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COMPOSITE BRIDGE- STEEL DESIGN

AASHTO LRFD

RM Bridge V8i
June 2013

RM Bridge Professional Engineering Software for Bridges of all Types

RM Bridge
Composite Bridge- Steel Design AASHTO LRFD

Copyright
This document is integral part of the program package RM Bridge. Duplication and dissemination is only allowed with explicit permission of Bentley Systems or authorised agents.
2012, Bentley Systems, Incorporated. All Rights Reserved

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Contents

Composite Bridge- Steel Design AASHTO LRFD

Contents
1

Introduction .....................................................................................................................1-1
1.1

Background ..............................................................................................................1-1

1.2

General Description .................................................................................................1-1

Structural Data .................................................................................................................2-2


2.1

General Layout ........................................................................................................2-2

2.2

Numbering Scheme .................................................................................................2-3

2.3

Support Conditions ..................................................................................................2-4

2.4

Main Girders ............................................................................................................2-5

2.4.1

Definition of the Main Girder Segments .............................................................2-6

2.5

Cross Frames and Stiffeners ....................................................................................2-7

2.6

Shear Studs ............................................................................................................2-10

2.7

Materials ................................................................................................................2-11

Construction Schedule and Loading ..............................................................................3-12


3.1

Element Activation by Stages ...............................................................................3-12

3.2

Design Loads .........................................................................................................3-14

3.2.1

Dead Load..........................................................................................................3-14

3.2.2

Live loads ..........................................................................................................3-14

3.2.3

Braking Load .....................................................................................................3-15

3.2.4

Wind Loads .......................................................................................................3-15

3.2.5

Thermal Forces ..................................................................................................3-16

3.3

Load Combinations ...............................................................................................3-17

Analysis results ..............................................................................................................4-19

Steel Design Checks ......................................................................................................5-23


5.1

General...................................................................................................................5-23

5.1.1

Design Calculation Actions ...............................................................................5-23

5.1.2

Relevant additional input parameters ................................................................5-23

5.2
5.2.1

Slender parts ..........................................................................................................5-23

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Definition of Slender parts ................................................................................5-24


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Contents

Composite Bridge- Steel Design AASHTO LRFD


5.2.2

II

5.3

Slender parts in the current example .................................................................5-25


Buckling lengths ....................................................................................................5-26

5.3.1

Definition of Buckling Lengths .........................................................................5-26

5.3.2

Buckling Lengths in the current example ..........................................................5-27

5.4

Design Resistances (without considering locked-in stressing)..............................5-27

5.4.1

General...............................................................................................................5-27

5.4.2

Main girders Typical sections.........................................................................5-28

5.4.3

RM Bridge Results ............................................................................................5-32

5.4.4

Assessments ........................................................................................................5-34

5.5

Capacity Factors ......................................................................................................5-34

5.5.1

Definitions ...........................................................................................................5-34

5.5.2

Resulting Capacity factors .................................................................................5-35

5.6

Consideration of locked-in stresses .......................................................................5-35

5.7

Rating factor ..........................................................................................................5-40

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Introduction

Composite Bridge- Steel Design AASHTO LRFD

1-1

Introduction

1.1 Background
This training and demonstration example is used to show the application of RmBridge on a
composite bridge with concrete slab and welded I-girders as main girders. This example is
also used as a verification example for the RM Bridge functionality for steel design in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.

1.2 General Description


The bridge is a continuous road bridge with 3 spans and 2 welded I-shaped main girders. The
roadway has 2 traffic lanes with 3.5 m width and lateral strips of 2 m on each side.
The analyses comprise Static analysis for loads covered in Section 6 of the AASHTO LRFD
Bridge Design Specifications; the design of I-section flexural members is covered within Article 6.10, fundamental section property calculations for flexural members used in RM analysis are found in Appendix D.

Figure 1-1: General view of the RM model

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Structural Data

Composite Bridge- Steel Design AASHTO LRFD

2-2

Structural Data
The bridge is a continuous road bridge with 3 spans and 2 welded I-shaped main girders. The
roadway has 2 traffic lanes with 3.5 m width, and lateral strips of 2 m on each side.

Figure 2-1 : Schematic view of the cross-section

Summary of cross-section data:


Total slab width
Spacing of main girders
Overhang left and right
Effective depth of concrete slab
Effective haunch depth
Depth of steel girders
Upper flange width
Lower flange width

12.0 m
7.0 m
2.5 m
0.307 m
0.109 m
2.8 m
1.0 m
1.2 m

2.1 General Layout


The structure is modelled as a grillage with two axes in the longitudinal direction and four
axes in the transverse direction (one for each of the cross-members at the beginning and the
end of the system (A1, A2) as well as over the piers (P1, P2)). Each of these 6 axes has its
own associated segment.

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Structural Data

Composite Bridge- Steel Design AASHTO LRFD

2-3

Figure 2-2: Span distribution

The longitudinal overhang at begin and end of the bridge is assumed 0.8 m.
The model has been prepared with the wizard functionality of RM Bridge, which allows for an
easy and straightforward definition of the structure. However, model preparation could also
be done directly in the standard RM Bridge GUI.
In plan the structure is straight and abutments and piers are orthogonal to the longitudinal direction of the superstructure. The piers are drop cap piers with bearings under each main girder of the superstructure.
Default pier dimensions of the wizard have been used without consideration of actual feasibility, as the focus of this example is just on superstructure design and not on substructure design.
Longitudinal fixation is assumed at the left abutment, bearings over the piers and the right
abutment are assumed free to move in longitudinal direction.

2.2 Numbering Scheme


The bridge wizard automatically creates nodes and elements of the structural system and the
respective node and element numbers.
Due to modeling the structure as a girder grid we have two main girders, left (MG1) and right
(MG2). Both main girders are composite girders, where structural elements are assigned to the
individual cross-section parts as well as to the full composite section.
The actual refinement of the calculation model is automatically done by the wizard. Default
(and minimum) subdivision is 24 per span, i.e. with considering the left and right overhang
the first and the last span will have 25 elements, and the intermediate spans will have 24 elements with equal length.
If there are additional points of interest in the system, this regular subdivision will be automatically adapted. The wizard considers every point, where the cross-section of a main girder
changes, as additional point of interest. I.e. points, where a parameter of the cross-section
changes (e.g. web thickness or flange thickness) the program automatically places a subdivi Bentley Systems

