Oldenberg, Die

Hymnen

RV. V,

b.

Cf.

c.

Susha;/e

tive

78, 5

{air.

COMMENTARY.

II.

I,

Ait. Br. V, 15,

Aey. as susha in

suva; sanoti praya;^/^//ati


d.

may be

a)

a voca-

Saya//a, he susha;/e,

sukhaprasavakari/zi devatd.

more problematic

Still

4-

PAda

from either susha;n or susha;/a

245

is

Sayawa explains

bishkale.

from bishka, an imitative word, and the root


la take or make,' or else from a combination of the roots
vish permeate and kal go
According to the .Sabdakalpadruma, bishkala is the domestic sow (gramyaj-ukara//)
as either

it

'

'

'

'

'

'

called bahv-apatya,

of

its

'

having abundant offspring,' on account

prolificness.

Stanza

Cf

Par. Grth.

I,

16,

MS.

supported by some

4.

Grih.

Hir.

Saya;/a,

II, 3, 3.

authority, reads ma;/^sena, as does

Saya;/a quotes from an unquotable Vedic text

PAraskara.

(nigamdntaram) another form of this mantra, svavity(!) avapa-

dyasva na mawseshu na snavasu na baddham


c.

^evalam

renders

'

it

The

problematic.

is

scholiast to Paraskara

moist, slimy,' and the Petersburg lexicon's sus-

picion that this

a purely etymological rendering based

is

upon the name of the water-plant

by

ma^^asu.

asi

borne out

j-aivala is fully

Saya;/a's statement, j-evalam^alasyoparisthita.faivalavat

antaravayavasawbaddham.
kevalam,

'

alone

'

Roth,

1.

c,

suggests

16,

p.

cf for the interchange between s and k.

Bloomfield and Spieker in the Proc. Amer. Or. Soc. for

May, 1886

(Journ., vol.

xiii, p.

cxxi).

Stanza

Cf

Tait. S. Ill, 3, 10,

5.

AV.

Saya/^a, gavinike

I, 3, 6.

yone/i par^vavartinyau nirgamanapratibandhike na^yau.

Stanza

Cf RV. V,

78, 7. 8

VIII, 28;

Nirukta

Mantrabr.

II,

Parij'ish/a II, 2.

11,

III,

i^;

6.

5at. Br.

15;

Hir.

XIV,

9, 4,

Grih.

Bhar. Grth.

I,

22

21;

Va^. S.

Apast.
Baudh. Gr/h.

II, 3,

i;

246

OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

TIYMN?;

Commentary to page

12.

I,

The history of the interpretation of


uncommon interest, because it illustrates

7.

hymn

this

is

of

forcibly the par-

of relation between the hymns of the


Atharvan and the practices reported in connection with
them. Professor Weber, Indische Studien, IV, p. 405,
translated the hymn under the caption
Gegen hitziges
fieber,' and, guided especially by the more immediate
meaning of ^arayu^a//, the product of the placenta, afterbirth,' he thought that the hymn referred to puerperal
fever, or the fever of a child.
Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III,
p. 343, surmised that the hymn was directed against inflammation, and Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 390, refers to
it
in connection with the word vata in the first stanza,
which he would translate by wound
he also identifies
ticular closeness

'

'

'

vata with

bhra^as

'

wound
the

in

suffering from

the word vata

stanza,

first

understands,

vata-

means

But Zimmer's theory that

wound-fever.'

means

ever

he

as

'

The compound

etymologically.

'

'

wound

has not sustained

'

body;' vatikrztana'i-ani (VI, 44,


3 ^) is destroyer of the disease which comes from wind
(of the body) ;' cf. bata byadhi (vatavyadhi), ^diseases produced by wind (in the body),' in Wises Hindu System of
Medicine, p. 250, and see Contributions, Fourth Series,
itself:

vata

is

'wind

in the

'

Amer. Journ.
In Seven

469

XII,

presented

ff.,

Phil.

Hymns

427.

p.

Atharva-veda,

of the
a

full

1.

c, VII, pp.

of the hymn, and,

discussion

aided by the indications of the Kaujika-sutra, showed that


the

hymn

referred to lightning, which

is

regarded as pro-

ductive of certain diseases mentioned in the context, to


wit,

fever

it

is

The

(cf.

The

cough.

the word sokisha. in

pivotal

word

interesting to note
first

in

why

it

book of the Atharvan

st.

hymn

the

is
is

2),
is

headache, and
^arayu^a//, and

especially misleading.

a miscellaneous collec-

Cf. the note there, at VI, 109, 3,

and IX,

8, 20.

'

hymns

tion of

COMMENTARY.

12.

I,

containing for the most part, thougli not

unfaih'ngly, four stanzas each

nukrama;/!

I,

i,

247

AV. XIX,

(cf.

23,

Athai-va-

13; Ath. Fans. 4S, 9 and 10; Gop. Br.

I,

1,8; Ind. Stud. IV, 433 XVII, 178). There is no definite


order in the arrangement of the hymns within the book,
;

but there appears a marked tendency to group together


two or even three having the same or a similar subject.

This concerns especially hymns


a charm for easy delivery in

1-13.

childbed.

The eleventh is
The last three

stanzas end with the refrain, ava ^arayu padyatam,

'

may

in addition to this the word


come down
^arayu occurs thrice more in the course of the last three
verses.
Now, there can be no doubt that the redactor

the placenta

hymn

placed our

'

12) after

(I,

I,

simply because

begins

it

This does not argue that he

with the word ^arayu^a// ^

misunderstood the true nature of the hymn on the contrary it is quite clear that he recognised its association
;

with lightning, because he has placed after

which

is

&c.).

He

placed

12 after

I,

^a.rAyug-A/i offered as

good

I,

But

standing.

influenced

by

it

in

a point of linkage as

its

application.

the

exhibits considerable
It

in

is

hymn

and practical

points,

designation and

ritual

salient
its

So the Anukramawi describes

word kasas

mala, Ath.

more

be prominent

mana5-ana; suktam,
(cf.

hymn

duplex character.

and, on the other hand, the diseases attributed

to lightning present even


to

any other

value notwith-

its

deciding the purpose of the hymn.

divergence, owing to
;

te vidyute,

erroneous suggestion, so as to be

this

native treatment of the

to lightning

hymn

natural that European readers should

it is

have seized upon

destined

13, a

I,

simply because the word

11

at hand, the fundamental difference in

The

it

evidently a prayer to lightning (namas

Parij-. 32,

'

'

hymn which

it

as a yaksh-

cures consumption

from cough in st. 3) in the Ga//a7, it is one of the takmanajanagaz/a,


'

^ Note the words stana>^ and stanayitnur respectively, in VII, 10


and VII, II, as the probable, and even more inane reason for the
ju.xtaposition of the two hymns in the redaction.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

24S

'a group of

hymns designed

Kauj. 26,

note).

I,

to cure takman, fever'

Kauj-ika employs

(cf.

twice, presenting

it

two main characteristics. In 38, 1-7 it is used in a


charm against thunderstorms, preceding the employment
in a similar charm of AV. I, 13 and VII, 11, both of which
are palpably hymns addressed to lightning.
But in 26,
1-9 it is employed further in a performance which is distinctly described by Darila as a jirorogabhaisha^ya;, cure
for headache
(cf. mu;7^a Jirshaktya in st. 3 a), and by
its

'

'

Ke^yava as, atikase ^irshaktijirovedanayaw^

kd^

karma;zi, 'rites

against excessive cough and pains in the head.'

The
I,

latter practice

2 {the priest)

is

as follows

lets (the

patient)

i.

'

While

reciting

drink of fat

^,

AV.

honey,

(The patient), his head covered


with a turban made of muw^a-grass ^ (saccharum munja
roxburgiense), goes along carrying in his left hand parched
grain ^ in a sieve, from which he scatters it with his left
hand. 3. (The patient then goes on, carrying) in his left
hand the sieve and the turban, in his right hand a bowstring and an axe.
4. The (patient goes) in front of the
priest who gives the orders'*.
5. On the spot where the
disease seizes upon him he puts down the sieve and

ghee, and sesame-oil.

the turban.

And

6.

2.

(also) the bowstring.

7.

He

returns

(The patient) puts ghee up his nose. 9. (The


home^.
priest) while supporting the patient's head with a stafif (of
bamboo) having five knots mutters (the hymn).'
The
sense of these practices, obscure though they are in many
8.

Kejava, mawsameda,^.

Kau^f.

mau'a-pra.fna

mauT/^a-induka

Darila,

prajna ush;/isha/

\nd\z. in the Pet. Lex.,

(cf.

and

Ke.?ava,

especially in Kauj.

26, 30).
^

Kauj. pulyani

Kej'ava here

is

Kej. la^an.

Symbolic scattering of the

fever.

the least obscure of the commentators, vya-

dhitam agre kr/tva.


*

The

text of the

reads avra^anam
(see notes 7

Siitra is very obscure.

the rest, avra^atam.

One MS.

of the text

Darila has avra^aw/ twice

and 10 on p. 71 of the edition); this may be for the


and has served as the basis of the translation.

participle avra_-an,

details,

COMMENTARY.

12.

I,

249

clearly a symbolic act of drawing the disease

is

out of the head, and depositing

have come from


tempted, at first

it

where

supposed to

is

it

One

the introduction to VI, 26.

cf.

accuse the medicine

sight, to

man

is

of the

banalite of employing mu;/^a-grass simply because

muuM,

with

'

and

release,'

Atharvanesque.

this

26

more
we have

Agni went away from the

gods, he

Possibly, however, there

contained in the practice.


the following legend

'

In Sat. Br. VI,

entered the mu//^a-grass.

very reason

for that

The mu;7^a

is

it puns
would be no more than

the

it

i,

3,

Therefore that
as

is

it

womb

is

is

little

hollow, and

were disfigured by smoke.

here of Agni.'

In that case

we

have here the usual attractio similium.


The mu;'?^a is
employed in drawing off" the effect of lightning, because
it is

VI,

home

the natural
6, I,

of fire (lightning).

Uncanny

is

the

rite

which the Kaujika prescribes

hymn

connection with the


obvious,

is

relation of which to lightning, of

stated explicitly in the Hariva;/wa 9609,

tumula;;/ durdina;

arose

in

It is directed against

at 38, 1-7.

stormy weather, durdina, the


itself

Cf. also 5at. Br.

23.

crashing

H^^sid vidyutstanayitnumat, 'and there


storm accompanied by lightning and

The passage of the Sutra may be translated as


'When one goes against a storm he faces it ^
while reciting AV. I, 12.
2. Stanza by stanza (he faces
the storm hurling) jets of water ^ (against it). 3. (And he
faces it) with a sword, a firebrand^, and a club ".
4. (And
thunder.'

follows:

I.

he faces

it) naked
while wiping his forehead.
5. Into
a coal-pan which he has removed outside (of the house)

he makes an oblation of (the leaves

'

Kejava, durdinam abhimukham upatish///ate.

'

udava^rai/z

the

Brahmawas have innumeral)le times

pression va^ro va apa/i, e.g.


^

kishkuru (with variants)

glossing
is

of) the horse-radish

it

with laku/a

^S'at.

is

= lagUf/a

Br. VII,

unknown
is

the

ex-

2, i, 17.

elsewhere, but Kejava in

clearly well-informed.

The word

doubtless identical with kishku, which the scholiast at Pa/^. Br.

VI,

5,

glosses with danda..

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

250

and pebbles.

tree^

and arka

quickly buries into

performance

of the arka

arka

is

'

puts on (fagots

(calotropis gigantea) plants.

with dishevelled hair

rain,

this

He

6.

is

it

^,

7.

the kera

of)

Beaten by the

going thrice around a

the arka-wood.'

pit

he

The symbolism

of

not altogether transparent

is

the use

doubtless founded upon a double entente

and

flash of lightning,'

burying the arka-wood

in

the

its

cessation

is

coaxed by

pit.

Stanza

1.

For ^ariyu-^a, born of the (cloud-)womb,' cf. abhra-^a


in St. 3, and such expressions as vidyiin meghasakha, the
lightning whose companion is the cloud,' in the Supar//akhyana 3, 3. The more literal meaning of the word is
a.

'

'

'

placenta-born,' an idea thoroughly

Indie.

Cf.

^Sat.

Br.

mata putro^tho garbha


ulba/z/^^arayu. Cf. also VI, 6, 1, 24.
Professor Kern some
years ago was good enough to impart to me his own somewhat different view
As to ^arayu^a-, I think that is
what the Norse skalds called a kenning, an oratorical periphrasis of vatsa, and this is a veiled expression for lightning cf. apa;;z vatsa as denoting the fire of lightning, and
the JTivatsa, the lightning figure on the breast of Vishwu.'
(Letter of May 10, 1S87.)
For the epithet vr/shan as
applied to lightning see now my article on j-ushma. Contributions, Sixth Series, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Mor-

^I)

5' 3' 5) trivr/d dhi pra^ati// pita

'

genlandischen

XLVIII, 565 ff. The entire


in RV. IX, 74, 3, "se yo
apaw neta ya itautir /Vgmi'ya^,

Gesellschaft,

passage has a good parallel


vr/sh/er ita usri'yo vr/shi

where Soma

The

b.

is

obviously compared with lightning.

edition reads vatabhra^a(/^), but the text

absolutely certain, as Saya/^a

comments upon

'

Darila, jigrupalrawi.

Darila, keraparisti ya surash/re pu?i3'arike^ti;

is

not

vatavra^a/^

^.

Ke.yava, pa/er-

akasamidha-^.
^

pratilomakarshitas

is

explained in the light of ke^eshu karshita

Mr/H'^aka/ika 16, 25.


Sayawa refers the entire stanza

in the
*

to aditya,

'

the sun.'

I,

12.

COMMENTARY.

251

Both readings are worthless


I have substituted in my
It
is
article on
the Seven Hymns, vata-abhra-^'^a/^
refreshing to see for once an emendation rendered absoThe entire Pada
lutely certain by a later discovery.
presents the stereotyped four component parts of a storm,
in this way they are
vata, abhra, stanayitnu, and vr/sh/i
catalogued in a variety of Vedic texts see the article on
;

.yiishma just quoted,

1.

c, pp. 569-70.

Read tanvar^ugo with

c.

crasis of sandhi-hiatus.

juxtaposition of r/^ugo and ru^an

Read trayadha

d.

who

^.

Cf. the

is

statements about Vish//u,

himself single passes through three regions, e.g.

VIII, 2y,

7,

trmy eka urugayo

this parallelism

The

of the punning order.

RV.

Resting upon

vi /f-akrame.

have taken ekam q^as as

in

apposition

with the subject of the clause.

Stanza
sokis, the salient

a.

V,

22, 2

2.

symptom

of fever,

VI, 20, 3.
have translated

AV.

I,

25,

2,

and samarika
ahka as crook
Both translations are purely
synonymically as
hook.'
tentative
aiika may mean hook,' and at present any rendering of samahka is an enfant perdu. The word occurs
c.

'

'

'

'

once more

name

of

in

some

the Atharvan, VI, 50,

i,

apparently as the

pestiferous insect, or animal which destroys

do not know how

mediate between the two


ahkan aw^anaj-ilan suryasya
anuZ-aran samahkan sama//>^anaj-ilan samipe vartamanan

grain.

uses of the word.

to

Saya;/a,

antaraiigan api parivarabhutan devan.

The

d.

asya.

If

text of the Sawhita reads asya, the PadapaZ/^a,

the latter

is

correct in

its

interpretation, this

is

the only instmce in the Rig and Atharvan-vedas of asya


as a masculine.
Looked at purely by itself asya grabhita

may
'

stand for asya(//) grabhita, and

Cf.

my

imperatives,

article,

On

Amer. Jouin.

certain
Phil.

this

irregular Vedic

V,

p.

opens out the

subjunctives

27 (12 of the reprint).

or

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

252

some other

possibility that the stanza stood originally in

connection where a feminine was appropriate.

Stanza

The

stanza, in accordance with

in Kauj-. 27, 34,


in a

3.
its

context,

is

employed

along with the so-called mr/gira-suktani,

more general remedial charm, designated by Darila as

a sarvabhaisha^yam.
a. ^irshakti,

Proceedings

probably

of

for Jirshasakti

American

the

to

Pada d with

in

Society,

sa/^atam, although sakti

come from sa%-, rather than sa/l'.


b. The masculine yo is difficult.

is

more

have referred

see

1893

The poet puns upon

(Journal, vol. xvi), p. xxxv.

word

with haplology

Oriental

the

likely

it

to

the lightning (usn'yo vr/sh^, or sushma./i), which involves


a considerable

ellipsis,

indicated

by the

parenthesis in the

But it seems to me possible to refer yo to


kasa(/^) in Pada a, and to translate more simply, Release
him from headache, and also from cough, which has entered
translation.

'

Namely

every joint of him.'

thematic pendant

kelsa,

kas, feminine, jostles with its

masculine, in

AV.

V, 22, 10 and

II (kasa, instrumental feminine in 10; but kasam, accusative masculine in 11).

It requires no violent stretch of the


grammatical imagination to suppose that the poet unconsciously has shifted his position from the feminine in Pada a
to its masculine doublet kasa in Pada b.
The masculine
form prevails in the classical period.
c. For j^Lishmo, see the article on the word, cited above,
where several close parallels to this passage are assembled.

I,

The

14.

Commentary to page

107.

history of the interpretation of this

hymn

is

of

Weber, Ind. Stud. IV, 408 (cf. also V, 218);


Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 459
and Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 314, translated and interpreted the hymn
as a marriage-hymn.
Zimmer thought that the stanzas
were spoken at the end of the ceremony, as the bridegroom
interest.

COMMENTARY.

14.

T.

assumed charge of the

The

bride.

253

present writer, following

the indications of the practices connected with the

hymn

in

the Kauj-ika (36, 15-17), thought that it was a charm of


a woman against a rival, and dealt with the hymn and the
ritual in this sense in

Seven

Hymns

an

of the

article

devoted to the subject

in

Atharva-veda, Amer. Journ. Thil.

VII, pp. 473-6.


It is of interest to find now that Sayaa
construes the hymn in the very same spirit.

The proceedings

in

somewhat

the Kauj-. are

as follows

'While reciting AV. I, 14, the wreath, pillow (?),


tooth-brush, and hair (of the woman against whom the
charm is undertaken are placed) into the skin of a cow
slain by Rudra, or of a funeral cow, and buried in the cavity
of a mortar under a pile of three stones \
16. The h}'mn
is recited while the wreath is being ground up.
17. Three
36,

15.

with a black thread (and buried

tufts of hair are tied (each)

under) a pile of three stones, the stones each alternately

above (each
rite for

kara;/am
"

tuft).'

Then

follows in Sutra 18 a subsidiary

digging the 'fortune up again (Ke.yava), saubhagya'

'
:

Then one

digs her fortune up with the formula,

That fortune of thine which they have buried

we now

of three stones, or four stones, that

with offspring and wealth."

'

Throughout the hymn and the


hatred manifests
in

ritual the spirit

the burial

itself in allusions to

the ritual the anustarawi; in stanzas

translated above

'

The

'

into a pile

dig up, along

with her relatives,'

1,;^,

of fierce

rites.

Thus

the word pitr/shu,

may

also

mean

(with

nishpramanda has been

Sutra bristles with difficulties;

by pillow,' because Sayawa says, taduj^abhuktamalyakandukadantadhavanake^anam.


(ni)khananadikarmai. But the
word nishpramanda is none too certain some IMSS. and Ke^-ava
read nipramanda, and Darila's comment on the word is unintelligible (kru/ayavarga^enduka//
of. pramanda = induka/;, Kauj. 8,
translated

'

and Kaujika, Introduction, p. Hi). I translate koja by skin,' because Kejava says, iranahata tasya/z /-armada
But cf.
xivesh/ya (the passage is not extracted in the edition).
Both Darila and Ke^ava explain
the word anta/^ko^am in st. 4 c.
ij-anahata, 'slain by Rudra,' as=^varahata, 'killed by fever.'
17;

25, 11;

'

32, 29,

HYMNS OF THE ATHAKVAVEDA.

54

double entente)

'

among

The

the Fathers or manes.'

hemistich of the third stanza, considered by

first

might be

itself,

readily interpreted as being uttered at the funeral of a

maiden

seems possible that material of this


The secondary
employment of stanzas, composed primarily for the burial
service, is possibly to be assumed for stanzas 2-4 of RV.
VII, 55 (see Aufrecht, Ind. Stud. IV, 342), and for AV. II,
1 2,

7-8

indeed,

sort has

it

been worked over for the occasion.

(q. v.).

statement

The Anukrama;n makes the following curious


hymn namas te astu (I, 13),

regard to our

in

bhagam asya (I, 14), iti sukte vaidyute dve anush/ubhe,


prathamaw vaidyuta; paraw varu;^a;;/ vo^ta yamya;// va,
prathamena vidyutam astaud, dvitiyena tadarthaw yamam.
There seems to be no reason
nor for regarding

I,

for associating these

Stanza

Padas a and

e,

pitr/shu,

in

St.

