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InductionheatingWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Inductionheating
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Inductionheatingistheprocessofheatinganelectricallyconductingobject
(usuallyametal)byelectromagneticinduction,throughheatgeneratedintheobject
byeddycurrents(alsocalledFoucaultcurrents).Aninductionheaterconsistsofan
electromagnet,andanelectronicoscillatorwhichpassesahighfrequency
alternatingcurrent(AC)throughtheelectromagnet.Therapidlyalternating
magneticfieldpenetratestheobject,generatingelectriccurrentsinsidethe
conductorcallededdycurrents.Theeddycurrentsflowingthroughtheresistanceof
thematerialheatitbyJouleheating.Inferromagnetic(andferrimagnetic)materials
likeiron,heatmayalsobegeneratedbymagnetichysteresislosses.Thefrequency
ofcurrentuseddependsontheobjectsize,materialtype,coupling(betweenthe
workcoilandtheobjecttobeheated)andthepenetrationdepth.

Componentof
Stirling
radioisotope
generatoris
heatedby
inductionduring
testing

Animportantfeatureoftheinductionheatingprocessisthattheheatisgenerated
insidetheobjectitself,insteadofbyanexternalheatsourceviaheatconduction.
Thusobjectscanbeveryrapidlyheated.Inadditionthereneednotbeanyexternal
contact,whichcanbeimportantwherecontaminationisanissue.Inductionheating
isusedinmanyindustrialprocesses,suchasheattreatmentinmetallurgy,
Czochralskicrystalgrowthandzonerefiningusedinthesemiconductorindustry,andtomeltrefractory
metalswhichrequireveryhightemperatures.Itisalsousedininductioncooktopsforheatingcontainers
offoodthisiscalledinductioncooking.

Contents
1Applications
1.1Inductionfurnace
1.2Inductionwelding
1.3Inductioncooking
1.4Inductionbrazing
1.5Inductionsealing
1.6Heatingtofit
1.7Heattreatment
1.8Plasticprocessing
2Details
3Coretypefurnace
4References

Applications
Inductionheatingallowsthetargetedheatingofanapplicableitemforapplicationsincludingsurface
hardening,melting,brazingandsolderingandheatingtofit.Ironanditsalloysrespondbesttoinduction
heating,duetotheirferromagneticnature.Eddycurrentscan,however,begeneratedinanyconductor,
andmagnetichysteresiscanoccurinanymagneticmaterial.Inductionheatinghasbeenusedtoheat
liquidconductors(suchasmoltenmetals)andalsogaseousconductors(suchasagasplasmasee
Inductionplasmatechnology).Inductionheatingisoftenusedtoheatgraphitecrucibles(containing
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othermaterials)andisusedextensivelyinthesemiconductorindustryfortheheatingofsiliconandother
semiconductors.Utilityfrequency(50/60Hz)inductionheatingisusedformanylowercostindustrial
applicationsasinvertersarenotrequired.

Inductionfurnace
Aninductionfurnaceusesinductiontoheatmetalto
itsmeltingpoint.Oncemolten,thehighfrequency
magneticfieldcanalsobeusedtostirthehotmetal,
whichisusefulinensuringthatalloyingadditions
arefullymixedintothemelt.Mostinduction
furnacesconsistofatubeofwatercooledcopper
ringssurroundingacontainerofrefractorymaterial.
Inductionfurnacesareusedinmostmodern
foundriesasacleanermethodofmeltingmetalsthan
areverberatoryfurnaceoracupola.Sizesrange
fromakilogramofcapacitytoahundredtonnes
capacity.Inductionfurnacesoftenemitahigh
pitchedwhineorhumwhentheyarerunning,
dependingontheiroperatingfrequency.Metals
Inductionheatingof25mmmetalbarusing15kW
meltedincludeironandsteel,copper,aluminium,
at450kHz.
andpreciousmetals.Becauseitisacleanandnon
contactprocessitcanbeusedinavacuumorinert
atmosphere.Vacuumfurnacesmakeuseofinductionheatingforthe
productionofspecialtysteelsandotheralloysthatwouldoxidizeif
heatedinthepresenceofair.

Inductionwelding
Asimilar,smallerscaleprocessisusedforinductionwelding.Plastics
mayalsobeweldedbyinduction,iftheyareeitherdopedwith
ferromagneticceramics(wheremagnetichysteresisoftheparticles
providestheheatrequired)orbymetallicparticles.
Seamsoftubescanbeweldedthisway.Currentsinducedinatuberun
alongtheopenseamandheattheedgesresultinginatemperaturehigh
enoughforwelding.Atthispointtheseamedgesareforcedtogether
andtheseamiswelded.TheRFcurrentcanalsobeconveyedtothe
tubebybrushes,buttheresultisstillthesamethecurrentflows
alongtheopenseam,heatingit.

Inductioncooking

Meltingsiliconincrucibleat
2650FforCzochralskicrystal
growth,1956

Ininductioncooking,aninductioncoilinthecooktopheatstheiron
baseofcookwarebycyclicmagneticinduction.Copperbottomedpans,
aluminiumpansandothernonferrouspansaregenerallyunsuitable.
Theheatinducedinthebaseistransferredtothefoodvia(metalsurface)conduction.Benefitsof
inductioncookersincludeefficiency,safety(theinductioncooktopisnotheateditself)andspeed.Both
permanentlyinstalledandportableinductioncookersareavailable.

Inductionbrazing
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Inductionbrazingisoftenusedinhigherproductionruns.Itproducesuniformresultsandisvery
repeatable.