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Structural Data

Composite Bridge- Steel Design AASHTO LRFD

2-4

sion point. It depends on the distance of such a point from the regular subdivision points
whether a new point is inserted or the nearest regular point is moved into this position.
Note that the program does not check the actual change of a cross-section parameter, but just
whether there is a constraint point in the variation diagram. I.e. the user may enforce the program to create a subdivision point at a certain position by assigning a Variation to one parameter (e.g. the web width) and specifying the value in this position no matter whether the value
before or behind this point is the same.
Note also that the program does not automatically create additional subdivision points at positions of cross-frames, bracings or stiffeners. Those are always eccentrically connected to the
nearest subdivision point on the main girder. If the user wants to have subdivision points at
the positions of cross-frames, he must place at this position a variation constraint point as explained above.
In our example we have in the first and last span a cross-frame distance of 7.5 m which is 1/8
of the the span length. I.e. cross-frame positions automatically coincide with regular subdivistion points. However, in the center span we have cross-frame distances of 8.0 m (1/10 of the
span length). Therefore, in order to have subdivision points in these positions, we defined
respective variation constraint points in the variation of the web thickness (see variation
tw_S02 in the wizard). As a consequence, we have in the center span 30 elements in longitudinal direction instead of 24.
Table 2-1: Numbering scheme
Item
Node numbers (MG1)
Element numbers (MG1, steel)
Element numbers (MG1, concrete)
Element numbers (MG1, composite)
Node numbers (MG2)
Element numbers (MG2, steel)
Element numbers (MG1, concrete)
Element numbers (MG1, composite)
Abutments/Piers (left)
Abutments/Piers (right)

Span 1
101-125
10101-10125
20101-20125
101-125
401-425
10401-10425
20401-20425
401-425
80001, 80002
80003-80025

Span 2
201-230
10201-10230
20201-20230
201-230
501-530
10501-15230
20501-20530
501-530
80003-80025
80027-80049

Span3
301-325
10301-10325
20301-20325
301-325
601-625
10601-10625
20601-20625
601-625
80027-80049
80051, 80052

2.3 Support Conditions


The following table defines the support conditions in reference to the local coordinate system
of the spring elements (alpha1 = 90 degrees), i.e. X = vertical, Y = longitudinal, Z = transverse direction. Actual stiffness of bearings and foundation is not considered and spring constant 1e+008 indicates a rigid support.
Table 2-2: Support conditions
Axis

Part/Soil

Elem

Type

Abutment 1
Pier 1

1
2
1
2
Soil

80001
80002
80009
80010
80012

Spring
Spring
Spring
Spring
Spring

Bentley Systems

C-X

C-Y

C-Z

C-MX

1e+008
1e+008
1e+008

1e+008
1e+008

1e+008
1e+008
1e+008

1e+008 1e+008

1e+008
1e+008

1e+008

C-MY

1e+008

C-MZ

1e+008
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Structural Data

Composite Bridge- Steel Design AASHTO LRFD

Pier 2

Abutment 2

Soil
Soil

80017
80022

Spring
Spring

1
2
Soil
Soil
Soil

80033
80034
80036
80041
80046

Spring
Spring
Spring
Spring
Spring

1
2

80051
80052

Spring
Spring

1e+008
1e+008

1e+008
1e+008
1e+008

2-5

1e+008
1e+008

1e+008 1e+008
1e+008 1e+008

1e+008 1e+008
1e+008 1e+008

1e+008

1e+008
1e+008
1e+008 1e+008
1e+008 1e+008
1e+008 1e+008

1e+008
1e+008
1e+008

1e+008
1e+008
1e+008
1e+008

1e+008
1e+008
1e+008

1e+008
1e+008

2.4 Main Girders


Every main girder has a constant depth of 2800 mm and the variations in thickness of the upper and lower flanges are found towards the inside of the girder. The lower flange is 1200 mm
wide whereas the upper flange is 1000 mm wide.

Figure 2-3: Structural steel distribution for Upper and Lower main girder flanges

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Structural Data

Composite Bridge- Steel Design AASHTO LRFD

2-6

Figure 2-4: Structural steel distribution of the main girder web

2.4.1 Definition of the Main Girder Segments


Separate segments are created by the wizard for each span and each main girder
(w1_Span01.01,
w1_Span01.02,
w1_Span02.01,
w1_Span02.02,
w1_Span03.01,
w1_Span03.02). Creating the model in the RM Bridge Modeler would of course also allow
working with 2 segments reaching over all spans. In the first and last span the segments are
subdivided into 25 elements with typical element length of 2.5 m. In the center span we have
30 elements with a typical length of 2.667 m, but some variation of the element length (2.0 m,
3.0 m) to meet the relevant points where cross-frames are connected or the cross-section varies.
The main girder segment numbering systems are given in chapter 2.2 (Numbering Scheme). A
cross section must be assigned to every segment point. Cross-section w1_Deck is assigned to
the span part of the first main girder and the same w1_Deck for the second main girder.

Figure 2-5: Segmentation of the 3rd span

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Structural Data

Composite Bridge- Steel Design AASHTO LRFD

2-7

Figure 2-6: w1_Deck cross-section

2.5 Cross Frames and Stiffeners


Steel cross frames are arranged over the piers and in the spans. Over the piers we have a
welded I girder with height of 1.5 m and 30 cm wide flanges. Cross frames in span are rolled I
beams IPE-600.

Figure 2-7: Cross frame used in the span

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Figure 2-8: Transversal view of theIPE 600


profile

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Structural Data

Composite Bridge- Steel Design AASHTO LRFD

Figure 2-9: Cross frame used over the piers

2-8

Figure 2-10: Transversal view of the Iwelded profile

Figure 2-11: Cross frame arrangement over Span 2

Figure 2-12: Cross frame arrangement over the first and also third span

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Structural Data

Composite Bridge- Steel Design AASHTO LRFD

2-9

At each cross frame position stiffeners are present on both sides of the main girder.

Figure 2-13: T-welded profile used for transverse stiffneres

Diaphragm elements are numbered as follows:


Over the left abutment
Over the first pier
Over the second pier
Over the right abutment

Element 50001
Element 50091
Element 50191
E lement 50261

Cross frames in span have a spacing of 7.5 m in the first and last span, respectively 8 m in the
central span. The numbering is:
Left Span
Central Span
Right Span

Elements 50001 to 50081 step 10


Elements 50091 to 50181 step 10
Elements 50191 to 50261 step 10

Slab reinforcement:
For both reinforcing steel layers, the transverse reinforcing bars are placed outside the longitudinal reinforcing bars, on the side of the slab free surface.
Transverse reinforcing steel
At mid-span of the slab (between the main steel girders)
o High bond bars with diameter = 20 mm, spacing s = 170 mm in upper layer
o High bond bars with diameter = 25 mm, spacing s = 170 mm in lower layer
In the slab sections supported by the main steel girders
o High bond bars with diameter = 20 mm, spacing s = 170 mm in upper layer
o High bond bars with diameter = 25 mm, spacing s = 170 mm in lower layer
Longitudinal reinforcing steel
In span
o High bond bars with diameter = 16 mm, spacing s = 130 mm in upper and
lower layers (i.e. in total s = 0, 92% of the concrete section)
In intermediate support regions:
o High bond bars with diameter = 20 mm, spacing s = 130 mm in upper layer
o High bond bars with diameter = 16 mm, spacing s = 130 mm in lower layer
o (i.e. in total s = 1, 19% of the concrete section)