So

2.

ama^ur

in

'

with her

elision

and

Cf.

may be

bhagasya, and

crasis,

more

relatives,' as stated

also Saya;/a.

explicitly

the words pit/Vshad and

But there seems to be intended,

the lexicons.

an allusion to the manes,

too,

1.

apparently each hypermetric,

by reading, with
mahabudhneva.

restored

d.

hymns,

14 as having any relation to lightning^.

i.

e.

to death

cf.

the intro-

duction.

Stanza

2.

a, b. Saya;/a, here and in the next stanza, refers ra^n to


Soma, supporting his hypothesis by a reference to RV. X,
85, 40, where Soma is said to have been the first to woo
the maiden, being followed by Gandharva, Agni, and man.
Cf. also Vas. Dharm. XXVIII, 5.
c, d. It depends upon circumstances whether the girl

lives

with her (widowed) mother, or her father,

decease of her parents, with her brother


contingency,

'

AV.

I,

cf.

or, after

the

for the latter

17, 1.

Unless the word Mnahata, Kauj'. 36, 15,


late and bungling performance.

cf that very

lias

misled the author

I,

COMMENTARY.

14.

Stanza

3.

comments upon kulapa

Sayaz/a

a.

255

instead of kulapa(//) of

the Sawhita and Padapa/Z-a.

The MSS. unanimously have this Pada in the form


(Padap., jam opyat). Saya;/a emends to
samopyat, commenting, jirasa// sawvapanat bhumau sa;pad.

sirsh/ia/i i-am6p}-at

tanat,

'

her head sinks to the ground.'

until

This coin-

cides with the reading of the Paippahlda, and

is

accepted

by Shankar Pandit and Whitney see Festgruss an Rudolf


von Roth, p. 90. For the interchange between s and s, see
our article in the Proc. Amer. Or. Soc, May, 1886 (Journal,
The text in this form might mean until
vol. xiii, p. cxx).
until she becomes bald.'
e.
she scatters from her head,'
;

'

'

i.

Even

after the authority of the

Paippalada

venture to

my suggestion

(Amer. Journ. Phil.


VII, p. 476), that a sirslvia/i kesam opyat may have been
Let her scatter
the original text of the 6'aunakiya-j-akha.
repeat, very hesitatingly,

'

her hair from her head,' or

by growing

head,' either

Contributions, Second

'

her scatter the hair of her

let

bald, or as a sign of

Series,

Amer. Journ.

mourning
Phil.

(cf.

XI, pp.

336 ff.). Opya as a noun is very strange, and sam + a +


upyat (precative) would seem to require an expressed
We are reminded, too, of the
object in the accusative.
expression ke^-an pra vapanti,

AV. XIX,

32,

2,

'

Stanza
a, b.

The

they

let

down

their hair,'

as a sign of mourning.

juxtaposition of

4.

Kajyapa and Gaya reminds

one of Ka^yapa of Gaya, who plays a conspicuous part in


the Buddha legend. Asita is another worthy in the same
narrative.
See the words in the Pet. Lex., and cf. our note

on IV, 20,
c. ^ami,

7.

in

the broader sense of the word in the later

language, 'female relatives of the householder.'


striya/^

cf.

Nirukta

III, 6.

Saya;/a,

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

256

Commentary to page

16.

I,

The Kau^ika,

47, 23-4, presents this

6^.

hymn

in

the sixth

book, devoted to the witchcraft practices (abhiMrika/n), as

AV.

follows: 23. 'While reciting

16 he

i,

the practice collects ground lead, and puts

With a

staff,

who performs
into the food

upon the ornaments (upon

(of his enemy), or


24.

it

made from

his person).

a decayed bamboo-reed, as

long as an arm, and ornamented

^,

he strikes (the enemy).'

According to the Paribhasha-sutra, Kaui". 8, 18, the word


lead
in these practices is to be construed very broadly,
including both lead itself, river-lead (i. e. according to the
commentators, river-foam), iron-filings, and the head of
In Contributions, Third Series, Journ. Amer. Or.
a lizard.
Soc. XV, pp. 157 ff, I have endeavoured to show that
this class of practices is founded upon the famous legend of
Indra and Namu/ti, in which Indra slays Namu/^i with the
foam of the waters.' The other substances seem to be
'

'

'

'

'

more easily obtained


They may, of course, have

substituted for practical reasons, being

and more readily handled.


been

regarded as available for

this

purpose for other

reasons, that escape us.

The hymn has been


409;

Grill-, pp.

hymn

as /^atanam,

ingly

it

I,
'

figures in

Ga;/amala, Ath.

by Weber, Ind. Stud. IV,


The Anukrama;/i describes the
charm to chase away with,' and accordtranslated

75.

the series called Mtanaga/za in the

Parii-.

32, 3

see Kau.y.

Stanza

8,

25 note.

1.

a. In Apastamba's Dharmasutra I, 11, 31, 21 we have:


During the day the sun protects the creatures, during the
night the moon.
Therefore let him eagerly strive to pro-

'

tect himself

The term

(with ghee);

'

on the night of the new-moon by purity, con-

alawkrz'ta here

seems

to

see Darila at Kauj-. 48, 3,

mean

technically 'anointed

and

Kaui-. 47, 40. 44.

cf.

tinence,
^6, 3

and

rites

257

adapted to the season.'

Tait. S. II,

sative ratrim

COMMENTARY.

17.

I,

2, 2,

Maitr. S.

not favoured by the metre,

is

AV. IV,
The accuand we should

Cf. also

II, i, 11.

Saya;/a, sarvasya; ratrau udasthu// uttish-

expect ratryam.
///anti.

Sayaa reads bhra^am for vra^am, to wit ratriw


ra^niw bhra^aw bhra^amanam or again, bhra^amanarn
purushaw hi;//situm udasthu//. He repeats this readb.

ing

when quoting the stanza

Cf. also the note


c.

in his

on vatabhra^a//,

Sayawa takes turfya

I,

comment on
12,

II, 9, 1.

''.

in the sense of

'

fourth,' as allud-

ing to the well-known legend of the three older brothers of


Agni who were worn out in the sacrificial service before the
present

Agni

RV. X.

see

51 and 52

Mahabh.

6,6;
Ludwig, Der Rigveda, V, 504-5).

Tait. S. II,

lent of tura,

RV. VIII,

e. g.

Ill, 222,

But

^at. Br.

I, 2, 3,

7 = 14214,

&c.

(cf

turi'ya is

the equiva-

52, 7.

Stanza

2.

For the uses of lead in the ritualistic texts, see Weber,


p. 410, and our article on Indra and NamuZ'i, quoted
above in the introduction.
c,

1.

Stanza

3.

For a full discussion of vi'shkandha, either some disease,


seems to us more likely, a kind of demon, see the

or, as

note on

II, 4, i.

I,

Commentary to page

17.

This charm against flow of blood

is

22.

the only one of the

it is employed
(excessive)
and
against internal and external flow of blood

kind

in

Ke^ava

the Atharvan.

specifies that

menstruation, atha lohita;;/ vahati j-ariramadhye bahii- ka.


strira^aso^tipravartane bhaisha^ya;;/
rudhiravrawe
.

rudhirapravahe

ka..

The

Kaui-ika attaches to

it

the

fol-

10-13: 'While reciting AV. I,


dust and sand around (the
strews
practitioner)
(the
17
wound) with a bamboo-staff containing five joints (accord-

lowing performances at

[42]

26,

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.


wound [cf. Kauj.
dust
and sand ^).
strews
the
and
then
9, sawstabhya],
gives (the
He
marsh
12.
^.
He ties on mud from a

ing to Kej-ava he places the staff upon the


36,
II.

patient a solution of

it)

to drink.

He

13.

(also) gives

(him)

to drink a mixture of curds and ground sesame, along with

The

four tips of millet-grass.'

chief point of relation be-

tween the practices and the hymn is the application of


a bandage or poultice of dust and sand which seems indicated in the fourth stanza with the words si'katavati
dhanur.

The

first

stanza of the

Yaska's Nirukta, HI,

Anukrama;n

hymn

from an unknown source

4,

designates

quoted with variants

is

hymn

the

as

Der Rigveda, HI, 508

yoshiddevatyam.

Previous translations by Weber, Ind. Stud. IV, 441


wig,

in

the

GrilP, pp. 16, 76

Lud-

also

cf.

Hillebrandt's Vedachrestomathie^ p. 46.

Stanza
In Yaska's Nirukta, III,

lowing version

4,

1.

the stanza occurs in the

amur ya yanti^amaya/^

fol-

sarva lohitavasasa//

abhratara iva yoshas tishZ/^anti (Durga, tish//^antu) hata-

Durga declares this to be an Atharvan-stanza,


and says that the women are the blood-vessels {nkdydih)
which shall stand still, like brotherless maidens, debarred

vartmana/^.

The word

lative

pa?;/susikatabhi/?,

compound,

tators as a

'

which

dust and sand/

descriptive.

Darila,

is

have translated as a copu-

regarded by the

commen-

pawsuvat jlakshwadhuli/i sikata

valuka; Ke^ava, rathyaya/^ paw/sun.


^

It is

not quite clear whether the armakapalika

amulet or as a bandage upon the wound

is

tied

on

usually badhnati

terminus technicus for the tying on of an amulet.

Nor

as
is

an
the

are the

commentators agreed as to the meaning of the word Kej. kedaramr/itika, and pahkamr/ttika.
But the word occurs also in Tait.
Ar. V, 2, 13 (cf. also Tait. S. V, i, 6, 2), and in the commentary
on the Tait. Ar., p. 394, it is explained as 'potsherds deposited in
the decayed portion of the village,' /C'irawztane ^irwagramade^'e
avasthita hh^Jid-Ams^h.
Sayawa to our passage, .yushkapahkamrz't;

tika kedaram/'z'ttika va.

T,

COMMENTARY.

17.

259

from the sawtanakarma and the pi;/^adana (ancestral


In AV. I,
practised by the family of their husband.
the girl

who

has

lost

her father and mother

is

rites)

14, 2

depicted as

house of her brother. Cf. Roth's comment,


and Zimmer, p. 328. The exact point of the comparison is not quite clear, and Zimmer's translation of hatadeprived of support or protection seems to
vary('as as
import an occidental idea not in the text. See RV. I, 124,
IV, 5, 5, and especially the statement, na^bhratrim
7
upaya/^-Z/eta, one may not marry a brotherless girl,' in the
commentary on Nirukta III, 5 Manu III, 11 Ya^z/avalkya
living in the
p. 25,

'

'

'

I, S?,

Vasish//^a

b. lohita,
c.

XVII, 16

Gautama XXVIII,

with double entente,

Read abhratareva

'

red

'

20.

and blood.'
'

the Anukramawi, upon the strength

of the apparently additional syllable, designates the stanza


as a bhuri^.

Stanza
b.

am

Ludwig

3.

rather whimsically translates sahasrasya hira-

would seem as though


the stanza intends to bring out a distinction between hira and
dhamani. the former being the smaller and the latter the
larger blood-vessels.
Accordingly, 'veins' and 'arteries.'
And yet in VII, 35, 2 (see the note there) both hira and
dhamani apparently have the more general sense of interior canals,' such as entrails, vaginal passage, and the like.
Naturally, the knowledge of internal physiology is of the
For hira, see Aufrecht in Kuhn's Zeitschrift,
vaguest sort.
III, 199
Weber, Omina und Portenta, p. 346.
'von den tausend gelben.'

It

'

Stanza

4.

Our translation of this stanza derives its main support


from the practices above, which seem to imply that sand is
put upon or about the wound. Saya;/a gives the passage
a totally different bent
he takes si'katavati dhanCfr brzliati'
as the designation of one of the canals in the body which
contains the sand that results in calculi in the bladder,
;

sikata ra^a;;^si tadvati

n2.d\,

'

He

says,

further,

containing that.'

sikata,

S 2

i.e.

that

sand, the canal


it

is

the canal

26o

(na^i)

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

which generates

more
and the

calculi (ajrnari),

explicitly as a

it

'

and

finally describes

kind of canal crooked like a bow,

seat of the urine,' dhanur dhanurvad vakro mutra-

And

Sciyo nadWisesha/i.

he quotes a similar statement from

a Smrz'ti, mutra^ayo dhanur vakro vastir ity abhidhiyate

^.

It

would seem accordingly that he imagines the bladder,

or

some

calculi;,

similar vessel, capable as

any

esting conceit at

stanza

found

AV.
the

it is

of producing sand or

a fitting agent to stop the flow of blood

where

book

Amer. Journ.

or

Phil.

inter-

Hymns

VII, 470

for

each

hymn

of

of the Atharva-veda,

Against

ff.

rate,

diaskeuasis of the

original

more stanzas

see Seven

an

that the entire

But Kauj-ika, at any

and the

is,

it

postulates four
first

Grill thinks

a later addition.

is
it

rate

this,

there

is

only

the deviation in the metre.


c.

The Pdda

I,

is

18.

a formula

see

RV.

I,

191, 6.

Commentary to page

Saya7/a, in the introduction to the

practices associated with

it

109.

hymn,

describes the

at Ka.us. 42, 19-21 as designed

remove the blemishes of a woman afflicted with the


evil characteristics mentioned in the samudrika-treatises.
These blemishes are supposed to be on her face, hands,
feet, and other members, mukhahastapadadyangeshu samuto

drikoktadurlaksha;^ayuktaya//

The samudrika-books

striyis

taddoshanivr/ttaye.

on chiromancy) treat of
characteristics, for in his comment on
(treatises

both good and evil


St. I c he says, yani samudrikaj-astraprasiddhani
bhagyakarawi /^ihnani santi. Cf. Pet. Lex. under

2.

sau-

samu-

dra, and Kej-ava to Kauj-. 42, 19, samudrike strilakshawa;;/


vyakhyatam, and note also Kaus. iH, 38, samudra ity
a/^akshate karma.

The
'While

'

practices of the Kauj-ika are as follows:


reciting

Cf. with

AV.

I,

18,

the face of the

these statements Saya;/a's

dhanurakaro mutiajayo

vastir uX'yate.

woman

comment on

42,

19.

afflicted

vasti,

I,

3, 6,

with

COMMENTARY.

18.

I,

evil characteristics is

mencing

comHaving

sprinkled after each verse,

the braid of hair at the right.

at

made an

26

offering of chaff from a vessel

20.

made

of the

wood

of a pala.va-tree (butea frondosa), he pours the rest (of the


chaffj after (the first oblation).

31. Chaff, husks, refuse of

and shavings are placed upon the heel of her

grain,

left

foot.'

There are good and

evil characteristics (lakshmi =: lakVII, 115), and the main point of the practheir removal by washing, and by placing all kinds

AV.

sha;/a, cf.

tices

is

of offal where

it

drop from the person under

will easily

treatment, and cause symbolically the removal of the bad


points.

The hymn has been

translated by Weber, Ind. Stud.


Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 498 (cf. also 338)
and Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, pp. 313 ff., where the

IV, 411

charm

(i.

interpreted erroneously as directed against the

is

house-cat.

Soc.

XV,

our brief criticism

Cf.

Stanza
Saya;/a reads

a.

the Journ.

in

Am.

Or.

153, note.

asaubhagyakara;//

1.

lakshmam

for

Z'ihnam.

To lalamyam he

lakshmyam, commenting,
remarks,

lalame bhava; tilakasthanagatam.

The Pada

d.

is

substituting

ni'r

guaranteed by

and possibly

for

AV.

this

we read pra^ayaratim
Ludwig would cure the passage by
pra^ayai, but the latter word seems

hypermetric, unless

with double sandhi.

V,

is

25, 8,

the meaning to be that she

rendered

is

fit

for

who has

Very problematic this


takes pra^ayai with Pada c, yani
.

tani

asmaka/w pra^ay^i

prapayama//

c.

the character of an

is,
.

be sure. Saya;/a
saubhagyani /^ihnani

to
.

bhavantu,

vaju ni//saritani asaubhagyakara/n /^ihnani


.

1.

have supposed

marriage and child-birth by the

charm.

Geldner,

(cf.

In adhering to the traditional text

314).

Arati

pra^ayai tva (tva a) nayamasi.

the original reading

yani pur-

aratiw j^atrum

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

262

Stanza
a.

arawim

ara;/ya,

'

air. Aey.,

is

2.

reminding us of araa,

waste, forest/ and

ara.7iya.ni {-ni),

'strange,'

the personified

goddess of the forest, RV. X, 146. Saya;/a reads ara/nm,


commenting, arama;nm alakshmiw daurbhagyakaraw k\h-

nam

yadva aramani?;/ sarvada parya/anakdri;^im artiShankar Pandit retains the reading


of the MSS., savishak (for savishat in our edition), but
Saya;/a reads sivishat.
Cf. the Va^. S. in the Kawvajakha X, 2,
XX, i, i (= IX, 5; XVIII, 30 of the
M^dhya;dina-^akha), and Weber, Ind. Stud. IV, 348, 412;
.

kari;;^

va alakshmim.

XIII, loH.

See also Apast. Sr. XIII,


Stanza

Sayawa
a

woman

7, 13.

4.

treats all these epithets as referring directly to

we

them

prefer to regard

as personifications of

imagined as dwelling within the person whose


Saya;/a, vrz'shasye^va danta yasgaur iva sedhati
yak sa vr/shadati sthuladanta nari
gakk/iail^ii gosedha stri
vikr/ta;;/ dhamati j'abdayate
evil qualities,

characteristics are foul.

iti

lalamya;;/
vidhama, phutkaradivividhajabdakari;/i
viWdhyain vijeshewa
.

lalamasthdne lala/aprante bhavam

WdJiam vilirt%am,

vili<^//am

iva

Our rendering

myarupam.

sthita/;^

kej-anaw pratilo-

of vilidhyam

is

not at

all

certain.
I,

The hymn
kai

with

Commentary to page

19.

one of a

is

(sc. sLiktani),

list

of battle-charms, si;;/grami-

rubricated in Kau.y. 14,

7,

and associated

ceremonies of a general character, preparatory to

going to

battle.

a similar

list,

apara^itaga/<;a

The

Ga;/amal^, Ath. Pari^. 32, 13, has

somewhat more
:

introduction to

extensive, which

is

entitled

also

7, and cf. the


employed against

when

Brahma;/?as carry

see the note at Kau^. 14,


I, 2.

The hymn

is

certain portentous occurrences, as

arms

120.

(Kauj-. 104, 3),

when images

of the gods dance, shake,

laugh, sing, or indulge in other freaks (KauJ-.

105,

i),

or

when a

sucks a

bull

COMMENTARY.

2 2.

I,

cow

263

(Kaui-. 113, 3).

Cf. also

Ath.

The hymn has been translated by Weber,


Parij. 17, 2.
cf. also Bergaigne et Henry,
Indische Studien, IV, 413
;

Manuel Vedique,

p. 134.

Stanzas

3,

4.

These two stanzas are an expanded version of RV. VI.

The

75, 19.

hymn

latter part of that

which have been


Atharvan.
22.

I,

contains suggestions

freely utilised in the battle-charms of the

Commentary to page

The proceedings

of the practitioner,

are entirely symbolic

Kauj-.

the main effort

yellow colour to yellow creatures and

where

it

7.

is

14-2

r,

objects (the sun),

properly belongs, and to derive for the patient

redness from that quarter where

namely a red

bull

cf.

RV.

I,

peculiarly at home,

is

it

62, 9,

and Aufrecht

introduction to his edition of the Rig-veda, vol.

The

26,

to banish the

practices are as follows

ii,

in

the

p. xvii.

'While reciting AV. I, 22 (the priest) gives (the


patient water) to sip, which is mixed with hair from (a red
15. And
bull) the object mentioned in the mantra (st. i).
having poured (water) upon the back of the bull (he lets
16. He ties on as an amulet upon
the patient drink it).
the (patient) sitting upon the skin of a bull (the piece of
skin) pierced by the peg with which it is fastened (when it
is spread out)\ after having steeped it in cow's milk and
26, 14.

anointed

it

with the dregs of ghee'-.

patient the milk) to drink.

The words

'

He

18.

kilakabandha/z ^ahkusthapanam.
the

hymn,

all

of them a tentative

Darila, ka.rm3.no

vistaraya

tanmawibandhanam.

Cf. also

Kauj. 27, 29, to AV.

raktago-('arma-<-/zidramaim

Cf. Kauj-. 7, 15.

gives (the

Sayawa, in the introduction to

Kejava, go rakta/^armaX'/^idramawim.
Ill, 7, I.

He

feeds (the patient) with

the piece of skin,' &c. are

rendering of jahkudhanam, to which

17.

HVMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

264
porridge
plant),

made

of haridra (turmeric, or curcuma, a yellow

daubs him from head to foot both with the remnants

of the porridge and (additional porridge) from which he has

not eaten, (places him upon a couch),

ties

the (three birds)

mantra ^ by their left legs to the foot of


the couch, and washes (the patient) off (upon the birds).
mentioned

in the

He makes

19.

the patient step forward (after having

first

given him a stirred drink, mantha, in accordance with the

paribhasha at Ka.us.
address (with the

20.

18).