Inductionsealing
Inductionheatingisusedincapsealingofcontainersinthefoodandpharmaceuticalindustries.Alayer
ofaluminumfoilisplacedoverthebottleorjaropeningandheatingbyinductiontofuseittothe
container.Thisprovidesatamperresistantseal,sincealteringthecontentsrequiresbreakingthefoil.[1]

Heatingtofit
Inductionheatingisoftenusedtoheatanitemcausingittoexpandpriortofittingorassembly.Bearings
areroutinelyheatedinthiswayusingutilityfrequency(50/60Hz)andalaminatedsteeltransformertype
corepassingthroughthecentreofthebearing.

Heattreatment
Inductionheatingisoftenusedintheheattreatmentofmetalitems.Themostcommonapplicationsare
inductionhardeningofsteelparts,inductionsoldering/brazingasameansofjoiningmetalcomponents
andinductionannealingtoselectivelysoftenanareaofasteelpart.
Inductionheatingcanproducehighpowerdensitieswhichallowshortinteractiontimestoreachthe
requiredtemperature.Thisgivestightcontroloftheheatingpatternwiththepatternfollowingthe
appliedmagneticfieldquitecloselyandallowsreducedthermaldistortionanddamage.
Thisabilitycanbeusedinhardeningtoproducepartswithvaryingproperties.Themostcommon
hardeningprocessistoproducealocalisedsurfacehardeningofanareathatneedswearresistance,
whileretainingthetoughnessoftheoriginalstructureasneededelsewhere.Thedepthofinduction
hardenedpatternscanbecontrolledthroughchoiceofinductionfrequency,powerdensityand
interactiontime.
Limitstotheflexibilityoftheprocessarisefromtheneedtoproducededicatedinductorsformany
applications.Thisisquiteexpensiveandrequiresthemarshallingofhighcurrentdensitiesinsmall
copperinductors,whichcanrequirespecializedengineeringand'copperfitting'.

Plasticprocessing
Inductionheatingisusedinplasticinjectionmoldingmachines.Inductionheatingimprovesenergy
efficiencyforinjectionandextrusionprocesses.Heatisdirectlygeneratedinthebarrelofthemachine,
reducingwarmuptimeandenergyconsumption.Theinductioncoilcanbeplacedoutsidethermal
insulation,soitoperatesatlowtemperatureandhasalonglife.Thefrequencyusedrangesfrom30kHz
downto5kHz,decreasingforthickerbarrels.Thereductionincostofinverterequipmenthasmade
inductionheatingincreasinglypopular.Inductionheatingcanalsobeappliedtomolds,offeringmore
evenmoldtemperatureandimprovedproductquality.[2]

Details
ThebasicsetupisanACpowersupplythatprovideselectricitywithlowvoltagebutveryhighcurrent
andhighfrequency.Theworkpiecetoheatisplacedinsideanaircoildrivenbythepowersupply,
usuallyincombinationwitharesonanttankcapacitortoincreasethereactivepower.Thealternating
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magneticfieldinduceseddycurrentsintheworkpiece.
Applicationsoffrequencyranges
Frequency(kHz)
Workpiecetype
530

Thickmaterials

100400

Smallworkpiecesorshallowpenetration

480

Microscopicpieces

Magneticmaterialsimprovetheinductionheatprocessbecauseofhysteresis.Materialswithhigh
permeability(100500)areeasiertoheatwithinductionheating.Hysteresisheatingoccursbelowthe
Curietemperaturewherematerialsretaintheirmagneticproperties.HighpermeabilitybelowtheCurie
temperatureintheworkpieceisuseful.Temperaturedifference,mass,andspecificheatinfluencethe
workpieceheating.
Theenergytransferofinductionheatingisaffectedbythedistancebetweenthecoilandtheworkpiece.
Energylossesoccurthroughheatconductionfromworkpiecetofixture,naturalconvection,andthermal
radiation.
Theinductioncoilisusuallymadeofcoppertubingandfluidcooled.Diameter,shape,andnumberof
turnsinfluencetheefficiencyandfieldpattern.

Coretypefurnace
Thefurnaceconsistsofacircularhearthwhichcontainsthechargetobemeltedintheformofangular
ring.Themetalringislargeindiameterandismagneticallyinterlinkedwithanelectricalwinding
energizedbyanACsource.Itisessentiallyatransformerwherechargetobeheatedformsasingleturn
shortcircuitsecondaryandismagneticallycoupledtotheprimarybyanironcore

References
1. ValeryRudnevHandbookofInductionHeatingCRCPress,2003ISBN0824708482page92
2. DongHwiSohn,HyejuEomandKeunPark,Applicationofhighfrequencyinductionheatingtohighquality
injectionmolding,inPlasticsEngineeringAnnualTechnicalConferenceProceedingsANTEC2010,Society
ofPlasticsEngineers,2010

Brown,GeorgeHarold,CyrilN.Hoyler,andRudolphA.Bierwirth,Theoryandapplicationof
radiofrequencyheating.NewYork,D.VanNostrandCompany,Inc.,1947.LCCN47003544
Hartshorn,Leslie,Radiofrequencyheating.London,G.Allen&Unwin,1949.LCCN50002705
Langton,L.L.,Radiofrequencyheatingequipment,withparticularreferencetothetheoryand
designofselfexcitedpoweroscillators.London,Pitman,1949.LCCN50001900
Shields,JohnPotter,Abc'sofradiofrequencyheating.1sted.,Indianapolis,H.W.Sams,1969.
LCCN76098943
Sovie,RonaldJ.,andGeorgeR.Seikel,Radiofrequencyinductionheatingoflowpressure
plasmas.Washington,D.C.:NationalAeronauticsandSpaceAdministrationSpringfield,Va.:
ClearinghouseforFederalScientificandTechnicalInformation,October1967.NASAtechnical
note.D4206PreparedatLewisResearchCenter.

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