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Structural Data

Composite Bridge- Steel Design AASHTO LRFD

2-10

Figure 2-14: Location of mid-span and support sections for longitudinal reinforcement

Figure 2-15: Green lines representing longitudinal reinforcement in w1_deck Cross section

2.6 Shear Studs


Special shear stud spring elements are available for composite cross-sections in RM Bridge
Analysis (Figure 2-16). These shear stud elements must be defined as spring elements by the
user connecting the same structural nodes as the associated composite elements. Their number, by default, must be the number of the elements formed by the first cross-section part plus
30000. For these elements no other information needs to be defined; the warnings regarding
the missing spring stiffness during calculation can be ignored. These shear stud elements do
not contribute to the structural stiffness of the system. However, the change in normal force
per length within this element is stored and can be accessed during post-processing. During
result superposition, results for these elements are added together as for the other structural
elements in the system ensuring, that the true minimum and maximum values for the shear
force are computed. For the present example spring elements: 30101-30125; 30201-30230;
30301-30325; 30401-30425; 30501-30530; 30601-30625 are automatically generated by the
program.

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Structural Data

Composite Bridge- Steel Design AASHTO LRFD

2-11

Figure 2-16: Composite and shear stud elements with element numbers

The spring elements modelling the shear studs can be input under Structure Elements Element Types and Nodes.

Figure 2-17: Composite and shear stud elements with element numbers

2.7 Materials

Bentley Systems

Reinforcement: AASHTO_LRFD_RGr75
o Yield Strength:
5.171e+05 kN/m2
o Modulus of Elasticity:
200E+06 kN/m2
Concrete: AASHTO_LRFD_C35MPa
o Compressive Strength:
3.497E+04kN/m2
o Modulus of Elasticity:
3.127E+07 kN/m2
Structural AASHTO_LRFD_STGr50
o Yield Strength:
3.447E+05 kN/m2
o Modulus of Elasticity:
2.0000E+08 kN/m2

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Construction Schedule and Loading

Composite Bridge- Steel Design AASHTO LRFD

3-12

Construction Schedule and Loading


Stage-wise erection is only related to subsequent erection of superstructure, bearings, steel
construction and concrete slab, but there are assumed that all spans are erected simultaneously
(erection of the whole steel construction in one stage, pouring the whole slab in one stage).

3.1 Element Activation by Stages


Each construction stage is related to a certain active system, which may contain all elements
of the model or just a part of them. The activation of new elements is done in Schedule >
Stages > Activation. Elements, which already have been activated in previous construction
stages remain active until they are explicitly deactivated, and must not be specified again in a
subsequent stage. An appropriate indication is given by the program in the case that a previously activated element is again specified. If the user then selects the option <Overwrite>, the
element will be removed from the previous construction stage and added in the current stage.
The activation of the elements in the different stages is shown below.
Stage SubS
Activation of earth springs and pier elements:
80003-80008; 80012-80015; 80017-80020; 80022-80025; 80027-80032; 8003680039; 80041-80044; 80046-80049.
Stage Abutment
Activation of left and right bearings
80001-80002; 80009-80010; 80033-80034; 80051-80052.
Stage Girder
Activation of steel girders including cross-frames, bracings and stiffeners
Main girders: 10101-10125; 10201-10230; 10301-10325; 10401-10425; 1050110530; 10601-10625
Cross-frames: 50001-50261
Lateral bracings: 60001-60351
Vertical Stiffeners: 70001-70261; 70401-70661

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Composite Bridge- Steel Design AASHTO LRFD

3-13

Figure 3-1: Active structure after installing main and secondary steel members

Stage Slab
Activate concrete elements, shear studs and composite elements
Composite elements: 101-125; 201-230; 301-325; 401-425; 501-530; 601-625
Concrete slab elements: 20101-20125; 20201-20230; 20301-20325; 20401-20425;
20501-20530; 20601-20625
Shear studs: 30101-30125; 30201-30230; 30301-30325; 30401-30425; 3050130530; 30601-30625
Further Stages
All further stages in the schedule dont contain new activations but are just defined to group
the different categories of actions.

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3-14

3.2 Design Loads


3.2.1 Dead Load

Self-weight (concrete):
Self-weight (steel):
Additional dead load (asphalt, traffic barriers...):

23.56 kN/m3
76.97 kN/m3
3.0 kN/m2 over roadway surface
3.13 kN/m on each side

3.2.2 Live loads


Traffic loading consists in defining Lane placement, Dynamic load allowance, Design Vehicular Live load and Pedestrian load.
When the position of the load trains is between two girders then the program automatically
calculates the distribution to the both girders. The same is done for the other side when miror
option is selected

Figure 3-2: Traffic loading on the bridge

Dynamic load allowance in accordance to AASTHO 3.6.2 table 3.6.2.1-1.The factor to be


applied to the static load shall be taken as (1+IM /100).

Joints - Deck Joints for all Limit States with IM= 75 %.


Fracture - Fatigue and Fracture Limit State with IM=15 %.
Standard - All other Limit States with IM=33 %.

Design Vehicular Live load in accordance to AASTHO 3.6.1.2, designated HL-93, and shall
consist of a combination of the design truck or design tandem and design lane load.
Design Truck -specified in figure 3.6.1.2.2-1 of AASHTO code.

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Construction Schedule and Loading

Composite Bridge- Steel Design AASHTO LRFD

3-15

Design Tandem consists of two 110-kN axles spaced at 1.2 m from centre.
Design lane load is equal to 9.3 kN/m per lane (3.1 kN/m2) and emulates a caravan of trucks.
3.2.3 Braking Load
The braking load is calculated according to AASHTO 3.6.5
The load is considered to be applied uniformly distributed in longitudinal direction along the
roadway axis acting at the finished roadway level and in case of grillage modeling distributed
proportionally to all applicable main girders.
There is no influence line evaluation made for the braking load, but the whole braking load is
applied in one loadcase w1_brake as distributed load over the whole roadway surface. The
total line load intensity is calculated and then distributed to the different girders.

Nominal load per lane


109.994 kN
Nominal line load per lane
0.546 kN/m
(Calculated as Nominal Load per Lane/bridge length (with begin and end excess
length).
Multiple presence factor
1 (In accordance with AASHTO table 3.6.1.1.2-1)
Total line load
1.091 kN/m
(Calculated as Nominal Load per Lane*Number of lanes *Multiple presence factor/bridge length)
Height of application
1.8m
above cross-section surface

3.2.4 Wind Loads

Figure 3-3: Wind loading on the bridge

Wind loading is defined in accordance with AASHTO 3.8.1. The LRFD Specification provides wind loads as a function of base design wind velocity, VB equal to 160 km/h.