7,

hymn) the

He makes

(the patient)

chattering (birds). 21.

Having

glued together with lac the hairs from the breast (of the
red bull) and getting them covered with gold (the patient
ties that

on as an amulet).'

Saya;/a in his introduction defines the purpose of the

hymn

as against heart-disease

miladirogopajantaye
tion,

according to which

fainting

(vismaya

and jaundice, hr/drogaka-

Ke.yava advances a broader construc-

?),

it

cures in addition epilepsy and

apasmara-vismaya-hr/droga-kamaAdalbert Kuhn, in Kuhn's


has assembled from Greek, Roman,

lakarohi/zakani bhaisha^y^ni.
Zeitschrift,

XIII, 113

ff.,

and Teutonic sources notions and practices analogous to


those elaborated by Kau.fika. The principle that the yellow
disease belongs by right to yellow objects, birds, and plants,
is there again applied practically, with a touch, here and
In addition to
there, of similia similibus curantur.
Kuhn's translation we note Weber's, Ind. Stud. IV, 415 ff.
Bergaigne et Henry,
cf. also Ludvvig, Der Rigveda, III, 343
Manuel Vedique, pp. 134-5 Zimmer, Altindisches Leben,
Wise, Hindu System of Medicine, 247 ff. (espep. 388
;

in

The

?;am.

juka, ropawaka, and haridrava mentioned in

introduction,

his

Darila defines haridrava/^ by haridravar;/aj

juka// kash///a(mu)sukam

(!)

X-a

gopitilaka?;^

refer respectively to the parrot, the thrush,


all

doubtless birds prevailingly yellow.

patient,

4,

X'a.

X'i/aka>^,

The

the yellow birds, where

and the introduction

it

to VII, 116.

Sayawa,
pakshi-

Kejava,

They seem

and the yellow

to

wagtail,

yellow jaundice of the

accentuated by his coat of yellow curcuma,

down upon
St.

st. 4.

j^ukakash/Z/ajukagopitanakakhyanaw

belongs.

is

washed
on

Cf. the notes

cially 249,

where turmeric

still

265

appears prominent

among

Stanzas similar to 1,^33 occur,


50, 11-12; Tait. Br. Ill, 7, 6, 22-23; Apast. Sr.
agencies).

the curative

RV.

COMMENTARY.

2 2,

I,

I,

IV, 15,1.

Stanza

1.

For hnddyota the RV., Tait. Br., and Apast. Sr. have
see also AV. V, 20, 12
(cf. Ridraga, Wise 321)
VI, 24, I. Still another name is hrzdayamaya, AV. V, 30,
For the root dyut, cf. AV. IV, 12,
127, 3.
9 VI, 14, I
b.

hndroga

2; XII,

3,

22: hr/d-dyota literally

Saya//a takes
(cf.

it

as

heart-burning,'

'

means 'heart-break;'
hridayaw sa;//tapayati

splendida bilis).
The Vedic Hindu is deeply impressed with the

Lat.

c.

is contrasted with its


sage mir wie geht es zu, gibt weisse
Perhaps we have here, too, an allu-

ness of the cow, which

RV.

I,

62, 9, &c.

'

milch die rothe kuh.'

red-

white milk,

book of the
Les Hymnes Rohitas, and our ContribuFourth Series, Amer. Journ. Phil. XII, 429 ff.

sion to the divine Rohita in the thirteenth

AV.

see Henry,

tions,

Stanza

2.

The anacoluthon in Padas c, d, seems to be occasioned


by ayam, which is a sort of vox media fit for both second
and

third persons singular.

Stanza
a.

dique,

3.

have followed Bergaigne and Henry, Manuel Vep.

135 note,

in

emending the

devatya(//) to r6hi;ndevatya(//),
is Rohi;/i.'

I differ

'

unintelligible rohi/nr

the cows whose divinity

from these scholars

in

with gavo, rather than supplying r/ka/i

co-ordinating

it

see the above-

mentioned Contributions, p. 437. Rohi/n is the female


of Rohita, a personification of the red, ascending (ruh),
The stanzas devoted to Rohi/n occur AV.
ruling sun.
XIII,

I,

22

ff.

Saya/^a's

tya/i devatasu bhava/^

madhenvadayo

comment on Padas
.

uktavarwa

gava/^ santi, uta

a, b, is,

deva-

(sc. rohi;n/^) ya./i

api ya/i

ka-

manushyasa;/^-

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

266

bandhinyo rohbn/i rohbiya/i lohitavan/a giva/i


ubhayavidhabhir gohhi/i.
Stanza
b. ropa;/aka
j-arika,

santi tabhi/z

4.

glossed by Siya;^a at RV. I, 50, 12 by


Sayawa on our hymn, twice, kash//}a^uka
the word is not in the lexicons).
Darila at
is

'thrush;'

(harit pakshi

Kau^y. 26, 20. haridravarwaj- >^i/aka// (not in the lexicons


cf. /^i/^^ika,

RV. X,

146,

2).

Kej-ava, kash//^a(mu)sukam

(!),

and kash///aj-u(sh)ka/^andana (! a kind of sandal). The commentators seem therefore to waver between a bird and
a plant.
c. haridrava is glossed by Saya;^a at RV. VIII,
^S^ 7
by pakshin, but the same work at I, 50, 12, as also the

scholiast at Tait. Br. Ill,


(a kind of tree

7,

22,

6,

Saya;/a on our

!).

has haritaladrumeshu

hymn,

twice, gopitana-

kakhya haridvan/a/^ pakshiua/i (gopitanaka


lexicons, but gopita

is

'

wagtail

')

Darila,

is

not

ib., pita.f

in

the

kitak^i

Ke.fava, twice, gopitilaka.

I,

The
are

23.

Commentary to page

16.

practices connected with this and the next

defined

by the commentators

as

cure

for

hymn
white

leprosy, Jvetakush///apanodanaya (Saya;/a), j-vetakush///a-

bhaisha,^ani (Kei-ava).

They

are stated at Kauj. 26, 22-

While reciting AV. I, 23 and I, 24 (the


priest) having rubbed dung (upon the sores) until they are
red, smears upon them the substances, mentioned in the
mantras ^ 23. He cuts off the white (scurf). 24. (The
patient ?), having been covered, performs the rites to
24, as follows

the Maruts.'

22.

'

The

latter,

described at Kauj-. 41, 1-7, are

Kejava and Sayawa mention bhrmgara^a

note the pun between ra^a and ra^ani, &c. in

(eclipta prostata
I,

23,

i),

haridra

(yellow sandal, or yellow turmeric), indravaruwi (colocynth), and


nilika.

Darila has a somewhat different statement, too corrupt to

be reported here.

COMMENTARY.

23.

I,

267
employment

primarily designed to produce rain, and their


here, secondarily,

The

a sweat.

may

be intended to put the patient into

point

is

problematic and not cleared up by

hymn

is

repeated with variants at Tait. Br.

the scholiasts.

The

entire

The

II, 4, 4, I. 2.

hymn

third stanza of the next

there

is

added to the charm.


Both this and the next h}'mn have been translated by
Weber, Ind. Stud. IV, pp. 416 ff, Ludwig, Der Rigveda,
III, 506, 509
GrilP, pp. 19, 77 ff.
cf. Wise, Hindu System of Medicine, pp. 25H ff. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben,
and Bergaigne et Henry, Manuel Vedique, p. 135.
p. 391
The Anukrama;/! designates I, 23 as vanaspatyam, and
;

I,

24 as asurivanaspatidevatyam.

Stanza

1.

Saya;/a refers the adjectives dark, &c., to the plants,


indicated

by

The word

Kaui-ika's commentators.

Cf

ing 'curcuma longa.'


4,

'

the scholiast at Tait. Br.

ra;/^anakshame oshadhe

1,

The two meanings

ke^it.

rich

in colour,'

by

ra^ani

has also the mean-

(as well as all others designating night)

atra

II, 4,

haridra ra^ani^ti

are blended with the idea of

virtue of

which the word puns with

ra^aya.

Stanza
b.

considerable

number

2.

of

MSS., here

as well as in

by Saya//a, read pr/thak for pr/shat, which


makes good sense. The Tait. Br. also reads pr/shat.

3 d, followed
also
c.

This seems to be addressed to the patient

colour shall return

him.

to

Grill

takes

his natural

offence

the

at

and proposes to refer sva// to the plant cf.


But the
also Ludwig, and Bergaigne et Henry,
c, note.
plants are of a colour different from the leper's spots (hence
their virtue), and sva./i is inappropriate.
Saya;/a, as in our
translation, he rug;;a
svakiya/^ prag avasthito var;-;a/^
parenthesis

1.

Cf. Aufrecht, Festgruss

an Olto von Bohilingk,

p. 3.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

268

And

more

still

explicitly the scholiast at Tait. Br., dehasya

svakiya/^ purvasiddho var;/a//.

Commentary to page

24.

I,

hymn

For the application of the


previous translations,
is

repeated at Tait. Br.

Saya;za states the


of the

I,

23.

Stanza 3

II, 4, 4, 2.

Stanza

The dark

and

the ritual,

in

the introduction to

cf.

16.

1.

legend (akhyayika) as follows

little

plant here in question was the gall (pitta, dosha)

primordial bird

The Asuri

supar;/a (garutman).

maya ka-^ana stri) engaged in battle with him


The gall captured in the battle she
and conquered.
embodied into the form of trees (nili, and so forth). This
neat story would commend itself at once but for the word

(asur^;/a;

^ita,

which does not mean

but

she was conquered.'

'

'

she conquered

The

story

to the emendation ^itva, or (as

'

(Say., ^itavati),

so pat as to tempt

is

Ludwig

suggests) ^itam.

In general, of course, asura in the Atharvan, as elsewhere,

powers conquered by the Devas,


IX,
IV, 19, 4 VI, 7, 2 VIII, 5, 3
3. 4
TO, 10. 15; XII,
[I
6, 22-8; XI, 5, 7;

stands for the hostile


e. g.

AV.

X, 3,
But a

15.

I,

VI,

II, 27,

18;

2, 17.

108,

VI, 100, 3 the ant (upa^ika), which


antidote

against

In

tone prevails occasionally.

different

know wisdom

the Asuras are said to

poison,

is

called

is

the

in

employed as an
daughter of the

3, 3; VI, icg, 3 they dig remedies into


the ground, and finally, in VII, 38, 2, the Asuri attracts to

Asuras;

in

II,

from the company of the gods, so that,


according to Kaf/i. S. XIII, 5, he lives with the Asuras (cf.
V, 250, 453). The sense of Saya;za's
Ind. Stud. Ill, 479

herself Indra

story
is

is

the

therefore not irrelevant.

name

of a magic plant

Amer. Journ.

Phil.

of the text

retained,

is

X, 165
it

fif.).

is

Note also that asurf itself


Magoun, Asuri-kalpa,

(cf.
If,

on the other hand, ^ita

hard to see

herself of the gall of the supar//a, unless

how

she possessed

by way

of revenge.

COMMENTARY.

24.

I,

Hence we have,

269

adopted the emenlater transcriber, shocked by the imputation


dation ^itva.
that the Asuri was victorious, might easily have made the
or theft.

hesitatingly,

change.

Weber,

1.

c, p. 418, regards supar;/a as the sun

as the night, who, having been conquered

by the

and

asuri'

sun, with-

Dor
draws into the forest and assumes the form of trees
vogel, der zuerst erstand, dessen gall' du gewesen bist.
Die Asuri im kampf besiegt machte die baum' zu ihrer
But there is scarcely any occasion here for a
form.'
mythical eagle
the eagle and the boar naturally find
'

one with his eye, the other with

plants, the
II, 27, 2

upon

d.

this

For vanaspatin

rupam

e.g. asvo
2,

first

and second parts of the stanza.

similarly Grill.

the

Paippalada has vanaspati//

common

accordance with the

V,

snout (see

14, i),

connection between the

Very

his

and the legend must in some way rest


This translation, too, establishes no
natural fact.
V,

in

usage of the Brdhma;/as,

kr/tva, Tait. Br. Ill, 8, 12, 2; Apast. Sr.

rupaw

kn'sh/io

krz'tva, Tait. Br. Ill, 7, 4, 8.

Delbriick, Altindische Syntax, p. 103

See
rupa

Pet. Lex. s. v.
(column 421); Ind. Stud. XIII, 1 1 1 This makes a decidedly
better construction
having assumed the form of a tree.'
Ludwig, translating the 6"aunakiya-text, '(die Asuri) hat es
;

'

baume gemacht,'and

zur farbe der

similarly Saya;/a,^ayena

labdhaw tat pitta?;^ rupa;;/ /^-akre, oshadhyatmana sevyam


akaram akarshit, tad eva rupam aha, vanaspatin nilyadin.
I

have followed their

lead,

though

am

for

my

part

unacquainted with any such construction of kar (with three


accusatives

note also the middle, kakre).

Stanza
a, b.

2,

Saya;/a treats idam as follows

nirmita;;/ nilyadikam,

interpretation

of

st.

The

kilasana'j-anam

Ida;//

supar^apittena

i.

In

his

the later literature

and our
asuri

is

see the Pet. Lex. under asuri 3) and


metre of the two P^das is irregular idaw

a branch of medicine

m^nusha.

which corresponds with

seems to be a

gloss.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

270

Stanza

The European

4.

Ludwig puts
hymn. The Paippalada, as also
two of Shankar Pandit's MSS., have jryama (cf ^am^ka =
jy^maka, Kslus. 8, 11); this is undoubtedly correct, and
a.

edition reads j-ama, which

forth as the title of the

corresponds with ra^ani in

I,

The

Commentary to page

25.

practice which

similar

in

i.

23,

I,

3.

Kau^-ika reports for this

hymn

is

character, but totally different in detail from

those connected with

AV. V,

The

22 and VI, 20.

practising

according to Sutra 26, 25, has an axe heated then


the axe is quenched in water, and the water thus heated is
priest,

poured upon the patient: yad agnir iti para^-u;;/ ^apa;s


tapayati kvathayaty avasi^^i-ati.
Darila renders this quite
clear, paraj-una kvathayaty udakaw
taptenodakena
.

^vasi;;/y^ati rogi/^aw.

The heated water

is

supposed doubt-

draw the heat of the fever out of the patient; as it


him (attractio similium). Kei-ava describes the
performance as a ^varabhaisha^yaw, nitya^vare vela^are
satata^are ekantarita^vare /^aturthika^vare ka. r/tu^are
cf. stanza 4 c, d.
/:a.
Similarly Sayaa in the introduction,

less to

flows from

The

aikahikadi^ita^arasa7;/tata^aravela^varadij-antaye.

hymn

has been treated by Weber, Indische Studien, IV,

Grohmann, ib. IX, 3(S4


Ludwig, Der Rigveda,
Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, pp. 381, 384
Bergaigne et Henry, Manuel Vedique, p. 136.
It is

419

III,

fif.

fif.

511

quoted also at Kauj-.


.yanaga;/a of the

26,

note, as

Gawamala, Ath.
Stanza

The

stanza

is

32,

7.

1.

not quite clear.

practices in the Sutra, which

one of the takmana-

Parii-.

are,

Saya;;a refers to the

of course, themselves

based upon suggestions derived from the mantra.


When
Agni having entered the waters burned refers doubtless to
the circle of well-known legends that deal with Agni's escape
'

'

to the waters.

Two hymns

of the Rig-veda, X, 51 and

COMMENTARY.

25.

T,

52, deal with this subject,

with

one of the stock-legends,

it is

protean variations, in the Brahma;/as


^at. Br.

Stiidien, III, 467), e.g.

Tait. S. II, 6, 6,

same

and

271

ff.

VI,

2, 8,

I,

2,

For

ff.

3,

13-16;
forms of the

3,

later

legend, see Adolf Holtzmann's essay,

Indische

(cf.

3,

Agni nach den


and especially

Vorstellungen

des

Mahabh.

Ill,

14214

legends

the plain observation that lightning comes from

is

the clouds, that

Mahabharata,

is,

lightning,

in

it.

which

is

the waters

The

ff.

basis

of these

Nirukta VII,

23), and
upon earth, and
This again connects the takman with

perhaps, again, that

disappears

= 222,

ff.

11,

p.

(cf.

strikes the water

it

conceived as a cause of fever, &c.

our introductions to V, 22, and

12.

I,

It

See

perhaps not

is

going too far to suppose that the connection of fever with


is another way of saying that fever is associated

lightning

especially with the rainy season,

be the purport of the stanza


the time
p.

403

when the takman


Zimmer,

I.e.,

and that indeed seems to

the period of the lightning

originates.

Cf.

Grohmann,

1.

is

c,

384.

p.

apo, the nominative for the accusative, especially in

a.

the AV., as conversely apa// the accusative appears

nominative

The

see Whitney's

expression apo

pravivwitha
b.

Grammar, 393
as in RV. X, 51,

Sanskrit

pravi'i-ya,

as
a.
i,

^pa//.

dharma-dhr/ta/^ with alliteration.

does not refer to pious men, as

is

The expression

assumed by Weber,

Grohmann, and Zimmer and that too, although their


translation would seem to receive support from RV. X, 51, 5,
ehi manur devayiir ya^;7akama/^, 'come (O Agni), pious
men desire to sacrifice.' The meaning of the first two
Padas would according to this be as follows When Agni
;

hid himself in the waters, and

men

being thus deprived of

the carrier of the sacrifice approached

him humbly, with


^.
But

the purpose of inducing him to resume his functions

Weber,

].

c,

to

be sure, quite differently, refers the humble

attitude of the pious to the

dread of the supposed consequence of

Agni's action, namely, the fever.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

272

dharma-dhr/ta/z cannot refer to men, and Ludwlg is quite


correct in his view, die erhalter der satzungen (die gotter).'
'

The dharman

upheld by the gods

is

described as dharmawi dharayan in


as dharma-kr/t in VIII, 98,

cf.

is

made

therefore

RV.

Vish;/u

e. g.

I,

22, 18;

is

Indra

also the epithet dhr/ta-

AV.

vrata as applied to Varu;/a at

so,

VII, 83,

Reference

i.

to the suppliant attitude of the gods, as

they induce Agni by promises to come forth from the


waters and attend to his business.

paramaw^ani'traw dort is
Grohmann and Zimmer
and
hauptsachlich dein Entstehen,'
adopt this very pregnant rendering. Ludwig, on the other
hand; says, *da war deine erste geburt.' It seems to me
that neither translation is correct. The Pada is formulaic

Weber

c.

translates tatra

'

in

RV.

hymn

163, 4 (the

I,

to the horse, ai-vastuti)

we

have,

yatra ta ahu// parama; ^ani'tram, and Ludwig translates


Cf.
(902), wo man sagt, dass dein hochster geburtsort.'
'

parame ^anitre

also

in

moreover,

g-a.nitra.7n,

is

X,

i.

56,

The

paramaw
^anman in

expression

the equivalent of parame

RV. II, 9, 3, which is contrasted with avare sadhasthe.


The former obviously refers to Agni, the lightning, and,
takman is the effect of that Agni, the same origin
assumed for him. Hence I have translated the expression by origin on high.'
as the

is

'

Stanza
b.

one,'
this

2.

Literally, or whether thy origin is a spHnter-seeking


a bold figure as applied to the takman. But throughout
'

hymn

the parallelism between

uppermost

fire

and the takman

is

phenomenon

of

the mind of the poet, and the

in

Agni's growth, as he eagerly licks the split wood,


phorically transferred to
*sei

Zimmer,

less vividly,

mend
result,

disease.

ziingelndes,

Weber
dein

meta-

translates

geburtsort.'

oder wenn deine geburtsstatte glimLudwig does not comment upon his obscure

ist.'
'

his

Splitterfeuer,

prettily,

is

mag

oder

geburt sein

'

'

spitze stachel suchend (stechend) deine

he, at

any

rate, unnecessarily

Sayawa, jakalya;;/ dahya^u kash//^a-

metaphor of the

fire.

samuham

j-akalye/ agni//.

i/('//ati

abandons the

c.

have

COMMENTARY.

25.

I,

the word hruVu

left

273

untranslated, as

have

not been able to discover any basis for the existing translation,

cramp,' which Weber,

'

Ludwig

Weber's

adopts.

1.

c, p. 420, proposes,

result

is

and

derived from etymo-

logical

considerations

recorded

symptoms of the takman or the ^^ara fail


cramps. The word occurs only in this hymn,

include

of

insufficient

cogency,

and the
to
in

evident alliteration with haritasya, and I should not wonder


if the word would yet turn out to have some connection
with 'yellow.'
For haritasya deva, see the note on V,
22, 2 a.

Stanza

The takman

b.

3.

as a son of Varu;/a presents a snatch of

and deeper view of the origin of disease,


according to which it is due to the violation of the laws
that broader

who has

of Varu;/a,

in his

charge the order of the universe,

and punishes the sinner by his fetters of disease, especially


the dropsy see, e.g. AV. IV, 16, 6, 7 2.
In general, to be
sure, the lower view prevails in the Atharvan
possession
by demons, and the witchcraft of enemies, are the causes of
'

'

sickness.

Stanza

The metre
trish/ubh

is

irregular

4.

