# EEM 328 ELECTRONICS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 3 DIODE APPLICATIONS PURPOSE In this lab, several applications of the diode will

be studied. These include clipping clamping and power supply. THEORY Clipper circuits Clipper circuits is one of the applications of diodes. This circuit limits an input voltage to certain minimum and maximum values. In the circuit in Figure 1, one can see that as long as V1 is less than VB1, then the diode will be reverse biased (an open circuit). In this case, the output voltage will track the input voltage. If Vi exceeds VB1 then the diode turns on and then Vo will beVB1 thus this circuit limits the output voltage to less than VB1. By rearranging the components, variations on this circuit can be achieved.

Figure 1 Power supply circuits When dealing with electronic circuits, we have to meet the basic requirement of providing electrical power for them to work. Without that power, your circuit is no more useful than a single raindrop in a hurricane.The basic purpose of a power supply is to provide a fixed voltage to the working circuit, with sufficient currenthandling capacity to maintain the operating conditions of the circuit (see Figure 4). The power source doesn't have to be fancy; the typical hand-held transistor radio uses a 9-volt battery as its power source. A flashlight uses cells that are physically much larger, but provide a lower voltage. Major electronic appliances such as television sets, VCRs, and microwave ovens have electronic circuits built in that take power from a wall socket and convert it to the form and voltages required by the other internal circuits of the appliance.Such an electronic power supply circuit

is imperative if you plan on doing long-term experimenting with electronic circuits. The alternative is to spend a considerable amount of money on replacement batteries at regular intervals. PRE-LAB a) Review clipper and clamper circuits. Explain the purpose of the circuits in Figure 2 and Figure 3. b) Design a clipper circuit which limits input signals to +1V and -1.5V. Use 1kΩ resistor to limit the current. (Remember you are using real diodes. There will be diode turn on voltages.) c) Using PSpice, simulate the circuit in Figure 4 (zener diode: Vzener=12v diode: 1N4007). • Determine the output DC voltage and current. • Determine the power dissipated by the zener diode and the load resistor. • Analyze the amount of ripple entering the zener-regulated load (Vin (ripple)) (at the first V-marker) for capacitor values of 10 µF, 100 µF, and 1000 µF. • Calculate the output ripple voltage using the equation: Vout (ripple) = [(RL// RZ)/( RS + (RL// RZ))]* Vin (ripple); where RS=1kΩ and RL = 5kΩ (capacitor value 1000 µF only). • Determine the simulated Vout (ripple) (capacitor value 1000 µF only). • Determine the simulated % voltage regulation using the equation: %VR = [(VNo Load - VFull Load) / VFull Load]*100% (capacitor value 1000 µF only) PROCEDURE 1) Diode Clipper Circuits Diode clipper circuits can be used to limit a voltage to some maximum or minimum value. This is useful for designing protection circuits.

Figure 2

Figure 3 a) Connect the circuits in Figure 3 (VB=3v, VB1=5v, VB2=3v, R=1KΩ, diode: 1N4007). For the input signal (V1), use 10 Vp-p, 1 kHz sine wave and use power supply to provide the battery voltage. Measure and sketch the input and output waveforms for each circuit. b) Construct the clipper designed in the pre lab. Measure and sketch the input and output waveforms.

Figure 4 2-) Power supply circuit. a) Construct the circuit in Figure 4 (zener diode: Vzener=12v diode: 1N4007). b) Measure the output DC voltage and current. c) Determine the power dissipated by the zener diode and the load resistor. d) Measure Vin (ripple) using capacitor values (10 µF, 100 µF, and 1000 µF). Measure Vout (ripple) for capacitor value 1000 µF only. Measure the %VR.