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Construction Schedule and Loading

Composite Bridge- Steel Design AASHTO LRFD

3-16

Wind pressure on strucures (WS)


Applied to the surface area of the superstructure as seen in elevation, according to AASHTO
3.8.1.2.1-1 for beams.

2.4 kN/m2
4.116 m

Base pressure(Pd)
Height(h)

Wind pressure on vehicles (WL)


When vehicles are present, the design wind pressure shall be applied to both structure and
vehicles. Wind pressure on vehicles is represented by an interruptible, moving force.

Line load(ll)
Eccentricity(ecc)

2.46 kN/m
1.8 m

Vertical Wind Pressure (W-up)


In absence of live loads, an upward load of 9.6 10-4 MPa is multiplied by the width of the
superstructure and applied at the windward quarter point simultaneously with the horizontal
wind loads applied perpendicular to the length of the bridge.
Upward wind

0.96 kN/m2
3m

Pd-up
Ecc up

Downward wind

Pd-down
Ecc up

0 kN/m2
3m

3.2.5 Thermal Forces


Uniform temperature load:
The default value of the initial temperature is considered by T0=12 C, Te,min=-12 , Te,max=27

TN,neg = Te,min T0
TN,pos = Te,max T0

-24
+15

RM calculates 2 load cases w1_T-const1 (TN,pos) and w1_T-const2 (TN,neg). Both load cases
are based on a load set with unit load 1.0 C, which is factorized by the relevant T value.
Temperature gradient:
According to AASHTO 3.12.3-1 there are four Temperature zones which provide a linear
relationship for the temperature gradient in steel and concrete and allow you to change the
temperature of the top and bottom independly: T1=23o C , T2=6o C, T3 shall be taken 00 C.
Negative temperature gradient factor: -0.3 negative temperatures values shall be obtained by
multiplying the values by this factor.
Vertical temperature gradients in concrete and steel superstrucures
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Construction Schedule and Loading

Composite Bridge- Steel Design AASHTO LRFD

A-top
A
A-bootom

3-17

0.1
0.3
0

3.3 Load Combinations


RM Bridge offers the possibility of defining a combination table describing the rules for automatic load case superposition and creation of result envelopes. Templates for automatic
generation of this combination table are available for many design codes. Also, the wizards
automatically generate the relevant combination table for the selected design code. The combination table for Eurocode as used in this example is shown below in Figure 3-4. It is a very
comprehensive table, but only few generated envelopes are used in this example.

Figure 3-4: Combination table for AASHTO

Abstract of predefined Load Combinations:


Combination I and II - "permanent loads"
Comb.I: t=0
Comb.II: t=oo

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Construction Schedule and Loading

Composite Bridge- Steel Design AASHTO LRFD

3-18

SERVICE - Combinations III to VII


Comb.III: SERVICE I (incl. Live load)
Comb.IV: SERVICE I (excl. Live load)
Comb.V: SERVICE II
Comb.VI: SERVICE III
Comb.VII: SERVICE IV
Comb.VIII: SERVICE I - deflection (incl. live load)
Comb.IX: SERVICE I - deflection (excl. live load)

STRENGTH - Combinations XI to XV
Comb.XI: STRENGTH I
Comb.XII: STRENGTH II
Comb.XIII: STRENGTH III
Comb.XIV: STRENGTH IV
Comb.XV: STRENGTH V
EXTREME - Combinations XVI to XVII
Comb.XVI: EXTREME I (earthquake)
Comb.XVII: EXTREME II (collision by vessels)
Wind and Braking loadings are not mentioned in the Setra documentation, but for completeness of the generated model they are treated here.

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Analysis results

Composite Bridge- Steel Design AASHTO LRFD

4-19

Analysis results
Figures below illustrate a few results of internal forces and moments coming from the global
analysis of the deck in the design example.
All diagrams below are related to the first main girder MG1. Due to the symmetry conditions
there is no difference between the 2 girders and assessing just 1 of them is sufficient.
Bending moments: Figure 4-1 below shows the extreme bending moments of the main girder
due to traffic. The comparison with the Setra results is shown in Figure 4-2. We see that the
minimum moment due to traffic is -15779 kNm compared to (15720+6190=21910) kNm
from the Setra document. In fact traffic load prescription in Eurocode are much higher than in
AASHTO LRFD and the ratio between 21910 and 15779 approximately corresponds to the
ratio between the design traffic load intensities to be used in the different codes.
Referring now to the ultimate state design moments presented in Figure 4-3, we see that maximum hogging moments are about 102425 kNm and the maximum positive moment in the
center is about 45510 kNm. Here we see that the difference is smaller than for traffic loads,
this is likely caused by the fact that Setra used stiffness reduction in the pier region to cater
for caracking of the concrete slab. The reported values in the Setra document are shown in
Figure 4-4.

Figure 4-1: Moments for traffic loads RM results

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Analysis results

Composite Bridge- Steel Design AASHTO LRFD

4-20

Figure 4-2: Moments for traffic loads (UDL and TS) - Setra document

Figure 4-3: Moments of final ULS and characteristic SLS combinations RM results

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Figure 4-4: Moments of final ULS (comb. 11) and characteristic SLS (comb.6) combinations - Setra document

Shear forces (Figure 4-5 and Figure 4-6): The maximum value of the shear-force over the
piers is some +7080/-7020 kN. When we compare this with the results given in the Setra document we see maxima of some 7450 kN, what is again caused by the lower traffic load.

Figure 4-5: Shear forces for ULS and characteristic SLS combinations RM results
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Figure 4-6: Shear forces for ULS (comb. 11) and characteristic SLS (comb. 6) combinations Setra document

Displacements: We can observe that the largest value of the vertical displacement is situated
at mid span of the second span with an approximate value of 125 mm caused by Ultimate
Limit State actions.

Figure 4-7: Vertical displacement (Vy) from ULS actions

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Steel Design Checks

5.1 General
5.1.1 Design Calculation Actions
Steel design checks in RM Bridge are performed in 2 steps:
1. Calculation of design resistances (Schedule action UltRes)
2. Actual proof check using interaction formulas (Schedule action ResChk)
The relevant design resistances can be stored in superposition files like normal impact envelopes. This allows viewing them in the GUI in the same way than viewing structural analysis
results, with the full functionality of graphic presentation.
Plotting the resistances into the same diagram together with the relevant ULS combination
allows for direct graphical assessment of the results as shown in Figure 5-3 and Figure 5-4.
Note that the calculation of basic resistances without consideration of locked-in force effects
is based on the presumption of sufficient stress redistribution capacity by plasticization. I.e. in
theory this is only allowed for class 1 and 2 cross-sections. These resistances must be compared with so called Joined forces, i.e. fictitious internal forces on the composite section
which are equivalent to the combined effect of forces acting on the steel girders only (self
weight, wet concrete) and forces acting on the composite section (SDL, traffic, ).
RM Bridge also allows taking locked-in forced into account by specifying the load case containing the relevant forces acting on the steel part only. In that case the capacity factor is related to the additional forces acting on the composite section. These results are described in
chapter 5.6, Consideration of locked-in stresses.
5.1.2 Relevant additional input parameters
Two additional input parameter sets must be specified to be able to perform steel checks:
1. The definition of Slender cross section parts to check for local buckling phenomena in the cross section plane (buckling of cross-section plates), and
2. The definition of Characteristic lengths (buckling lengths) for buckling phenomena in longitudinal direction of the members.