Pida

a,

anush/ubh

b and

c,

d,^agati.

For rura. see the note on V, 22, 10 a.


yo anyedyur
abhyeti (see also VII, 116, 2) refers
to a fever which attacks, or becomes highest, every twentyfour hours
cf. perhaps the vela^vara, mentioned by Kei-ava
b.

c.

^
Some MSS., according to Weber, read hrud\i, and Whitney,
Index Verborum, s. v., reports also hCiVu, hrilrt'ru, and rddu. Sayaa

reads rudku/i (rohaka/i purushajarire utpadaka/^).


notes still other variants.
^

p.

to another suggested by Grohmann,


according to which the malarial takman in marshy

prefer this view

406

ff.,

watery) regions

is

This seems rather far-fetched.

[42]

1.

(i.

c.,

e.

Varua, being the god


variety of takman might thus be regarded as

especially pointed out.

of the sea (water), this


his son.

Shankar Pandit

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

74

Such

to Kaus. 26, 25.

(Grohmann,

the

describes
follows:

p.

3H7

is

the interpretation of

Zimmer,

Anye^yuka
paroxysm

daily,

lent

to

it is

the

Anye^yuka.'

called

authorities

of fever recurs at the

'If the

hour

all

and Wise, p. 232,


(Su^ruta's anyedyushka) as
p. 382),

It is therefore

rhythmus quotidianus.

same

equiva-

Sayaz/a, anye-

dyu^ anyasmin paradine ya// shagvara/i abhyeti. yo


ubhayadyur abhyeti, he who returns for two successive
days,' i. e. with the implication that the next day (as we
should say, the third day) is free from fever'. Grohmann,
p. 388. and Zimmer, p. 382. identify this with the rhythmus
quartan uscomplicatus, a form of the disease in which the
.

'

attacks repeat themselves on two successive days, the third

day being exempt. This would remind us of the ekantarita


mentioned by Kei-ava, 1. c. But it seems to fit also the
Hturthaka viparyaya. Wise, 1. c, says, In Chaturthaka
the paroxysms of this fever occur every fourth day. When
the paroxysm continues for two days, the fever is that
'

None

of these construc-

Saya;m here

says, ubhayadyu/z

Chaturthaka Bipar^aya.'

called
tions,

however,

is

certain.

more exubhayor
plicitly at VII, 116, 2,
(!)
ity
Mturthika^ara
divasayo//, atitayor iti sesha/i, abhyeti,
days
This means a kind of fever that omits two
artha//.
and returns on the third day, and would thus be identical
ubhayasmin dvitiye^hani

ayati, and,

still

yas ka ubhayedyu/^

with the tr/tiyaka, according to the current construction


(see Pada d).
But see the Pet. Lex. under ubhayadyu/^

and ubhayedyu/^.
d. For tr/tiyaka, see the note on V,

I,

34.

22, 13 a.

Commentary to page

99.

This hymn belongs to a quite extensive class of Atharvan


charms, the object of which is either to generate love in
a person of the opposite sex, or restore alienated affection.
In general, charms of this class are rubricated in the second
^

Cf.

22, 13a.

our not altogether certain interpretat'.on of

vitr/tiya,

V,

I,

COMMENTARY.

34.

275

part of the fourth book of the Kau^ika (32, 28-36, 40).


This is designated by the commentators as strikarma;n.

and presents the greatest variety of pracwomen and their relations


Kauj-ika,
Introduction,
see
to men
p. Ixv, and cf the folhymn
is not mentioned
particular
lowing hymns. Yet this
otherwise
worked up
in the book in question, though it is
In the first
three times, K&us. 38, 17
76, 8. 9
79, 10.
of these passages, 38, 17, the hymn is employed in a simple
practice uttered by an intending disputant before entering
upon a debate in the sabha or parishad, the village assembly
While reciting AV. I, 34 he approaches the assembly

women's

'

rites.'

connected with the hfe of

tices

'

The commenfrom the north-east, chewing licorice.'


tators do not quite agree as to the special purpose of the
Ke.fava says that it produces victory in disputapractice.
tion (vivade ^ayakarma;/a;;/ vidhi/f)

says that

is

it

Darila,

more

mildly,

an expiatory performance to wipe out the

guilt incurred in defeating

artha^ayadoshai-amanaw

an opponent
pr^yaj-/('ittam.

hymn

manipulations of the

is

(in debate),

praty-

Either of these

reasonable

if

we

regard

kami'ni in stanza 5 as referring to the parishad or sabha ^,


and there is therefore no absolute guarantee that the hymn
had originally anything to do with sexual love. Cf. how-

ever

II, 30, I.

In Ka.us.

hymn,

ties

76,

8,

9 the bridegroom, while reciting this


an amulet of licorice-wood

to his little finger

(madugha), fastening

it

with thread coloured red with

lac,

The jNISS. have pratyartha^apa-, but this does not yield good
The correction was suggested by Professor Cowell in a

sense.

kind note.

Seven

Correct accordingly our treatment of the passage in


of the Atharva-veda, Amer. Journ. Phil. VII, 481

Hymns

16 of the reprint).

(p.
-

There

is,

too, a bare possibility that the fifth stanza

is

of later

we attach any weight to the tradition that the


see
first book of the AV. consisted of hymns of four stanzas each
The meaning of that tradition
the introduction to I, 12 (p. 247).
seems, however, rather to be that each hymn consisted of at least
four stanzas, or more, since many of them, in fact, consist of more.

origin, especially

if

T 2

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

276
and placing

so that the amulet

it

is

knot within (the hand).


and the amulet
forth,
the bride

make him

intended to

on the outside of the


In Sutra 10 he leads

finger, the

obviously

therefore,

is,

This

attractive to the bride.

hymn which we have

volves the construction of the

sented in our translation,

the bridegroom,

i.e.

in-

pre-

by means

of

the amulet, secures the love of the bride \

Once more,

in Kauj'. 79, 10, at the

consummation of the
is enacted by the

marriage, a ceremony, involving this hymn,

The bridegroom

married couple.

takes hold of the amulet

Kauj.

of licorice (which he has put on previously,

puts

9),

it

hymn and AV. XIV,

sent

another.

and while

into bull's grease,

Kei"ava,

more

71.

2,

72,

76, 8.

reciting the pre-

they embrace one

explicitly, states that the

amulet

is

prakshipya

ground up, madughama//i;// pishA^a aukshe


abhimantrya parasparam varavadhvau samalabhete. The
it seems
purpose of the performance is not quite clear
Cf. AV.
to be designed to render the affection mutual ^.
II, 36, 7, and our discussion there.
The hymn has been translated by Weber, Ind. Stud. IV,
'^

first

429

V, 218);

(cf.

designates

amulet of

'

hymn

the

in the Indische Studien, V, 386,

fasten the amulet

upon

to indicate this proceeding,

hymn.

The Anukramawi

pp. 52, 78.

of the

licorice.'

Haas

Dr.

groom

Grill-,

madughamawisuktam,

as

it

makes

the bride's finger.

which

is

There

the brideis

nothing

contrary to the context of the

Dr. Haas, to be sure, erroneously refers the pratika iyaw

virudh to
desires to

AV. VII, 56, 2; hence he


make himself lovable in

did not see that the bridegroom


the sight of the

woman

(see

I,

.34, 5).
^

For aukshe, see our note on

Professor

V, 401,
apparent to me.
bility

11, 36, 7.

Weber in his translation of this passage, Ind. Stud.


takes madughamawi to mean 'hymen,' for reasons not
I

fancy that Ke^ava's pish/va removes the possi-

of such a construction, and

quoted by the same scholar on


the amulet here in question

p.

this

the

madughama/ziprayaj/fitta

404, refers simply to the loss of


is

restored by

amulet from the putudaru (devadaru)-tree.

making another

II,

COMMENTARY.

3*

Stanza

Honey

1.

agreeableness from

the symbol of 'joersonal

is

earliest

times.

Ai-vins,

the bee

Cf.

RV. X,

e.g.

took honey

goes (with honey

in

277

in

40,

'From you,

6,

her mouth) to an assignation

digging of the plant with honey

woman

mouth, as a

its

The

^'

not to be taken too

is

as Saya;/a does, madhurupe//a khanitradina, or

literally,

madhure;/a prakare/^a, but rather, with the influence of the


'

sweetness of honey, prompting or supporting him


after the licorice-root.'

Cf.

AV.

Stanza

The second

half

The passage

digs

2.

9, 2

Stanza
c, d.

who

2.

a formula, being repeated

is

5 and VI,

literally at III, 25,

VII, S^,

Pada

d, at

almost

VI, 42, 3

4.

contains an elliptic comparison, as indi-

our translation. Without the


no good sense Weber, mich
allein drum du lieben magst wie einen honigsiissen zweig
Grill,
so sei denn ich das Hebste dir, gleich einem honigBut what human being regards a branch
siissen zweig.'

by the brackets

cated

supplied there

ellipsis

in

'

is

'

sweet as honey as the most precious possession

Stanza

The

a.

clinging sugar-cane

racter

is

0, d.

The passage
II,

The hymn

3.
is

is

5.

used here metaphorically

is

and attractiveness
indicated anywhere.

for sweetness

II,

30,

Commentary to page
I,

this cha-

no practice of

a formula; see

joined with

2 at Kaui'.

VI,

tices,

which

I, 2.

is

The

1-3.

9.

25, 6-9,

charm against excessive discharges from the body


treatment at

8,

in

see the

particular part of Kau.rika's prac-

based on our hymn,

is

contained in Sutra

A different interpretation is suggested by Bergaigne,

des comparaisons vediques (Melanges Renier,

p. 89).

La syutaxe

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

278

founded upon the conception that ants are


faculty of producing water, and that, too,
healing-water, wherever they appear, and consequently
It

25, 7.

is

endowed with the

whenever they are applied as a remedy. Hence they are


here given to the patient to be drunk in water.
For
fuller

statements of this belief, see the introduction to VI,

100,

and

Hymns

Seven

Amer.

the Atharva-veda,

of

Journ. Phil. VII, pp. 482-4.

The hymn has been


XIII, 138

ff.

by Weber,

translated

Ludwig, Der Rigveda,

79 ff. The Anukrama;n designates


nvantaridaivatam.

Stanza
b. The difficult word here
XIX, 8, 2 (see Bohtlingk's

is

it

Stud.

1.

avatka.

lexicon

hypermetric Padas, avataka;;/

Ind.

507 GrilP, pp. 17,


as bhaisha^yayurdha-

III,

In the Paippalada

s. v.)

occur the two

mama bhesha^am avatakaw

Here the metre suggests emendation to


avatka, but at the same time shows pretty clearly that the
word is a derivative of avata, spring.' Saya;m is very misleading. Having in mind the performances of the Sutra, he
pariva/^anam.

'

identifies

avatka with

mountain mentioned
wit

mu;}^a.yira/^ in Kauj-. 25, 6,

in the stanza

mu%-avan nama parvato

atra parvata.yabdena

kshita/^

avatkaw

and the

with the Mu/z^avat, to


viva-

tasmat ada/i viprak;'zsh/a; yat prasiddham


vyadhipariharewa rakshakaw muu^Siska/i ava.

bhAmau

dhavati avaruhya

dhavati.

possible rendering of avadhaVati,

the possibility that this

This involves an im-

and leaves out of sight


nothing to do with

hymn may have

the mu;4^a-reed, being concerned rather with the healing


water, procured
c, d.

lation,

by the ants

The passage

as

it

see the introduction.

stands in the text, and our trans-

can be sustained only on the supposition that the

added to some other substance, not indicated in


Ludwig, feeling this difficulty, emends siibhesha^am to siibhesha^o, so that you (the patient) may have
a powerful remedy.' A simpler emendation is to change
water

is

the stanza.

'

Cf. the note

on V,

22, 5.

II,

COMMENTARY.

3-

make

279

remedy for you, so


But the next stanza,
as it stands, seems also to point to a mixed remedy; hence
Sayawa comments against
I have adhered to the text.
sense and grammar.
asasi to asati,

that

it

may

that do

'

into a

contain goodly remedy.'

Stanza

2.

have adhered to the unanimous reading of the MSS.;


(!) yad bhesha^ani te sahasra;// va gha yani te (cf. also VI, 44, 2). The
I

the Paippalada offers no help, Ad afiga skatam

seems to be that all


the remedial substances which are combined with the
sense of the passage, as

avatka are, after

avatka

itself.

sawbandhini

stands,

inferior

all,

This

it

much

is

in

healing capacity to the

as Sdya;/a construes

sa^atiyani jatam

yani

it,

tava

bhesha^ani

madhye tvam uttamam utkr/sh/ataLudwig and Grill emend te to me dann wird's

tesha;;^ bhesha^ana;//

mam

asi.

'

doch wohl geschehen, dass von meinen hundert Arzenei'n


du selbst die allerbeste bist ' (Grill). I am not convinced
that this
a.

is

right.

adaiiga, 'then surely;' kuvid anga, yea, quite surely;'


*

the latter phrase


Cf.

is

Yaska's Nigh.

a rhetorical question

and Nirukta IV,

I, 3,

Stanza
a.

The Asuras,

or they bury

become

them

I,

24,

has

from root

sra (srayati)

in the

ground

(cf.

for secure keeping, so that


(cf. I,

24, 2).

away the

See

VI, 109,

they
in

may

general

i.

b. aruy<;)sra//am is

jTa;/am,

'

15.

the demons, here either hide

available on occasion

the note on

art thou) surely

3.

remedies by burying them deep


3),

('

emended

sra, 'cook.'

well

by Ludwig

The

to aru(/^)-

Dhatupa///a, 22, 22,

pake, and S^ya/za also avails himself

of this root in one explanation of the word, aru/i srayati

and (under st. 5), arusho vra;/asya


which causes the wound to
remedy
That
a
pa/^-anam.
We seem to have here the very source for
ripen or heal.'
For the interchange of
the root sra of the Dhatup^///a.
the sibilants, see Bloomfield and Spieker, Proc. Amer. Or.
pakva? bhavati anena
is

'

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

28o

Soc, May, 1886 (Journ., vol. xiii, pp. cxvii fif.). Possibly
the word asrava may have had something to do with the

change of
d.

-srana. to -srawa.

Saya;^a reads asisama.t for anina^at

Stanza

For

upagika/i,

'

cf. st. 4.

4.

see the introduction

ants,'

to VI, 100.

Saya;/a, valmikanishpadika vamrya//.

The

Stanza

6.

11

stanza consists of 12

II, 4.

The

syllables;

11

word rakshasam, obviously a gloss,


fluous.
For Pada c, cf. I, 19, i.

is

the last

metrically super-

Commentary to page

;^y.

plant called ^ahgi^T^a illustrates very perfectly the

absence of any boundary

line

ology in the Atharvan.

On

between disease and demonit is employed

the one hand

against a variety of diseases, fever (takman), internal sores

and other minor manifestations, or symptoms,


viVarika, ai-arika, and
pr/sh/yamaya (II, 4, 2 XIX, 34, lo), receiving therefore

(balasa),

designated as ^ambha, vi^ara and


;

the epithet vi^-vabhesha^a, 'all-healing,'

XIX,

^S^ 5;

it

is

moreover the specific against rheumatic troubles, if vishkandha and sa;skandha (11,4, 1 ff- XIX, 34, i. 5; 35, i)
shall turn out ultimately to have this meaning (see the note
on St. I c). On the other hand it obviates all the dangers
arising from hostile demons and sorceries, as is expressly
;

stated in

all

XIX, 34 and

hymns devoted to its praise (II, 4


The plant is not mentioned outside of

the three
;^^).

the Atharvan which, in lieu of description, indulges in the

customary vague rhodomontades.


The gods themselves
have thrice produced the g-ahgida, Indra has put strength
into it, and (XIX, 34, 6) the seers of yore are said to have

known
but

it

by the name of Ahgiras

for the fact that

it

a very pretty conceit,

harbours nothing more than a stolid

pun {g-ahgufas and ahgiras).


From the Kauj-ika and its
commentaries we learn at least one thing that it is a tree.
In the Sutra,

8, 15,

it

occurs in a

list

of 'holy' (santk/t)

trees, as

is

tree
tya//
is

growing
;

28

expressly stated by Kej-ava, atlia jantavr/ksha


Darila at

u/?^yante.

COMMENTARY.

4-

II,

42, 23 describes

the Dekkhan,

in

Ke^ava

15

8,

at

and Saya;/a

15,

8,

as a white

it

ar^una// a/'ala
at II. 4,

faniihar in Benares, vara;/asya?// prasiddha//.

places the

home

many

in

commentary

which,

according to

Darila,

demons

(pij-a/f'a/(-atana)

3)

34,

Weber,

it

is,

he
is

destined

is

is

Groh-

42, 23, in a practice

away

drive

to

state the

cf.
purushahave (cod. purusho have
and
vighnafamanakarma
;

akaryakaraena

kr/tyadusha//arthe

passage

34,

XIII, 141

ib.

according to Ke^-ava

krztva-)

(cod.

vighna/^

naj-amanarakshakara;^a/^
latter

XIX,

at

the literature on the ^angic/a

is

mann, Indische Studien, IX, 417


Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 65.
The hymn II, 4 is employed, Kauj-.

further,

in

34, has

parts of India.

fif.

XIX,

S^yawa,

of the tree in the north, uttaradej-e pra-

following

text literally

it

which would seem to show that the tree

siddha//, all of

known
The

say that

AV. XIX,

the introduction to our hymn, as also to


^angi<^avrzksha, and in the

dakshi;za-

iti

printed in

not

The

authority in the edition).

apyayati vigh-

viskandhe

my

(!)

(the

ya/^

extracts from that

practice consists in tying on

as an amulet the substance mentioned in the hymn dirDarila says ^angighayutvaye-ti mantroktaw badhnati.
:

^amawim, and Ke^ava more explicitly states that an amulet


derived from the^ahgi^a be tied on with a thread of hemp,
^arigi<yama;n;// .?a//asutre//a badhva sawpatya^bhimantrya
badhnati. The hemp refers to stanza 5, and it seems to me
quite likely that Kej-ava
association
external.

is

right

of the hemp with the


The hymn has been

Indische Studien, XIII,

p.

140

in

thus describing the

^angi^fa as altogether
translated

by Weber,

ff.

Stanza

1.

others, begins with an irregular


two anush^ubh Padas cf. RV.
and
stanza, two trish/ubh

This hymn, as

many

VII, 103 AV. IV, 12 VL


b. Sayana. reads rakshamawa// for dakshamawa//.
;

III, &c.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

282

The meaning

c.

of vishkandha,

regret to say,

is

not

Both ancients and moderns have etymologised upon


the word, and in all instances have arrived at the conclusion
that the word refers to some disease.
But the results,
though consistent in the one point of disease, betray their
weakness in differing as to its special nature. The schoclear.

liast at Tait. S.

VII,

3,

11,

the

only

known occurrence

of the word outside of the Atharvan literature

(cf. also Gop.


skandhadyavayava
5,
yasya tad vishkandham (sc. j-ariram), the body whose
members, shoulders, and so forth, are deformed is vish-

Br,

25) explains

I,

by

it

virup^(/^)

'

kandha.'

Saya;/a, at

AV.

I,

16,

(and similarly here)

gatipratibandhaka;;^ raksha/zpij-a/^adikrztaw vighna-

says,

^atam, 'a disease which hinders from walking, produced by


Rakshas, Pi^-a^as, &c., instigated by (some hostile) disturb-

The same

ance.'

fatuous

authority,

however, at

XIX,

vishkandhaw vii-lish/askandham evawnimanaw


vatavij-esha;;/ maharogam, vishkandha, a serious disease of
that name, caused by wind (in the body), producing dislo35^ 5 says,

'

cation of the shoulders.'

modern

of the

Professor

Weber

interpretation of the word,

the author
drawing the

is
'

shoulders apart, rheumatism (see Indische Studien, IV,


410; XIII, 141; XVII, 215, and cf. the Pet. Lex. Zimmer,
1. c, 390;
Grill-, p. 75).
I have been struck by the fact
that both Darila and Ke.$-ava in their comments upon Kauj-.
42, 23
43, I- 2, the Sutras which rubricate AV. II, 4 and
III, 9, the principal sources of our knowledge of the vishkandha, omit all mention of disease of any kind. To begin
'

with, these passages of the Sutra are not part of the bhai-

sha^ani (Kauj.

25, 1-32, 27).

of pi.ya/^anaj-anam

Further, Darila speaks only

and pi.ya/^aMtanam, Kej-ava of vigh-

na.famanam and vishkandhavighna.famano (ma;/i//). Obme that the commentators' knowledge


of the practices is superior to their knowledge of the meanings of words all India is in this regard an easy prey to
its perverse etymological habits ^
and I should think it
servation has taught

recommend

a continuous reading of Yaska's Nirukta to any

II,

more conservative

COMMENTARY.

