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Winding Factors

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NEE 423

AC ARMATURE WINDINGS

A.C. armature windings are always of the nonsalient-pole

type and are usually symmetrically distributed in slots around the

complete circumference of the armature. A.C. armature windings

are generally open-circuit type i.e., both ends are brought out.

The following are the general features of a.c. armature windings:

i. A.C. armature windings are generally distributed windings. A

distributed winding has two principal advantages. First, a

distributed winding generates a voltage wave that is nearly a

sine curve. Secondly, copper is evenly distributed on the

armature surface. Therefore, heating is more uniform and this

type of winding is more easily cooled.

ii.

A.C. armature windings may use full-pitch coils or fractionalpitch coils. A coil with a span of 180 electrical is called a fullpitch coil. A coil with a span of less than 180 electrical is

called a fractional-pitch coil. For example, a coil with a span of

150 electrical would be called a 5/6 pitch coil. Fractional-pitch

coils are frequently used in a.c. machines for two main reasons.

First, less copper is required per coil and secondly the

waveform of the generated voltage is improved.

iii. Most of a.c. machines use double layer armature windings. In

a double layer winding, one coil side lies in the upper half of

one slot while the other coil side lies in the lower half of

another slot spaced about one-pole pitch from the first one.

This arrangement permits simpler end connections and it is

economical to manufacture.

iv. Since most of a.c. machines are of 3-phase type, the three

windings of the three phases are identical but spaced 120

electrical degrees apart.

v. A group of adjacent slots belonging to one phase under one

pole pair is known as phase belt. The angle subtended by a

phase belt is known as phase spread. The 3-phase windings

are always designed for 60 phase spread.

Winding factors

A. DISTRIBUTION FACTOR (Kd)

a.k.a. breadth factor. A winding with only one slot per pole

per phase is called a concentrated winding. In this type of

winding, the e.m.f. generated/phase is equal to the arithmetic

sum of the individual coil e.m.f.s in that phase. However, if the

coils/phase are distributed over several slots in space

(distributed winding), the e.m.f.s in the coils are not in phase

(i.e., phase difference is not zero) but are displaced from each by

the slot angle (The angular displacement in electrical agrees

between the adjacent slots is called slot angle). The e.m.f./phase

will be the phasor sum of coil e.m.f.s.

sin 2

=

sin 2

Where

= distribution factor

n = no. of slots per pole per phase

= 180/ slots per pole

a.k.a. chord factor. A coil whose sides are separated by one

pole pitch (i.e., coil span is 180 electrical) is called a full-pitch

coil. With a full-pitch coil, the e.m.f.s induced in the two coil

sides a in phase with each other and the resultant e.m.f. is the

arithmetic sum of individual e.m.fs. However the waveform of

the resultant e.m.f. can be improved by making the coil pitch less

than a pole pitch. Such a coil is called short-pitch coil. This

practice is only possible with double-layer type of winding.

= sin 90

Where

= pitch factor

pitch = coil span in # slots / slots per pole

E.M.F equation of

an alternator

= 4.44

Where

= generated emf per phase (V)

f = frequency (Hz)

= flux per pole (Weber)

N = no. of turns per phase

= pitch factor

= distribution factor

10

Problems

1. Calculate the distribution factor for a 36-slots, 4-pole, singlelayer, 3 winding.

2. A part of an alternator winding consists of six coils in series,

each coil having an emf of 10Vrms induced in it. The coils are

placed in successive slots and between each slot and the next,

there is an electrical phase displacement of 30. Find the emf of

the six coils in series.

3. Find the value of Kd for an alternator with 9 slots per pole for

the following cases:

a. One winding in all the slots

b. One winding using only the first 2/3 of the slots/pole

c. Three equal windings placed sequentially in 60 group.

11

Problems

4. An alternator has 18 slots/pole and the first coil lies in slots 1

and 16. Calculate the pitch factor for a) fundamental b) 3rd

Harmonic c) 5th harmonic and d) 7th harmonic

5. A 3, 16-pole alternator has a star-connected winding with 144

slots and 10 conductors per slot. The flux per pole is 0.03Wb,

sinusoidally distributed and the speed is 375rpm. Find the

frequency and the phase and line emf. Assume full-pitched-coil.

6. Find the no-load phase and line voltage of a star-connected 3,

6-pole alternator which runs at 1200 rpm, having flux per pole

of 0.1Wb sinusoidally distributed. Its stator has 54 slots having

double layer winding. Each coil has 8 turns and the coil is

chorded by 1 slot.

13

Buddha

~The End~

Engr. J.L. Tumbaga

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