5.2 Slender parts


The definition of slender cross-section parts (SP) is required to consider local buckling phenomena due to compression forces. These slender parts are defined as lines between two
points of the cross-section, with the thickness t as additional parameter. These slender parts
are used for the cross-section classification as described in the next section.
The characteristic slenderness value used for classification is the width to thickness ratio, defined as c/t in Eurocode or slenderness parameter in AASHTO code. The thickness is commonly denoted t, often with reference to the type of the part (tw for web, tf for flange). Differ Bentley Systems

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ent rules are given in the different design codes for defining the relevant width of slender
parts.
5.2.1 Definition of Slender parts
In the RmBridge database Slender parts are defined as Reference Sets of the crosssection. These reference sets have the type Steel slender part. The definition of these reference sets may be done either in the RmBridge Modeler during graphic definition of the section, or in the RmBridge Analysis GUI in the function for cross-section definition and modification (Properties > Cross-sections > Reference Sets).
One slender part is defined as a line segment with a start point and an end point. As long as
the material is the same, an arbitrary number of such slender parts (line segments) may be
arranged in one common reference set. In case of hybrid sections (e.g. steel grade of the web
lower than grade of flanges), slender parts of the cross-section parts with different material
have to be defined in different reference sets.

Figure 5-1: Slender parts definition

One slender part is defined as a line segment with a start point and an end point. As long as
the material is the same, an arbitrary number of such slender parts (line segments) may be
arranged in one common reference set. In case of hybrid sections (e.g. steel grade of the web
lower than grade of flanges), slender parts of the cross-section parts with different material
have to be defined in different reference sets.
In addition to the slender parts themselves the reference set may contain stress points to be
used for calculating the minimum elastic section modulus. This is just required if other than
start and end points govern the calculation of the minimum section modulus, because start and
end points of the slender parts are automatically checked whether they become decisive.
The individual slender parts consist each of a start point of the type POINT and an end point
of the type LINETO. In slender parts with free ends (outstand flanges or ribs) the free point
must essentially be the end point (i.e. the slender part must be a line from the restraint point to
the free point). For slender parts with restraints at both sides (webs) the sequence of the 2
points is arbitrary, however, we recommend to use a unique definition throughout the project
(e.g. bottom-up for vertical lines which is also the wizard convention).
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The subtype of the individual slender parts in a reference set is defined as a flag assigned to
the start point. The following subtypes are allowed:
W Web Webs of I Girders, Channels or Box Girders ( 2A)
F Flange Outstand Flanges of I Girders, T-Girders, Channels, etc. ( 1A)
B Box Flanges of box girders (restraint on both sides) ( 2B)
R Rib Outstand rib e.g. stems of T girders, ribs or stiffeners ( 1B)
Like the subtype, the effective thickness of the slender part is also a parameter assigned to the
start point. For calculating the slenderness of the part the program calculates the length of the
line between the start and end point and divides it by the effective thickness.
5.2.2 Slender parts in the current example
In our example we use SlenderF and SlenderW as reference sets in definition of the main
girders, and SlenderF and SlenderR in the definition of secondary members (cross frames and
stiffeners).

Figure 5-2: Slender parts definition in the Cross section.

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5.3 Buckling lengths


The characteristic length for local buckling of main girders is in general defined by the relevant distance of transverse stiffeners. The characteristic length for lateral-torsional buckling is
normally the distance between cross-frames or diaphragms. Buckling due to normal force is
not relevant for the main girder; nevertheless reasonable values for the respective buckling
lengths have been defined (automatically created by the wizard).
5.3.1 Definition of Buckling Lengths
As a theoretical and accurate calculation of these characteristic lengths is impossible, they are
directly defined for the different beams elements in the GUI in Structure > Elements > Buckling lengths. Separate values can be defined for the start point and the end point of each element.
The characteristic length for local buckling of main girders is in general defined by the relevant distance of transverse stiffeners. The characteristic length for lateral-torsional buckling is
normally the distance between cross-frames or diaphragms.
The RmBridge wizard functionality automatically creates this table of characteristic lengths in
accordance with above habits with the following constitutive law for standard I girder composite bridges:
Steel main girders (constructability check):
L-rz
Span length respectively overhang length at begin and end
L-ry
Cross frame distance
L-rx
Cross-frame distance
L-loc
Distance of transverse stiffeners
L-lt
Distance of transverse stiffeners
Composite main girders (ULS check):
L-rz
Span length respectively overhang length at begin and end
L-ry
Zero
L-rx
Zero
L-loc
Distance of transverse stiffeners
L-lt
Distance of transverse stiffeners
Cross-frame members and diaphragms
L-rz = L-ry = Lrx = L-loc = L-lt = nominal member length
These characteristic lengths may also be directly defined in the GUI in Structure > Elements
> Buckling lengths. It is also possible to define separate values start points and end points of
the different elements. The following defaults are valid if not all lengths are specified:

Bentley Systems

No buckling lengths L-rz, L-ry, L-rx defined:


the program assumes that there is
no flexural and no torsional-flexural buckling hazard
Only L-rz defined:
the program assumes L-ry and L-rx the same (one common beam buckling length)
No L-loc defined:
the program assumes that there are no transverse stiffeners

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No L-lt defined:
hazard

5-27

the program assumes there is no lateral-torsional buckling

Profile type information can be defined in Rm first in Modeler in the Cross-Section window
by clicking on the arrow button of Parts.In the part definition window the respective part
has to be edited.There is a drop-down menu Profile where the respective type has to be selected.
In the Analyzer this data is stored in the menu Properties/Cross-Section/Parts->edit part in
bottomwindow->option Part-class.
5.3.2 Buckling Lengths in the current example
Table 5-1
Elements

L-rx

L-ry

L-rz

L-loc

L-lt

101
102-125
201-230
301-324
325
401
402-425
501-530
601-624
625
10101
10102-10125
10201-10230
10301-10324
10325
10401
10402-10425
10501-10530
10601-10624
10625

0.8
7.5
8.0
7.5
0.8
0.8
7.5
8.0
7.5
0.8
0.8
7.5
8.0
7.5
0.8
0.8
7.5
8.0
7.5
0.8

0.8
7.5
8.0
7.5
0.8
0.8
7.5
8.0
7.5
0.8
0.8
7.5
8.0
7.5
0.8
0.8
7.5
8.0
7.5
0.8

0.8
60.0
80.0
60.0
0.8
0.8
60.0
80.0
60.0
0.8
0.8
60.0
80.0
60.0
0.8
0.8
60.0
80.0
60.0
0.8