4-

283

for the present to hold that vi'shkandha,

as well as the opportunistic sa;;/skandha at

AV. XIX, 34,


One may
,5,

designations of hostile demoniac forces.

are

by examining, with the aid of WhitVerborum, all the passages in which the word
occurs, that the latter meaning suits as well as the former.
Of course the boundary-line between disease and possession
by demons is an evanescent one in all Atharvan writings.
The formation vi'shkandha, moreover, suggests vyawsa
(RV. I, ^2, 5, &c.) and vigriva (RV. VIII, 4, 24), both of
them designations of demons (cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. IV,
Thus it has seemed best to leave the word untrans410).
easily be convinced,

ney's Index

lated for the present.

Stanza

2.

^ambha, convulsions, cramps, or colic' The translaWeber, Ind. Stud. XIII, 142,
is reasonably certain.
'

a.

tion

describes the trouble as an infantile disease, perhaps teeth-

ing;

cf.

also

Zimmer,

I'Atharva-veda,

1.

p. ^'^.

c, 392, and Henry, Le livre VII de


The etymology of the word, and the

AV.

epithet sawhanu, 'shutting the jaws,' at

seem

to lend themselves at first sight to such

tion,

but

after

is

it

too narrow.

all

hiwsakat krztyade/^, yad va

^ambha

VIII,

Saya;/a,
iti

1,

16,

an interpreta-

^ambhat

dantavij-eshasya

See, howakhya, rakshasadantavij-eshakrztat khidan^t.


At
ever, his very different interpretation at VIII, i, 16.

Kauj. 32,

Darila at 32,

'^$,

occurs

15

defines

it

the word

as^ambho

^ambhagr/hita.

raksha/^, tena gr/hita/^

according to Kaujika and Kej-ava, the patient

is

an infant

which is put to the mother's breast and fed with rice


and fennel steeped in milk \ All this would still pass
readily as a cure of diseases connected with teething. But
in Kau.y. t,j, 12-15 we have the following performance:
one who wishes
chaflf.

to

And Yaska

know how much


is

grain

the high priest

may be found among the


how much worse are the

epigoni
^

Kauj-.

^ambhag/vTiitaya

{K&s.

balakaya)

priyahgutaa'ulan abhyavadugdhan payayati.

stanaw

praya/i'/^ati,

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

284

garbliadr/whawani, ^ambhagn'hitaya
gy^ni trir udgrathya badhnati. losh/an dAwrikdiiii praj-ayati. jyamasi.

The scene

katabhi/^ j-ayana; parikirati.

the passage

28-36, 40),

the

at

title

womb

ing the

here

is

child-birth,

women's rites (32,


and the ^ambha has seized the baby or the
part of the strikarma;/i,

is

foetus, either

Hence the

moment

'

'

of birth,

of the ceremony,

'

or prematurely.
performances for steady-

According to Darila, the woman

or foetus.'

herself receives the treatment, being tied about with a threefold

bowstring (^ambhena grzhito garbho yasya

striya/^

tasya gy^^ni trigua? kr/tva badhnati), fed with lumps of


earth (^ambhagrzhitaw [!] praj-ayati), and having her bed

Here ^ambha seems to


some irregular behaviour of the foetus cf. Wise,
Hindu System of Medicine, pp. 423 (middle), and 421
(bottom), and the introduction to VI, 17.
The word has
at any rate no special connection with the teeth, as may be
strewed about with black sand.
refer to

seen, too, from Tait. S. IV,

Our

translation

jariravij-arawat)

is

of

5, 11, 2.

by

vii-ara

Lex.^ more cautiously, regards


Cf.

vuarika at

vij-eshe;^a

XIX,

34,

it

am

tearing

as the

pain

sort.

name

'

The

of a

(Say.
Pet.

demon.

which Sa}a;/a glosses by

10,

hiwsakam.
Stanza

'

of the etymologising

quite agreed with

5.

Kejava and Sayaa (ma;/iban-

dhanasutraprakrztibhuta//) in not regarding the juxtaposition


of the

hemp

with the ^aiigi^a as due to some biological

(cf. Weber, Ind. Stud.


XIII, 142). The hemp represents the thread with which
the amulet of ^'angi^T^a was tied on.
A thread, or rope of
hemp is mentioned also at Kauj. 25, 28; 72, 15. See the

relationship, or therapeutic virtue

introduction to the

The hemp,

hymn.

from the sap of the furrow

of course, comes

^ahgi^^a, the tree, from the

forest.

Stanza

6.

The same stanza with variants occurs


The last Pada is a formula, occurring in
XII, 2, 13 XIV, 2, 6^.
6
;

at

AV. XIX, 34, 4.

addition at IV, 10,

II.

II,

COMMENTARY.

7-

285

Commentary to page

7.

91.

Saya;/a (and similarly Kcj-ava) define the purpose of this

hymn

charm to obviate curses, evil eye, and danger


from the attack of demons laukikavaidikakroj-ayor brahas a

krura;^akshu/^purushadr/sh/inipatc

ma.uasa.pe

According to Kaus.

kshadibhaye.

26,

^r^

pij-a,^aya-

the procedure

consists in investing the person threatened with (an amulet

The
of) the substance mentioned in the mantra.
commentators define this as yavama/n, an amulet of barley ^'
The word yava is not mentioned in the hymn, the nearest
approach to it is j-apatha-yopani, wiping out curses.' As
o and ava have almost identical phonetic values in the Veda
(cf our statement of the facts, Amer. Journ. Phil. V, pp. 25 ff.),
we must suppose that yava has been read by the ritualists
made

'

'

out of the syllable yo- of yopani


i'apatha-yavani at IV, 17,

2,

cf.

the

too,

synonym

and the well-known formula


barley art thou, ward off

yavo^si yavaya^smad dvesha/i,


hatred from us' (Tait. S.

'

i,

I, 3,

^^at. Br. Ill, 6, i, 11

Hira;iyak. Sr. IV, 2,42, in addition to the places mentioned


Upon this basis the word and
in Kau.yikasutra, index C).

The pun

the article yava are suggested.


to leave

no room

for

doubt

in

is

so familiar as

the mind of the Plindu

acquainted with this style of literature. Cf. the


duction to VI, 91 and the note to IX, 2, 13.

intro-

The hymn has been


XIII, 14S
81

The

fif.

yam.

ff.

translated

''^.

Stanza

corrupt form
bhani//

Ind. Stud.

Cf. also 5antikalpa 19

At Apast.

by Weber,

Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 508 GrilP,pp. 24,


Anukramawi, bhaisha^yayurvanaspatidaivat-

1.

5r. VI, 20, 2 the stanza occurs in the following


:

atharvyush/a deva^uta

apo malam

iva pra;n^ann

vi.^u

/('//apatha^am-

asmatsu j-apathan adhi.

Cf. II, 25, 4- 5-

Sayaa, however, commenting on virudh in

Cited erroneously by Sayawa as Nakshatrakalpa.

st. i,

durva yavo

va.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.*

286

Stanza
b.

We may note

2.

ingenious emendation of ^amya//

Grill's

But no such form

to ^amya/i, an adjective from ^ami.


occurs.

AV. H,

Cf.

-a.myd/i gaml/i

lo,

RV. IV,

Stanza

A number

Saya;/a,

5.

4,

sahottpanna bhagini.
3.

of the attributes stated in this and the pre-

ceding stanzas are repeated at VI, 43, i. 2


in connection with the holy darbha-grass.

XIX, 32, 1.
The terms

3. 7

are

too general and fabulous to permit definite conclusions as


to the plant

which the poet here has


Stanza

a.

The MSS.

c,

The metre

d.
:

is

pari

Pada d has ten syllables, one of


be suppressed by reading tarshur.

may

Stanza
b.

For the sentiment

purusha/^ suhirt

cf.

be happy.'

friend shall

Are we

5.

Tait. Ar.

Saya^a, ya^

II, 6, 2.

tena suhr/dayena mitre;?a saha na/^

asmakam, sukha; bhavatu


correq^

4.

divided

c is a catalectic

which

mind.

between the readings pari


mam. I have followed
in adopting the latter version.
irregular (Anukr. vir^^ uparish/adbr/-

are

^md'm (so our edition) and


Sayawa and Shankar Pandit
hati)

in

to read,

iti

sesha/i,

am

'

we together with our

not convinced that this

suhart tena

ya./i

is

vayam saha ?

he who bewitches with his eye,' also


Sayawa separates /^akshur from mantrasya,
explaining the latter by gupta;;/ bhashama;/asya pij-unasya,
c.

in

'

y^akshurmantra,

XIX,

45,

'

I.

the calumniator

who speaks

sand-eyed curse' at VI, ^y,


and ghora; >^akshus,
39, II
;

secretly.'
i;
'

But cf the

'

thou-

amitra/takshus at Kaui".

evil eye,' at

IV,

9,

XIX,

35> 3II,

The word

8.

Commentary to page

kshetriya

quite unanimously as

is
'

interpreted

13.

by the Atharvavedins
Three hymns,

inherited disease.'

II,

and 10;

III,

COMMENTARY.

8.

II,

(cf.

also IV,

iH,

287

7;

V, 30,

4),

are

and the Kaiuika rubricates all of


them among the medical charms (bhaisha^yani), 26, 41-27, 4;
Dariia at 26, 43 defines it as 'family27, 29-31.
27, 7-8
designed to drive

out,

it

disease,'

kaulo vyadhi//

Kej-ava at 27, 4

as, pit;7'par}agata//

kshetriyaroga/^ kushz/^akshayaroga/^ grahaidosha/^ sarvaj-ariraspho/akara//

similarly Say. at

tatrotpannatvat,

womb'

i.

e.

their application

scholiast

garbhasthanaw

'disease which has arisen while in the

(rather differently at II, 5, 6,

practices connected with these

and

The

II, 8, 1.

at Tait. Br. II, 5, 6, 3 (p. 628) has kshetra;;/

is

hymns

i,

The

pp. 626-7).

are obscure

in detail,

remote.

41.
4 deals with our hymn, to wit
II, 8, 1 (the practitioner) washes the
patient outside (of the house).
42. While reciting AV.
II, 8, 2 (he washes him outside of the house) at dawn.
43. While reciting AV. II, 8, 3 he pulverises the plants
mentioned in the stanza (see the translation), as also natural
mud, and mud from an ant-hill, sews this up into the skin
(freshly slain), and fastens it (as an
of a living animal
amulet upon the patient). 27, i. While reciting II, 8, 4 he
places a plough with its span of cattle over the head of the
2. While reciting AV.
patient ^ and pours water over it.

Kauj-. 26, 41-27,

'While reciting

AV.

II, 8, 5 he pours the dregs of ghee into (a vessel full of)


water (placed) within an empty house. 3. He pours more
(dregs of ghee) into an old ditch into which grass from the

thatch of the house has been placed.

4.

Placing the patient

him of the water to drink, and rinses


him with it.' The symbolism of these practices is not clear,
but they seem at any rate to be built up on the derivation
of the word kshetriya from kshetra in the sense of 'field,'
See especially the last
rather than in the sense of womb.'
into this ditch he gives

'

For ^ivakoshawi see Kau.rika, Introduction,

p.

1.

Other sub-

stances derived from living animals occur at Katy. St. IX,


Par. Grih. Ill,

2,

16;

7, 2.

That is, he puts the patient under the plough with its span,
vr/shabhayuktasya halasya adhastad vyadhitam avasthapya (Sayawa
"^

in the introduction to the

hymn).

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

288

i (the plough and the


which aim to wash off

Stages of the performance, Sutra 27,

span of

and Sutras

cattle),

27, 3. 4,

the illness into the very ground, whence (according to this


conception) it has been derived. And the hymn itself is
redolent of
(st.

5)

'

fields,

and calls upon


Thus Professor Weber was
look upon this hymn as a charm to

plants, ploughing, &c.,

the lord of the field

led repeatedly to

^'

counteract injuries to fields"; see Ind. Stud.V, 145 note

XIII, 149; Nakshatra II, 292. And yet, I think, all this
field,' and
is mere play upon the two meanings of kshetra,
'

'

womb ^

the poet, thinking that the disease derives

'

name from
field,

or,

the

its

conjures with the properties of the

field,

perhaps, adapts secondarily stanzas constructed

originally for practices in the field.

The hymn
XIII, 149

has been translated by Weber, Ind. Stud.

ff.

Anukramawi

and Ludvvig, Der Rigveda, III, 513. The


it as vanaspatyaw yakshmana^ana-

describes

daivatyam.
Stanza

The

three

last

Padas are

half in VI, 121,

first

4; the
these cases

repeated at III,

The

3.

1.

point

in

all

7,

the supposed etymology of the constellation vikrita.u

is

(later mCilabarhai,

and mula) from

vi krit,

enables the word to figure wherever there


the
II,

'loosen;' this
is

question of

Weber, Nakshatra
For an
Zimmer,
pp. 356, 392.
292, 310, 374, 389;
'

fetters

'

Cf. in general,

of disease.

opposite construction of the function of the viknta.u, see


the note on VI,

no,

2.

on this expression below.


Ind. Stud.V, 145
2, 92, and commentaries
note; XIII, 159 note; XVII, 208 note; Zimmer, 391 ff.
^ Note
especially the passage from Ka//i. S. cited by Weber,
^

See, however, the note

Cf. also Pawini

V,

Ind. Stud. XIII, 150 note.

prove that a
is

a natural

field is in the
rift

in the

The

expression svak/Vta iriwe does not

view of a performer.

ground

is

spot where there

frequently, in witchcraft,

made

the

theatre of the performance, without any such special end in view.


Cf. the passages in the Pet. Lex.,
X'ara

performances, Kauj. 49,

6.

and the paribhasha

to the abhi-

II,

COMMENTARY.

8.

Stanza
a, b.

RV.

I,

2.

have translated apauMatu transitively cf. 111,7,7;


Weber and Ludwig, contrary to ordinary
48, 8, &c.
I

hinschwinden moge jetzt die


and weg geh mit ihrem liechte diese nacht.' Sa.ya.na.,
agreement with our version, the night at the time of

usage, take
nacht,'
in

289

dawn

it

intransitively

'

'

(usha//kalina ratri) shall chase

Pada b

same

read, for the

away (vivasayatu).'

reason, with one of

In

Shankar

apo-^//atu for apo/vr//antu, making it govern


Weber,
die zauberspinnerinnen (mogen
schwinden) hin
Ludwig, weg gehn sollen die bezaubernden.'
Saya;^a, retaining the plural, forces, it seems to
me, the meaning of abhikr/tvari// in translating it by abhita^
rogasant'iin kurva;/a/z,
working a cessation of disease all
about.'
And recognising the futility of the first, he also,
alternatively, takes apo/^/^antu as an intransitive,
pii'akya/i apaga/^//antu
Cf. the note on III^ 7, 7.

Pandit's

MSS.,

abhikr/tvari/^.

'

'

'

'

Stanza

3.

a, b. According to our translation the words babhror


ar^unakaw^asya qualify yavasya Kej-ava (and Saya//a who
;

repeats Kcyava's substance)

make

the two words represent an

independent plant ar^unakash///a7 yavabusaw tilapi%"ikaw


ka ekatra tri//i baddhva. And Darila also recognises three
:

which he describes as babhruvarwasya

plants, the first of


^

r^nasya tasya

kaz/rt'aj-esham

(!

cording to these constructions the

from the tree (Sayawa

in

for kawrt'avii'esham).
first

substance

is

Ac-

a branch

commenting on the word

in

our

stanza, aronnakhyav;-z'kshavij-eshakash///asya) ai^una (ter-

But the construction renders this extremely


and we prefer to render the text philologically.
b. The word te, thy,' would seem at first sight to refer
to a field, and, as stated in the introduction, this would
show that the poet here looks upon kshetriya as a derivative
of kshetra, field,' and that he therefore introduces the paraphernalia of the field in his incantation. But this cannot
minalia arjuna).
unlikely,

'

'

stand against the ordinary value of the word, nor


[42]

is

it

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

290

impossible to imagine the introduction of these substances


simply on the ground of the supposed (etymological) derivation of the name of the disease. At any rate we have

Kau^ika on our

side.

Stanza
sanisrasaksha

a.

Aey.

is air.

5.

sanisrasa occurs once at

AV.

V, 6 4 as a designation of the intercalary month (cf. AV.


XIII, 3, 8
Weber, Nakshatra II, p. ^^6 note).
Our
;

translation

is

conjectural and etymological

port

is

in srastaksha (Sui-ruta

find

Saya;^a leans with his

eyes.'

the only sup-

115, 7), 'with sunken

I,

weight on the Kauj-ika's

full

employment of the stanza (27, 2 see the translation of it


above), in which an empty house figures, and he identifies
the word with sunyagrtha/i (sanisrasyamanani atij-ayena
;

'

'

visra7samanani vij-iryama/zani aksha/n gavakshadidvara/n

yeshaw
brief,

'

Judaeus

'

The

refer to the

'

is

much

saindesa/i ^aradgarta//

the

'

it

e. in

demon

of

who

unintelligible

reads sawdej-ebhya//,

the old ditch,'

'

in

the

tadgatamr/dadanene
The word seems to refer to
AV. X, i, 11. 12 in IV, 16, H

of evil (papa) at

is

contrasted with videj^ya,

fetter of Varu;za,'

i.

ausfiihrenden verneigung

beauftragenden (sich
highly problematic

II,

The

i.

Credat

4: sa; di.yyante tya^'yante

3.

some kind
(where

by the

increased

again identifies with the ,^aratkh^ta,

^ti

house.'

difficulty

sa;;/dejyebhya// which Saya/za,

Sutra, 27,

ity artha//),

empty

Does with sunken eyes

the disease
b.

^unyagrzha

te sanisrasaksha/^

the decayed doors of the

9.

e.

foreign

sei

') it

refers to

Weber, den auftrag'


Ludwig, anbetung den zu

disease.

'

'

'

fiigenden).'
its

'

The

entire

stanza

is

relation to the Sutra very obscure.

Commentary to page

disease which the

hymn

is

34.

designed to exorcise

is,

according to Darila, possession by the kind of demons


Kej-ava (followed by Saya;za) describes it
due to brahmagraha, a word hitherto not quoted from
any text, but reported by the lexicons as equal to brahcalled Piji^a.

as

II,

The

marakshasa.

Kaiu.

27, 5.

9-

COMMENTARY.

291

practices connected with the

6 are as follows:

hymn

'While reciting AV.

5.

at

II, 9

a talisman consisting of splinters (from ten kinds of

wood is
Ten friends (of the patient)
hymn rub him down.' The commen-

fastened upon the patient).

while muttering the


tators

(cf.

mean

to

'

Ka.us. 13, 5

26, 40)

made

a talisman

6.

understand the word jakala

of ten kinds of holy wood,' and

these are derived from the

list

of holy trees catalogued at

from the (holy) kampila-

Cf. also the splinters

Kelus. 8, 15.

wood, Kaui-.

(see the introduction

27, 7

to II, 10). used

For similar Germanic


allay disease, see Wuttke, Der

against kshetriya (hereditary disease).

uses of nine kinds of wood to

Deutsche Volksaberglaube der Gegenwart, 121, SS^


Mannhardt, Baumkultus der Germanen, p. 18.
The hymn has been translated by Weber, Ind. Stud.
XIII, 153 ff. Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 506 Grill-, pp. 8,

82

fif.

cf.

and Bergaigne

hymn
Ath.

Amer. Journ. Phil. VII, 478,


Henry, Manuel Vedique, p. 137. The

also the author in


et

figures in the takmana.yanaga;/a


Parii-. 32, 7 (see

describes

it

Kaus.

as vanaspatya;/^

of the Ga//amala,

the Anukrama;/i
yakshmana^anadaivatam. The
26,

note)

Paippalada presents the hymn, the stanzas arranged as


follows:

I, 5, 4, 2, 3.

Stanza

1.

The metre is irregular, pahkti (Anukr., vira/


The Paippalada has the first half as

pankti).

prastarafollows

dasavrikshs. mu/7/^emam ahiwsro grahya^- ka.

Stanza

3.

For adhitir the Paippalada reads adhitam. Saya;/a,


the Vedas, which he has read formerly, or their meaning,
which is to be remembered, he has recalled
Cf. K/iand.
Up. VI, 7. Ludwig emends adhiter, and translates from
a.

'

'

'

come away,' but the translation conwith the meaning of adhi ga cf. RV. II, 4, 8.

insensibleness he has
flicts

c, d.

The Sutra embodies

ICO and 1000

in the

the indefinite large numbers

amulet often kinds of wood, and the

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

292

ten friends (Brahmans according to the scholia)

who

attend

the patient.

Stanza

The word

khirn occurs only in this stanza, and

The

problematic.

Ludwig,

'

Pet.

pfllickung

'

necting the word with

having

up,'

vr/ksha,

'

4.

in

Lex. and Weber,

Saya;/a,
/^inoti in

'

'

We

covering.'

the sense of

'

is

very

sammeln

'

are con-

arrange, build

mind the peculiar amulet or remedy daja-

consisting of ten woods,' in

st. i.

The

sense then

would be that the gods have found out the magic arrangement of the woods, while the Brahmans contribute the
practical knowledge of the woods which are endowed with
the healing property.

Cf. Grill's similar exposition.

Stanza

5.

have followed Saya;/a who, relying alternatively upon

RV.

