You are on page 1of 12

AC machines

NEE 423

Engr. Jessica Laine M. Tumbaga

AC ARMATURE WINDINGS
A.C. armature windings are always of the nonsalient-pole
type and are usually symmetrically distributed in slots around the
complete circumference of the armature. A.C. armature windings
are generally open-circuit type i.e., both ends are brought out.
The following are the general features of a.c. armature windings:
i. A.C. armature windings are generally distributed windings. A
distributed winding has two principal advantages. First, a
distributed winding generates a voltage wave that is nearly a
sine curve. Secondly, copper is evenly distributed on the
armature surface. Therefore, heating is more uniform and this
type of winding is more easily cooled.

Engr. J.L. Tumbaga

Thursday, November 17, 2016

ii.

A.C. armature windings may use full-pitch coils or fractionalpitch coils. A coil with a span of 180 electrical is called a fullpitch coil. A coil with a span of less than 180 electrical is
called a fractional-pitch coil. For example, a coil with a span of
150 electrical would be called a 5/6 pitch coil. Fractional-pitch
coils are frequently used in a.c. machines for two main reasons.
First, less copper is required per coil and secondly the
waveform of the generated voltage is improved.
iii. Most of a.c. machines use double layer armature windings. In
a double layer winding, one coil side lies in the upper half of
one slot while the other coil side lies in the lower half of
another slot spaced about one-pole pitch from the first one.
This arrangement permits simpler end connections and it is
economical to manufacture.

Engr. J.L. Tumbaga

Thursday, November 17, 2016

iv. Since most of a.c. machines are of 3-phase type, the three
windings of the three phases are identical but spaced 120
electrical degrees apart.
v. A group of adjacent slots belonging to one phase under one
pole pair is known as phase belt. The angle subtended by a
phase belt is known as phase spread. The 3-phase windings
are always designed for 60 phase spread.

Engr. J.L. Tumbaga

Thursday, November 17, 2016

Winding factors
A. DISTRIBUTION FACTOR (Kd)
a.k.a. breadth factor. A winding with only one slot per pole
per phase is called a concentrated winding. In this type of
winding, the e.m.f. generated/phase is equal to the arithmetic
sum of the individual coil e.m.f.s in that phase. However, if the
coils/phase are distributed over several slots in space
(distributed winding), the e.m.f.s in the coils are not in phase
(i.e., phase difference is not zero) but are displaced from each by
the slot angle (The angular displacement in electrical agrees
between the adjacent slots is called slot angle). The e.m.f./phase
will be the phasor sum of coil e.m.f.s.

Engr. J.L. Tumbaga

Thursday, November 17, 2016

sin 2
=

sin 2
Where
= distribution factor
n = no. of slots per pole per phase
= 180/ slots per pole

Engr. J.L. Tumbaga

Thursday, November 17, 2016

B. PITCH FACTOR (Kp)


a.k.a. chord factor. A coil whose sides are separated by one
pole pitch (i.e., coil span is 180 electrical) is called a full-pitch
coil. With a full-pitch coil, the e.m.f.s induced in the two coil
sides a in phase with each other and the resultant e.m.f. is the
arithmetic sum of individual e.m.fs. However the waveform of
the resultant e.m.f. can be improved by making the coil pitch less
than a pole pitch. Such a coil is called short-pitch coil. This
practice is only possible with double-layer type of winding.

Engr. J.L. Tumbaga

Thursday, November 17, 2016

= sin 90
Where
= pitch factor
pitch = coil span in # slots / slots per pole

Engr. J.L. Tumbaga

Thursday, November 17, 2016

E.M.F equation of
an alternator

= 4.44

Where
= generated emf per phase (V)
f = frequency (Hz)
= flux per pole (Weber)
N = no. of turns per phase
= pitch factor
= distribution factor

Engr. J.L. Tumbaga

Thursday, November 17, 2016

10

Problems
1. Calculate the distribution factor for a 36-slots, 4-pole, singlelayer, 3 winding.
2. A part of an alternator winding consists of six coils in series,
each coil having an emf of 10Vrms induced in it. The coils are
placed in successive slots and between each slot and the next,
there is an electrical phase displacement of 30. Find the emf of
the six coils in series.
3. Find the value of Kd for an alternator with 9 slots per pole for
the following cases:
a. One winding in all the slots
b. One winding using only the first 2/3 of the slots/pole
c. Three equal windings placed sequentially in 60 group.

Engr. J.L. Tumbaga

Thursday, November 17, 2016

11

Problems
4. An alternator has 18 slots/pole and the first coil lies in slots 1
and 16. Calculate the pitch factor for a) fundamental b) 3rd
Harmonic c) 5th harmonic and d) 7th harmonic
5. A 3, 16-pole alternator has a star-connected winding with 144
slots and 10 conductors per slot. The flux per pole is 0.03Wb,
sinusoidally distributed and the speed is 375rpm. Find the
frequency and the phase and line emf. Assume full-pitched-coil.
6. Find the no-load phase and line voltage of a star-connected 3,
6-pole alternator which runs at 1200 rpm, having flux per pole
of 0.1Wb sinusoidally distributed. Its stator has 54 slots having
double layer winding. Each coil has 8 turns and the coil is
chorded by 1 slot.

Engr. J.L. Tumbaga

Thursday, November 17, 2016

13

Buddha

~The End~
Engr. J.L. Tumbaga

Thursday, November 17, 2016