0.8
7.5
8.0
7.5
0.8
0.8
7.5
8.0
7.5
0.8
0.8
7.5
8.0
7.5
0.8
0.8
7.5
8.0
7.5
0.8

0.8
7.5
8.0
7.5
0.8
0.8
7.5
8.0
7.5
0.8
0.8
7.5
8.0
7.5
0.8
0.8
7.5
8.0
7.5
0.8

5.4 Design Resistances (without considering locked-in stressing)


5.4.1 General
In RM Bridge design resistances for slender steel and composite sections are calculated in the
schedule action UltRes. The calculated resistance values are written into a listfile and an Excel sheet, and also stored in a superposition file in order to allow for subsequently using
standard result presentation techniques for graphic presentation of design resistances.
In composite sections where we may have locked-in stresses due to stage-wise assembly of
the whole section, the resistances may either be calculated without considering locked-in
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stresses or by specifying the relevant locked-in stressing state (load case) as additional
resistances (forces which can be applied on the composite section in addition to the locked-in
forces in the individual elements).
In order to distinguish between the 2 situations in composite elements we speak of total
resistances if locked-in stresses are not considered and of additional resistances if they are
considered. The total resistances must be compared with the joined ULS forces, i.e. we assume that in the ultimate state the locked-in stresses will be redistributed to the composite
section. Note that the total resistances are not correct for slender cross-section, because local buckling failure will occur before redistribution due to plasticization can take place.
5.4.2

Main girders Typical sections

RM Bridge calculates the resistances for all element start and end points with the respective
switch in the element table set to Yes. This allows presenting diagrams along the bridge as
shown in Figure 5-3: Bending resistances and ULS bending moments along the main girderand Figure 5-4: Shear resistances and ULS shear forces along the main girder. Only resistances for bending moments Mz and shear forces My are shown here, because these are the
design relevant quantities.
For comparison a hand-calculation is made for 1 typical section:

the cross-section over the piers (element 10125), and

5.4.2.1 Hand calculation for a Cross Section over Pier1: element 10125:w1_Deck:005:2
Classification compression and bending(ANSI/AISC 360-05, Table B4.1)
Table 5-2

c/t

y1

y2

2.540

0.026

97.690

-3.086

-0.546

flanges_top

0.5

0.120

4.167

-0.476

-0.476

flanges_bot

0.6

0.120

-3.156

-3.156

ey_el

ey_pl

-1.913

-2.278

Web

Eccenter

Specific values E = 200E6;


Yield strength

Bentley Systems

Yield strength

tension fyt=344738 =>

compression fyc = -344778;

4
E
= 0.405
24.086; kc =
fyc
h /tw

Compression
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Table 5-3

c/t

case

class

97.690

10

1.12*
=26.978

1.49* =35.88

SL

flanges_top

4.167

0.38* = 9.15

0.64* kc * =9.81

flanges_bot

0.38* = 9.15

0.64* kc * =9.81

Web

Bending +z

flanges: already in compact class


web: sign=+1 ; dx1p = ( y1 ey_pl )*(sign) = 1.903 > 0 => compression ( web partly in
compression)
dx2p = (y2 ey_pl)*(sign) = -0.637 < 0 => tension (whole web in tension
would be compact)
Type 2A, welded, flexure => case 11: hc = ey_el; hp = ey_pl; My = 121827.423 ; Mpl =
134818.468

P =

hc /hp *
* =78.52; r =5.70 * =137.2
(0.54*Mp/My 0.09) 2 = 3.316

c / t = hc / tw = 73.577 => class compact

Bending -z

web: sign=-1 ; 0.637 > 0 => compression ( web partly in compression)


type 2A, welded, flexure => case 11: hc = ey_el ; hp = ey_pl ;
My = -121827.423;
Mpl = -134818.468 (see calculation below in bending resistance)
see bending +z => class compact
Tensile / Compressive Resistance( AASHTO LRFD 6.8.2.1-1)
Ax = 0.3308 = At = Ac; fyt = 344738; fyc = -344738; y = 0.950; c = 0,900
Nt = At * fyt * y = 0.3308 * 344738 * 0.950 = 108337.364

tensile resistance

Web is in class SL => normally reduction of web, but preliminary we dont reduce webs
Nc = Ac * fyc * c = 0.3308 * -344738 * 0.900 = -102635.4

compressive resistance

Bending resistance +z
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Cross section is in class compact, so we calculate the plastic values:


Wpl = 0.391075; ey_pl = -2.278 and ey_el = -1,913
fnc= Rb * Rh * fy = 344738 => (webload shedding 6.10.7.2.2-1)
Mpl = Wpl * f * fnc = +-134818.413
Shear Resistance in y direction for cross section (AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.1-1)
fy = 344738 (authoritative yield ) ; Ay_Shear = 0.071; v = 1.000
(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.2-2) Vp = Ay_Shear * fy /
shear resistance

3 * v = 14131.455

plastic

(AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.2)


d0 = inf. => unstiffened; k = 5.000; D = 2.540; tw = 0.026; E = 200E6; fy = 344738

E*k
= 1.12 * 53.858 = 62.703; 1.40 * 53.858 = 78.379; D / tw = 97.692 => 97.692 >
fy
78.379 =>
1.12 *

C = 1.57 * tw / D *(E * k / Fy) = 1.57 * 97.692 * 53.858 = 0.477


Vn = Vp * C = 6740.704

reduction factor

design nominal shear resistance

Shear Resistance in y direction for beam (AASHTO LRFD 6.10.9.3.2)


Vpl_rd = 13732.276
plastic shear resistance
L-loc is defined

design
=>

d0 = 7.5

d0< 3 * D => 7.5 <7.62 => stiffened => C = 1.389

reduction factor

Vn = Vp * C = 9386.4

design nominal shear strength

Flexural and torsional - flexural buckling (AASHTO LRFD 6.9.4.1)


Table 5-4

Moment of Inertia I
Buckling length L
Bentley Systems

0.001234

0.027284

0.507905

7.500

7.500

60.000
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Radius of Gyration r

1.272

0.287

1.239

Elastic Slenderness

0.006

0.11925

0.4095

Reduction factor

0.997

0.952

0.84351

-102327.4938

-97708.9

-86573.986254

Nominal Resistance Pn = Nc *

Ax = 0.3308; K = 1.000; Nc = -102635.4

Iy Iz
= 1.272 ; ry =
Ax

rx =
Nb=

Design compression resistance

Iy
= 0.287 ; rz =
Ax

Iz
= 1.239
Ax

*Nc = -86573.986

Design buckling resistance

Lateral-torsional buckling

Iy = 0.027284; Iz = 0.507905

=>

Iz > Iy => relevant direction is z ( Mz is considered)