II, 33, 4,

and

Tait. S. IV, 5,

the subject of the sentence,

i, 2,

ij-vara

makes

i.yvara//, 'lord,'

eva he rug;za tubhyam

But the text


awkward, and rendered somewhat doubtful by
the Paippalada, whose version of c, d is, sa eva tubhyaw
bhesha^aw /^-akara bhisha^ati ka.. Upon the basis of this
reading Grill suggests for Pada d, kr/;^avad bhisha^ati ka.
Ludwig suggests j-u>^i, Vedic accus. plur. neut. in agreement
with bhesha^ani Weber, bhisha^a;;^ for bhisha^a. Sayaa
idani7tanabhishagrupe;/a bhesha^ani karotu.

of Pada d

is

thinks also of

j-u/tina

for suki/i.

have translated the

unanimous text of the 5aunakiya-school.

II,

The

lo.

Commentary to page

practice associated with this

hymn

14.

at Kauj-. 27,

7.

'While reciting AV. II, 10 (the practitioner) fastens upon the limbs (of the patient who has
been placed) upon a cross-road ^ splinters of kampila-wood
(crinum amaryllacee), and washes him off with (water
colourless:

is

The

7.

favourite place to divest oneself of evil influences

note in the introduction to VI, iii.

see the

COiMiMENTARY.

lO.

II,

293

dipped out) by means of a bunch of grass.


sprinkles (him in the

II, H.

same

way).'

8.

(Or) he

C(. the practices

under

closely parallel mantra-passage occurs at Tait.

commentator on the authority of


bottom) connects with the ceremonies at the birth of a child (^atakarma). According to
Baudh. Grih. II, 1 and 7, the child is bathed with these
Br.

1-3

II, 5, 6,

Baudhayana

this the

(see p. 62(S,

and

is borne out by Hir. Grih.


where the same stanzas are quoted. They
occur also in Apast. Mantrabr. II, 12, 6 (cf. Apast. Grih.
VI, 15, 4). This usage does not really conflict with the
Atharvanic employment of the hymn, since it aims to free
the child from diseases and troubles derived from the womb
of the mother.
The conception borders closely on that of
original sin.
That the Atharvavedins regarded the kshetriya in this hymn as a disease may be gathered from the

stanzas,
II,

10

3,

this prescription

ff.,

hymn among

employment

of the

Kaujika

figures also in the takmanaj-anagawa,

of

hymns

26,

it

the bhaisha^yani in the

destructive of fever,' in the Ga;^amala

the

list

see Kauj-.

note.

The hymn has been


XIII, T56

ff.,

translated by Weber, Ind. Stud.


and Ludvvig, Der Rigveda, III, 513.

Stanza
a. ^ami.ya;;/sa is

equivalent to^amya// japatha// in II,

the word recurs at

(where

is

it

1.

AV. IX,

glossed

4, 15,

and

7, 2;

Tait. Br. II, 5,

by alasyaprakhyapakat).

bandhavo^amaya/^, apraptabhilashitana;//

6, 3

Sayaa,

tesha;;/ savis^n^t

akroj-a^anitat papat.

Stanza

The

3.

the following two stanzas is


by the refrain Pada 3 b is in catenary conwith Pada 4 a. The other version of the hymn

sense of this and

interrupted
struction

(Tait. Br.) does not exhibit the refrain,

and the connection

of the passages appears undisturbed.


a.

Sayaa reads vayodha/^

for

vayo

vayasa;;/ pakshi//a;// dhata dharayita.

dha/^, glossing

it

by

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

294

Stanza

The

8.

stanza alludes to the well-known

legend which

makes the demon Svarbhanu smite with darkness (eclipse)


the sun, who is then freed by Indra and Atri
see RV.
;

V, 40, 5-9 Tait. S. II, 1, 2, i


V, 3, 2, 2 Y2.nk. Br. IV, 5, 1

XII, 13 5at. Br.


XIV, 11,14; XXIII, 16, 2
The moralising cause of the sun's
not expressed distinctly anywhere,

5ahkh. Br.

XXIV,

mishap, his enas


nor

3. 4.

(sin), is

Ka///. S.

au grand serieux.

to be taken

is it

Bycomparison

it

treated as a disease, and, like disease or misfortune in

is

general, ascribed

to

some moral delinquency,

expiation (prayaj/'itti)

The

essays

on the interpretation of

an interesting chapter

we have devoted

in

'On

hymn form

to the subject an article in the second

Amer. Journ.

Phil.

XI, 330

AV.

II,

ff.,

T2.'

interpreted in the sense of a fire-ordeal

first

by Emil Schlagintweit,
Bavarian

this

the so-called fire-ordeal hymn,

The hymn was

89.

the history of Vedic study, and

series of our Contributions,

entitled

requiring

st. 1.

Commentary to page

12.

II,

cf.

Academy

in

in

an address before the Royal

1866, entitled 'Die Gottesurtheile

der Indier;' this interpretation was adhered to by Weber,


Ind. Stud. XIII, 164 ff.; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, 111,445;

Zimmer,

cf. also Kaegi, 'Alter und Herkunft


p. 183 fif.;
des germanischen Gottesurtheils,' Festschrift zur Begriis-

XXXIX. Versammlung deutscher Philologen und


Schulmanner in Zurich (1887), p. 51 ^ The interpretation
which is presented here is founded upon our above-mentioned article, where Kauj-ika's significant employment of
the hymn was first brought forward
in essential agreesung der

'

See also Stenzler,

'

Die Indischen Gottesurtheile,' Zeitschrift der

Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, IX, 661-82.

ment with

it

pp. 47. 85

is

COMMENTARY.

12.

II,

295

the translation and exposition in Grill^,

ff.

The hymn is employed in the sixth book of the Kaiuika


which professes to deal with abhiHra, witchcraft.' At
47, 12 it is designated as the bharadva^apravraska, 'the
'

hewer, or cleaver of Bharadva^'-a


II,

2,

2)

With the

'
:

'

(the reputed author

for practices pertaining to witchcraft.'


is

then employed variously

The

Kauj. 47,

in

direct ritual application of the

a southerly

He

26.

cf.

staff so

procured

14. 16. 18; 48, 22.

hymn

is

indicated in

While reciting the hymn


one cuts the foot-print of an enemy, as he runs in

Kauj-. 47, 25-29, to


II, 12,

cleaver of Bharadva^a one cuts a staff

wit

direction

25.

'

with a leaf from a paraj-u-tree

'".

cuts three (lines) along (the length of the foot-

print of the running enemy),

same).

27.

and three

aksh;/ay^ sawsthapya

'.

(lines)

2H.

across (the

He

dust

ties

derived from the cut foot-print into a leaf of the pala.ya-tree

(butea frondosa), and throws

it

into a frying-pan.

29.

If

the dust crackles (in the pan) then (the enemy) has been
overthrown.'

The Sutra then proceeds

to

prescribe

still

more elaborate and potent charms for the purpose of downing the enemy. Of any connection with the fire-ordeal the
tradition makes no mention.
There are points of contact
between our hymn and RV. VI, 52 VII, 104. The Anukrama;/i describes the hymn as nanadevatyam, composed
by Bharadva^a.
;

Stanza
d.

Schlagintweit,

So

burned.'
correctly,

'

also

may these be burned here, if


Weber, Ludwig, and Zimmer.
'

die sollen gliihen jetzt,

Yama

li,

Cf.

Sayawa, as usual, follows Kejava.

the region of

differ

ich ergliihe.'

bottom.

Or, with the blade of an axe.

Kau.fika, Introd. p.

am

Grill

as to the

South

commentators

wenn

and the departed, i.e. of death.


At any rate symbolically. The
see
meaning of para^upala^ena

is

1.

See also the note on Ka.us. 30, 14 in tlie introduction to VI, 25.
^ The text of this Sutra is not altogether secure, its meaning and
the scholia are obscure.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

296

RV. X, 34, 10; 95, 17 AV. XIX, 56, 5. Sdyawa, mayi


abhiMrake tapyamane dikshaniyamena upavasadina klijyamane sati tapyanta;// sa/z^tapta bhavantu. That is, heaven
and earth shall participate in the consecration (diksha) of
;

the performer for the sorcery-practices against his enemy.


The appeal to heaven and earth in Pada a, and the misinterpreted fourth Pada, are really the sole cause of the

An

hypothesis of a fire-ordeal.
earth

in

is

asseverations of innocence.

India

is

appeal to heaven and

occidental minds associated inseparably with


similar construction of

Stanza

for

2.

For Bharadva^a, see IV, 29, 5; XVIII,


and Ludwig, Der Rigveda, pp. 128
48, 6
b.

3,

16;

XIX,

fif.

d.

it

apparently unwarranted.

Schlagintweit,

schwur

'

der diesen (unsern) geist beschadigt

Weber, wer diesen meinen sinn


beschadigt, e. meinen schwur antastet, mein wort bezweifelt.'
Ludwig, der diesen meinen sinn anklagt (verlaumdet).'
All these renderings are founded upon the theory
of the fire-ordeal.
Sayawa, purvaw sanmargapravr/tta;;/
mana// manasaw hinasti. There is no lack of evidence
that religious performances were at times the object of
enmity and the butt of abuse
cf. stanza 6
RV. VI, 56,
and Ludwig, Der Rigveda, IV, 219 ff.
(i. e.

bezweifelt).'

'

i.

'

Stanza
a.

The

form

in

that

we

first

Pada

is

the Paippalada.

3.

defective, but occurs in the

same

may

be corrected by reading
somapavan, somapayin, somapa tvam, or the like. But
Atharvan metres are so generally capable of improvement,
It

are in danger of singing our own, rather than

Atharvan hymns, when we apply ourselves to the task of


improving them.
Stanza

4.

a. Professor Weber, I.e., pp. 167-8, has assembled some


interesting statements in reference to the connection of the

II,

COMMENTARY.

12.

297

number 80 with the fire-ritual. Saya;/a attaches a certain


number three, which he connects with
the trz'/^as of the Sama-sawhitas. The number is solemn
significance to the

and formulary.

Vedic parenthesis cf. Aufrecht,


For ish/aBohtlingk,
von
Otto
Festgruss an
pp. 2 ff.
ff.
Cf.
also
RV.
X, 14,
purtam, see Windisch, ib., pp. 115
c.

AV.

8;

clear instance of a

Ill, 12,

8.

Schlagintweit supplies

d.

and

translates,

'

nehme

gottlicher inbrunst.'

'

firebrand

in

'

the last Pada,

ich jenen (feuerbrand)

Weber,

in still

more

an mich mit

direct adherence

the hypothesis of a fire-ordeal, supplies with amiim


beil,' and translates, 'mit gottlicher gluth nehme

to

'gliihendes

Ludwig, 'jenen (den verlaumder)


Zimmer, 'halte ich
glut.'
jenen (? feuerbrand, ?axt) mit gottlichem griff.' Siyawa
properly refers amum to the enemy, and takes haras in
ich

diesen an

erfasse ich

mich.'

mit der gottlichen

the sense of krodha (haras etymologically

depos

cf.

II,

2, 2).

Stanza
a.

didhitham

for

5.

didhiyatham. Sayawa, adipte bhavatam.

Stanza

6.

Recurs with variants at RV. VI. 52,


there
0.

is less

the connection

pregnant.

Saya;/a differently, tapuwshi

tapakani te^awsi ayu-

dhani va vrz^anani var^akani badhakani santu,


our zealous deeds or weapons be destructive

Perhaps

this

is

i.

e.

'

may
him.'

to

simpler.

Stanza

7.

This and the following stanza seem to be adapted from


XI,
the funeral ritual (see Amer. Journ. Phil. VII, 476
;

Such as they are they occur also in the same


335> 336 ff-)16, 2.
cf. RV. X, 14, 13;
connection in the Paippalada
Stanzas of this character lend themselves naturally to
;

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

298

imprecation and

Here the poet takes the


enemy.

incantation.

offensive against the thwarting

For sapta prawan,

a.

Tait. Br.

cf.

I,

Pandit, on the basis of a considerable

Shankar

2, 3, 3.

number

of his

MSS.

(both Sawhita and PadapaMa), reads manya// for ma^^a//.

So

manya/^ dhamanya// ka/^/Z^agata

also Saya//a,

The MSS.

seshk/i.

frequently write

na</ivi-

for ; especially in

connection with nasals (anaymi and yunaymi for ana^mi

and yunaymi);

Maitr. S.

cf.

tical

I,

On

Ind. Stud. IV, 271 note.

^5

3,

42, note 4),

(p-

and

general textual and exege-

grounds the reading ma.gHa/i


Stanza

is

preferable.

c,

d,

8.

Schlagintweit translates Padas

'

(entweder)

soli

das

feuer in deinen leib einkehren, (oder) deine rede gehe zu

The

leben.'

accuser

sense he imagines to be

true,

is

shall be injured

'

the word of the

If

then he shall remain unharmed

by

if

same

Essentially in the

fire.'

Weber's, Zimmer's, and Kaegi's renderings.

not he

spirit are

Cf.

RV. X,

15. 14.
II,
It

Commentary to page

14.

regretable

is

hymn

difficult

that

textually and

this

illumined but very

is

66.

little

by

exegetically
its

abundant

employment in the practices of the Atharvavedins, In its


more general aspects it figures as one of the /-atanani (sc.
suktani),
hymns designed to chase away (demons and
'

diseases),' at Kauj-.

hymns

<S,

25

next,

it

occurs in another cycle

somewhat problematic

character,

called m;Vgarasuktani or m;7gara;/i, 'purificatory

hymns' (?),
employed

(ga;/a)

of

at Kaus. 9,

(cf.

twice, Kau.s-. 72, 4

niss^lam

iti

of a

27, 34).

In this sense

it

is

82, 14, to purify the entrance to a house,

sk\Anivesa.na7n sa;prokshya.

If

we

could only

punning juxtaposition of -salam and sala-,


would remove one of the chief cruxes in its interpretation

trust that

As

regards

its

narrower application,

3-1 1

it is

employed

in a

charm

associated dis-

it is

tinctly with difficulty in bearing offspring

it
!

at Kauj-. 34,

for preventing miscarriage

at 44,

1 1

f(-

it

COMMENTARY.

14-

II,

299

forms part of an elaborate practice to obviate

The

sterility in cattle.

of these practices

first

is

as follows

'While reciting II, 14 (the practitioner) pours dregs


34,
of ghee into water (in tubs standing) in three huts which
have doors to the east and doors to the west (cf. Kauj. 24,
3.

behalf of the

3), in

being dressed

in

woman

with miscarriage, she

afflicted

a black garment.

4.

Additional (dregs of

ghee he pours) upon lead^ placed into (the


tree (butea frondosa).

woman) over

Placing (the

5.

leaf of) a pala^-a-

the

above-mentioned water).
6.
Having deposited the black garment (where she has
been washed) she goes. 7. The Brahman kindles the hut.
8. The same performances take place in the two easterly
(huts) - in connection with materials brought on separately
he washes

lead

each hut).

(for

the

her (with

He

9.

performs the practices with the

branches, mentioned (above, Su.

water over her head as she


j-apa [dalbergia sisu

cf.

is

he pours consecrated

seated upon branches of sim-

Kslus. 8, 16]

by the

side of a

body

10. Having put down


two reeds upon a stalk (? ka.?ide ishike), over the two doors

to the west of the fire

of water).

(of the huts)

^,

he causes firewood derived from an udum-

bara-tree (ficus glomerata) to be put on the

the

woman

cakes of

rice,

Introduction,

given

At

(cf.

p.

lii),

11.

To

anointed with the dregs of ghee, are

Kauj-. 32, 29

Kauj-. 44,

ff.

34,

there

i).'
is

an elaborate practice of the

expiatory kind (praydsHtta.), in which a


ficed to remove the blemish of

After the cow has been

n, 14

fire.

comes home last (of those returning ?),


and ornaments of pramanda (cf. Kau^ika,

as she

sterile

sterility

cow

is

sacri-

from the house.

slain, '(the priest)

carries a firebrand (around her) thrice

while reciting

from right to

without moving (the firebrand) around himself (Su.


Later on 'he stops her breath while reciting II,
44, 21).

left

'

AV. I, 16, and the practices connected with


The practices up to this point therefore have

Cf.

one of the three huts

that
^

p.

furthest to the west.

Extremely problematic

li,

and the

scholiasts.

it.

taken place in

cf.

dhayine,

Kaujika, Introduction,

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

300

All this

14, 5 (Su. 44, 15).

and

Cf. also

is

Ath. Pari^.

translations,

The Anukrama;?i

17, 2.

is

522

Grill-,

pp.

imbedded as

suspicion.

Pada

d,

ff.

1.

better been

it

is

in half a

The Paippalada

the suggestion arises that nis

= sa.la.m,

89

i,

left

untranslated

certainly corrupt, and especially dhij-a;/a,

dhisha/^am, and, since dhishwya

as

III,

The Pada might have

the text

it

uta

Stanza

to

hymn.

classifies

Der Rigveda,

culine,

character,

in

mantroktadevatyam. For previous


see Weber, Ind. Stud. XIII, 175 ff
Ludvvig,

j-alagnidevatyam

a.

too general

to cast light on the real difficulties of the

fails

is

dozen feminines,

has

nissala;/z

means

'

is

masopen

dhish;^ya?

seat of the priest,'

to be separated from saldm

house ')\ and is to be taken with naj-ayama// in


making some such sense as the following: 'we
'

drive out from the house, from the seat of the priest (dhish//ya),

and from the

hymn

the

in

fire-place (dhishawa)

ma;n, .s-alagnidevatyam.

Cf. the use of

^.'

Kauj'. 72, 4; 82, 14 above,

and the Anukra-

But the construction of

yama/i with the accusative of place from which


of,

and the change of

all

nir na^a-

unheard

is

three words to ablatives would

amount

to an independent composition.
Besides, the employment of the Kauj-ika, and the statement of the Anukramawi, just mentioned, may be due to a more or less
conscious, punning perversion of the syllables salam, for
the purpose of extracting sala., 'house,' from them.
Grill
composes a new Pada, ni's salavr/kyaw dharsha;/im, 'out
(do we drive) the bold Salavr/'ki.' Weber, die dreiste, zahe,
'

ausspringende
entitles the

dem hause

(?

correcting to dhisha/zam)

hymn,

'

Gegen

die Sala

'

;
'

befindliche (die aus der sala holle

freche verlangende,' or, alternatively,

'

'

who

die aus

gekommene?)

hinaus die

and, once more, as a third possibility, 'aus


die freche begerliche.'

Ludwig

translates,

sala,' &c.,

dem haus

hinaus

Saya;^a knows nothing about

'

Cf.I, 18, i; VI, 14,2.

Cf. Hillebrandt,

Soma und verwandte GoUer, 175

ff.,

181.

it

'

II,

COMMENTARY.

14-

301

either the name of a female demon, or sala a kind


tato nirgata nissala).
(vWkshavi^esha//,
of a tree
she who gives forth a single
ekavadyam,
b. Sayawa to

nissala

is

'

of gruff character.'

sound
c. Kinds,

the

is

name

of a demon,

AV., but frequently mentioned

Marka

connection with

key. in

see ^at. Br. IV,

kruddhasya

Saya;/!a,

20.

a-n.

RV. and

especially

in

2, i, 4- 9- lO-

M-

elsewhere,

papagrahasya.

female demon,' seems to be connected with


danu and danava. Saya;^a follows Nirukta VI, 30 in explaining it as ever noisy/ sada nonuyamana/^.
sadanva,

d.

'

'

Stanza

2.

Saya/^a takes aksha as 'gambling-house' (akshakrirt'asthana, dyuta^ala), and upanasa either as 'granary'
b.

(anasa/^

of

full

samipam upanasam dhanyagr/ham) or as 'wagon


RV. X, 105, 4
grain' (dhanyapur;/a7 i-aka/am).

does not render the word

Nothing

c.

is

known

clear.

of the

key.

air.

magundi (Sayawa,

Weber's combinations,
Read duhitro (as in the dialects), and

ka/^ana

VII,

pi.ya^i)

12, I

cf.

also Ait. Br. VII, 13,

Stanza
a, b.

The word adharad,

'

1.

c, p. 177.

cf.

our note on

8.

3.

below,'

alludes with double

Saya;za, patalaloko^sti;

entente to hell (adhama tamawsi).

This class of writings are fond of concf. Zimmer, p. 420.


juring diseases and misfortunes upon others, strangers and
RV. X, 155; and the
neighbours; cf. AV. V, 22, 4 fif
.

common
hetaya^

formulary expression, anyaw^s te asmat tapantu


^

in

the Ya^us-texts.

Stanza

4.

stanza occurs in another connection in the Paippalada, and may not originally have stood here, since the

The

Heiliger Sanct Florian,

'

Schutz unser haus


Cf.

Amer. Journ.

Phil. XI,

345

ff.

ziJnd'

andre an

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

302

second book of the

AV.

in

hymns

general consists of

of

five stanzas.
a.

Saya^a glosses bhutapatir correctly, bhutan^;;/ palako


The word bhuta here suggests more narrowly

rudra//.
'

evil beings.'
d.