Table 5-5

Top (+Mz)

Bottom (-Mz)

134818.468

-94372.928

Buckling length Lb ( = L-lt )

8.000

8.000

Compression web Dc

1.367

1.173

1.2

rt

0.2754

0.334

Lim. unbraced length Lp


(6.10.8.2.3-4)

6.632

8.063

Lim. unbraced length Lr


(6.10.8.2.3-5)

24.904

30.276

Reduction factor Fnc

0.9857

1.000

132898.15

-94372.928

Design bending resistance


Mz

Compression flange bfc


Radius of
(6.10.8.2.3-9)

gyration

(6.10.8.2.3-1,2)
Design LTB resistance Mb
tfc = 0.120 ; tw = 0.026, Ltop = 0.5 ; Lbot = 0.6
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Compression web Dc: ey = -1.913; y1 = -3.086; y2 = -0.546


dx1e = (y1 ey) * sign = -1.173 resp. +1.173
dx2e = (y2 ey) * sign = 1.367 resp. -1.367
Mz+: dx > 0: Dc = 1.367
Mz- : dx > 0: Dc = 1.173
Compression flange bfc: ey = -1.913; y1 = -0.476; y2 = -0.476 and y1 = -3.156; y2 = -3.156
Top : dx1e = ( y1 ey ) * sign = 1.437 resp. -1.437
dx2e = (y2 ey) * sign = 1.437 resp. -1.437
Bot : dx1e = ( y1 ey ) * sign = -1.243 resp. +1.243
dx2e = (y2 ey) * sign = -1.243 resp. +1.243
Mz+: dx1e > 0: bfc = Ltop * 2 = 1
Mz- : dx1e > 0: bfc = Lbot * 2 = 1.2
rt = bfc / 12 * (1 ( Dc *tw) /(3 * bfc * tfc))
Lp = 1.0 * rt *
Lr = * rt *
Lb

E
fyc
E
; with fyr = 0.7 * fyc = 234500 => for Mz+: Lp
fyr

Lb Lr and for Mz- :

Lp

=>Mz+ reduction: Fnc = Cb * [ 1 ( 1 fyr / fyc ) * (Lb Lp ) / ( Lr Lp ) ] ; with Cb =


1.000
=>Mz- no reduction

5.4.3 RM Bridge Results


The following table shows a summary of the calculated bending resistance values for the
composite section over pier 1 (begin of element 10125) to be compared with the above handcalculated values. The full development of resistances along the bridge is shown in the subsequent Figure 5-3: Bending resistances and ULS bending moments along the main girder and
Figure 5-4: Shear resistances and ULS shear forces along the main girder.

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The table contains the relevant resistance, if the effective cross-section has been changed for
accounting for local buckling hazard. For lateral torsional buckling only the negative moment
is relevant (bottom flange in compression) as the top flange is laterally fixed by the concrete
plate. I.e. lateral torsional buckling needs not be considered in the centre span.
Table 5-6: Element resistence table
Elem

N+

My+

Mz+

N-

My-

Mz-

Mx

Qy

Qz

10125

108324.2

9707.5

132898.2

-86564.3

-9707.5

-134818.5

0.0

9386.5

42702

125

114497.3

273903.2

188693.9

-142964

-99085.1

-147920.3

0.0

9386.5

42702.3

Figure 5-3: Bending resistances and ULS bending moments along the main girder

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Figure 5-4: Shear resistances and ULS shear forces along the main girder

5.4.4 Assessments
Figure 5-3 shows that the bending resistance is sufficient throughout the whole girder length.
Resistance values are in the relevant points typically 30-50 % higher than required.
Figure 5-4 shows that over the piers the relevant design shear force exceeds the shear capacity
by a small amount.

5.5 Capacity Factors


5.5.1 Definitions
Results of the verification process which will be greater than 1.0 when the generalized resistance is less than the generalized impact.
The definition and calculation of these capacity factors is based on the respective formulas
required for verification of mixed impact and given in the design codes:
AASHTO allows a less conservative approach and the capacity factors for combined actions
are defined accordingly dependent on the factor CN: (CN<0.2 or 0.2; clause 6.8.2.3)
C2d, y = 0.5*NEd/NRd + My, Ed/My,Rd or NEd/NRd + (8/9)*My,Ed/My,Rd respectively
C2d, z = 0.5*NEd/NRd + My, Ed/Mz, Rd or NEd/NRd + (8/9)*Mz,Ed/Mz,Rd respectively
C3d = 0.5*NEd/NRd + My,Ed/My,Rd + Mz,Ed/Mz,Rd or NEd/NRd + (8/9)*(My,Ed/My,Rd +
Mz,Ed/Mz,Rd)
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5.5.2 Resulting Capacity factors

Figure 5-5: Girder 1 composite section capacity factors

5.6 Consideration of locked-in stresses


Calculation of resistances due to lockedin stress
w1_Deck:007, Elements 102 and 10102
Table 5-7
LC SUM-SW as locked-in
10102 (single steel)

stress

N / Mx

My / Mz

Qy / Qz

-28.04/ 80.64

-18.50/ -48.79

-1134.12 / 23.52

102 (joined composite)

-28.15/ -274.78

-20.39/ -83.47

-1198.21/ 4.00

Class Mz-, N

SL

Composite

CS Resistance

BucklingResistance

Residual Resistance

Mz+

67025.202

Mz-

-54742.296

Qy

1970.152

Nc

-105917.562

Calculated via fy_eff

Calculatedvia fy_eff

Nt

48870.682

Calculated via fy_eff

Calculated via fy_eff

Bentley Systems

67025.202
Calculated via fy_eff
1970.152

67025.202
Calculated via fy_eff
-2414.703/ +4801.972

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Nc_remaining calculated via fy_eff


Relevant stresspoint: SlenderF: FB01B:2 (SLP06)
y_steel = ey_steel y_stpt = -1.896 + 3.196 = 0.5; z_steel = ez_steel z_stpt = 0 0.6 = 0.6
fyc = -344738 ; E = 2.0E8 ; Iz_steel = 0.19730; Iy_steel = 0.009095 ; Aeff_steel = 0.096,
Ac_comp = 0.341379
chi_steel = 0.789517
eps = N_steel / E / Aeff_steel + Mz_steel / E / Iz_steel * y_steel + My_steel / E / Iy_steel *
z_steel = -0.00000923
The procedure in non-compact sections is directly calculating the Residual Resistance with
reduced (or increased) yield limits. I.e. in every investigated stress-point the locked-in longitudinal stress is subtracted from the yield limit, and the residual elastic resistance is calculated
in the standard manner with using this reduced stress limit instead of the yield stress.
=>fy_eff = fyc * chi_steel E * eps = -287653.329+ 1938.300 = -285715.329
Nc_comp = fyc * Ac_comp = -117686.314
Nc_b_comp = fy_eff * Ac_comp = -97537.213
Nt_remaining calculated via fy_eff
Relevant stresspoint: SlenderF: FB01B:2 (SLP02)
y_steel = ey_steel y_stpt = -1.896 + 0.436 = -1.460; z_steel = ez_steel z_stpt = 0 0.5 = 0.5
fyt = 344738 ; E = 2.0E8 ; Iz_steel = 0.19730; Iy_steel =0.009095 ; Aeff_steel = 0.096,
At_comp = 0.1492
chi_steel = 1.000 (no buckling hazard for tension)
eps = N_steel / E / Aeff_steel + Mz_steel / E / Iz_steel * y_steel + My_steel / E / Iy_steel *
z_steel = 0.000005485
=>fy_eff = fyt * chi_steel E * eps = 344738 1151.800 = 343586.2
Nt_comp = fyt * At_comp = 51434.9096
Nt_b_comp = fy_eff * At_comp = 51263.06104