I'ndro

is

may

metrically superfluous^ and

from the context.

be spared

Anukrama;/i, uparish/advira</ br/hati.

Stanza

have taken

5.

in the sense which it


and lo III, 7); Saya;/a,
kshetrat parakshetrat matapitrwarirad agatanam
roganam. Weber and Ludvvig, 'coming from the field.' Grill,
ob ihr zum wild des Felds gehort.'
a.

kshetriyaV/a;//

ordinarily has in the

AV.

(II, 8

Stanza
b.

In the

MSS.

6.

the Padap. reads,

a.fur

gash///am ivasaran

the edition emends gash///am to kash///am, and we, with

most translators and Saya;/a, read ivasaram. Sayawa reads


glash///am, glossing, paridhdvanena glana/^ san yatra tish///ati

sa glash///a

II,

The

plant

('

goal,'

demons

pr/i'nipar/a

called

resting-place

'

Cf. VI, 67,

?).

Commentary to page

25.

^itrapar;n oshadhi/^)

of

'

is

;^6.

(hemionitis cordifolia

Saya;^a,

here employed to off-set the activity

ka;/va,

of varied

pernicious

According to Suj-ruta

I,

377, 7

influence,

embryo

but especially conceived as devourers of the

womb.

i.

it

seizes,

in

the

mixed

with milk, as a preventive against miscarriage (garbhasrave).


Kej-ava, at Kau.<r. 26, 36, prescribes

it

as a far

more general

one overtaken by misfortune, against miscarriage, still-birth, and demons of various sorts.
Darila

remedy,

says

it

for

destroys the

demons

called

pii-a-^'a.

The

practice at

smearing the plant mixed with


the dregs of ghee upon the patient. The hymn is one of
a list of six grouped together at Kau.y. 26, ;^;^ for all sorts
of diseases (Sayawa in the introduction, sarvarogabhaishaKau.y. 26, 36 consists in

COMMENTARY.

26.

II,

which the Ga/^am^la (Ath.

^yakarma;zi),

describes as the gawakarmaga/^o


Kauj-. 8, 25 mentions

tices).

nani,

The hymn
XIII,

icS;

scribes

ff

the

/cata.-

are exorcised.'

has been translated by Weber, Ind. Stud.


;

Grill-, pp.

The Anukramawi

92.

20,

de-

as vanaspatyam.

it

For -yopana
XII, 414

is

in this

4.

and the next stanza, see Amer. Journ.

Cf. II, 7,

ff.

I.

Commentary to page

26.

II,

This

among

further

it

Stanza

Phil.

Paru. 32, 24)

a Hst for collective prac-

(!

hymns with which demons

'

303

hymn

142.

connected with a species of oblation

whose object is to concentrate (sawsravya) wealth


and prosperity upon the sacrificer. Cf. I, 15 and XIX, i.
Our hymn aims at prosperity in the stable, and accord(havi's)

ingly
at

3,

it is

VII, 75 VI, 11,


'stable-ceremonies'
of
in a series

rubricated along with III, 14

Kaus.

19,

14

ff.

(gosh///akarma;n), to wit: 19, 15.

the

new milk

of a

cow

'

He

(the owner) drinks

that has thrown her second calf,

mixed with the spittle (of the


a cow (to the Brahman).
17.
stable) a vessel full of water.

calf)-.

He

i<S.

He

16.

presents

pours out (into the

Having swept together


left hand

the (previously moistened dung), placing his

upon it, he scatters half of it with his right hand. 19.


Having placed lumps of excrement, bdellium, and salt into
milk from a cow with a calf of a colour identical with hers,
he buries (the mixture) behind the fire. 20. On the fourth
morning he eats of it. 2\. If the milk has turned", then
(the performance)

The hymn
translated

is

a success.'

occurs also in the Paippalada

by Weber,

Cf. the introduction to VI, 39.

Sayawa, vatsalalami^iitam.

Cheap magic. The milk


emended to avikr/te ?
''

Ind. Stud. XIII, p. 26

Cf.
is

Khad. Grih.

sure to turn

has been

it
ff.

Ludwig,

Ill, i, 47- 48.

Is

vikme

to be


HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

304

Der Rigveda,

III,

Bergaigne

Henry,

et

371

Grill 2,

pp. 64,

92

Manuel Vedique,

Anukrama;/! designates

also

The

138.

pajavyam, the author being

as

it

Cf.

ff.

p.

Savitar.

Stanza
b.

1.

Vayu, the wind, the husband of the distant regions

(11, 10, 4),

who goes

in

every direction,

companion of the

as the

a truly poetic conception

cattle,

is

naturally regarded

when away from home

Cf. Tait. Br. Ill, 2,

j, 4.

rupadheyani is taken by the Pet. Lex. as a copulative


compound, form and colour.' But the analogous bhagadheya and namadheya do not favour such a construction.
c.

'

Perhaps

'

formation

Cf. e.g. Tait. S.

'

is

the safest rendering of the word.

I, 5, 9, i

Tait. Br. Ill,

Stanza
Sinivali, the

c, d.

2.

goddess of the new-moon, and Anumati,

the goddess of the full-moon, as


bright part of the month, are

They

fit

Saya;/a, unsupported

upon anugate instead

by MS.

Poured

translation

and

way home.

is

together,'
stiffer

sims'ikt^/i play

Zimmer,
comments

i.

e.

'

4.

united, or accumulated.'

than the original, where saw

5.

For the change of verb-form,

cf.

The

27.

The

si/7/^ami

upon one another.


Stanza

II,

authority,

of anumate.

Stanza
'

representatives of the

to illumine the

also preside over the act of procreation; cf

p. 352.

c.

8, 11, 2.

the note on

Commentary to page

history of the interpretation of this

II, 29, 5.

137.

hymn

is

told

by the translator in Seven Hymns of the Atharva-veda,


Amer. Journ. Phil. VII, 479 ff. It is of interest, because it
marks very clearly the value and continuity of the Hindu

tradition.

COMMENTARY.

2 7-

II,

305

had been regarded previously by all intercharm against robbers of provisions, until the

It

preters as a

obviously correct conception of Darila in his

Kauj.

18

3(S,

The

was presented.

fif.

comment on

translation of this

passage, along with the bracketed commentary,

is

as fol-

lows
While reciting AV. II, 27 (one approaches)
the person against whom the debate is directed (from the
38, 18.

north-east, while chewing) the root of the pa/a-plant^.

He

addresses (with the charm his opponent).

19.

He

20.

ties

on (the pa/a-root as a talisman). 21. He wears (upon his


head) a wreath of seven leaves (of the pa/^).' Cf. also
^antikalpa 17 and 19 ^. Previous translations of the hymn
:

Der Rigveda, III,


The Anukrama/n designates the

Weber, Ind. Stud. XIII, 190


461

Grill^, pp. 23,

hymn

93

ff.

ff.

Ludvvig,

as vanaspatyam.

Stanza

The Anukrama;n
by

rectly

1.

defines the purpose of this stanza cor-

ariniro^''astvam aprarthayat,

he desired absence

of strength in the enemy.'

noun of agency,

Saya;^a, incorrectly, takes pra.y as a

a.

prash/araw vadinam

however, Kau^. 38, 24, pra^-am

see,

akhyasyan (D^r. pratipraj'nam akhyasyan cf. Vait. Su.


Neither this word nor pratipraj- and prati38, 6).
37, 2
praj-ita (Kauj-. 38, 18
Darila, prativadin) have any connection with root as, eat,' but are derivatives from the
;

'

root pras,

The

c.

quite

ask.'

'

Saya;^a takes both

certain.

The

of praVaw pratipr^i-o ^ahi

construction

pa/a

is,

according to Sayawa at

later pa//ia (clypea hernandifolia)

12,

(JMSS.

pa/a

is

is

to

St.

etymologically suggestive

words
cf.

cf. Kau.s-.

Ill, 9, 5).

the root pa/,

'

tear.'

For the words

38, 17.

Erroneously quoted by Sayawa as Nakshatrakalpa.

But

[42]

he

falls

The word

for plants (apamarga, arundhatt),

St. 7

the

^/gvidhana IV,

in

'

identical with the

4,

Kauj. 37,

be found Apast. Gn'h.

doubtless, like other

supplied by Darila,

cf.

not

is

accusatives,

See Ind. Stud. XVII, 266 (the passage quoted

pa//ia).

from Apastamba

as

into line with pratikulaprajnarupaw/

vakyam.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

306

debater and the counter-debaters

strike.'

We

regard prati-

praj-o as gen. sing, dependent upon pra.$-am (cf. st. 7 a), in


which case one should hke to emend arasan in Pada d to
arasam (cf. Ludwig). If not, pratipraj- is to be regarded
Possibly both are accusaas a collective, the opposition.'
'

tives,

'

overcome the debate and the

debaters.'

d. arasan, with double entente, without sap or moisture


Sayawa, j-ush(in their throats),' and 'without force.'
'

kaka;////an.

Stanza

The same hemistich

a, b.

2.

occurs at V, 14,

cf. I,

24,

i.

vainateya//, i. e. Garutmant, Garu^a.


Sayawa, supara/^
But there is no myth in all this the eye of the eagle, and
.

the nosing boar find the secret seat of the plant.

Stanza

3.

Sayawa, in the teeth of the Padapa//^a, comments both


next stanza on taritave instead of
The Sawhita may be construed either way.

here and

in the

Stanza

staritave.

5.

sakshe (Sa7;^hita and Padapa///a), probably for sakshye


cf. our note on IV, 20, 7.
(5at. Br. I, 3, 3, 13)
b. Saya;/a glosses salavr/kan by ara;iyasv^na/i, in accorda.

ance with
p.

191.

many other schoHa, assembled by Weber, 1. c,


Doubtless jackals, as devourers of corpses, are

meant.
Stanza

6.

For ^alashabhesha^a, see Contributions, Fourth Series,


Amer. Journ. Phil. XII, 425 ff., and cf. especially AV. VI,
44, 3-

Stanza
d. Saya;^a,

MSS., reads praj-am for


kuru).
vadinaw mam uttaram

with some

(pra.yam prash/ara;/^

II,

7.

28.

Commentary to page

pra^i

50.

The hymn is counted in the Ga;/amala, Ath. Tans. 32, 4,


see
as one of a list 'calculated to bestow long life;'
the
in
especially
It is worked up more
1 1 note.
Kaus.
54,

'

II.

COMMENTARY.

28.

6^/

godana, the ceremony of shearing the first whiskers of


a youth. Father and mother, while reciting the hymn, hand
the boy over thrice to one another and

dumpHngs, prepared with ghee (Kauj-.


5ankh. Grih. I, 2H, 15, and Asv. Gr/h.

RV. IX,

related stanzas

general, Maitr. S. II,

3,

The Anukramam

I,

him with

feed

54,

13.

Cf.

14).

where the

4, 4,

19-21 are rubricated, and,

66,

4; Tait. S.

II, 3, 10,

in

Tait. Ar.

as^arimayurdevatam,
devoted to the divinity which bestows life unto old age
Previous translations
cf. Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 341.
by WebeP, Ind. Stud. XIII, 192 ff. GrilP, pp. 48, 94 ff.
II, 5.

designates

it

'

Stanza
b.

The

favourite formulary

1.

number

for all possible varie-

ties of death
one hundred and one AV. I, 30, 3 III,
11,5.7; VIII, 2, 27; XI,6, j6. The Pada is hypermetric,
and may be relieved by throwing out imam or anye.
d. The play of words in mitra ena;;/ mitriyat cannot be
is

reproduced

in

English

RV.

cf.

Stanza

IV, ^^,

5.

2.

nsad^ is not analysed by the Padapa///a, being reproduced by most MSS. as risada/i, by some as rii-ada (dual,
agreeing both with Mitra and Varu;/a ? cf. Va^. S. XXXIII,
Sayawa takes it as nom. sg., hi;//sakanam atta, and the
72).
scholiasts generally, beginning with Yaska, Nirukta VI, 14,
a.

though they

Aufrecht, in Bohtlingk's Lexicon,

VI, 305, and

Grill,

95, take

p.

guished,' the latter scholar

would
word.
3, I,

fain look for das,

At

etymological analysis, arrive at

differ in their

similar interpretations.

Maitr. S.

I,

it

'

mean

to

comparing

it

with

'very distineptKuSi/?.

One

giving,' in the last part of the

10, 2 (p. 14c,

1.

10)

= Tait.

S.

I,

8,

the expression maruto ya^;7avahasa/^ occurs as the

version of maruto rij-adasa// in Va^. S. Ill, 44

be noted

for

future

reference.

this

may

have surrendered the

version of the native etymologists in favour of Aufrecht

and

Grill,

though the

latter

has failed to convince

his fascinating etymological combination.

me

with

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

-lOS

relation of this hemistich to the preceding

The

c, d.

obscure

it

is

seems to have been introduced secondarily and

(RV. IX, 66, 19): so far he fits


But Agni also knows all the races
in with the preceding.
this, the
of the gods (RV. IV, 2, i8 = AV. XVIII, 3, 23)
major part of the hemistich, belongs to a different sphere of
conceptions see the author in Journ. Amer. Or. Soc. XVI,

Agni

loosely.

purifies life

obviously formulary, being repeated literFor vayunani,


ally in a different connection at IV, i, 3.
Uber
Ludwig,
ff.
I,
see Pischel, Vedische Studien,
295
Saya;/a,
ff.
Methode bei Interpretation des Rigveda, pp. 31

16

Pada d

ff.

is

here as elsewhere, in accordance with Yaska, Nir. V, 14, &c.,


pra^;}anamai - tat, iha tu samarthyat pra^?7atavyani vidvan,

&c.

Stanza

is

The

edition of

Pandit read
yama/za/^.
I

3.

Roth and Whitney has ^anitva//, which


Most MSS. used by Shankar
reading.
Paippalada
the

b.

so also Sayawa, ^anitra// ^anishBut ^ani'tra is not quotable as an adjective


^ani'tra//

accept the more recondite reading ^anitva/^.

Stanza

The
II, 3,

last stanza

occurs in Tait. S. IL

Tait. Ar. II, 5,

II,

5.

29.

(the last

3, 10,

two with

Commentary to page

3; Maitr. S.

variants).

47.

hymn

is vague, and it exhibits strong


compiled from a variety of
being
traces of patch-work,
chiefly as a remedial
applied
In the ritual it is
sources.

The

tenor of the

charm against a disease


r61e {Vishnkgrthita.

cf.

in

which

st.

4).

thirst plays a
It is

prominent

described at Kaui-,

per27, 9-13, as follows: 9. 'While reciting II. 29 (the


former) at sunrise seats (the patient and a healthy person)
back to back. 10. Having seated upon branches the patient

with his face to the east, and the healthy person with his
face to the west, having churned a stirred drink in a cup
made of vetasa-reed by means of two (vetasa-reeds, used as)
stirrers,

upon the head of the person

afflicted

with

thirst,

he

presents

it

COMMENTARY.

29.

IT.

3O9

not suffering from

to the person

11.

thirst.

(To the patient)


he gives water (freshly) drawn to drinks 13. While reciting the second half of st. 6 he does as there stated (i.e.
he covers them with one and the same garment, and lets
them drink of the stirred drink).' The performance implies
(Thus) to him he transfers the

the

(vaguely suggesting the modern trans-

transference

upon some

fusion) of the disease

Kaiya/a to

12.

thirst.

Pa;/ini

V,

2,

or menial.

friend

by Weber,

92, as cited

Cf.

Ind. Stud.

In the Teutonic folk-practices, transferXIII. 159 note.


ence of disease takes place without knowledge of the
healthy;
cf.
Wuttke. Der deutsche Volksaberglaube,

492

The

ff.

nature of the disease which harasses the

patient with thirst

have been

not stated

is

The hymn

hymn (ayushya

This
sts.

cf.

a familiar Ya^is-formula.

Previous

translations

Ludwig, Der Rigveda,

is

special qualit}'

in its

Weber,

Pada d

is

the

in

life-

third stanza,

Su. 22.

Stud. XIII, 194

16.
ff.

III, 493.

of

2.

Agni

a bestower of

as
II.

13,

introduction

repeated elsewhere, e.g.

Stanza

The

The
at Vait.

Ind.

alluded to very frequently, e.g.


parallels cited

character as a

2).

i,

quoted

Stanza

The

of course, likely to

figures also at Kauj. 54, iS in the ^^u^/akaraz/a.

the ceremony of tonsure.


giving

is.

it

febrile in character.

I,

28,

life
cf.

is

the

the latter hymn.

to

10, 2d.

3.

stanza, quoted at Vait. Su. 22, 16,

is

repeated with

Ka//^ S. V. 2 Tait. S. III.


variants in Maitr. S. IV, 12. 3
Katy. Sr. X. 5, 3. The second hemistich also in
2, 8, 5
;

Kat/i. S.

and

XXXII,

2.

In

all

these the difficult duals dhattam

sd/tetasau are replaced

by the

savar/^asam (Ka///. siivar/^asam), and

stand
to

Sisir

soma/

singulars dadhatu and


all

these texts under-

to be the nominative of the stem ask,

see especially Vait. Su. and Katy.

'

Cf. stanzas ^

and

6 of the

hymn.

'

Sv.,

milk added
1.

(a.riram

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

3IO

This construction

the text of the Sutra).

in

we

Sayawa

have, as also

interpreters, taken ks\h

dhattam

pr/thivi in

The

from stem

Pada b seems

in

st.

(alternatively),
a^fs,

'

fails here, and


and the former

The

prayer.'

dual

to refer proleptically to dyava-

as Saya;/a assumes

4,

entire stanza

is

without hesitation.
adapted secondarily we must in such
;

cases follow the adaptation sympathetically, not the original

sense which
c.

^ayam

entirely out of keeping with the situation.

is

in the

MSS. (Sawhita and

Padapa//^a) seems to

stand for ^ayan (the other versions sa;;?^ayan).

Saya;^a

takes ^aya;;/ as the noun, 'victory and lands obtaining,' &c.


This, too,
d.

possible.

is

For anyan

expressions like
in

Greek

.sapatnan,

cf.

Nala,

see the author in

The

transition

e. g. II,

e. d.

Cf. the

5.

one

the introduction above.

It

in

the

Sutra

in

6.

seems

conceive this hemistich in any other connection

There

it fits

admirably.

patient and the healthy person clothed in the

garment assume a magically deceptive


of the Aj-vins
other.

Padas

26, 5.

than that indicated by the Sutra.

The

in

common

in c, d, is a

Stanza

difficult to

common

VII, 101.

from the praying modal form

b to the prophetic aorist

Atharvan,

very

Phil.

and

III, 2,

13, 14;

Amer. Journ.

Stanza

a,

I,

'noXiTtav kol tS)v akXcov ^ivoav,

And

^,

same

identity, like that

so that the disease passes from one to the

yet this

may

not be a sautra mantra, but an

adaptation of materials, originally composed


connection for a different purpose!

in a different

Saya;/a, here as else-

where, follows the Sutra through thick and thin.

Stanza
a.

7.

Saya;^a says that Indra was struck by the demons,

Yrttra, &c., but does not refer to

any

particular narrative.

^
The Ajvins, moreover, are the heavenly physicians, presumably
conceived as being themselves free from disease.
Thus both
persons engaged in the practice are symbolically made healthy.

IT.

RV.

Cf.

I,

32, 12. 14

COMMENTARY.

20,

Tait. S.

VI,

3II

Weber

5, 5, 2.

suggests

that the mention of Indra's injury indicates that the patient's


thirst is

due to fever consequent upon wounds.

II,

The

30.

Commentary to page

100.

practices in the Kauj-ika (part of the strikarma;n,

They seize upon and


symboHsm the comparisons
and metaphors which naturally appear in such poems. The
performances are, however, not built up upon this hymn
32, 28-36, 40) are stated at ^^, 21.

embody with

alone, but

rather delicate

upon three

others, VI, 8, 9,

hymns

and 102, as follows

just mentioned,

he places

While
between two chips, taken respectively from a tree and
a creeper which embraces it, an arrow \ sthakara-powder^,
salve, kush//;a (costus speciosus), sweet-wood, and a stalk
of grass which has been torn by the wind he mixes them
with melted butter and anoints (the woman he loves) V
reciting the four

'

VI, 8, 1 II, 30, 3


Cf. the following stanzas of the hymns
VI, 102, 3; II, 30, i; and VI, 102, 2. The paraphernalia
and emotions of love are concretely embodied in a mixture,
:

and

drastically transferred

upon the woman.

Previous translations: Weber, Ind. Stud. V, 218; XIII,

197

ff.

Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 517; GrilP, pp. 52,


The Anukramawi, kaminimano^bhimukhikara//a-

97 ff.
kama/^.

Stanza
b.

The

matha,

'

use of the root

god

1.

manth suggests the

later

man-

of love.'

This represents, of course, Kama's, the love-god's, arrow.


Weber, Ind. Stud.V, 225; XVII, 290.
^

No

tagara
Br.
2

less

(-ri),

Cf.

than four forms of this word occur, sthakara, sthagara,

and

II, 3, 10,

takari.