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5-37

Mz-_remaining calculated via fy_eff


Relevant stresspoint: SlenderF: FB01B:2 (SLP06);
y_steel = ey_steel y_stpt = -1.896 + 3.196 = 1.3; z_steel = ez_steel z_stpt = 0 + 0.6 = 0.6
fy = +/-344738; E_comp = 2.0E8 ; Iz_steel = 0.1973 ; Ax_steel = 0.13716
chi_steel = 1.000; y_steel > 0 => compression => fy = -344738
eps = N_steel / E / Aeff_steel + Mz_steel / E / Iz_steel * y_steel + My_steel / E / Iy_steel *
z_steel = -0.00000878
The procedure in non-compact sections is directly calculating the Residual Resistance with
reduced (or increased) yield limits. I.e. in every investigated stress-point the locked-in longitudinal stress is subtracted from the yield limit, and the residual elastic resistance is calculated
in the standard manner with using this reduced stress limit instead of the yield stress.
=>fy_eff = fy * chi_steel E * eps = -344738+ 1843.38 = -342894.62
y_comp = ey_eff_comp_iter1 y_stpt = -1.664+ 3.196 = 1.532
kappa = fy_eff / E / y_comp = -0.001035548
Izeff_comp_iter1 = 0.395175
Mz-_comp = kappa0 * E_comp * Izeff_comp_iter1 = -52848.115

Figure 5-9: Normal force resistance due to locked in stresses on composite section

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Tension force capacity is not influenced by locked in stress as you can see in the above Figure.

Figure 5-10: Bending moment resistance due to locked in stresses on composite section

Bending capacity is increased when the primary state has a deloading effect but decreased
when it has the same sign. When we look at the hogging moment over the piers we see that
the residual resistance for negative moment is lower than the total resistance, due to the
locked-in moment being negative. On the contrary, the resistance against positive moments is
increased.
When we look at the end of element 125 we see that we have a locked in bending moment of 31133 kNm. We find that value as joined result value of the load case SUM-SW in the results
GUI.
The residual capacity in this point is -116787 kNm (envelope uresprimLC in the example).
Those two added together will give a similar value to the maximum design bending resistance
without locked-in forces of -147920 kNm as shown in Figure 5-3. Similar checks have been
done for the entire bridge length but not documented here.

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Figure 5-11: Shear resistances due to locked in stresses on composite section

A shear resistence check for end of element 125 gives us a Qy from SUM-SW locked in state
of 2439 kN and adding this with the residual resistance of 6946 kN will get a resistance of
9385 kN which is similar to the resistence without locked in state.

Figure 5-12: Capacity factors for residual resistences

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If we look at the capacity factors we see, that the factors are lower than those calculated for
total loading situation. The reason for that is that in the joined load approach the locked-in
part is also multiplied by the relevant load factor for self weight (1.25 respectively 1.5),
whereas in the approach with separate consideration of locked-in forces this part is not increased with the safety factor.
Various result plots were added in the Steel design check schedule to have a better comparison with Setra document and for locked-in stress presentation values. For the last one a superposition file was created: uresprimLC that uses the internally generated load case SUM-SW
for defining the lock-in state. Afterwards 3 new RM sets were made (PrimLC_MZ for bending
moment; PrimLC_N for tension force; PrimLC_Qy for shear force) defined on elements representing the entire bridge length of Girder1. Result of SUM-SW Load case (join) to be added
plus normal results from envelopes uresPrimLC and w1_SteelRes that will show min/max
values in the final diagram. In the last stage DgmSets having the same name as the RM sets
are added in the schedule that will show the needed results.
Similar approach is made in the case of DgmSet: UDL-TS; ULS-SLS-MZ; ULS-SLS-Qy;
displ_Vy, first the corresponding Rmset is created and then added in the schedule.

5.7 Rating factor


Using RateF schedule action we can find the rating factor at a certain point which is showed
in the plot file from the created RM-set (Lrate for our example)
Element 102 Begin
D= Dead Load Effect from W1_Comb01.sup: Max Nx- Nx Begin = 1514.417 kN
Min Nx- Nx Begin = -1490.361 kN
L=Live Load Effect from W1_Comb02.sup: Max Nx- Nx Begin =1730.422 kN
Min Nx- Nx Begin =-1722.294 kN
A1 = Factor for Dead Loads =1.1
A2 = Factor for Live Loads =1.2
I = Impact factor (Dynamic Load Allo wence) = 1.3
C=Capacity =Result: w1_SteelRes

102 Begin: +NxRd= 48870.682 kN


-NxRd=-83623.672 kN

RF (MaxNx) =

RF (MinNx) =
Bentley Systems

1
2(1+)

=
2(1+)

48870.6821.11514.417
1.21730.422(1+1.3)

= 9.883829

83623.6721.1(1490.361)
1.2(1722.294)(1+1.3)

= 17.247
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Figure 5-12: Load rating for element 102

Element 113 Begin


D= Dead Load Effect from W1_Comb01.sup: Max Nx- Nx Begin = 696.004 kN
Min Nx- Nx Begin = -757.487 kN
L=Live Load Effect from W1_Comb02.sup: Max Nx- Nx Begin =784.382 kN
Min Nx- Nx Begin =-856.584 kN
A1 = Factor for Dead Loads =1.1
A2 = Factor for Live Loads =1.2
I = Impact factor (Dynamic Load Allowence) = 1.3
C=Capacity =Result: w1_SteelRes

113 Begin: +NxRd= 48870.682 kN


-NxRd=-83623.672 kN

RF (MaxNx) =

RF (MinNx) =

Bentley Systems

1
2(1+)

1
2(1+)

48870.6821.1696.004
1.2784.382(1+1.3)

= 22.22

83623.6721.1(757.487)
1.2(856.584)(1+1.3)

= 35.018

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Figure 5-13: Load rating for element 113

Figure 5-14: Load rating on second span Mz/Qy

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