1-3

So Sayawa,

It is

a fragrant powder; see,

Gobh. Grih. IV,

striya

ahgam

angaw samalabhet ru^yartham,


make himself attractive.'

2,

e.

'

g Tait.

29.

anulimpet.
i.

e.

Diflferently

Kej-ava,

he anoints himself so as to

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

312
d, e.

The two Padas

are formulary

see

34, 5

I,

VI,

8,

1-3-

Stanza
a, b.
'

Weber, Ludwig, and

the loving pair.'

Sayawa

sense would then be,

kami'na as dual,

and not followed

The

instrumental singular.

as

it

this,

ye shall unite her with (me), her


The two A^yvins, who woo Surya for Soma (RV.

lover.'

X,

Grill regard

have adopted

construing

in

2.

'

if

gods of love of.


VI,
I.
The anacolu102,
^S- 36; 2, 5. 6;
hemistichs
between
the
two
is
thon
reproduced in the
85, 8. 9. 14. 15), play here the part of

AV. XIV,

I,

translation.

bhagaso,

c.

'

good

fortunes,

double entente (bhaga

cf

st.

moreover, suggests secondary adaptation


refer primarily to the A^rvins,

(i,

e.

the good

arrived.'

Stanza

The

The Pada,
vam seems to

5.
;

your fortunes

'

by you) have

fortune bestowed

possibly with a

fortunes,'

= vulva)

3.

sense seems to be that the time of the birds' amorous

chirping,

when they

to one another to mate,

call

proper time for the lover's

call

to his mistress.

is

the

Weber,

Ludwig suggest, however, that the


regarded as a good omen. Saya;/a,
yaktum i^//avo bhavanti. In speaking of the arrow-point
Ind. Stud. V, 219, and

cry of the birds

is

shaft, the poet has in mind the arrow as the


weapon of the god of love; see III, 25, i. 2 Ind. Stud. V,
225 XVII, 290 Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Morgenl. Gesellsch.
XIV, 40, 269.

and the

Stanza
a, b.

The

entire

4.

mental condition of the maiden, and

perhaps also her utterances, shall be altered


is

formulary.

Saya;/a,

speech and her thought


c.

'

by

is

this the

the word

'

having limbs

and not previously enjoyed

may mean

conflict

the passage

between her

removed.'

Saya;/a on vii-var(ipa;/am,

lessness,

simply

'

of

(in

sexual

all sorts.'

full

of fault-

love).'

But

II,

COMMENTARY.

2,1.

Stanza

bhaga here seems


fortune,' and vulva ')
d.

('

'

313

5.

to be used in a double
it is

not paraphrase the word.

to

Cf.

meaning

be noted that Saya;m does


XX, 136, 5. The Anukra-

ma;n, dampati paraspara?;/ manograha;;am akurutam.

Commentary to page

II, 31.

contains three charms against worms, II,

The Atharvan
31 and 32

general
cattle

We

sort

of these seems to be of the

is

worms

against

directed

is

intended to cure

my

not, in

first

second

the

the third

must

The

V, 23 ^
;

22.

worms

in

in

children.

opinion, suppose that the assumption

worms was preceded by acute diagnosis.


Kuhn, in his admirable treatise on the con-

of the presence of

Professor A.

nection

between Teutonic and Vedic medicinal charms

(Zeitschrift

49

ff.

113

vergleichende Sprachforschung. XIII, pp.


has shown that the greatest variety of

fiir
ff.),

diseases are regarded in the naive view of folk-medicine


as due to the presence of

worms

(see pp. 135

ff.)

doubtless

similar conceptions are at the base of the

Hindu formulas.

This accounts for 'worms

(II,

in

the head'

variegated worm, the four-eyed'

(II, 32, 2),

31, 4); 'the

and the

like.

Cf also Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, pp. 98, 393 Wise,


Hindu System of Medicine, pp. 307, 34cS ff. and MannLess
hardt, Der Baumkultus der Germanen, pp. 12 ff.
certain is the same scholar's view that the similarity of the
;

conceptions

in this

matter points back to proethnic charms,

since the equal

endowment of the two peoples (Hindus and

may

of itself suffice to account for the parallel

Germans)
results.

But

must say that the more modern scepticism

IV, 36; Apast. Sr. XV, 19, 5; Gobh.


Mantrabrahmaz/a of the Sama-veda II, 7 also
Va^. S. XXIV, 30;
II
Tait. S. V, 5. 11, i

Cf. elsewhere, Tait. Ar.

Gr/h. IV,

9,

19

Maitr. S. Ill, 14,

and the correlated hymn, RV.

I,

191.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

314

which stoutly denies the possibility of such productions in


Indo-European times is at the present time more dogmatic
than

is

at

warranted by the evidence.

all

It

likely

is

a priori that some of these folk-notions had crystallised


in prehistoric

times

if

there was an Indo-European people

some

will deny even that


there was also a crude IndoEuropean folk-lore. Cf. also the introduction to IV, 12.
Kaujika implicates this hymn in a rather elaborate and
difficult practice, 27, 14-20, as follows: 14. 'While reciting
AV. II, 31 he makes an oblation of black lentils ^ the kind
of worms called algaw^u^ and hanana, (all) mixed with ghee.
15. The young (of worms: Darila, krimino balan^) he
winds about from right to left upon a black-spotted arrow
(Dar., kalmashavare sa.re), and then smashes (the arrows)'

He

16.

worms

roasts (the

in the fire).

17.

on (the worms with the arrow as firewood


tan balan sa^-aran).

18.

With

to the south, he throws


patient, Kcrava).

19.

He

He

then lays

in the fire

Dar.,

hand, his face turned

his left

up dust and

scatters

(the patient) grinds

(over the

it

up

(the dust).

The
20. He then lays (ordinary) firewood on the fire.'
unsavoury practice, introduced by Kej-ava with the words
arushi-udaraga;/^ulaka-bhaisha^any uky&nte *, comports
well -with the fierce imprecation: the acts symbolise the
destruction of the imaginary worms in the patient, and
contain various allusions to the wording of the hymn.

The hymn has been

translated

323

GrilP, pp.

6,

9H.

divinity to which the

The word

It is
^

by Kuhn,

hymn

is

Weber,

addressed as mahidevatyam

khalvanga, thus translated,

ala;/</u

137

ff.;

discussed in Kaujika, Introduction,

Thus, not

I.e.

Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III,


The Anukrama;^i describes the

Indische Studien, XIII, 199

is

not altogether clear.

p. xlix.

see Kauj'lka, Additions

on AV. II, 31, 3.


But Kejava very differently, govala(w)

and Corrections, and

the note

cf.
^

parivesh/ya,

i.

Cf. Sutra 26,

e,

the hair of a cow's

and

For ga?i^ulaka,

^itrita;;i j-arasaw/dhya?//

wound about an arrow

the introduction to II, 32.

explanation of Kauj. 29, 20.


*

tail is

cf.

perhaps

Cf.

Sayawa follows Ke^ava.


algaz/c/u,

also Ke-yava's

above, and in stanza

2.

(!cf.

word mahi

the

COMMENTARY.

.;i.

IT,

in

i)

st.

315

uta /'and ram

its

author

is

Kava.
Stanza
a.

In

RV. VII,

1.

= AV. VIII,

104, 1%

4, 32,

Indra

is

called

upon to crush the Rakshas as with a mill-stone the present


passage seems to realise the comparison, so that indirectly
:

Indra's bolt (va^ra)

is

aj-man and parvata in

mind of the poet;


of the same hymn.

in the

st.

cf.

also

the symbolic crushing of lentils in the practice,


Kauj-. 27, 14, where khalvariga takes the place of khalva
so also in Kaui-. 27, 26 (cf. Kau.yika, Introduction, p. xlix).
d. Cf.

Kej-ava defines both khalvaiiga and khalva as kr/sh;/a/^anzkkh. Read here metri gratia khaluan. Cf. also V, 23,
S c, d.

Stanza

2.

an epithet of kr/mi adr/sh/a


in AV. VI, 52, 2 (= RV. I,
by itself is
RV.
I,
also
191, 9 = AV. VI, 52, 1 and
191,4), and 3; cf.
designated as the slayer,
is
AV. V, 23, 6, where the sun
In
cf. Zimmer, p. 98.
ad/'/sh/ahan, of unseen (vermin)
a.

At V,

23, 6. 7

adnsh/a

is

used substantivally

AV.

VIII,

8,

designations
drzsh/a

is

]5 both drzsh/a and adr/sh/a also occur as


of vermin, and it seems quite likely that

an afterthought

in the style of sura after

and the like.


The Paippalada and Sayawa read kuriram

asura

diti after aditi,

b.

rum; the

latter

defines

it,

for kurii-

kurh-am ^alaw tadvad antar

avasthita;;/ krz'mikulam.
c.

The MSS., both

of the

hymn and

the Sutra, hesitate

had
between the two
Kau^ika
the
to
Corrections
decided in the Additions and
This is the reading
(p. 76, Su. 14) in favour of algaw^u.
writings algaz/^u and ala;^^/u, and I

adopted by Sayawa and Shankar Pandit. In the Nagaricharacter the two forms are almost identical (Iga is la as
soon as the g-stroke is prolonged downward) hence the
confusion. Saya/^a, i-o;ntamawsadushakan^antun. Saya;^a
has .yalgan for .ralunan. Here, as in st. 4 c, d, krimin is
;

obviously a gloss; the Anukramawi, uncritically, defines


the metre of the stanza as uparish/advira^/br/hati.

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

3l6

Stanza

The mighty weapon

a, b.

is

3.

charm which

the

is

called

outright 'thunderbolt' (va^ra) in VI, 134 and 135.

Perhaps
the fire of the symbolic bolt is supposed to burn them
(duna aduna/i).
The ritual (Sutras 16 and 17, above) em-

bodies the idea in practice, and

what

to say but

we

this particular act

stanza from the start

a question

are not in the position

was associated with the

of principle which seems

destined for ever to divide the doctors.

has

mind

in

Sayawa obviously

paritapati in Su. 16 in his gloss paritapta

aparitapta/^.

To

c, d.

render doubly certain the complete destruction

of the disease, even those which are

prima facie

already

driven out are submitted to this phase of the charm.

Stanza

4.

Read anvantriam j-irshawi'am atha u, &c. Cf. with


Mantrabrahma;/a (of the Sama-veda) II, 7, 2, krimiw
ha vaktratodinaw krimim antranuMriwam. Sayawa (with
some MSS.) reads parshweyam, 'in the heel,' and Ludwig,
rather arbitrarily, translates im Riicken,' as though parshtkeyam stood in the text.
a, b.

this

"

avaskava, like most of the names in the charm,

e.

Weber,

is

and Zimmer, p. 393, define it as


he who peels, pares off.' Sayana, avaggamanasvabhavam.
By the side of vyadhvara (this form twice in VI, 50, 3) ^
we have vyadvara in vSat. Br. VII, 4, i, 27 (defined by the
scholiast as adanaj-ilo dandai'lakadi//) and vyadvari (with
aiT.

Aey.

I.e.

201,

'

AV.

different accent) in

a folk-etymological

Ill, 28, 2^.

modification

One

or the other

vyadhvara,

'

is

piercing,'

and vyadvara, gnawing.' The Padapa///a divides vi adhvara (most futile), and Ludwig in his translation of VI, 50, 3
'

So the

MSS.
'

Here

tadvati)

Sayaa and Shankar Pandit with most of

vulgata.

vyadvara.

his

See the note there.

Saya;/a

reads

see the note

vyadhvari

on the passage.

(du//khahetur

dush/amarga,^

ir,

32.

has arrived at the same

Rigveda,

COMMENTARY,

317

abseits

vom \vcge'(Der

result,

The same

III, 500).

'

analysis in

Sayawa

to our

vividhamargopetam, nanadvara;/i kr/tva tatra ga/(7/antam. kri'min here, as in 2 c, is a gloss, misunderstood


by the Anukrama/zi, as above.
stanza,

Stanza
c.

5.

Saya//a reads te for ye and tanvas for tanvam.

Commentary to page

II, 32.

This charm against worms


bhaisha^yani)

elicits

23.

in cattle (Kej-ava,

gokr/mi-

the following treatment in the Kauj-ika

27, 21-26: '(The performer) chants the hymn at sunrise,


and pronounces the name of the cow, " O thou, N. N." ^
At the end of the hymn, while exclaiming " the (worms) are
slain," he throws darbha-grass (upon the cow).
He goes
through the same performance at noon. In the afternoon
he (throws the darbha-grass) upon the cow, her face turned

to the west

with

AV.

in

II, 31,

Charms
IV, 36

Having cut

^.

continues as

(cf.

off a tuft of the (cow's) tail

Sutra 14 (the performance

which

in

he

connection

see).'

closely related with this are found in Tait. Ar.

Apast. Sr.

XV,

19,

,5).

where verses similar to

stanzas 3 and 4 are employed to relieve the cow who yields


the milk for the gharma, if she is sick with worms further
;

Mantrabrahma;/a of the Sama-veda II, 7 (see the


Calcutta Journal Usha, vol. i, fasc. 7)^, and in Gobh. Grth.
IV, 9, 19. 20, where the stanzas of Mantrabr. are employed
to destroy worms both in man and cattle.
The hymn has been translated by A. Kuhn, in Kuhn's
in the

Cf. Gobh. Gnh. Ill, 8, 3


La/y. ^r. Ill, 6, 3
and Katy. ^r.
XXVI, 5, I, where
is mentioned as the typical name of a cow.
* The implication is that in the preceding steps of the ceremony
'

irt'a

the cow's head


*

is

turned to the east;

The same work

1794

= A.D.

1872).

cf.

Darila, p. 77, note 7.

has also been printed in Serampore (jaka

';

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

3l8

Weber, Indische Studien, XIII,


XIII, 138
Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 500 Grill-, pp. 7, 100

Zeitschrift,

201

ff.

Hillebrandt's

also

cf.

fif.

Vedachrestomathie,

The

47.

p.

Anukramawi, adityadevatyam, aneno^ktarshir (i.e. Ka;^va


cf. the introduction to II, 31) uktakriyam akarot.
Stanza

The removal
stanza (read,

1.

Pada

of hantu in

restores a

The Anukrama;/i

^diti'a//).

good gayatri

designates

it

as

tripad bhuriggayatri.
a.

The

and Ushas, the dawn, are especially

rising sun

the evils associated

calculated to dispel

primarily with

and then, generally, misery and disease


cf. RV.
I, 5o> II- 13; AV. I, 22, I
V, 23, 6; IX, 2, 15; 8, 22;
XIII, 1,32.
Stanza 2.
night,

The

stanza

trijirsha;/aw

repeated at V, 23, 9 with the variants


in Pada i
these readings com-

is

trikakudam

bined show that the poet

in

designating the

worms has

in

mind the demon Vij'varupa who is familiarly known to


have had three heads. Cf also Mantrabr. II, 7, 2. krimiw
dvi^yirsham ar^unaw dvisirshaw kz. ^aturhanum.
Professor
Kuhn, I.e. 147, lays especial stress upon the agreement of
the Vedic and Teutonic charms, in that they point out the
colours of the worms.
Saya;/a, vi.yvarupa;;/

a.

The

gestaltigen.'

epithet

nanakaram
'

four-eyed'

Ludwig,

is

with the four-eyed dogs of Yama, and


to

some mythological conception


But

20, 7.
'

with spots

in the

over

Series, Journ.

cf.

view of the Hindus


the eyes

'

see

'

den

originally at
is

voll-

home

due, primarily,

our note on

IV,

four-eyed' means

'

Contributions,

Amer. Or. Soc. XV, 165

note.

Third

Sayawa,

^aturnetram.
b.

The

Weber,

'

Pet. Lexs. render saraiiga

schwarzlich

'

Ludwig,

'

by bunt, scheckig

'

braunlich.'

The

native

explanations of the word are stated by Prof Weber^, Indische


Studien, VIII, 275.
c.

The Pada

is

a catalectic anush/ubh.

II,

COMMENTARY.

32.

Stanza

The

stanza recurs in

319

3.

The

23, 10.

Tait. Ar. IV, ^6,

2 have similar stanzas:

atria tva
and Mantrabr. 11,7, ikrime hanmi ka//vena ^amadagnind, vij-vavasor brahma;/a
(Tait. Ar.)

nina,

and, hatas te atri//a krimir hatas te

^amadag-

krime brahmavadyam
bharadva^asya mantrea sawtinomi krime tva

gotamena

avadya.

tinik/'z'to^tr^i^va tva

Rehance upon the great

(Mantrabr.)

seers of the past

a common-place expression in charms and exorcisms


e.g.

is

14,4; IV,

I,

20, 7.

Hillebrandt and Grill regard

c.

written also in V, 23, 10, and

good metre, the

final

Recurs

mata^tho
atho

V,

pita,

sveta/i,

hati/^

see

in

23,

krimi//a;

cf.

va./i

cadence being ^

The

11.

ra^a,

apy

But

it

^.

4.

reads at IV, 36,

Tait. Ar.

sthapatir hata/^ atho

esh^;;/

atho sthur^ atho kshudra//, atho k;'/sh;/a


^
hata//, svetabhi/^ saha sarve

atho a^-atika

also the next stanza of our

Weber,

as a gloss.

expulsion does not effect

its

Stanza

hata//

is
cf.

Ind. Stud. XIII, 202

ff.

hymn. For sthapati,


Uber den Va^apeya,

10(769, 770), Sitzungsberichte der Koniglich Preussischen


(1H92); Uber die Konigsweihe, p. 6^
Akademie,
9,

XXXIX

(Transactions of the same

The

scholiast

at

Academy,

H93),

anyo^pi r%-avyatirikta/^

Tait. Ar. has

The etymologies suggested

prabhu//.

Saya;/a, sakWa./i.

are

unsatisfactory

it has occurred to me
Lex. and Weber, 1. c.)
that possibly the word might be a loan-word with folketymological modification, being Avestan shoithrapaiti (cf.
Achemenian khshatrapavan), 'satrap,' a word which later
again finds its way into Indo-Scythian coins in the form

(see Pet.

Scholiast, agatya j-atyamana/i

with this
ava?)/('aw

The

also

Mantrabr.

II,

7,

asmabhir eva badhyamana//.


4.

patayamasi, hata/z krimaya/z

scholiast defines sa.ratika//

vartamana^.

Cf.

krimim indrasya bahubhyam


sai-atika//

by a^atikaya

(!

sanilamakshika//.

for ai'atikaya ?)

saha

'

HYMNS OF THE ATHARVA-VEDA.

320
kshatrapa
III, i6i

Kunde

Zeitschrift fur die

cf.

des Morgenlandes,

IV, 186, 300.

Stanza

Repeated

V, 23,

in

12.

5.

The Mantrabr.

II, 7,

3 presents

a passage which concerns stanzas 4-6 of our hymn, hata/z

kshudrako hata mata hata pita, athai^sham


kumbho ya esha;// vishadhanaka/^.
Sayawa, without regard to the oxytone accent of

krimi;/aw

bhinnaka/i!
a, b.

vesiis

(nomen

agentis), renders vej-aso

mukhyagrzha/^

follows, nivej-asthanani

Weber

samipagrz'ha//.

and

pAr[vesa.sa./i

as

parita/z sthita/^

renders the two words by'diener'

umdienenden
Grill by
Ludwig and Hillebrandt by
'

'

'

'

horige
horige

'

'

and
and

zugehorige

'

'

der horigen

horige.'

Stanza

6.

The metre of the stanza is quite irregular the Anukramanl describes it at /^atushpan nivrzdushwik. The first
and third Padas are catalectic in the second Pada yabhyam
is yabhiam, or the like;
the fourth Pada may also be
;

by

sustained as a catalectic anush/ubh


te,

substituting tava for

or resolving te into tai or taya.

The Paippalada

c, d.

yasmin

nihata;

te

parallel stanza

kambham

for

some MSS.
of the body.'

RV.

(!

reads, atho

bhinadmi taw kumbha7


visham
cf. also the

for nihitaw/ ?)

I,

191, 15.

Saya;/a substitutes shu-

kushumbham, and he has the support of


is avayavavij-esha, 'some part
Ludwig translates kushumbham by tail,'

His comment

'

but the parallel passages of the Paippalada and Mantrabr.


obviously point to some word like receptacle.' This word
'

kuj-umbha and kusumbha,


water-pitcher of
hermits,' seem to me to be extensions of kumbha by
popular etymology, introducing the influence of kosha,
kosa, basket,' and perhaps in the case of kuj-umbha the
stem j-umbha-, purify.' Direct etymological analysis of
such words is difficult because they become so readily the
as well

as

'

'

'

play-ball of kindred notions

cf.

Weber,

1.

c.

204.

COMMENTARY.

T,2>-

II,

32

Commentary to page

II, ^^.

The commentators

charm

fitly treat this

diseases (sarvabhaisha^yam).

The

37-8 are of the simplest

and

sort,

44.

as a cure for all

practices at Kauj-.
their

27,

symbolic relation

to the

hymn

hymn

are recited over the patient while (fetters with which

super